Science.gov

Sample records for behavior anatomy connectivity

  1. A DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODEL OF MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR: ANATOMY, CONNECTIVITY AND ONTOGENY OF THE TRIADIC NODES

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Fudge, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition period that prepares individuals for fulfilling their role as adults. Most conspicuous in this transition period is the peak level of risk-taking behaviors that characterize adolescent motivated behavior. Significant neural remodeling contributes to this change. This review focuses on the functional neuroanatomy underlying motivated behavior, and how ontogenic changes can explain the typical behavioral patterns in adolescence. To help model these changes and provide testable hypotheses, a neural systems-based theory is presented. In short, the Triadic Model proposes that motivated behavior is governed by a carefully orchestrated articulation among three systems, approach, avoidance and regulatory. These three systems map to distinct, but overlapping, neural circuits, whose representatives are the striatum, the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Each of these system-representatives will be described from a functional anatomy perspective that includes a review of their connectivity and what is known of their ontogenic changes. PMID:19028521

  2. OLFACTION: ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  3. The Hemodynamics of Total Cavo-Pulmonary Connection Anatomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang

    2005-11-01

    The single ventricle is a congenital heart defect in which the right side of the heart is hypoplastic or totally absent. This anomaly results in mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the single ventricle, reducing the amount of oxygen transferred to the body. In U.S. two in 1000 babies are born with a single ventricle heart defect. Palliative surgical treatments are performed in stages as the child grows. The last stage is the total cavo-pulmonary connection (TCPC), which bypasses the right side of the heart and the single ventricle drives blood throughout the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We simulate the flow in two TCPC anatomies using a sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/Immersed Boundary approach. The computed solutions are compared with PIV in-vitro experiments and analyzed in detail to elucidate the richness of the hemodynamics in the surgically create pouch region where the inferior and superior vena cava flows collide and bifurcate into the left and right pulmonary arteries. The effect of the connection anatomy on the flow dynamics will also be discussed.

  4. Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

  5. Anatomy of deception: a behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2010-05-01

    Deception, a basic and pervasive biological phenomenon, takes many forms, variously referred to as mimicry, trickery, seduction, pretense, feigning, masquerading, impersonation, distraction, or false promises, and these share certain common distinguishing behavioral elements that permit them to be classified into categories. A symbolic language for the codification and analysis of behavioral contingencies shows that all instances of deception are based on a misperception, misprediction, non-perception, or non-prediction by the deceived party, and can be further categorized based on features of the contingencies that define them. Instances of particular interest are those in which a deceiving party predicts (and in that sense "intends") the deception. In those instances, the effect of the deception is usually to the deceiving party's benefit and to the deceived party's detriment. In economics, finance, business, military operations, public affairs, education, and everyday social interaction, deception takes numerous forms. Special forms, usually involving obfuscation, concealment, counterfeiting, and misrepresentation, occur in certain prevalent types of property transfer, including securitization, the creation of derivatives, and various types of Ponzi schemes. Such property transfers tend to be driven by opportunities for deception. They all involve blurring and clouding of the contingencies that defined the transferred properties, thus permitting their obfuscation. PMID:20152890

  6. Common behavioral clusters and subcortical anatomy in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Ramsey, Lenny; Callejas, Alicia; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D.; Siegel, Joshua S.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristina; Lang, Catherine E.; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Fucetola, Robert; Strube, Michael; Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A long-held view is that stroke causes many distinct neurological syndromes due to damage of specialized cortical and subcortical centers. However, it is unknown if a syndrome-based description is helpful in characterizing behavioral deficits across a large number of patients. We studied a large prospective sample of first-time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions at 1–2 weeks post-stroke. We measured behavior over multiple domains and lesion anatomy with structural MRI and a probabilistic atlas of white matter pathways. Multivariate methods estimated the percentage of behavioral variance explained by structural damage. A few clusters of behavioral deficits spanning multiple functions explained neurological impairment. Stroke topography was predominantly subcortical, and disconnection of white matter tracts critically contributed to behavioral deficits and their correlation. The locus of damage explained more variance for motor and language than memory or attention deficits. Our findings highlight the need for better models of white matter damage on cognition. PMID:25741721

  7. Common behavioral clusters and subcortical anatomy in stroke.

    PubMed

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Ramsey, Lenny; Callejas, Alicia; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D; Siegel, Joshua S; Astafiev, Serguei V; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristina; Lang, Catherine E; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Fucetola, Robert; Strube, Michael; Carter, Alex R; Shulman, Gordon L

    2015-03-01

    A long-held view is that stroke causes many distinct neurological syndromes due to damage of specialized cortical and subcortical centers. However, it is unknown if a syndrome-based description is helpful in characterizing behavioral deficits across a large number of patients. We studied a large prospective sample of first-time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions at 1-2 weeks post-stroke. We measured behavior over multiple domains and lesion anatomy with structural MRI and a probabilistic atlas of white matter pathways. Multivariate methods estimated the percentage of behavioral variance explained by structural damage. A few clusters of behavioral deficits spanning multiple functions explained neurological impairment. Stroke topography was predominantly subcortical, and disconnection of white matter tracts critically contributed to behavioral deficits and their correlation. The locus of damage explained more variance for motor and language than memory or attention deficits. Our findings highlight the need for better models of white matter damage on cognition. PMID:25741721

  8. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Raj, Ashish; Chen, Yu-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization. PMID:21915250

  9. The hippocampal system as the cortical resource manager: a model connecting psychology, anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Coward, L Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A model is described in which the hippocampal system functions as resource manager for the neocortex. This model is developed from an architectural concept for the brain as a whole within which the receptive fields of neocortical columns can gradually expand but with some limited exceptions tend not to contract. The definition process for receptive fields is constrained so that they overlap as little as possible, and change as little as possible, but at least a minimum number of columns detect their fields within every sensory input state. Below this minimum, the receptive fields of some columns are expanded slightly until the minimum level is reached. The columns in which this expansion occurs are selected by a competitive process in the hippocampal system that identifies those in which only a relatively small expansion is required, and sends signals to those columns that trigger the expansion. These expansions in receptive fields are the information record that forms the declarative memory of the input state. Episodic memory activates a set of columns in which receptive fields expanded simultaneously at some point in the past, and the hippocampal system is therefore the appropriate source for information guiding access to such memories. Semantic memory associates columns that are often active (with or without expansions in receptive fields) simultaneously. Initially, the hippocampus can guide access to such memories on the basis of initial information recording, but to avoid corruption of the information needed for ongoing resource management, access control shifts to other parts of the neocortex. The roles of the mammillary bodies, amygdala and anterior thalamic nucleus can be understood as modulating information recording in accordance with various behavioral priorities. During sleep, provisional physical connectivity is created that supports receptive field expansions in the subsequent wake period, but previously created memories are not affected. This model

  10. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Maha M.; Ramadan, Hazem M.; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N.; Mourad, Sherif A.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution. PMID:25685491

  11. Sinus Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  12. Connections with Nature and Environmental Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people’s connectedness to nature. PMID:25985075

  13. Topography of excitatory and inhibitory connectional anatomy in monkey visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Jennifer S.; Levitt, J. B.; Wu, Quanfeng

    1994-03-01

    . Since the basket neuron also contacts other basket neurons, by disinhibition through offset basket neurons, it will simultaneously encourage activity in pyramidal cells in a zone outside the limit of its axon field. This scaling of basket neuron axons is present in early postnatal cortex and it could lead to the punctate patterns of pyramidal neuron connectivity which also appear to develop postnatally. This anatomy might also produce the regular spacing of different functional attributes that is typical of visual cortical organization. Models that explore spatial geometries of excitation and inhibition resembling those described above are urgently needed to test current biological hypotheses underlying investigations of cerebral cortex.

  14. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  15. Integer anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  16. Anatomy Instruction in Medical Schools: Connecting the Past and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kai-kuen; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Huang, Tien-Shang; Hsieh, Bor-Shen

    2006-01-01

    Anatomy curriculum has changed dramatically around the world since the 1960s. These changes include the reduction of course hours, the abandonment of cadaver dissection, the use of problem-based learning, application of other teaching modalities such as prosected specimens, models, radiographic images, computer simulations, and the introduction of…

  17. Perineal striated muscles: Anatomy, spinal motoneurons, and participation on copulatory behavior in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Zempoalteca, R; Lucio, R A; Eguibar, J R

    2008-09-01

    Despite the importance of rabbits in reproductive studies, little information is available on the anatomy and participation of the striated-perineal muscles in male copulatory behavior. In our study, we describe the gross anatomy of two striated-perineal muscles: the ischiocavernosus (ICm) and the bulbospongiosus (BSm). Both muscles have their origin at the ischiadic arc, but the ICm is inserted into the penile crura and the BSm onto the ligamentum suspensorium of the penis. The motoneurons of both muscles were identified using retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase coupled to wheat-germ agglutinin. Motoneurons were dispersed in the lower-lumbar and upper-sacral spinal-cord segments, instead of being aggregated in the neuronal nucleus as in other species: the rat, mouse, gerbil, cat, and man. Bilateral dennervation of the ICm or BSm or both in sexually experienced male rabbits did not affect copulatory variables measured at 10, 20, and 30 days after surgery. However, muscular dennervation produced extravaginal ejaculations in 42% of copulatory tests and no ejaculation in 7% of tests, although male pelvic thrusting occurred. These results suggest the participation of the ICm and BSm perineal muscles in penile orientation during copulation but not in seminal emission as described in other mammalian species. PMID:18563835

  18. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Melendez, Roberto I.; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally-relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  19. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors.

    PubMed

    Root, David H; Melendez, Roberto I; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T Celeste

    2015-07-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  20. Use of individual feedback during human gross anatomy course for enhancing professional behaviors in doctor of physical therapy students.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Hellyer, Nathan J; Rindflesch, Aaron B; Hollman, John H

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy education and before the first significant clinical internship could be enhanced in a semester course in gross human anatomy using individual formative feedback. During the human anatomy course, 28 first-year physical therapy students completed six biweekly, anonymous self- and peer assessment surveys that targeted ten professional behaviors important to physical therapists. All professional behaviors were assessed using a five-point Likert scale. Feedback reports occurred at week eight (mid-semester) and week 16 (end-of-semester) and comprised the direct intervention components of this study. At the midpoint of the semester, professional behavior scores and narrative comments from weeks two, four, and six were compiled and shared with each student by one of three faculty members in a feedback session. Students then submitted biweekly self-and peer professional behavior assessments (weeks 10, 12, and 14) for the remainder of the human anatomy course. Differences between preintervention and postintervention scores for each of the ten professional behaviors were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Upon receiving mid-semester individual feedback, students demonstrated significant improvement in each of the ten professional behaviors. Results from this study indicated a gross anatomy laboratory dissection experience during the first academic semester provided an effective opportunity for teaching and assessing professional behaviors of doctoral students in physical therapy. PMID:23509010

  1. Trust, Connectivity, and Thriving: Implications for Innovative Behaviors at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Abraham; Spreitzer, Gretchen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both…

  2. Exercises in Anatomy, Connectivity, and Morphology using Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Philip; Peck, Joshua; Brumberg, Joshua C.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory instruction of neuroscience is often limited by the lack of physical resources and supplies (e.g., brains specimens, dissection kits, physiological equipment). Online databases can serve as supplements to material labs by providing professionally collected images of brain specimens and their underlying cellular populations with resolution and quality that is extremely difficult to access for strictly pedagogical purposes. We describe a method using two online databases, the Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA), that freely provide access to data from working brain scientists that can be modified for laboratory instruction/exercises. Neuromorpho.org is the first neuronal morphology database that provides qualitative and quantitative data from reconstructed cells analyzed in published scientific reports. The Neuromorpho.org database contains cross species and multiple neuronal phenotype datasets which allows for comparative examinations. The ABA provides modules that allow students to study the anatomy of the rodent brain, as well as observe the different cellular phenotypes that exist using histochemical labeling. Using these tools in conjunction, advanced students can ask questions about qualitative and quantitative neuronal morphology, then examine the distribution of the same cell types across the entire brain to gain a full appreciation of the magnitude of the brain’s complexity. PMID:25838808

  3. The Serotonergic Central Nervous System of the Drosophila Larva: Anatomy and Behavioral Function

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E.; Maiolo, Elena M.; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G.; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F.; Thum, Andreas S.

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed. PMID:23082175

  4. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination. PMID:14618542

  5. Resting State Brain Connectivity After Surgical and Behavioral Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Francisco, Alex; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Martin, Laura E.; Powell, Joshua N.; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Selim, Niazy; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bruce, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported changes in food-cue neural reactivity associated with behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. Resting functional connectivity represents tonic neural activity that may contribute to weight loss success. Here we explore whether intervention type is associated with differences in functional connectivity after weight loss. METHODS Fifteen obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery. Thirteen demographically matched obese participants were selected from a separate behavioral diet intervention. Resting state fMRI was collected three months after surgery/behavioral intervention. ANOVA was used to examine post-weight loss differences between the two groups in connectivity to seed regions previously identified as showing differential cue-reactivity after weight loss. RESULTS Following weight loss, behavioral dieters exhibited increased connectivity between left precuneus/superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral insula pre- to post-meal and bariatric patients exhibited decreased connectivity between these regions pre- to post-meal (pcorrected<.05). CONCLUSIONS Behavioral dieters showed increased connectivity pre- to post-meal between a region associated with processing of self-referent information (precuneus/SPL) and a region associated with interoception (insula) whereas bariatric patients showed decreased connectivity between these regions. This may reflect increased attention to hunger signals following surgical procedures, and increased attention to satiety signals following behavioral diet interventions. PMID:26053145

  6. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections and related anomalies: nomenclature, embryology, anatomy, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael J; Ungerleider, Ross M; Aiello, Vera D; Spicer, Diane; Giroud, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    This article combines material from three complementary overviews presented in the Symposium on Pulmonary Venous Anomalies during the Joint Meeting of the World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery and Sociedad Latina de Cardiologia y Cirugia Cardiovascular Pediátrica in Lima, Peru. We discuss the embryologic basis for nomenclature, the hierarchical diagnostic categories, and the important anatomic and morphologic characteristics of anomalous pulmonary venous connections. The anatomic descriptions help to guide an understandable and sensible approach to the diagnosis and surgical management of these various disorders. PMID:23799752

  7. Connecting biological concepts and religious behavior.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    This commentary proposes experiments to examine connections between the presence of out-group members, neurovisceral reactions, religiosity, and ethnocentrism, to clarify the meaning of the correlational findings presented in the target article. It also suggests different ways of describing religious socialization and of viewing assertions about religion and health or about the human ability to detect pathogens. PMID:22289267

  8. Behavioral Interpretations of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Angela R.; Fox, P. Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Turner, Jessica A.; Ray, Kimberly L.; McKay, D. Reese; Glahn, David C.; Beckmann, Christian F.; Smith, Stephen M.; Fox, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly large number of neuroimaging studies have investigated functionally connected networks during rest, providing insight into human brain architecture. Assessment of the functional qualities of resting state networks has been limited by the task-independent state, which results in an inability to relate these networks to specific…

  9. The functional anatomy and connectivity of thought insertion and alien control of movement.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Eamonn; Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W; Mehta, Mitul A; Deeley, Quinton

    2015-03-01

    Alien control phenomena are symptoms reported by patients with schizophrenia whereby feelings of control and ownership of thoughts and movements are lost. Comparable alien control experiences occur in culturally influenced dissociative states. We used fMRI and suggestions for automatic writing in highly hypnotically suggestible individuals to investigate the neural underpinnings of alien control. Targeted suggestions selectively reduced subjective ratings of control and ownership for both thought and movement. Thought insertion (TI) was associated with reduced activation of networks supporting language, movement, and self-related processing. In contrast, alien control of writing movement was associated with increased activity of a left-lateralised cerebellar-parietal network and decreased activity in brain regions involved in voluntary movement, including sensory-motor hand areas and the thalamus. Both experiences involved a reduction in activity of left supplementary motor area (SMA) and were associated with altered functional connectivity (FC) between SMA and brain regions involved in language processing and movement implementation. Collectively these results indicate the SMA plays a central role in alien control phenomena as a high level executive system involved in the sense that we control and own our thoughts and movements. PMID:25438744

  10. Behavior of Industrial Steel Rack Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. N. R.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Khan, R.; Jumaat, M. Z.; Shariati, M.

    2016-03-01

    Beam-to-column connections (BCCs) used in steel pallet racks (SPRs) play a significant role to maintain the stability of rack structures in the down-aisle direction. The variety in the geometry of commercially available beam end connectors hampers the development of a generalized analytic design approach for SPR BCCs. The experimental prediction of flexibility in SPR BCCs is prohibitively expensive and difficult for all types of commercially available beam end connectors. A suitable solution to derive a particular uniform M-θ relationship for each connection type in terms of geometric parameters may be achieved through finite element (FE) modeling. This study first presents a comprehensive description of the experimental investigations that were performed and used as the calibration bases for the numerical study that constituted its main contribution. A three dimensioned (3D) non-linear finite element (FE) model was developed and calibrated against the experimental results. The FE model took into account material nonlinearities, geometrical properties and large displacements. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data for observed failure modes and M-θ relationship showed close agreement. The validated FE model was further extended to perform parametric analysis to identify the effects of various parameters which may affect the overall performance of the connection.

  11. Behavior Modulates Effective Connectivity between Cortex and Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Nakhnikian, Alexander; Rebec, George V.; Grasse, Leslie M.; Dwiel, Lucas L.; Shimono, Masanori; Beggs, John M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been notoriously difficult to understand interactions in the basal ganglia because of multiple recurrent loops. Another complication is that activity there is strongly dependent on behavior, suggesting that directional interactions, or effective connections, can dynamically change. A simplifying approach would be to examine just the direct, monosynaptic projections from cortex to striatum and contrast this with the polysynaptic feedback connections from striatum to cortex. Previous work by others on effective connectivity in this pathway indicated that activity in cortex could be used to predict activity in striatum, but that striatal activity could not predict cortical activity. However, this work was conducted in anesthetized or seizing animals, making it impossible to know how free behavior might influence effective connectivity. To address this issue, we applied Granger causality to local field potential signals from cortex and striatum in freely behaving rats. Consistent with previous results, we found that effective connectivity was largely unidirectional, from cortex to striatum, during anesthetized and resting states. Interestingly, we found that effective connectivity became bidirectional during free behaviors. These results are the first to our knowledge to show that striatal influence on cortex can be as strong as cortical influence on striatum. In addition, these findings highlight how behavioral states can affect basal ganglia interactions. Finally, we suggest that this approach may be useful for studies of Parkinson's or Huntington's diseases, in which effective connectivity may change during movement. PMID:24618981

  12. Nutrition and Behavior: The Psychonutrient Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly

    The combined concepts of holism and general systems theory have led to the belief among health care professionals that people cannot be fully understood unless the mind and body are seen as having an integral relationship. The relationship between nutrition and behavior is one area in which the holistic approach is relevant for the field of…

  13. Developmental Biodynamics: Brain, Body, Behavior Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockman, Jeffrey J.; Thelen, Esther

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the neurosciences, biomechanics, and behavior sciences, along with attempts to integrate theories and findings across these disciplines, have led to a renewed interest in the study of motor development. Considers the contributions that have led to the reinvigoration of this field of study and its new interdisciplinary outlook. (MDM)

  14. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  15. Larynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  16. Pharynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  17. Vulva Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  18. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  19. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  20. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  1. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  2. The effects of oral motor stimulation on feeding behaviors of infants born with univentricle anatomy.

    PubMed

    Coker-Bolt, Patty; Jarrard, Courtney; Woodard, Francis; Merrill, Paige

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effects of oral motor stimulation on infants born with complex univentricle anatomy who required surgery shortly after birth. A quasi-experimental group design was used to compare 18 infants receiving an oral motor stimulation program with 10 infants who did not receive any oral motor intervention. Infants in the treatment group received the oral motor treatment prior to cardiac surgery and immediately following surgery, one time a day, 6 days a week. Outcomes data were collected for length of time to reach full bottle-feeds and length of hospital stay. A statistically significant difference was seen in the overall length of hospital stay between the two groups (p = .04). Infants in the experimental group were hospitalized for a mean of 28.6 days and infants in the comparison group for a mean of 35.3 days. Infants in the treatment group achieved full bottle-feeds 2 days earlier than infants in the comparison group, although this was not statistically significant. There is positive support for the use of oral motor stimulation for infants born with univentricle anatomy, but further study is needed to determine the long-lasting effects of this intervention. PMID:22497742

  3. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  4. Forelimb anatomy and the discrimination of the predatory behavior of carnivorous mammals: the thylacine as a case study.

    PubMed

    Janis, Christine M; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-12-01

    Carnivorous mammals use their forelimbs in different ways to capture their prey. Most terrestrial carnivores have some cursorial (running) adaptations, but ambush predators retain considerable flexibility in their forelimb movement, important for grappling with their prey. In contrast, predators that rely on pursuit to run down their prey have sacrificed some of this flexibility for locomotor efficiency, in the greater restriction of the forelimb motion to the parasagittal plane. In this article, we measured aspects of the forelimb anatomy (44 linear measurements) in 36 species of carnivorous mammals of known predatory behavior, and used multivariate analyses to investigate how well the forelimb anatomy reflects the predatory mode (ambush, pursuit, or pounce-pursuit). A prime intention of this study was to establish morphological correlates of behavior that could then be applied to fossil mammals: for this purpose, five individuals of the recently extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) were also included as unknowns. We show that the three different types of predators can be distinguished by their morphology, both in analyses where all the forelimb bones are included together, and in the separate analyses of each bone individually. Of particular interest is the ability to distinguish between the two types of more cursorial predators, pursuit and pounce-pursuit, which have previously been considered as primarily size-based categories. Despite a prior consideration of the thylacine as a "pounce-pursuit" or an "ambush" type of predator, the thylacines did not consistently cluster with any type of predatory carnivores in our analyses. Rather, the thylacines appeared to be more generalized in their morphology than any of the extant carnivores. The absence of a large diversity of large carnivorous mammals in Australia, past and present, may explain the thylacine's generalized morphology. PMID:24934132

  5. Mechanical behavior of carpal tunnel subsynovial connective tissue under compression.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Jessica E; Baer, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) is a fluid-permeated loose connective tissue that occupies the majority of the space in the carpal tunnel not occupied by the digital flexor tendons or the median nerve. It is arranged in layers around these more discrete structures, presumably to assist with tendon gliding. As a result of this arrangement, the compressive behavior and the fluid permeability of this tissue may substantially affect the stresses in the median nerve resulting from contact with its neighboring tendons or with the walls of the tunnel itself. These stresses may contribute to damage of the median nerve and the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. In this study, the fluid permeability and the compressive behavior of the SSCT were investigated to better understand the mechanics of this tissue and how it may mediate mechanical insult to the median nerve. A custom experimental apparatus was built to allow simultaneous measurement of tissue compression and fluid flow. Using Darcy's law, the average SSCT fluid permeability was 8.78×10(15) m(4)/Ns. The compressive behavior of the SSCT demonstrated time dependence, with an initial modulus of 395kPa gradually decreasing to a value of 285kPa. These baseline tissue data may serve as a mechanical norm (toward which pathological tissue might be returned, therapeutically) and may serve as essential properties to include in future mechanical models of the carpal tunnel. PMID:22096431

  6. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF CARPAL TUNNEL SUBSYNOVIAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE UNDER COMPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Jessica E; Baer, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) is a fluid-permeated loose connective tissue that occupies the majority of the space in the carpal tunnel not occupied by the digital flexor tendons or the median nerve. It is arranged in layers around these more discrete structures, presumably to assist with tendon gliding. As a result of this arrangement, the compressive behavior and the fluid permeability of this tissue may substantially affect the stresses in the median nerve resulting from contact with its neighboring tendons or with the walls of the tunnel itself. These stresses may contribute to damage of the median nerve and the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. In this study, the fluid permeability and the compressive behavior of the SSCT were investigated to better understand the mechanics of this tissue and how it may mediate mechanical insult to the median nerve. A custom experimental apparatus was built to allow simultaneous measurement of tissue compression and fluid flow. Using Darcy’s law, the average SSCT fluid permeability was 8.78×1015 m4/Ns. The compressive behavior of the SSCT demonstrated time dependence, with an initial modulus of 395kPa gradually decreasing to a value of 285kPa. These baseline tissue data may serve as a mechanical norm (toward which pathological tissue might be returned, therapeutically) and may serve as essential properties to include in future mechanical models of the carpal tunnel. PMID:22096431

  7. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Underwood, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas' larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys' basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas. PMID:24187623

  8. The Leafhoppers: Anatomy, Physiology and Behavior of Feeding and Its Sensory Mediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present book contains chapters summarizing all major aspects of the biology of leafhoppers (family Cicadellidae), among the most numerous and important insect pests in the world. Major chapter topics discussed include internal and external morphology, physiology, behavior, reproduction, taxonom...

  9. Behavioral relevance of species-specific vasotocin anatomy in gregarious finches

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Aubrey M.; Goodson, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP) circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells), functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata) demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis) exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e., preference for the larger of two groups), and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches), and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors. PMID:24381536

  10. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed. PMID:15841282

  11. Elucidation of the anatomy of a satiety network: Focus on connectivity of the parabrachial nucleus in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zséli, Györgyi; Vida, Barbara; Martinez, Anais; Lechan, Ronald M; Khan, Arshad M; Fekete, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of the solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus, other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin to understand the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons originating from the PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short-loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2803-2827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918800

  12. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milner, A.R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  13. Bird-Like Anatomy, Posture, and Behavior Revealed by an Early Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur Resting Trace

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Andrew R. C.; Harris, Jerald D.; Lockley, Martin G.; Kirkland, James I.; Matthews, Neffra A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (∼198 million-year-old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods. PMID:19259260

  14. Functional anatomy of the limbs of erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): Indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines.

    PubMed

    Candela, Adriana M; Picasso, Mariana B J

    2008-05-01

    Functional analysis of the limb bones of the erethizontid Steiromys duplicatus, one of the most abundant Miocene porcupines from Patagonia, provides evidence to infer their locomotor behavior. Remains of the giant Neosteiromys pattoni (Late Miocene of Northeast Argentina) are also analyzed. Osteological and myological features of extant porcupines were evaluated and used as a model to interpret the functional significance of Miocene species' limbs. Several features in erethizontids are compatible with the ability to climb: the low humeral tuberosities indicate a mobile gleno-humeral joint; the prominent and distally extended deltopectoral crest indicates a powerful pectoral muscle, which is particularly active when climbing; the humero-ulnar and humero-radial joints are indicative of pronation-supination movements; the well-developed lateral epicondylar ridge and the medially protruding entepicondyle are in agreement with an important development of the brachioradialis, supinator, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator teres muscles, acting in climbing and grasping functions; the mechanical advantage of the biceps brachii would be emphasized because of its distal attachment on the bicipital tuberosity. As with extant porcupines, in Miocene species, the large femoral head would have permitted a broad range of abduction of the femur, and the medially protruding lesser trochanter would have emphasized the abduction and outward rotation of the femur by the action of the ilio-psoas complex. In S. duplicatus, the shape of the hip, knee, and cruro-astragalar, calcaneo-astragalar, and astragalo-navicular joints would have allowed lateral and rotational movements, although probably to a lesser degree than in extant porcupines. Foot features of S. duplicatus (e.g., great medial sesamoid bone, medial astragalar head, complete hallux) indicate that this species would have had grasping ability, but would not have achieved the high degree of specialization of Coendou

  15. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  16. Electrooculography: Connecting Mind, Brain, and Behavior in Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipulina, Olga V.; Campbell, Stephen R.; Cimen, Arda O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the potential roles and importance of electrooculography (EOG) for mathematics educational neuroscience research. EOG enables accurate measurements of eye-related behavior (i.e., blinks & movements) by recording changes in voltage potentials generated by eye-related behavior. We identify and discuss three main uses of EOG.…

  17. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  18. Connecting laboratory behavior to field function through stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Glon, Mael G; Larson, Eric R; Pangle, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    Inherent difficulties of tracking and observing organisms in the field often leave researchers with no choice but to conduct behavioral experiments under laboratory settings. However, results of laboratory experiments do not always translate accurately to natural conditions. A fundamental challenge in ecology is therefore to scale up from small area and short-duration laboratory experiments to large areas and long durations over which ecological processes generally operate. In this study, we propose that stable isotope analysis may be a tool that can link laboratory behavioral observations to past field interactions or function of individual organisms. We conducted laboratory behavioral assays to measure dominance of invasive rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, and used stable isotope analysis to hindcast trophic positions of these crayfish under preceding natural conditions. We hypothesized that more dominant crayfish in our assays would have higher trophic positions if dominance were related to competitive ability or willingness to pursue high-risk, high-reward prey. We did not find a relationship between crayfish dominance and trophic position, and therefore infer that laboratory dominance of crayfish may not necessarily relate to their ecology in the field. However, this is to our knowledge the first attempt to directly relate laboratory behavior to field performance via stable isotope analysis. We encourage future studies to continue to explore a possible link between laboratory and field behavior via stable isotope analysis, and propose several avenues to do so. PMID:27077010

  19. Connecting laboratory behavior to field function through stable isotope analysis

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric R.; Pangle, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Inherent difficulties of tracking and observing organisms in the field often leave researchers with no choice but to conduct behavioral experiments under laboratory settings. However, results of laboratory experiments do not always translate accurately to natural conditions. A fundamental challenge in ecology is therefore to scale up from small area and short-duration laboratory experiments to large areas and long durations over which ecological processes generally operate. In this study, we propose that stable isotope analysis may be a tool that can link laboratory behavioral observations to past field interactions or function of individual organisms. We conducted laboratory behavioral assays to measure dominance of invasive rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, and used stable isotope analysis to hindcast trophic positions of these crayfish under preceding natural conditions. We hypothesized that more dominant crayfish in our assays would have higher trophic positions if dominance were related to competitive ability or willingness to pursue high-risk, high-reward prey. We did not find a relationship between crayfish dominance and trophic position, and therefore infer that laboratory dominance of crayfish may not necessarily relate to their ecology in the field. However, this is to our knowledge the first attempt to directly relate laboratory behavior to field performance via stable isotope analysis. We encourage future studies to continue to explore a possible link between laboratory and field behavior via stable isotope analysis, and propose several avenues to do so. PMID:27077010

  20. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed. PMID:26859596

  1. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  3. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  4. The Effects of Check & Connect on the School-Related Violent Behaviors of African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Angela T.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a modified version of Check & Connect, a comprehensive student engagement intervention, on the attendance, behavior, and academic performance of secondary African American females with violent and aggressive behavior problems. In addition, the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) was used to assess cognitive…

  5. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  6. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  7. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses. PMID:27105741

  8. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  9. Behavior of wet precast beam column connections under progressive collapse scenario: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimse, Rohit B.; Joshi, Digesh D.; Patel, Paresh V.

    2014-12-01

    Progressive collapse denotes a failure of a major portion of a structure that has been initiated by failure of a relatively small part of the structure such as failure of any vertical load carrying element (typically columns). Failure of large part of any structure will results into substantial loss of human lives and natural resources. Therefore, it is important to prevent progressive collapse which is also known as disproportionate collapse. Nowadays, there is an increasing trend toward construction of buildings using precast concrete. In precast concrete construction, all the components of structures are produced in controlled environment and they are being transported to the site. At site such individual components are connected appropriately. Connections are the most critical elements of any precast structure, because in past major collapse of precast structure took place because of connection failure. In this study, behavior of three different 1/3rd scaled wet precast beam column connections under progressive collapse scenario are studied and its performance is compared with monolithic connection. Precast connections are constructed by adopting different connection detailing at the junction by considering reinforced concrete corbel for two specimens and steel billet for one specimen. Performance of specimen is evaluated on the basis of ultimate load carrying capacity, maximum deflection and deflection measured along the span of the beam. From the results, it is observed that load carrying capacity and ductility of precast connections considered in this study are more than that of monolithic connections.

  10. Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.…

  11. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships. PMID:23877958

  12. Seismic behavior of outrigger truss-wall shear connections using multiple steel angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian; Wang, Wei; Lü, Henglin; Zhang, Guangchang

    2016-06-01

    An experimental investigation on the seismic behavior of a type of outrigger truss-reinforced concrete wall shear connection using multiple steel angles is presented. Six large-scale shear connection models, which involved a portion of reinforced concrete wall and a shear tab welded onto a steel endplate with three steel angles, were constructed and tested under combined actions of cyclic axial load and eccentric shear. The effects of embedment lengths of steel angles, wall boundary elements, types of anchor plates, and thicknesses of endplates were investigated. The test results indicate that properly detailed connections exhibit desirable seismic behavior and fail due to the ductile fracture of steel angles. Wall boundary elements provide beneficial confinement to the concrete surrounding steel angles and thus increase the strength and stiffness of connections. Connections using whole anchor plates are prone to suffer concrete pry-out failure while connections with thin endplates have a relatively low strength and fail due to large inelastic deformations of the endplates. The current design equations proposed by Chinese Standard 04G362 and Code GB50011 significantly underestimate the capacities of the connection models. A revised design method to account for the influence of previously mentioned test parameters was developed.

  13. Prenatal domoic acid exposure disrupts mouse pro-social behavior and functional connectivity MRI.

    PubMed

    Mills, Brian D; Pearce, Hadley L; Khan, Omar; Jarrett, Ben R; Fair, Damien A; Lahvis, Garet P

    2016-07-15

    Domoic acid (DA) is a toxin produced by marine algae and known primarily for its role in isolated outbreaks of Amnestic Shellfish Poisoning and for the damage it inflicts on marine mammals, particularly California sea lions. Lethal effects of DA are often preceded by seizures and coma. Exposure to DA during development can result in subtle and highly persistent effects on brain development and include behavioral changes that resemble diagnostic features of schizophrenia and anomalies in social behavior we believe are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To more fully examine this hypothesis, we chose to examine adolescent mice exposed in utero to DA for endpoints relevant to ASD, specifically changes in social behavior and network structure, the latter measured by resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI). We found that male offspring exposed in utero to DA expressed reproducible declines in social interaction and atypical patterns of functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate, a region of the default mode network that is critical for social functioning. We also found disruptions in global topology in regions involved in the processing of reward, social, and sensory experiences. Finally, we found that DA exposed males expressed a pattern of local over-connectivity. These anomalies in brain connectivity bear resemblance to connectivity patterns in ASD and help validate DA-exposed mice as a model of this mental disability. PMID:27050322

  14. Use of Individual Feedback during Human Gross Anatomy Course for Enhancing Professional Behaviors in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…

  15. The Effects of Check, Connect, and Expect on Behavioral and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Houchins, David E.; Robinson, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    "Check, Connect, and Expect" (CCE) is a secondary tier behavioral intervention that provides students with levels of support including a dedicated "coach" for check-in and check-out procedures, and social skills instruction. Elementary students (n = 22) in an alternative education school setting received CCE for 13 weeks…

  16. Effects of Check & Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…

  17. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  18. The Vulnerability to Suicidal Behavior is Associated with Reduced Connectivity Strength.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Stijn; Caeyenberghs, Karen; van den Ameele, Hans; Achten, Eric; Rujescu, Dan; Titeca, Koen; van Heeringen, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal behavior constitutes a major public health problem. Based on the stress-diathesis model, biological correlates of a diathesis might help to predict risk after stressor-exposure. Structural changes in cortical and subcortical areas and their connections have increasingly been linked with the diathesis. The current study identified structural network changes associated with a diathesis using a whole-brain approach by examining the structural connectivity between regions in euthymic suicide attempters (SA). In addition, the association between connectivity measures, clinical and genetic characteristics was investigated. We hypothesized that SA showed lower connectivity strength, associated with an increased severity of general clinical characteristics and an elevated expression of short alleles in serotonin polymorphisms. Thirteen euthymic SA were compared with fifteen euthymic non-attempters and seventeen healthy controls (HC). Clinical characteristics and three serotonin-related genetic polymorphisms were assessed. Diffusion MRI together with anatomical scans were administered. Preprocessing was performed using Explore DTI. Whole brain tractography of the diffusion-weighted images was followed by a number of streamlines-weighted network analysis using NBS. The network analysis revealed decreased connectivity strength in SA in the connections between the left olfactory cortex and left anterior cingulate gyrus. Furthermore, SA had increased suicidal ideation, hopelessness and self-reported depression, but did not show any differences for the genetic polymorphisms. Finally, lower connectivity strength between the right calcarine fissure and the left middle occipital gyrus was associated with increased trait anxiety severity (rs = -0.78, p < 0.01) and hopelessness (rs = -0.76, p < 0.01). SA showed differences in white matter network connectivity strength associated with clinical characteristics. Together, these variables could play an important role in

  19. Differences in electrosensory anatomy and social behavior in an area of sympatry between two species of mormyrid electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems play a key role in social behavior by mediating the detection and analysis of communication signals. In mormyrid fishes, electric signals are processed within a dedicated sensory pathway, providing a unique opportunity to relate sensory biology to social behavior. Evolutionary changes within this pathway led to new perceptual abilities that have been linked to increased rates of signal evolution and species diversification in a lineage called 'clade A'. Previous field observations suggest that clade-A species tend to be solitary and territorial, whereas non-clade-A species tend to be clustered in high densities suggestive of schooling or shoaling. To explore behavioral differences between species in these lineages in greater detail, I studied population densities, social interactions, and electric signaling in two mormyrid species, Gnathonemus victoriae (clade A) and Petrocephalus degeni (non-clade A), from Lwamunda Swamp, Uganda. Petrocephalus degeni was found at higher population densities, but intraspecific diversity in electric signal waveform was greater in G. victoriae. In the laboratory, G. victoriae exhibited strong shelter-seeking behavior and competition for shelter, whereas P. degeni were more likely to abandon shelter in the presence of conspecifics as well as electric mimics of signaling conspecifics. In other words, P. degeni exhibited social affiliation whereas G. victoriae exhibited social competition. Further, P. degeni showed correlated electric signaling behavior whereas G. victoriae showed anti-correlated signaling behavior. These findings extend previous reports of social spacing, territoriality, and habitat preference among mormyrid species, suggesting that evolutionary divergence in electrosensory processing relates to differences in social behavior. PMID:26567347

  20. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. PMID:26656284

  1. Crash injury risk behavior in adolescent latino males: the power of friends and relational connections.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB. PMID:22105382

  2. Resting state functional connectivity differences between behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Dopper, Elise G. P.; Jiskoot, Lize C.; Schouten, Tijn M.; van Swieten, John C.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Vrenken, Hugo; Pijnenburg, Yolande A. L.; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Grond, Jeroen; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. Early differentiation between both types of dementia may be challenging due to heterogeneity and overlap of symptoms. Here, we apply resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study functional brain connectivity differences between AD and bvFTD. Methods: We used resting state fMRI data of 31 AD patients, 25 bvFTD patients, and 29 controls from two centers specialized in dementia. We studied functional connectivity throughout the entire brain, applying two different analysis techniques, studying network-to-region and region-to-region connectivity. A general linear model approach was used to study group differences, while controlling for physiological noise, age, gender, study center, and regional gray matter volume. Results: Given gray matter differences, we observed decreased network-to-region connectivity in bvFTD between (a) lateral visual cortical network and lateral occipital and cuneal cortex, and (b) auditory system network and angular gyrus. In AD, we found decreased network-to-region connectivity between the dorsal visual stream network and lateral occipital and parietal opercular cortex. Region-to-region connectivity was decreased in bvFTD between superior temporal gyrus and cuneal, supracalcarine, intracalcarine cortex, and lingual gyrus. Conclusion: We showed that the pathophysiology of functional brain connectivity is different between AD and bvFTD. Our findings support the hypothesis that resting state fMRI shows disease-specific functional connectivity differences and is useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of AD and bvFTD. However, the group differences in functional connectivity are less abundant than has been shown in previous studies. PMID:26441584

  3. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Normalizes Functional Connectivity for Social Threat in Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Liam; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Dima, Danai; Williams, Steven C; Kumari, Veena

    2016-05-01

    Psychosis is often characterized by paranoia and poor social functioning. Neurally, there is evidence of functional dysconnectivity including abnormalities when processing facial affect. We sought to establish whether these abnormalities are resolved by cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp). The study involved 38 outpatients with one or more persistent positive psychotic symptoms, and 20 healthy participants. All participants completed an implicit facial affect processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, patients either continued to receive standard care only (SCO,n= 16) or received CBTp on top of standard care (+CBTp,n= 22), with fMRI repeated 6-8 months later. To examine the mechanisms underlying CBTp-led changes in threat processing and appraisal, functional connectivity during the social threat (angry faces) condition was assessed separately from left amygdala and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seeds. At baseline, patients, compared with healthy participants, showed greater amygdala connectivity with the insula and visual areas, but less connectivity with somatosensory areas. These differences normalized following CBTp and, compared with the SCO group, the +CBTp group showed greater increases in amygdala connectivity with DLPFC and inferior parietal lobule, with the latter correlating with improvement in positive symptoms. From the DLPFC seed, the +CBTp (compared with SCO) group showed significantly greater increase in DLPFC connectivity with other prefrontal regions including dorsal anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that CBTp strengthens connectivity between higher-order cognitive systems and those involved in threat and salience, potentially facilitating reappraisal. PMID:26508777

  5. Default mode network connectivity and reciprocal social behavior in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Matthew J.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Chow, Carolyn; Congdon, Eliza; Jalbrzikowski, Maria

    2014-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic mutation associated with disorders of cortical connectivity and social dysfunction. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the resting brain in 22q11DS and its relationship with social behavior. A seed-based analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was used to investigate FC associated with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in (26) youth with 22qDS and (51) demographically matched controls. Subsequently, the relationship between PCC connectivity and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores was examined in 22q11DS participants. Relative to 22q11DS participants, controls showed significantly stronger FC between the PCC and other default mode network (DMN) nodes, including the precuneus, precentral gyrus and left frontal pole. 22q11DS patients did not show age-associated FC changes observed in typically developing controls. Increased connectivity between PCC, medial prefrontal regions and the anterior cingulate cortex, was associated with lower SRS scores (i.e. improved social competence) in 22q11DS. DMN integrity may play a key role in social information processing. We observed disrupted DMN connectivity in 22q11DS, paralleling reports from idiopathic autism and schizophrenia. Increased strength of long-range DMN connectivity was associated with improved social functioning in 22q11DS. These findings support a ‘developmental-disconnection’ hypothesis of symptom development in this disorder. PMID:23912681

  6. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  7. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. PMID:26166191

  8. Time-varying functional connectivity for understanding the neural basis of behavioral microsleeps.

    PubMed

    Toppi, J; Astolfi, L; Poudel, G R; Babiloni, F; Macchiusi, L; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Jones, R D

    2012-01-01

    Episodes of complete failure to respond during attentive tasks--lapses of responsiveness ('lapses')--accompanied by behavioral signs of sleep such as slow-eye-closure are known as behavioral microsleeps (BMs). The occurrence of BMs can have serious/fatal consequences, particularly in the transport sectors, and therefore further investigations on neurophysiological correlates of BMs are highly desirable. In this paper we propose a combination of High Resolution EEG techniques and an advanced method for time-varying functional connectivity estimation for reconstructing the temporal evolution of causal relations between cortical regions of BMs occurring during a visuomotor tracking task. The preliminary results highlight connectivity patterns involving parietal and fronto-parietal areas both preceding and following the onset of a BM. PMID:23366979

  9. A positive-negative mode of population covariation links brain connectivity, demographics and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen; Nichols, Thomas; Vidaurre, Diego; Winkler, Anderson; Behrens, Timothy; Glasser, Matthew; Ugurbil, Kamil; Barch, Deanna; Van Essen, David; Miller, Karla

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual subjects’ functional connectomes and 280 behavioral and demographic measures, in a single holistic multivariate analysis relating imaging to non-imaging data from 461 subjects in the Human Connectome Project. We identified one strong mode of population co-variation; subjects were predominantly spread along a single “positive-negative” axis, linking lifestyle, demographic and psychometric measures to each other and to a specific pattern of brain connectivity. PMID:26414616

  10. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  11. Connecting a Connectome to Behavior: An Ensemble of Neuroanatomical Models of C. elegans Klinotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Eduardo J.; Beer, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    Increased efforts in the assembly and analysis of connectome data are providing new insights into the principles underlying the connectivity of neural circuits. However, despite these considerable advances in connectomics, neuroanatomical data must be integrated with neurophysiological and behavioral data in order to obtain a complete picture of neural function. Due to its nearly complete wiring diagram and large behavioral repertoire, the nematode worm Caenorhaditis elegans is an ideal organism in which to explore in detail this link between neural connectivity and behavior. In this paper, we develop a neuroanatomically-grounded model of salt klinotaxis, a form of chemotaxis in which changes in orientation are directed towards the source through gradual continual adjustments. We identify a minimal klinotaxis circuit by systematically searching the C. elegans connectome for pathways linking chemosensory neurons to neck motor neurons, and prune the resulting network based on both experimental considerations and several simplifying assumptions. We then use an evolutionary algorithm to find possible values for the unknown electrophsyiological parameters in the network such that the behavioral performance of the entire model is optimized to match that of the animal. Multiple runs of the evolutionary algorithm produce an ensemble of such models. We analyze in some detail the mechanisms by which one of the best evolved circuits operates and characterize the similarities and differences between this mechanism and other solutions in the ensemble. Finally, we propose a series of experiments to determine which of these alternatives the worm may be using. PMID:23408877

  12. Nonmonotonic behaviors of Fano factor in double quantum dot connected with Luttinger liquid electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi

    2009-09-30

    In this study, we discuss the behavior of the Fano factor in a double quantum dot (DQD) connected with Luttinger liquid (LL) electrodes. At the Toulouse point, we study the dependence of the Fano factor on the bias voltage, the energy level of the dots, the interdot coupling, and the asymmetry parameter. We show that the behavior of the Fano factor in a DQD is similar to that in a single quantum dot (SQD); however, it behaves nonmonotonically with bias voltage and three local extrema can occur. The condition for the occurrence of nonmonotonic behavior is determined, and it is shown that local extrema result from the mixing of the bare energy levels of the dots caused by the interdot coupling. The influence of the Klein factor on the conductance in a DQD and the limitation of the perturbation calculation for a DQD are discussed. PMID:21832386

  13. The beauty of anatomy: visual displays and surgical education in early-nineteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2011-01-01

    The early-nineteenth-century artist, anatomist, and teacher Sir Charles Bell saw anatomy and art as closely related subjects. He taught anatomy to artists and surgeons, illustrated his own anatomical texts, and wrote a treatise on the use of anatomy in art. The author explores the connections among visual displays representing human anatomy, aesthetics, and pedagogical practices for Bell and a particular group of British surgeon-anatomists. Creating anatomical models and drawings was thought to discipline the surgeon's hand, while the study of anatomy and comparative anatomy would discipline the artist's eye. And for Bell, beauty made drawings into better pedagogical tools. PMID:21804185

  14. Unusual behavior of 3He-4He mixtures in connected OD boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, M. O.; Gasparini, F. M.

    2009-02-01

    We report on measurements of the specific heat of 3He-4He mixtures confined to boxes connected with fill channels 1 μm wide and 19 nm high. These data were meant as a study of mixtures to test universality of finite-size scaling along the lambda-line. We find instead that the mixtures have very unusual behavior relative to mixtures studied in geometries for 2D and 1D crossover. These latter data can be scaled successfully as long as one does not include data for pure 4He. In contrast, the 0D crossover data do not scale on either side of the bulk transition temperature Tλ and have rather different overall behavior: They show a dramatically larger temperature shift of the specific heat maximum Cmax relative to data for 2D and ID, the value of the specific heat at Tλ is substantially smaller than that observed for the other dimensionalities, and the value of Cmax exceeds the magnitude of the bulk specific heat at the same temperature. This overall behavior is so unusual that it suggests there is a role being played by the connecting channels even though the liquid within them remains in the normal state over the temperature range in which the specific heat is measured.

  15. Meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral parcellation of the human cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Michael C.; Ray, Kimberly L.; Dick, Anthony S.; Sutherland, Matthew T.; Hernandez, Zachary; Fox, P. Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum historically has been thought to mediate motor and sensory signals between the body and cerebral cortex, yet cerebellar lesions are also associated with altered cognitive behavioral performance. Neuroimaging evidence indicates that the cerebellum contributes to a wide range of cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions. Here, we used the BrainMap database to investigate whole-brain co-activation patterns between cerebellar structures and regions of the cerebral cortex, as well as associations with behavioral tasks. Hierarchical clustering was performed to meta-analytically identify cerebellar structures with similar cortical co-activation, and independently, with similar correlations to specific behavioral tasks. Strong correspondences were observed in these separate but parallel analyses of meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral metadata. We recovered differential zones of cerebellar co-activation that are reflected across the literature. Furthermore, the behaviors and tasks associated with the different cerebellar zones provide insight into the specialized function of the cerebellum, relating to high-order cognition, emotion, perception, interoception, and action. Taken together, these task-based meta-analytic results implicate distinct zones of the cerebellum as critically involved in the monitoring and mediation of psychological responses to internal and external stimuli. PMID:25998956

  16. Disruptions of network connectivity predict impairment in multiple behavioral domains after stroke.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Joshua Sarfaty; Ramsey, Lenny E; Snyder, Abraham Z; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Chacko, Ravi V; Weinberger, Kilian; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-07-26

    Deficits following stroke are classically attributed to focal damage, but recent evidence suggests a key role of distributed brain network disruption. We measured resting functional connectivity (FC), lesion topography, and behavior in multiple domains (attention, visual memory, verbal memory, language, motor, and visual) in a cohort of 132 stroke patients, and used machine-learning models to predict neurological impairment in individual subjects. We found that visual memory and verbal memory were better predicted by FC, whereas visual and motor impairments were better predicted by lesion topography. Attention and language deficits were well predicted by both. Next, we identified a general pattern of physiological network dysfunction consisting of decrease of interhemispheric integration and intrahemispheric segregation, which strongly related to behavioral impairment in multiple domains. Network-specific patterns of dysfunction predicted specific behavioral deficits, and loss of interhemispheric communication across a set of regions was associated with impairment across multiple behavioral domains. These results link key organizational features of brain networks to brain-behavior relationships in stroke. PMID:27402738

  17. Meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral parcellation of the human cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Michael C; Ray, Kimberly L; Dick, Anthony S; Sutherland, Matthew T; Hernandez, Zachary; Fox, P Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R

    2015-08-15

    The cerebellum historically has been thought to mediate motor and sensory signals between the body and cerebral cortex, yet cerebellar lesions are also associated with altered cognitive behavioral performance. Neuroimaging evidence indicates that the cerebellum contributes to a wide range of cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions. Here, we used the BrainMap database to investigate whole-brainco-activation patterns between cerebellar structures and regions of the cerebral cortex, as well as associations with behavioral tasks. Hierarchical clustering was performed to meta-analytically identify cerebellar structures with similar cortical co-activation, and independently, with similar correlations to specific behavioral tasks. Strong correspondences were observed in these separate but parallel analyses of meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral metadata. We recovered differential zones of cerebellar co-activation that are reflected across the literature. Furthermore, the behaviors and tasks associated with the different cerebellar zones provide insight into the specialized function of the cerebellum, relating to high-order cognition, emotion, perception, interoception, and action. Taken together, these task-basedmeta-analytic results implicate distinct zones of the cerebellum as critically involved in the monitoring and mediation of psychological responses to internal and external stimuli. PMID:25998956

  18. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  19. Functional connectivity dynamics: modeling the switching behavior of the resting state.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Enrique C A; Battaglia, Demian; Spiegler, Andreas; Deco, Gustavo; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2015-01-15

    Functional connectivity (FC) sheds light on the interactions between different brain regions. Besides basic research, it is clinically relevant for applications in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, presurgical planning, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. Simulations of whole-brain mean-field computational models with realistic connectivity determined by tractography studies enable us to reproduce with accuracy aspects of average FC in the resting state. Most computational studies, however, did not address the prominent non-stationarity in resting state FC, which may result in large intra- and inter-subject variability and thus preclude an accurate individual predictability. Here we show that this non-stationarity reveals a rich structure, characterized by rapid transitions switching between a few discrete FC states. We also show that computational models optimized to fit time-averaged FC do not reproduce these spontaneous state transitions and, thus, are not qualitatively superior to simplified linear stochastic models, which account for the effects of structure alone. We then demonstrate that a slight enhancement of the non-linearity of the network nodes is sufficient to broaden the repertoire of possible network behaviors, leading to modes of fluctuations, reminiscent of some of the most frequently observed Resting State Networks. Because of the noise-driven exploration of this repertoire, the dynamics of FC qualitatively change now and display non-stationary switching similar to empirical resting state recordings (Functional Connectivity Dynamics (FCD)). Thus FCD bear promise to serve as a better biomarker of resting state neural activity and of its pathologic alterations. PMID:25462790

  20. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions. PMID:20602076

  1. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  2. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  3. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  4. Observations from the Analysis of Thermohydraulic Behavior of the Series-Connected Hybrid Magnets Superconducting Outserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Bai, Hongyu; Bird, Mark D.; Dixon, Iain R.

    2010-04-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) has finalized the design of two Series-Connected Hybrid Magnet Systems (SCH). Such systems have been developed at the NHMFL over last few years. Each of these magnet systems consists of a resistive insert (a group of concentric nested Florida-Bitter magnets) and a superconducting outsert wound with a graded cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) with Nb3Sn/Cu strands forced-flow-cooled with supercritical helium at about 4.7 K and 3.4 bar (at the inlet) delivered by a helium refrigerator. The thermohydraulic behavior of the outsert is analyzed for cyclic operational scenarios; regular thermohydraulic regimes are observed. The effects of friction factor and boundary conditions on the thermohydraulic processes are discussed.

  5. The evolution of science literacy: Examining intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocchi-Verrino, Carol J.

    A call for a new perspective of science literacy has been marked as the impetus of change in science education, suggesting that a meaning-making approach to literacy and inquiry are central to learning science. This research study explored how science literacy evolved in a classroom where this reconceptualized view of science literacy guided curriculum design and instruction. The teacher/researcher incorporated Interactive Science Notebooks (ISNs) and Interactive Reading Organizers and Comprehension Strategies (IROCS) into instructional materials. In a class consisting of 20 mainstream and special education students, this 7-week study collected data using Likert scales, stimulated recall interviews, a teacher/researcher journal, and students¡¦ position papers. A systematic design framework was used for the three-phase analysis. Hyperresearch RTM software facilitated the identification of open codes, an axial code, and frequency graphs. In order to develop insight into the relationship between questions, methods, and curriculum design recent recommendations for quality research in science education were considered in the methodology. The hypothesis formulated from the data suggests that science literacy evolves on a continuum, and the degree to which science literacy evolves on the continuum seems to be contingent upon their uses of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors. Several notable insights emerged from the data which were used to guide curriculum, instruction, and assessment that promotes the development of science literacy in the middle school classroom. The study suggests a possible correlation between the use of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors, and the use of a continuum in measuring the emergence of science literacy.

  6. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base. PMID:26614826

  7. Investigating connections between local-remote atmospheric variability and Greenland outlet glacier behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Chen, Linling; Miles, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    The outlet glaciers along the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) exhibit a range of behaviors, which are crucial for understanding GrIS mass changes from a dynamical point of view. However, the drivers of this behavior are still poorly understood. Arguments (counter-arguments) have been made for a strong (weak) local oceanic influence on marine terminating outlet glaciers while decadal-scale drivers linked to fluctuations in the Ice sheet itself and the North Atlantic ocean (e.g. Atlantic Multidecadal Variability) have also been posited as drivers. Recently there have also been studies linking (e.g. seasonal to interannual) atmospheric variability, synoptic activity and the Ice Sheet variability. But these studies typically investigate atmospheric links to the large-scale behavior of the Ice Sheet itself and do not go down to the scale of the outlet glaciers. Conversely, investigations of the outlet glaciers often do not include potential links to non-local atmospheric dynamics. Here the authors attempt to bridge the gap and investigate the relationship between atmospheric variability across a range of scales and the behavior of three outlet glaciers on Greenland's southeast coast over a 33-year period (1980-2012). The glaciers - Helheim, Midgard and Fenris - are near Tasiilaq, are marine terminating and exhibit varying degree of connection to the GrIS. ERA-Interim reanalysis, sea-ice data and glacier observations are used for the investigation. Long records of mass balance are unavailable for these glaciers and front position is employed as a measure of glacier atmosphere interactions across multiple scales, as it exhibits robust relationships to atmospheric variability on time scales of seasons to many years, with the strongest relationships seen at seasonal - interannual time scales. The authors do not make the argument that front position is a suitable proxy for mass balance, only that it is indicative of the role of local and remote atmospheric

  8. Can spatial study of hydrological connectivity explain some behaviors of catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantreul, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Erosion is a major threat to European soil. Consequences can be very important both on-site and off-site. Belgian loamy soils are highly vulnerable to this threat because of their natural sensitivity to erosion on the one hand, and because the land is mainly used for intensive agricultural practices on the other hand. Over the last few decades, rising erosion has even been observed in our regions. This shows the importance of a deeper understanding of the coupled phenomena of runoff and erosion in order to manage soils at catchment scale. Plenty of research have already studied this but all agree to say that it seems to have a non-linear relationship between rainfall and discharge, as well as between rainfall and erosion. For that reason, a new concept has been developed a few years ago: the hydrological connectivity. Several research have focused on connectivity but up to now, each there are as much definition as papers. In this thesis, it will be important firstly to resume all these definitions to clarify this concept. Secondly, a methodology using various transects on the watershed and some pertinent field measurements will be used. These measurements include spatial distribution of particle size, surface states and soil moisture. A new approach of photogrammetry using an UAV will be used to observe erosion and deposition zones on the watershed. In this framework, several time scales will be studied from the event scale to the annual scale passing by monthly and seasonal scales. All this will serve to progress toward a better understanding of the concept of hydrological connectivity in order to study erosion at catchment scale. The final goal of this study is to describe hydrologically each different part of the catchment and to generalize these behaviors to other catchments with similar properties if possible. Afterwards, this research will be integrated in an existing (or not) model to improve the modelling of discharge and erosion in the catchment. Thanks to

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  10. Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naplekov, D. M.; Semynozhenko, V. P.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown.

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents' academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends' alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents' alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends' alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents' alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents' alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  12. Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels.

    PubMed

    Naplekov, D M; Semynozhenko, V P; Yanovsky, V V

    2014-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown. PMID:24580310

  13. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  14. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art. PMID:24640589

  15. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... our existence. It controls our personality, thoughts, memory, intelligence, speech and understanding, emotions, senses, and basic body functions, as well as how we function in our environment. The diagrams below show brain anatomy, or the various parts of the brain, ...

  16. Anatomy of an entry vehicle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Wurster, K. E.; Helms, V. T.; Ashby, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy and evolution of a simple small-scale unmanned entry vehicle is described that is delivered to orbit by the shuttle and entered into the atmosphere from orbit to acquire flight data to improve our knowledge of boundary-layer behavior and evaluate advanced thermal protection systems. The anatomy of the experiment includes the justification for the experiments, instrumentation, configuration, material, and operational needs, and the translation of these needs into a configuration, weight statement, aerodynamics, program cost, and trajectory. Candidates for new instrumentation development are also identified for nonintrusive measurements of the boundary-layer properties.

  17. Implant-abutment connections: influence of the design on the microgap and their fatigue and fracture behavior of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Herrero-Climent, M; Lázaro, P; Rios, J V

    2014-07-01

    Microgap between implant and abutment can produce biological and mechanical problems such as peri-implantitis and/or fatigue failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate microgap size and fatigue behavior of external and internal connections. In both systems the torque to tighten the abutment screw of single crown abutments was 45 Ncm. Fifty implants for each connection type were studied. One subgroup (n = 5) was used by the observation and evaluation of the microgap, other (n = 5) was tested for fracture strength and the other (n = 40) was subjected to dynamic loading. The internal connection presents a lower microgap than the external ones. From fatigue results, the external hexagon interface showed superior result compared to the internal hexagon interfaces. The tolerances in the internal connections are better and favour the fatigue behavior but this factor alone is not sufficient to improve the fatigue response in relation to the external connections when the screw is subjected at the same torque. The external system presents a higher value of the area than the internal and it produces a better load distribution. Microgaps and mechanical properties are very important for the long-term behavior of the dental implants and these aspects should be known by the implantologists. PMID:24719176

  18. Photoelastic analysis of biomechanical behavior of single and multiple fixed partial prostheses with different prosthetic connections.

    PubMed

    Tonella, Bianca Piccolotto; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Ferraço, Renato; de Faria Almeida, Daniel Augusto

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution on external hexagon, internal hexagon, and Morse taper implant in single and 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial prostheses (FPPs) using photoelasticity. Six models were fabricated with the photoelastic resin PL-2: 3 models for the 3-unit implant-supported FPP with implants of 4.0 × 10.0 mm in the region of the second premolar and molar including 1 model for each type of implant connection, and 3 models for the single prosthesis for each implant type. The prostheses fabrication was standardized. A circular polariscope was used, and axial and oblique (45 degrees) loads of 100 N were applied in a universal testing machine. The results were photographed and analyzed qualitatively. The internal hexagon implant exhibited better stress distribution and lower intensity of fringes followed by the external hexagon and Morse taper implants for the models with the 3-unit prostheses. For the single implants, the Morse taper implant presented better stress distribution, followed by the internal and external hexagon implants. The oblique loading increased the number of photoelastic fringes in all models. It was concluded that the internal hexagon implant exhibited better biomechanical behavior for the 3-unit implant-supported FPP, whereas the Morse taper implant was more favorable for the single implant-supported prosthesis. The oblique loading increased the stress in all models. PMID:22067856

  19. The Drosophila anatomy ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires clear textual definitions for terms, ideally accompanied by images. Accurate grouping and fruitful programmatic usage requires high-quality formal definitions that can be used to automate classification and check for errors. The Drosophila anatomy ontology (DAO) consists of over 8000 classes with broad coverage of Drosophila anatomy. It has been used extensively for annotation by a range of resources, but until recently it was poorly formalised and had few textual definitions. Results We have transformed the DAO into an ontology rich in formal and textual definitions in which the majority of classifications are automated and extensive error checking ensures quality. Here we present an overview of the content of the DAO, the patterns used in its formalisation, and the various uses it has been put to. Conclusions As a result of the work described here, the DAO provides a high-quality, queryable reference for the wild-type anatomy of Drosophila melanogaster and a set of terms to annotate data related to that anatomy. Extensive, well referenced textual definitions make it both a reliable and useful reference and ensure accurate use in annotation. Wide use of formal axioms allows a large proportion of classification to be automated and the use of consistency checking to eliminate errors. This increased formalisation has resulted in significant improvements to the completeness and accuracy of classification. The broad use of both formal and informal definitions make further development of the ontology sustainable and scalable. The patterns of formalisation used in the DAO are likely to be useful to developers of other

  20. Chromosomes and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert James McKinlay

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome abnormalities may cast light on the nature of mechanisms whereby normal anatomy evolves, and abnormal anatomy arises. Correlating genotype to phenotype is an exercise in which the geneticist and the anatomist can collaborate. The increasing power of the new genetic methodologies is enabling an increasing precision in the delineation of chromosome imbalances, even to the nucleotide level; but the classical skills of careful observation and recording remain as crucial as they always have been. Clin. Anat. 29:540-546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990310

  1. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. Clin. Anat. 29:508-515, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26621479

  2. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  3. Structural and functional connectivity in healthy aging: Associations for cognition and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hirsiger, Sarah; Koppelmans, Vincent; Mérillat, Susan; Liem, Franziskus; Erdeniz, Burak; Seidler, Rachael D; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Age-related behavioral declines may be the result of deterioration of white matter tracts, affecting brain structural (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) during resting state. To date, it is not clear if the combination of SC and FC data could better predict cognitive/motor performance than each measure separately. We probed these relationships in the cingulum bundle, a major white matter pathway of the default mode network. We aimed to attain deeper knowledge about: (a) the relationship between age and the cingulum's SC and FC strength, (b) the association between SC and FC, and particularly (c) how the cingulum's SC and FC are related to cognitive/motor performance separately and combined. We examined these associations in a healthy and well-educated sample of 165 older participants (aged 64-85). SC and FC were acquired using probabilistic tractography to derive measures to capture white matter integrity within the cingulum bundle (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity) and a seed-based resting-state functional MRI correlation approach, respectively. Participants performed cognitive tests measuring processing speed, memory and executive functions, and motor tests measuring motor speed and grip force. Our data revealed that only SC but not resting state FC was significantly associated with age. Further, the cingulum's SC and FC showed no relation. Different relationships between cognitive/motor performance and SC/FC separately were found, but no additive effect of the combined analysis of cingulum's SC and FC for predicting cognitive/motor performance was apparent. Hum Brain Mapp 37:855-867, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663386

  4. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  5. Anatomy of the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph

    1977-01-01

    In this insect morphology exercise, students study the external anatomy of the worker honeybee. The structures listed and illustrated are discussed in relation to their functions. A goal of the exercise is to establish the bee as a well-adapted, social insect. (MA)

  6. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  7. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  8. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    PubMed

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. PMID:26061143

  9. Reduced amygdala-orbitofrontal connectivity during moral judgments in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Finger, Elizabeth C.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Jurkowitz, Ilana T.N.; Schechter, Julia C.; Yu, Henry H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits during a moral judgment task. Fourteen adolescents with psychopathic traits and 14 healthy controls were assessed using fMRI while they categorized illegal and legal behaviors in a moral judgment implicit association task. fMRI data were then analyzed using random-effects analysis of variance and functional connectivity. Youths with psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala activity when making judgments about legal actions and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex during task performance. These results suggest that psychopathic traits are associated with amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction. This dysfunction may relate to previous findings of disrupted moral judgment in this population. PMID:22047730

  10. Numerical analysis on seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tubular column connections with ring-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi.; Xu, Li. Hua.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents numerical study of the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tube column connections with ring-beam. The material stress-strain relations, element type and boundary condition are selected, which are consistent with actual situation. Then the seismic behavior of this type of joint are researched by ABAQUS, and finite element analyses are conducted under cyclic loading. Its parameters are discussed including thickness of steel tubular column wall, sectional dimension of the ring-beam and strength of the core concrete. The results show that the ultimate capacity of the connections is improved with sectional dimension of the ring-beam increased. In the meanwhile, the influence on skeleton curve of the joints is slight of which included thickness of steel tubular column wall and strength of the core concrete.

  11. Real-time fMRI training-induced changes in regional connectivity mediating verbal working memory behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Zhang, G; Yao, L; Zhao, X

    2015-03-19

    Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information that is necessary for complex cognition activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity can be improved by behavioral training, and brain activities in the frontal and parietal cortices and the connections between these regions are also altered by training. Our recent neurofeedback training has proven that the regulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can improve working memory performance. However, how working memory training promotes interaction between brain regions and whether this promotion correlates with performance improvement remain unclear. In this study, we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to calculate the interactions between the regions within the working memory network during neurofeedback training. The results revealed that the direct effect of the frontoparietal connection in the left hemisphere was enhanced by the rtfMRI training. Specifically, the increase in the path from the left DLPFC to the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was positively correlated with improved performance in verbal working memory. These findings demonstrate the important role of the frontoparietal connection in working memory training and suggest that increases in frontoparietal connectivity might be a key factor associated with behavioral improvement. PMID:25595984

  12. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  13. About connections.

    PubMed

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the attention attracted by "connectomics", one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning "What are connections?" In the neuroimaging community, "structural" connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on "functional" or "effective" connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as "pairwise", point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z), or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as "nodes" or regions and the interconnecting "edges". This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis. PMID:26042001

  14. Exploring the Connections between Caring and Social Behaviors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the relationship between the caring climate, empathy, prosocial behaviors, and antisocial behaviors, like bullying, in physical education, plus investigated whether empathy mediated the possible relationships between caring and social behaviors for boys and girls. Method: Middle school physical education students…

  15. Self-organization, preferential flow and rainfall runoff behavior - is there a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Erwin; Blume, Theresa; Kleidon, Axel; Ehret, Uwe; Scherer, Ulrike; Westhoff, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    In line with the studies of Kleidon et al. (2012) and Zehe et al. (2010) the proposed study analyzes mass flow related flows of free energy in open hydrological systems - hillslopes and small catchments - using thermodynamics methods. Why a thermodynamic treatment? A small part of the kinetic energy input from incoming rainfall is dissipated into heat and to break up soil aggregates. Depending on the partitioning of the incoming rainfall into overland flow and soil water, the remaining part of the incoming kinetic energy is partly transformed into potential energy of surface water and subsequently partly exported as kinetic energy of overland flow from the system; the rest is dissipated by frictional losses. The other part of rainfall infiltrates thereby increasing potential energy of soil water but depleting at the same time (gradients in) capillary binding energy of soil water, which again comprises energy dissipation into heat of immersion. Although, these mass fluxes are not associated with large heat fluxes, they reflect the overall conservation of energy as well as the second law of thermodynamics. They require thus a thermodynamic treatment, because tiny amounts of kinetic energy, surface energy and potential energy are dissipated into heat: this implies irreversibility and explains why water does not flow uphill. Soil hydraulic equilibrium (HE), arising from a balance in potential and capillary binding energy in soil, can be interpreted as a state of maximum entropy in soil. Soil water potential, defined as sum of matric potential and gravity potential, is in HE equal to zero along the soil profile. This corresponds to a state of maximum entropy due to a zero potential gradient, which implies due to Zehe et al. (2010) a state of minimum (Helmholtz) free energy. Our first main objective is to quantify to which extent connected preferential flow path, in our case vertical macropores and the river network enhance flow velocities at a given driving gradient and

  16. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany Mei; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domains of Hand Function (HF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC) to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p < 0.05). Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in performance on ARAT (R (2) = 0.21), 9-HPT (R (2) = 0.41), SIS HF (R (2) = 0.27), and SIS ADL (R (2) = 0.40). Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory

  17. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany Mei; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domains of Hand Function (HF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC) to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p < 0.05). Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in performance on ARAT (R2 = 0.21), 9-HPT (R2 = 0.41), SIS HF (R2 = 0.27), and SIS ADL (R2 = 0.40). Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory component of BCI

  18. [Anatomy of the skull].

    PubMed

    Pásztor, Emil

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits. PMID:21661257

  19. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. PMID:25704934

  20. The Influence of Plant Anatomy on Oviposition and Reproductive Success of the Omnivorous Bug, Orius Insidiosus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms whereby plant characteristics influence the reproductive behavior and immature survival of omnivorous insects are poorly understood. We examined how trichome density and internal anatomy of five plant species influence the oviposition behavior of zoophytophagous Orius insidiosus and t...

  1. Thalamocortical functional connectivity and behavioral disruptions in neonates with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Goldman, Barbara D; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) affects neurobehavioral development, however, disentangling direct drug-related mechanisms from contextual effects (e.g., socioeconomic status) has proven challenging in humans. The effects of environmental confounds are minimal immediately after birth thus we aimed to delineate neurobehavioral correlates of PCE in a large cohort of neonates (2-6weeks of age, N=152) with and without drug exposure using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and developmental assessments at 3months with the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development, 3rd edition. The cohort included healthy controls and neonates with similar poly-drug exposure±cocaine. We focused on the thalamus given its critical importance in early brain development and its unique positioning in the dopamine system. Our results revealed PCE-related hyper-connectivity between the thalamus and frontal regions and a drug-common hypo-connective signature between the thalamus and motor-related regions. PCE-specific neonatal thalamo-frontal connectivity was inversely related to cognitive and fine motor scores and thalamo-motor connectivity showed a positive relationship with composite (gross plus fine) motor scores. Finally, cocaine by selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) interactions were detected, suggesting the combined use of these drugs during pregnancy could have additional consequences on fetal development. Overall, our findings provide the first delineation of PCE-related disruptions of thalamocortical functional connectivity, neurobehavioral correlations, and drug-drug interactions during infancy. PMID:27242332

  2. Panel zone behavior of moment connections between rectangular concrete-filled steel tubes and wide flange beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Bradley Donald

    2000-10-01

    During the 1990s, guidelines for the detailing of composite joints for seismic safety have been proposed and adopted. Such guidelines were based on the testing of composite joint subassemblies under cyclic loads. The role of the confined concrete core in composite joints has been documented and quantified for systems using steel shapes encased in concrete, as well as for other mixtures of reinforced concrete and structural steel. The need to understand the role of the concrete core in moment connections utilizing concrete-fined tube (CFT) columns still exists. In this research program, the split-tee through-bolted moment connection between wide-flange steel beams and concrete-filled tubes was studied. The aim of the study was to understand the role of the confined concrete core in transferring forces through the joint. Fifteen half-scale panel-zone specimens were designed and tested to model the shear behavior of the split-tee connection. Following an analysis of the results of the panel-zone tests, six fun-scale moment connections were designed and tested. Variables studied were: concrete compressive strength, the b/t ratio (slenderness) of the steel tube walls, and the split-tee contact area against the steel tube. Following an analysis of the test data, design criteria for the concrete contribution to the joint strength are presented, and recommendations are made for the inclusion of CFT systems in the design recommendations for composite joints. Suggestions are made for further research.

  3. Connection between Exposure to Internet Content and Violent Behavior among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perišin, Dijana; Opic, Siniša

    2013-01-01

    Internet allows great interaction between real and perceived anonymous environment. Adolescents, acting under the assumption of anonymity show different patterns of behavior, which has lead to a new form of violence: cyberbullying. There is a possibility of both positive and negative behavior in virtual space, however, the negative side of the…

  4. Reading to Understand Anatomy: A Literature Circle Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmer, Joseph; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    As a science teacher, I regularly use outside reading assignments (e.g., news articles) to help develop my students' understanding of topics addressed in my anatomy class. However, I have found that in simply reading texts, students often fail to (1) understand the context of the science discussed, (2) make the connections between ideas…

  5. Improving Transition Behavior in Students with Disabilities Using a Multimedia Personal Development Program: Check and Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Sue E.

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates Check and Connect (Hoppe & Bray, 2000), a computer-assisted learning program funded by a competitive subgrant under the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part B" (ages 3-21). The program targeted 20 students in high school with disabilities categorized as "learning disabilities," "other health impairment,"…

  6. The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking Individuals' Connection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. The authors propose a new construct, Nature Relatedness (NR), and a scale that assesses the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals' connection to nature. In Study 1, the authors explored the internal structure of the NR item responses in a…

  7. Nonlinear Dynamical Behavior in BS Evolution Model Based on Small-World Network Added with Mechanism of Preferential Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Yue; Chen, Tian-Lun

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a modified small-world network added with new links with preferential connection instead of adding randomly, then we apply Bak-Sneppen (BS) evolution model on this network. Several dynamical character of the model such as the evolution graph, f0 avalanche, the critical exponent D and τ, and the distribution of mutation times of all the nodes, show particular behaviors different from those of the model based on the regular network and the small-world network.

  8. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  9. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority. PMID:18770971

  10. A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M

    2010-08-01

    A three-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  11. Brain anatomy in Diplura (Hexapoda)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships. Since the most detailed description of dipluran brain anatomy dates back to Hanström (1940) we re-investigated the brains of Campodea augens and Catajapyx aquilonaris with modern neuroanatomical techniques. The analyses are based on antibody staining and 3D reconstruction of the major neuropils and tracts from semi-thin section series. Results Remarkable features of the investigated dipluran brains are a large central body, which is organized in nine columns and three layers, and well developed mushroom bodies with calyces receiving input from spheroidal olfactory glomeruli in the deutocerebrum. Antibody staining against a catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (DC0) was used to further characterize the mushroom bodies. The japygid Catajapyx aquilonaris possesses mushroom bodies which are connected across the midline, a unique condition within hexapods. Conclusions Mushroom body and central body structure shows a high correspondence between japygids and campodeids. Some unique features indicate that neuroanatomy further supports the monophyly of Diplura. In a broader phylogenetic context, however, the polarization of brain characters becomes ambiguous. The mushroom bodies and the central body of Diplura in several aspects resemble those of Dicondylia, suggesting homology. In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans. Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed. PMID:23050723

  12. Awareness of Emotional Stimuli Determines the Behavioral Consequences of Amygdala Activation and Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Lapate, R C; Rokers, B; Tromp, D P M; Orfali, N S; Oler, J A; Doran, S T; Adluru, N; Alexander, A L; Davidson, R J

    2016-01-01

    Conscious awareness of negative cues is thought to enhance emotion-regulatory capacity, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS) in the MRI scanner, we manipulated visual awareness of fearful faces during an affect misattribution paradigm, in which preferences for neutral objects can be biased by the valence of a previously presented stimulus. The amygdala responded to fearful faces independently of awareness. However, when awareness of fearful faces was prevented, individuals with greater amygdala responses displayed a negative bias toward unrelated novel neutral faces. In contrast, during the aware condition, inverse coupling between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex reduced this bias, particularly among individuals with higher structural connectivity in the major white matter pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Collectively, these results indicate that awareness promotes the function of a critical emotion-regulatory network targeting the amygdala, providing a mechanistic account for the role of awareness in emotion regulation. PMID:27181344

  13. Dynamic Landscape Connectivity, Threshold Behavior, and Scaling Frameworks for Hydrologic and Bio-geochemical Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula, E.; Zanardo, S.; Danesh-Yazdi, M.; Zaliapin, I.; Power, M.; Dietrich, W.

    2012-12-01

    The hydrologic connectivity of landscapes (the surface fluvial and non-fluvial flowpaths and the flowpaths in the sub-surface) is temporally and spatially changing as dictated by landscape features and precipitation. Developing simple conceptual frameworks for quantifying the response of a basin (hydrologic, sedimentologic, and bio-geochemical) based on theories of network dynamics is still an open problem with slow progress. In this talk two issues will be addressed: (1) scaling of peak flows in response to space-time variable rainfall of duration smaller than the time of concentration of the basin, and (2) predictive modeling and scaling of bio-geochemical fluxes using a spatially explicit model of light and nutrient availability, streamflow, and temperature on the connected network. Data from the Walnut Gulch watershed and the Eel river at Angelo Coast Range Reserve are used for model development and testing.

  14. Awareness of Emotional Stimuli Determines the Behavioral Consequences of Amygdala Activation and Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, R. C.; Rokers, B.; Tromp, D. P. M.; Orfali, N. S.; Oler, J. A.; Doran, S. T.; Adluru, N.; Alexander, A. L.; Davidson, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Conscious awareness of negative cues is thought to enhance emotion-regulatory capacity, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS) in the MRI scanner, we manipulated visual awareness of fearful faces during an affect misattribution paradigm, in which preferences for neutral objects can be biased by the valence of a previously presented stimulus. The amygdala responded to fearful faces independently of awareness. However, when awareness of fearful faces was prevented, individuals with greater amygdala responses displayed a negative bias toward unrelated novel neutral faces. In contrast, during the aware condition, inverse coupling between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex reduced this bias, particularly among individuals with higher structural connectivity in the major white matter pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Collectively, these results indicate that awareness promotes the function of a critical emotion-regulatory network targeting the amygdala, providing a mechanistic account for the role of awareness in emotion regulation. PMID:27181344

  15. Central Thalamic Deep-Brain Stimulation Alters Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Cognitive Neural Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ching; Pan, Han-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shen, Elise Ting-Hsin; Liao, Lun-De; Liao, Pei-Han; Chien, Yi-Wei; Liao, Kuei-Da; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chu, Kai-Wen; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) has been proposed as an experimental therapeutic approach to produce consistent sustained regulation of forebrain arousal for several neurological diseases. We investigated local field potentials (LFPs) induced by CT-DBS from the thalamic central lateral nuclei (CL) and the striatum as potential biomarkers for the enhancement of lever-pressing skill learning. LFPs were simultaneously recorded from multiple sites in the CL, ventral striatum (Vstr), and dorsal striatum (Dstr). LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed and compared between the CT-DBS and sham control groups. The theta and alpha LFP oscillations were significantly increased in the CL and striatum in the CT-DBS group. Furthermore, interhemispheric coherences between bilateral CL and striatum were increased in the theta band. Additionally, enhancement of c-Fos activity, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2), and α4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4-nAChR) occurred after CT-DBS treatment in the striatum and hippocampus. CT-DBS strengthened thalamic-striatal functional connectivity, which demonstrates that the inter-regional connectivity enhancement might contribute to synaptic plasticity in the striatum. Altered dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors resulted in modulation of striatal synaptic plasticity's ability to regulate downstream signaling cascades for higher brain functions of lever-pressing skill learning. PMID:26793069

  16. Central Thalamic Deep-Brain Stimulation Alters Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Cognitive Neural Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Ching; Pan, Han-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shen, Elise Ting-Hsin; Liao, Lun-De; Liao, Pei-Han; Chien, Yi-Wei; Liao, Kuei-Da; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chu, Kai-Wen; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) has been proposed as an experimental therapeutic approach to produce consistent sustained regulation of forebrain arousal for several neurological diseases. We investigated local field potentials (LFPs) induced by CT-DBS from the thalamic central lateral nuclei (CL) and the striatum as potential biomarkers for the enhancement of lever-pressing skill learning. LFPs were simultaneously recorded from multiple sites in the CL, ventral striatum (Vstr), and dorsal striatum (Dstr). LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed and compared between the CT-DBS and sham control groups. The theta and alpha LFP oscillations were significantly increased in the CL and striatum in the CT-DBS group. Furthermore, interhemispheric coherences between bilateral CL and striatum were increased in the theta band. Additionally, enhancement of c-Fos activity, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2), and α4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4-nAChR) occurred after CT-DBS treatment in the striatum and hippocampus. CT-DBS strengthened thalamic-striatal functional connectivity, which demonstrates that the inter-regional connectivity enhancement might contribute to synaptic plasticity in the striatum. Altered dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors resulted in modulation of striatal synaptic plasticity's ability to regulate downstream signaling cascades for higher brain functions of lever-pressing skill learning. PMID:26793069

  17. Reentrant Behavior in A Multi-connected Superconducting Jaynes-Cummings Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Seo, Kangjun

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting quantum devices have excellent connectivity, tunable coupling and long decoherence time as demonstrated by recent experiments. These devices provide a powerful platform for constructing analog quantum simulators to study novel many-body effects. Here we present a multi-connected Jaynes-Cummings lattice model, where the qubits and the resonators are connected alternatively. In a one-dimensional configuration, this model bears an intrinsic symmetry between the left and the right qubit-resonator couplings under a mirror reflection. Different from the coupled cavity array (CCA) model, the qubit-resonator couplings in this model induce both onsite Hubbard nonlinearity and hopping of the excitations along the lattice. By analyzing this model in the limiting cases of very different couplings, we show that this model demonstrates a Mott insulator-superfluid-Mott insulator transition at commensurate fillings with symmetric critical points. The reentry to the Mott insulator phase originates from the symmetry between the couplings. This work is supported by the NSF Award 0956064.

  18. How Much Anatomy Is Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Esther M.; Prince, Katinka J. A. H.; Drukker, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in undergraduate medical education, such as integration of disciplines and problem based learning, have given rise to concerns about students' knowledge of anatomy. This article originated from several studies investigating the knowledge of anatomy of students at the eight Dutch medical schools. The studies showed that undergraduate…

  19. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw and label…

  20. Different functional connectivity and network topology in behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meichen; Gouw, Alida A; Hillebrand, Arjan; Tijms, Betty M; Stam, Cornelis Jan; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether the functional connectivity and network topology in 69 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 48 behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients, and 64 individuals with subjective cognitive decline are different using resting-state electroencephalography recordings. Functional connectivity between all pairs of electroencephalography channels was assessed using the phase lag index (PLI). We subsequently calculated PLI-weighted networks, from which minimum spanning trees (MSTs) were constructed. Finally, we investigated the hierarchical clustering organization of the MSTs. Functional connectivity analysis showed frequency-dependent results: in the delta band, bvFTD showed highest whole-brain PLI; in the theta band, the whole-brain PLI in AD was higher than that in bvFTD; in the alpha band, AD showed lower whole-brain PLI compared with bvFTD and subjective cognitive decline. The MST results indicate that frontal networks appear to be selectively involved in bvFTD against the background of preserved global efficiency, whereas parietal and occipital loss of network organization in AD is accompanied by global efficiency loss. Our findings suggest different pathophysiological mechanisms in these 2 separate neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27143432

  1. The quail anatomy portal.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123). PMID:24715219

  2. Radiological sinonasal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Alrumaih, Redha A.; Ashoor, Mona M.; Obidan, Ahmed A.; Al-Khater, Khulood M.; Al-Jubran, Saeed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common radiological variants of sinonasal anatomy among Saudi population and compare it with the reported prevalence of these variants in other ethnic and population groups. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 121 computerized tomography scans of the nose and paranasal sinuses of patients presented with sinonasal symptoms to the Department of Otorhinolarngology, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between January 2014 and May 2014. Results: Scans of 121 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria were reviewed. Concha bullosa was found in 55.4%, Haller cell in 39.7%, and Onodi cell in 28.9%. Dehiscence of the internal carotid artery was found in 1.65%. Type-1 and type-2 optic nerve were the prevalent types. Type-II Keros classification of the depth of olfactory fossa was the most common among the sample (52.9%). Frontal cells were found in 79.3%; type I was the most common. Conclusions: There is a difference in the prevalence of some radiological variants of the sinonasal anatomy between Saudi population and other study groups. Surgeon must pay special attention in the preoperative assessment of patients with sinonasal pathology to avoid undesirable complications. PMID:27146614

  3. Functional Genetic Variation of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Cannabis Use Interact on Prefrontal Connectivity and Related Working Memory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

  4. Unlearning chronic pain: A randomized controlled trial to investigate changes in intrinsic brain connectivity following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shpaner, Marina; Kelly, Clare; Lieberman, Greg; Perelman, Hayley; Davis, Marcia; Keefe, Francis J.; Naylor, Magdalena R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a complex physiological and psychological phenomenon. Implicit learning mechanisms contribute to the development of chronic pain and to persistent changes in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that these central abnormalities can be remedied with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Specifically, since regions of the anterior Default Mode Network (DMN) are centrally involved in emotional regulation via connections with limbic regions, such as the amygdala, remediation of maladaptive behavioral and cognitive patterns as a result of CBT for chronic pain would manifest itself as a change in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between these prefrontal and limbic regions. Resting-state functional neuroimaging was performed in patients with chronic pain before and after 11-week CBT (n = 19), as well as a matched (ages 19–59, both sexes) active control group of patients who received educational materials (n = 19). Participants were randomized prior to the intervention. To investigate the differential impact of treatment on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), we compared pre–post differences in iFC between groups. In addition, we performed exploratory whole brain analyses of changes in fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). The course of CBT led to significant improvements in clinical measures of pain and self-efficacy for coping with chronic pain. Significant group differences in pre–post changes in both iFC and fALFF were correlated with clinical outcomes. Compared to control patients, iFC between the anterior DMN and the amygdala/periaqueductal gray decreased following CBT, whereas iFC between the basal ganglia network and the right secondary somatosensory cortex increased following CBT. CBT patients also had increased post-therapy fALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the cerebellum. By delineating neuroplasticity associated with CBT-related improvements, these results add to mounting evidence

  5. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Lam, Eileen; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional treatments for eating disorders are associated with poor response rates and frequent relapse. Novel treatments are needed, in combination with markers to characterize and predict treatment response. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to identify predictors and correlates of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at 10 Hz for eating disorders with refractory binge/purge symptomatology. Methods 28 subjects with anorexia nervosa, binge−purge subtype or bulimia nervosa underwent 20–30 sessions of 10 Hz dmPFC rTMS. rs-fMRI data were collected before and after rTMS. Subjects were stratified into responder and nonresponder groups using a criterion of ≥50% reduction in weekly binge/purge frequency. Neural predictors and correlates of response were identified using seed-based functional connectivity (FC), using the dmPFC and adjacent dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as regions of interest. Results 16 of 28 subjects met response criteria. Treatment responders had lower baseline FC from dmPFC to lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right posterior insula, and from dACC to right posterior insula and hippocampus. Responders had low baseline FC from the dACC to the ventral striatum and anterior insula; this connectivity increased over treatment. However, in nonresponders, frontostriatal FC was high at baseline, and dmPFC-rTMS suppressed FC in association with symptomatic worsening. Conclusions Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating. PMID:26199873

  6. On the buckling behavior of connected carbon nanotubes with parallel longitudinal axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani Yengejeh, Sadegh; Akbar Zadeh, Mojtaba; Öchsner, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    The application of hetero-junction carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is increasing continuously due to their outstanding properties in nano-mechanical systems. Several investigations have been conducted to study the behavior of CNTs. In this paper, straight hetero-junctions and their constituent CNTs (armchair and zigzag) were simulated by a commercial finite element package. Then, the buckling behavior of CNTs was evaluated by comparing the critical buckling load of each straight hetero-junction and its constituent CNTs. Both obtained, i.e. analytical calculations and computational, results were compared. The investigations showed that, first, the behavior of homogeneous CNTs under cantilevered boundary conditions follows the assumption of the classical Euler equation. Second, the analytical solutions are in good agreement with the finite element simulation results. In addition, it was shown that the first critical buckling load of hetero-junctions lies within the value of the fundamental homogeneous CNT range. It was also concluded that the buckling load of straight hetero-junctions and their fundamental CNTs increases by increasing the chiral number of both armchair and zigzag CNTs. The current study provides a better insight towards the prediction of straight hetero-junction CNTs behavior.

  7. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  8. Contribution of collagen and elastin fibers to the mechanical behavior of an abdominal connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Levillain, A; Orhant, M; Turquier, F; Hoc, T

    2016-08-01

    The linea alba is a complex structure commonly involved in hernia formation. Knowledge of its mechanical behavior is essential to design suitable meshes and reduce the risk of recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the mechanical properties of the linea alba and the organization of collagen and elastin fibers. For that purpose, longitudinal and transversal samples were removed from four porcine and three human linea alba, to perform tensile tests under a biphotonic confocal microscope, in each direction. Microscopic observation revealed a tissue composed of two layers, made of transversal collagen fibers in the dorsal side and oblique collagen fibers in the ventral side. This particular architecture led to an anisotropic mechanical behavior, with higher stress in the transversal direction. During loading, oblique fibers of the ventral layer reoriented toward the tensile axis in both directions, while fibers of the dorsal layer remained in the transversal direction. This rotation of oblique fibers progressively increased the stiffness of the tissue and induced a non-linear stress-stretch relation. Elastin fibers formed a layer covering the collagen fibers and followed their movement, suggesting that they ensure their elastic recoil. All of these results demonstrated the strong relationships between the microstructure and the mechanical behavior of the linea alba. PMID:27100469

  9. Connecting the Rheological Behavior of Clathrate Hydrate Slurries to Flow Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geri, Michela; Venkatesan, Rama; McKinley, Gareth; MIT Team; Chevron ETC Team

    2014-11-01

    Clathrate hydrates represent a major flow assurance issue for deep water drilling operations. To develop a proper constitutive model, an extensive set of rheological measurements has been performed on a model hydrate forming emulsion. Upon hydrate formation a sharp increase in the fluid viscosity is observed (by a factor of 100 to 1000). Steady shear measurements show that the hydrate slurry has a shear thinning behavior as well as a yield stress on the order of 1-10 Pa which increases with aging of the fluid. Thixotropy becomes evident as a hysteretic behavior in the flow curve, even when no rheological aging has occurred. Creep tests also reveal that the fluid microstructure accumulates back stress. Oscillatory measurements show that in the linear viscoelastic region hydrate slurries develop viscoelastic gel-like behavior with the elastic modulus exceeding the viscous modulus. These characteristics guide the development of an elastoviscoplastic constitutive model that can capture the salient dynamic features in simple unidirectional flows (e.g. steady or transient Poiseuille) such as apparent wall slip, plug flow or excessive pressure drop in start-up flow.

  10. Modeling and cyclic behavior of segmental bridge column connected with shape memory alloy bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hwasung; Reinhorn, Andrei M.; Lee, Jong Seh

    2012-09-01

    This paper examines the quasi-static cyclic behavior, lateral strength and equivalent damping capacities of a system of post-tensioned segmental bridge columns tied with large diameter martensitic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) link-bars. Moment-curvature constitutive relationships are formulated and analysis tools are developed for the PT column, including a modified four-spring model prepared for the SMA bars. The suggested system is exemplified using a column with an aspect ratio of 7.5 and twelve 36.5 mm diameter NiTi martensitic SMA bars. A post-tensioning force of 40% to 60% of the tendon yield strength is applied in order to obtain a self re-centering system, considering the residual stress of the martensitic SMA bars. The cyclic response results show that the lateral strength remains consistently around 10% of the total vertical load and the equivalent viscous damping ratios reach 10%-12% of critical. When large diameter NiTi superelastic SMA bars are incorporated into the column system, the cyclic response varies substantially. The creep behavior of the superelastic SMA bar is accounted for since it affects the re-centering capability of the column. Two examples are presented to emphasize the modeling sensitivities for these special bars and quantify their cyclic behavior effects within the column assembly.

  11. Capillary and anchoring effects in thin hybrid nematic films and connection with bulk behavior.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, D; Mederos, Luis; Velasco, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    By means of a molecular model, we examine hybrid nematic films with antagonistic anchoring angles where one of the surfaces is in the strong anchoring regime. If anchoring at the other surface is weak, and in the absence of wetting by the isotropic phase, the anchoring transition may interact with the capillary isotropic-nematic transition. For general anchoring conditions on this surface we confirm the existence of the steplike biaxial phase and the associated transition to the linear constant-tilt-rotation, configuration. The steplike phase is connected with the bulk isotropic phase for increasing film thickness so that the latter transition is to be interpreted as the capillary isotropic-nematic transition in a hybrid film. PMID:19257057

  12. The Relationship between Frontotemporal Effective Connectivity during Picture Naming, Behavior, and Preserved Cortical Tissue in Chronic Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Erin L; Kapse, Kushal J; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    While several studies of task-based effective connectivity of normal language processing exist, little is known about the functional reorganization of language networks in patients with stroke-induced chronic aphasia. During oral picture naming, activation in neurologically intact individuals is found in "classic" language regions involved with retrieval of lexical concepts [e.g., left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG)], word form encoding [e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, (LpSTG)], and controlled retrieval of semantic and phonological information [e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)] as well as domain-general regions within the multiple demands network [e.g., left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG)]. After stroke, lesions to specific parts of the left hemisphere language network force reorganization of this system. While individuals with aphasia have been found to recruit similar regions for language tasks as healthy controls, the relationship between the dynamic functioning of the language network and individual differences in underlying neural structure and behavioral performance is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate differences between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls in terms of task-induced regional interactions between three regions (i.e., LIFG, LMFG, and LMTG) vital for picture naming. The DCM model space was organized according to exogenous input to these regions and partitioned into separate families. At the model level, random effects family wise Bayesian Model Selection revealed that models with driving input to LIFG best fit the control data whereas models with driving input to LMFG best fit the patient data. At the parameter level, a significant between-group difference in the connection strength from LMTG to LIFG was seen. Within the patient group, several significant relationships between network connectivity parameters, spared cortical tissue, and behavior were

  13. The Relationship between Frontotemporal Effective Connectivity during Picture Naming, Behavior, and Preserved Cortical Tissue in Chronic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Erin L.; Kapse, Kushal J.; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    While several studies of task-based effective connectivity of normal language processing exist, little is known about the functional reorganization of language networks in patients with stroke-induced chronic aphasia. During oral picture naming, activation in neurologically intact individuals is found in “classic” language regions involved with retrieval of lexical concepts [e.g., left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG)], word form encoding [e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, (LpSTG)], and controlled retrieval of semantic and phonological information [e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)] as well as domain-general regions within the multiple demands network [e.g., left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG)]. After stroke, lesions to specific parts of the left hemisphere language network force reorganization of this system. While individuals with aphasia have been found to recruit similar regions for language tasks as healthy controls, the relationship between the dynamic functioning of the language network and individual differences in underlying neural structure and behavioral performance is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate differences between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls in terms of task-induced regional interactions between three regions (i.e., LIFG, LMFG, and LMTG) vital for picture naming. The DCM model space was organized according to exogenous input to these regions and partitioned into separate families. At the model level, random effects family wise Bayesian Model Selection revealed that models with driving input to LIFG best fit the control data whereas models with driving input to LMFG best fit the patient data. At the parameter level, a significant between-group difference in the connection strength from LMTG to LIFG was seen. Within the patient group, several significant relationships between network connectivity parameters, spared cortical tissue, and behavior were

  14. Pleura space anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; Youroukou, Andrianna; Lazaridis, George; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Sarika, Eirini; Kapanidis, Konstantinos; Sakkas, Leonidas; Korantzis, Ipokratis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The pleural cavity is the potential space between the two pleurae (visceral and parietal) of the lungs. The pleurae are serous membranes which fold back onto themselves to form a two-layered membranous structure. The thin space between the two pleural layers is known as the pleural cavity and normally contains a small amount of pleural fluid. There are two layers; the outer pleura (parietal pleura) is attached to the chest wall and the inner pleura (visceral pleura) covers the lungs and adjoining structures, via blood vessels, bronchi and nerves. The parietal pleurae are highly sensitive to pain, while the visceral pleura are not, due to its lack of sensory innervation. In the current review we will present the anatomy of the pleural space. PMID:25774304

  15. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  16. A three-level non-deterministic modeling methodology for the NVH behavior of rubber connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenti, A.; Moens, D.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-03-01

    Complex built-up structures such as vehicles have a variety of joint types, such as spot-welds, bolted joints, rubber joints, etc. Rubber joints highly contribute to the nonlinear level of the structure and are a major source of uncertainties and variability. In the general framework of developing engineering tools for virtual prototyping and product refinement, the modeling of the NVH behavior of rubber joints involve the computational burden of including a detailed nonlinear model of the joint and the uncertainties and variability typical of that joint in a full-scale system model. However, in an engineering design phase the knowledge on the joint rubber material properties is typically poor, and the working conditions a rubber joint will experience are generally not known in detail. This lack of knowledge often do not justify the computational burden and the modeling effort of including detailed nonlinear models of the joint in a full-scale system model. Driven by these issues a non-deterministic numerical methodology based on a three-level modeling approach is being developed. The methodology aims at evaluating directly in the frequency domain the sensitivity of the NVH behavior of a full-scale system model to the rubber joint material properties when nonlinear visco-elastic rubber material behavior is considered. Rather than including directly in the model a representation of the rubber nonlinear visco-elastic behavior, the methodology proposes to model the material nonlinear visco-elastic behavior by using a linear visco-elastic material model defined in an interval sense, from which the scatter on the full-scale system NVH response is evaluated. Furthermore the development of a multi-level solution scheme allows to reduce the computational burden introduced by the non-deterministic approach by allowing the definition of an equivalent linear interval parametric rubber joint model, ready to be assembled in a full-scale system model at a reasonable

  17. Can Text Messages Increase Empathy and Prosocial Behavior? The Development and Initial Validation of Text to Connect.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Sara; Falk, Emily; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Liu, Mary; Swain, James; Tolman, Richard; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    To what extent can simple mental exercises cause shifts in empathic habits? Can we use mobile technology to make people more empathic? It may depend on how empathy is measured. Scholars have identified a number of different facets and correlates of empathy. This study is among the first to take a comprehensive, multidimensional approach to empathy to determine how empathy training could affect these different facets and correlates. In doing so, we can learn more about empathy and its multifaceted nature. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to receive either an empathy-building text message program (Text to Connect) or one of two control conditions (active versus passive). Respondents completed measures of dispositional empathy (i.e. self-perceptions of being an empathic person), affective empathy (i.e. motivations to help, immediate feelings of empathic concern), and prosocial behavior (i.e. self-reports and observer-reports) at baseline, and then again after the 14 day intervention period. We found that empathy-building messages increased affective indicators of empathy and prosocial behaviors, but actually decreased self-perceptions of empathy, relative to control messages. Although the brief text messaging intervention did not consistently impact empathy-related personality traits, it holds promise for the use of mobile technology for changing empathic motivations and behaviors. PMID:26356504

  18. Can Text Messages Increase Empathy and Prosocial Behavior? The Development and Initial Validation of Text to Connect

    PubMed Central

    Konrath, Sara; Falk, Emily; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Liu, Mary; Swain, James; Tolman, Richard; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    To what extent can simple mental exercises cause shifts in empathic habits? Can we use mobile technology to make people more empathic? It may depend on how empathy is measured. Scholars have identified a number of different facets and correlates of empathy. This study is among the first to take a comprehensive, multidimensional approach to empathy to determine how empathy training could affect these different facets and correlates. In doing so, we can learn more about empathy and its multifaceted nature. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to receive either an empathy-building text message program (Text to Connect) or one of two control conditions (active versus passive). Respondents completed measures of dispositional empathy (i.e. self-perceptions of being an empathic person), affective empathy (i.e. motivations to help, immediate feelings of empathic concern), and prosocial behavior (i.e. self-reports and observer-reports) at baseline, and then again after the 14 day intervention period. We found that empathy-building messages increased affective indicators of empathy and prosocial behaviors, but actually decreased self-perceptions of empathy, relative to control messages. Although the brief text messaging intervention did not consistently impact empathy-related personality traits, it holds promise for the use of mobile technology for changing empathic motivations and behaviors. PMID:26356504

  19. [Surgery without anatomy?].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, F

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is the basis of all operative medicine. While this branch of scientific medicine is frequently not explicitly mentioned in surgical publications, it is nonetheless quintessential to medical education. In the era of video sequences and digitized images, surgical methods are frequently communicated in the form of cinematic documentation of surgical procedures; however, this occurs without the help of explanatory drawings or subtexts that would illustrate the underlying anatomical nomenclature, comment on fine functionally important details or even without making any mention of the surgeon. In scientific manuscripts color illustrations frequently appear in such overwhelming quantities that they resemble long arrays of trophies but fail to give detailed explanations that would aid the therapeutic translation of the novel datasets. In a similar fashion, many anatomy textbooks prefer to place emphasis on illustrations and photographs while supplying only a paucity of explanations that would foster the understanding of functional contexts and thus confuse students and practitioners alike. There is great temptation to repeat existing data and facts over and over again, while it is proportionally rare to make reference to truly original scientific discoveries. A number of examples are given in this article to illustrate how discoveries that were made even a long time ago can still contribute to scientific progress in current times. This includes the NO signaling molecules, which were first described in 1775 but were only discovered to have a pivotal role as neurotransmitters in the function of human paradoxical sphincter muscles in 2012 and 2015. Readers of scientific manuscripts often long for explanations by the numerous silent coauthors of a publication who could contribute to the main topic by adding in-depth illustrations (e. g. malignograms, evolution and involution of lymph node structures). PMID:27251482

  20. Carpal Ligament Anatomy and Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Pulos, Nicholas; Bozentka, David J

    2015-08-01

    A fundamental understanding of the ligamentous anatomy of the wrist is critical for any physician attempting to treat carpal instability. The anatomy of the wrist is complex, not only because of the number of named structures and their geometry but also because of the inconsistencies in describing these ligaments. The complex anatomy of the wrist is described through a review of the carpal ligaments and their effect on normal carpal motion. Mastery of this topic facilitates the physician's understanding of the patterns of instability that are seen clinically. PMID:26205699

  1. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  2. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  3. Connecting prosocial behavior to improved physical health: Contributions from the neurobiology of parenting.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie L; Brown, R Michael

    2015-08-01

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that giving to (helping) others is linked reliably to better health and longevity for the helper, little is known about causal mechanisms. In the present paper we use a recently developed model of caregiving motivation to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms. The model describes a mammalian neurohormonal system that evolved to regulate maternal care, but over time may have been recruited to support a wide variety of helping behaviors in humans and other social animals. According to the model, perception of need or distress in others activates caregiving motivation, which in turn, can facilitate helping behavior. Motivational regulation is governed by the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, interacting with certain other brain regions, hormones, and neuromodulators (especially oxytocin and progesterone). Consideration of neurohormonal circuitry and related evidence raises the possibility that it is these hormones, known to have stress-buffering and restorative properties, that are responsible, at least in part, for health and longevity benefits associated with helping others. PMID:25907371

  4. Structural white-matter connections mediating distinct behavioral components of spatial neglect in right brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Maarten J; Saj, Arnaud; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Gschwind, Markus; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-04-01

    Spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome in which patients fail to perceive and orient to stimuli located in the space contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere. It is characterized by a wide heterogeneity in clinical symptoms which can be grouped into distinct behavioral components correlating with different lesion sites. Moreover, damage to white-matter (WM) fiber tracts has been suggested to disconnect brain networks that mediate different functions associated with spatial cognition and attention. However, it remains unclear what WM pathways are associated with functionally dissociable neglect components. In this study we examined nine patients with a focal right hemisphere stroke using a series of neuropsychological tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to disentangle the role of specific WM pathways in neglect symptoms. First, following previous work, the behavioral test scores of patients were factorized into three independent components reflecting perceptual, exploratory, and object-centered deficits in spatial awareness. We then examined the structural neural substrates of these components by correlating indices of WM integrity (fractional anisotropy) with the severity of deficits along each profile. Several locations in the right parietal and frontal WM correlated with neuropsychological scores. Fiber tracts projecting from these locations indicated that posterior parts of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as nearby callosal fibers connecting ipsilateral and contralateral parietal areas, were associated with perceptual spatial deficits, whereas more anterior parts of SLF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were predominantly associated with object-centered deficits. In addition, connections between frontal areas and superior colliculus were found to be associated with the exploratory deficits. Our results provide novel support to the view that neglect may result from disconnection lesions in distributed

  5. Anatomy External [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Anatomy External" is concerned with the dissection of the fetal pig, and is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by the teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of five units of study, and 13 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered…

  6. Groundwater-surface water interactions: the behavior of a small lake connected to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between lakes and groundwater have been under concern in recent years and are still not well understood. Exchange rates are both spatially and temporally highly variable and are generally underestimated. However these interactions are of utmost importance for water resource management and need to be better understood since (i) the hydrogeological and geochemical equilibria within the lake drive the evolution of lakes' ecology and quality, and (ii) groundwater inflow, even in low rate, can be a key element in both the lake nutrient balance (and therefore in lake's eutrophication) and vulnerability to pollution. In many studies two main geochemical tracers, i.e. water stable isotopes and radon-222, are used to determine these interactions. However there are still many uncertainties on their time and space variations and their reliability to determine the lake budget. Therefore, a lake connected to groundwater on a small catchment was chosen to quantify groundwater fluxes change over time and the related influences on the lake's water geochemistry. Through analyse in time and space of both tracers and a precise instrumentation of the lake, their variations linked to groundwater inflows are determined. The results show that each tracer provides additional information for the lake budget with the interest to well determine the information given by each measurement: the radon-222 gives information on the groundwater inflows at a point in space and time while water stable isotopes highlight the dominant parameters of the yearly lake budget. The variation in groundwater inflows allow us to discuss lake's evolution regarding climate and environmental changes.

  7. Dynamic vibration cooperates with connective tissue growth factor to modulate stem cell behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhixiang; Zerdoum, Aidan B; Duncan, Randall L; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-07-01

    Vocal fold disorders affect 3-9% of the U.S. population. Tissue engineering offers an alternative strategy for vocal fold repair. Successful engineering of vocal fold tissues requires a strategic combination of therapeutic cells, biomimetic scaffolds, and physiologically relevant mechanical and biochemical factors. Specifically, we aim to create a vocal fold-like microenvironment to coax stem cells to adopt the phenotype of vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). Herein, high frequency vibratory stimulations and soluble connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequentially introduced to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on a poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)-derived microfibrous scaffold for a total of 6 days. The initial 3-day vibratory culture resulted in an increased production of hyaluronic acids (HA), tenascin-C (TNC), decorin (DCN), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). The subsequent 3-day CTGF treatment further enhanced the cellular production of TNC and DCN, whereas CTGF treatment alone without the vibratory preconditioning significantly promoted the synthesis of collagen I (Col 1) and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). The highest level of MMP1, TNC, Col III, and DCN production was found for cells being exposed to the combined vibration and CTGF treatment. Noteworthy, the vibration and CTGF elicited a differential stimulatory effect on elastin (ELN), HA synthase 1 (HAS1), and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1). The mitogenic activity of CTGF was only elicited in naïve cells without the vibratory preconditioning. The combined treatment had profound, but opposite effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, Erk1/2 and p38, and the Erk1/2 pathway was critical for the observed mechano-biochemical responses. Collectively, vibratory stresses and CTGF signals cooperatively coaxed MSCs toward a VFF-like phenotype and accelerated the synthesis and remodeling of vocal fold matrices. PMID:24456068

  8. Surgical Anatomy of the Eyelids.

    PubMed

    Sand, Jordan P; Zhu, Bovey Z; Desai, Shaun C

    2016-05-01

    Slight alterations in the intricate anatomy of the upper and lower eyelid or their underlying structures can have pronounced consequences for ocular esthetics and function. The understanding of periorbital structures and their interrelationships continues to evolve and requires consideration when performing complex eyelid interventions. Maintaining a detailed appreciation of this region is critical to successful cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. This article presents a current review of the anatomy of the upper and lower eyelid with a focus on surgical implications. PMID:27105794

  9. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Ornamental Fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Sweeney, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Ornamental fish represent the largest and most diverse group of exotic animals kept as pets. The specific oral anatomy of each family or selected species has evolved to suit the natural environment, feeding behaviors, food or prey type, and location of the food/prey in the water column. The anatomy can change over the life of the animal, from fry to adult. The oral cavity of fish is susceptible to many problems including infectious and parasitic diseases, trauma, and neoplasia. Diagnosis may involve wet mount preparations of exfoliative cytology from the lesion, histopathology, and bacterial or fungal culture. PMID:27497201

  10. Cortical thinning, functional connectivity, and mood-related impulsivity in schizophrenia: relations to aggressive attitudes and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Antonius, Daniel; Mauro, Cristina J.; Parker, Emily M.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aggression in schizophrenia is a major societal issue, leading to physical harm, stigmatization, patient distress, and higher healthcare costs. Impulsivity is associated with aggression in schizophrenia, but it is multidetermined. The subconstruct of urgency is likely to play an important role in this aggression, with positive urgency referring to rash action in context of positive emotion, and negative urgency to rash action in context of negative emotion. Method We examined urgency and its neural correlates in 33 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 31 healthy controls. Urgency was measured using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking scale. Aggressive attitudes were measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results Positive urgency, negative urgency, and aggressive attitudes were significantly and selectively elevated in patients (1.21< Cohen’s ds < 1.50). Positive and negative urgency significantly correlated with Aggression Questionnaire total score (rs>.48) and each uniquely accounted for a significant portion of the variance in aggression over and above the effect of group. Urgency measures correlated with reduced cortical thickness in ventral prefrontal regions including right frontal pole, medial and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyri, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, reduced resting state functional connectivity in some of these regions was associated with higher urgency. Conclusions Findings highlight the key role of urgency in aggressive attitudes in people with schizophrenia and suggest neural substrates of these behaviors. They also suggest behavioral and neural targets for interventions to remediate urgency and aggression. PMID:25073506

  11. The Connection Between Local Icosahedral Order in Metallic Liquids and the Nucleation Behavior of Ordered Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.

    2003-01-01

    Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si[3], for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron x-ray and high flux neutron facilities, this is shown here.

  12. Self-esteem and resilience: the connection with risky behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and answered questions about cigarette and cannabis use. Logistic regression models showed associations between negative self-esteem and risky behavior, but only among boys. Regarding resilience, structured style and family cohesion were associated with a lower probability of smoking and cannabis use among both boys and girls. In contrast, social competence increased the probability of smoking and cannabis use among both groups. Negative self-esteem seems to play an important role regarding smoking and cannabis use among boys. Resilience seems to have mixed effects, some aspects being protective while other aspects increase the likelihood of smoking and use of cannabis. These results imply that the prevention of substance use should target not only specific individual characteristics, but also the possible risk or protective influences of the social environment, i.e. the family and social network. PMID:19056183

  13. Functional anatomy of scent glands in Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Opiliones, Dyspnoi, Nemastomatidae).

    PubMed

    Schaider, Miriam; Komposch, Christian; Stabentheiner, Edith; Raspotnig, Günther

    2011-10-01

    The morphological organization and functional anatomy of prosomal defensive (scent) glands in Paranemastoma quadripunctatum, a representative of the dyspnoid harvestmen, was investigated by means of histological semithin sections, software-based 3D-reconstruction and scanning electron microscopy. Scent glands comprise large, hollow sacs on either side of the prosoma, each of these opening to the outside via one orifice (ozopore) immediately above coxa I. In contrast to the situation known from laniatorean, cyphophthalmid and some eupnoid Opiliones, ozopores are not exposed but hidden in a depression (atrium), formed by a dorsal integumental fold of the carapace and the dorsal parts of coxae I. Glandular sacs are connected to ozopores via a short duct which is equipped with a specific closing mechanism in its distal part: A layer of modified epidermal cells forms a kind of pad-like tissue, surrounding the duct like a valve. Several muscles attached to the anterior parts of the glandular reservoir and to the epithelial pad may be associated with ozopore-opening. The actual mechanism of secretion discharge seems to be highly unusual and may be hypothesized on the basis of corroborating data from behavioral observations, scent gland anatomy and secretion chemistry as follows: Enteric fluid is considered to be directed towards the ozopores via cuticular grooves in the surface of the coxapophyses of legs I. Then, the fluid is sucked into the anterior part of the scent gland reservoirs by the action of dorsal dilator muscles that widen the reservoir and produce a short-term negative pressure. After dilution/solution of the naphthoquinone-rich scent gland contents, a secretion-loaded fluid is thought to be discharged with the help of transversal compressor muscles. This is the first detailed study on the functional anatomy of scent glands and the mechanisms of secretion discharge in the Dyspnoi. PMID:21618269

  14. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  15. Anatomy of trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios

    2016-07-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second most common aneuploidy after trisomy 21. Due to its multi-systemic defects, it has a poor prognosis with a 50% chance of survival beyond one week and a <10% chance of survival beyond one year of life. However, this prognosis has been challenged by the introduction of aggressive interventional therapies for patients born with trisomy 18. As a result, a review of the anatomy associated with this defect is imperative. While any of the systems can be affected by trisomy 18, the following areas are the most likely to be affected: craniofacial, musculoskeletal system, cardiac system, abdominal, and nervous system. More specifically, the following features are considered characteristic of trisomy 18: low-set ears, rocker bottom feet, clenched fists, and ventricular septal defect. Of particular interest is the associated cardiac defect, as surgical repairs of these defects have shown an improved survivability. In this article, the anatomical defects associated with each system are reviewed. Clin. Anat. 29:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27087248

  16. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in aqueous solutions and porous media: Connecting experimentation to probabilistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have enhanced products and services in the fields of medicine, energy, engineering, communications, personal care, environmental treatment, and many others. The increased use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products will lead to these materials in natural systems, inevitably becoming a potential source of pollution. The study of the stability and mobility of these materials is fundamental to understand their behavior in natural systems and predict possible health and environmental implications. In addition, the use of probabilistic methods such as sensitivity analysis applied to the parameters controlling their behavior is useful in providing support in performing a risk assessment. This research investigated the stability and mobility of two types of metal oxide nanoparticles (aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide). The stability studies tested the effect of sand, pH 4, 7, and 10, and the NaCl in concentrations of 10mM, 25mM, 50mM, and 75mM. The mobility was tested using saturated quartz sand columns and nanoparticles suspension at pH 4 and 7 and in the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 in concentrations of 0.1mM, 1mM, and 10mM. Additionally, this work performed a sensitivity analysis of physical parameters used in mobility experiment performed for titanium dioxide and in mobility experiments taken from the literature for zero valent iron nanoparticles and fluorescent colloids to determine their effect on the value C/Co of by applying qualitative and quantitative methods. The results from the stability studies showed that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) could remain suspended in solution for up to seven days at pH 10 and pH 7 even after settling of the sand; while for pH 4 solutions titanium settled along with the sand and after seven days no particles were observed in suspension. Other stability studies showed that nanoparticle aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) size increased with increasing ionic strength (10 to 75

  17. The Anatomy of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Sitara; Schwartzenberg, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Fleeting electrochemical connections made between brain cells help people remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make them unique. Presents the dissection of the brain of a sheep, an animal in which brain structure and function are similar to that in humans, to demonstrate where these processes take place. (PVD)

  18. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  19. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-01

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26669269

  20. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. PMID:23650274

  1. Theory of Mind and the Whole Brain Functional Connectivity: Behavioral and Neural Evidences with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca; Costantini, Isa; Dipasquale, Ottavia; Savazzi, Federica; Nemni, Raffaello; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Tagliabue, Semira; Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    A topic of common interest to psychologists and philosophers is the spontaneous flow of thoughts when the individual is awake but not involved in cognitive demands. This argument, classically referred to as the “stream of consciousness” of James, is now known in the psychological literature as “Mind-Wandering.” Although of great interest, this construct has been scarcely investigated so far. Diaz et al. (2013) created the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire (ARSQ), composed of 27 items, distributed in seven factors: discontinuity of mind, theory of mind (ToM), self, planning, sleepiness, comfort, and somatic awareness. The present study aims at: testing psychometric properties of the ARSQ in a sample of 670 Italian subjects; exploring the neural correlates of a subsample of participants (N = 28) divided into two groups on the basis of the scores obtained in the ToM factor. Results show a satisfactory reliability of the original factional structure in the Italian sample. In the subjects with a high mean in the ToM factor compared to low mean subjects, functional MRI revealed: a network (48 nodes) with higher functional connectivity (FC) with a dominance of the left hemisphere; an increased within-lobe FC in frontal and insular lobes. In both neural and behavioral terms, our results support the idea that the mind, which does not rest even when explicitly asked to do so, has various and interesting mentalistic-like contents. PMID:26696924

  2. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  3. Anatomy 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy: A Functional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Robert M.

    An introductory human anatomy course designed to provide the basic understanding of human structure necessary for further study in allied health and related fields is described. First, a general course description provides an overview; discusses the courses' place within the science curriculum, noting that it does not meet the general education…

  4. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  5. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  6. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 – PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function. PMID:26925223

  7. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 - PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function. PMID:26925223

  8. Connecting Biology & Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, James E. K.

    2005-01-01

    Dr. James E.K. Hildreth is a prominent HIV/AIDS researcher. He has just been the director of Meharry Medical College's new Comprehensive Center for Health Disparities Research in HIV since July, and he is already feeling a sense of accomplishment. Hildreth says he's happy to be at Meharry, an institution with a storied tradition of producing many…

  9. On the Anatomy of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Josephson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi-structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was…

  10. Anatomy of Hepatic Resectional Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael C; D'Angelica, Michael I

    2016-04-01

    Liver anatomy can be variable, and understanding of anatomic variations is crucial to performing hepatic resections, particularly parenchymal-sparing resections. Anatomic knowledge is a critical prerequisite for effective hepatic resection with minimal blood loss, parenchymal preservation, and optimal oncologic outcome. Each anatomic resection has pitfalls, about which the operating surgeon should be aware and comfortable managing intraoperatively. PMID:27017858

  11. Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Glenn C.; Chopp, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Movements of the human shoulder represent the result of a complex dynamic interplay of structural bony anatomy and biomechanics, static ligamentous and tendinous restraints, and dynamic muscle forces. Injury to 1 or more of these components through overuse or acute trauma disrupts this complex interrelationship and places the shoulder at increased risk. A thorough understanding of the functional anatomy of the shoulder provides the clinician with a foundation for caring for athletes with shoulder injuries. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE for the years 1980 to 1999, using the key words “shoulder,” “anatomy,” “glenohumeral joint,” “acromioclavicular joint,” “sternoclavicular joint,” “scapulothoracic joint,” and “rotator cuff.” Data Synthesis: We examine human shoulder movement by breaking it down into its structural static and dynamic components. Bony anatomy, including the humerus, scapula, and clavicle, is described, along with the associated articulations, providing the clinician with the structural foundation for understanding how the static ligamentous and dynamic muscle forces exert their effects. Commonly encountered athletic injuries are discussed from an anatomical standpoint. Conclusions/Recommendations: Shoulder injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries seen by the medical provider. A functional understanding of the dynamic interplay of biomechanical forces around the shoulder girdle is necessary and allows for a more structured approach to the treatment of an athlete with a shoulder injury. PMID:16558636

  12. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  13. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    PubMed Central

    Vithoosan, S.; Kokulan, S.; Dissanayake, M. M.; Dissanayake, Vajira; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n = 77, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n = 82, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better. PMID:27579181

  14. Anatomy of a Bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  15. Anatomy of a disruption in MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.; Casper, T.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.; Oasa, K.; Rice, B.W.; Wood, R.D.

    1990-10-15

    Disruptions are observed in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment, MTX (nee Alcator C), over a wide range of plasma parameters. Indeed, disruptions often occur far from the boundaries of the operating space as defined by Hugill and l{sub i}-q plots. Despite this, the general behavior during the disruptive process is generally similar whatever the operating parameters. This report will describe one disruption in detail in order to provide a detailed anatomy of the event.

  16. Anatomy adventure: a board game for enhancing understanding of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Emeka G

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy Adventure, a board game on anatomy was designed to reduce some of these pressures, emphasize student centered and collaborative learning styles, and add fun to the process of learning while promoting understanding and retention of the subject. To assess these objectives, 95 out of over 150 medical and dental students who expressed willingness to be part of the study were recruited and divided into a Game group and a Non-game group. A pretest written examination was given to both groups, participants in the Game group were allowed to play the game for ten days, after which a post-test examination was also given. A 20-item questionnaire rated on a three-point scale to access student's perception of the game was given to the game group. The post-test scores of the game group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the non-game counterparts. Also the post-test score of the game based group was significantly better (P < 0.05) than their pretest. The students in their feedback noted in very high proportions that the game was interesting, highly informative, encouraged team work, improved their attitude, and perception to gross anatomy. PMID:23878076

  17. The anatomy of absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut; Røgeberg, Ole J; Gaure, Simen

    2011-03-01

    Based on comprehensive administrative register data from Norway, we examine the determinants of sickness absence behavior; in terms of employee characteristics, workplace characteristics, panel doctor characteristics, and economic conditions. The analysis is based on a novel concept of a worker's steady state sickness absence propensity, computed from a multivariate hazard rate model designed to predict the incidence and duration of sickness absence for all workers. Key conclusions are that (i) most of the cross-sectional variation in absenteeism is caused by genuine employee heterogeneity; (ii) the identity of a person's panel doctor has a significant impact on absence propensity; (iii) sickness absence insurance is frequently certified for reasons other than sickness; and (iv) the recovery rate rises enormously just prior to the exhaustion of sickness insurance benefits. PMID:21247647

  18. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots. PMID:26098511

  19. Communication of brain network core connections altered in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia but possibly preserved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Mendez, Mario F.; Bartzokis, George; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion imaging and brain connectivity analyses can assess white matter deterioration in the brain, revealing the underlying patterns of how brain structure declines. Fiber tractography methods can infer neural pathways and connectivity patterns, yielding sensitive mathematical metrics of network integrity. Here, we analyzed 1.5-Tesla wholebrain diffusion-weighted images from 64 participants - 15 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 19 with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), and 30 healthy elderly controls. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We evaluated the brain's networks focusing on the most highly central and connected regions, also known as hubs, in each diagnostic group - specifically the "high-cost" structural backbone used in global and regional communication. The high-cost backbone of the brain, predicted by fiber density and minimally short pathways between brain regions, accounted for 81-92% of the overall brain communication metric in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found that the set of pathways interconnecting high-cost and high-capacity regions of the brain's communication network are globally and regionally altered in bvFTD, compared to healthy participants; however, the overall organization of the high-cost and high-capacity networks were relatively preserved in EOAD participants, relative to controls. Disruption of the major central hubs that transfer information between brain regions may impair neural communication and functional integrity in characteristic ways typical of each subtype of dementia.

  20. Stimulus-driven changes in sensorimotor behavior and neuronal functional connectivity application to brain-machine interfaces and neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rebesco, James M; Miller, Lee E

    2011-01-01

    Normal brain function requires constant adaptation as an organism interacts with the environment and learns to associate important sensory stimuli with appropriate motor actions. Neurological disorders may disrupt these learned associations, potentially requiring new functional pathways to be formed to replace the lost function. As a consequence, neural plasticity is a critical aspect of both normal brain function as well as the response to neurological injury. A brain-machine interface (BMI) represents a unique adaptive challenge to the nervous system. Efferent BMIs have been developed, which harness signals recorded from a tiny proportion of the motor cortex (M1) to effect control of an external device. There is also interest in the development of an afferent BMI that would supply information directly to the brain (e.g., the somatosensory cortex-S1) via electrical stimulation. If a bidirectional BMI that combined these interfaces were to be successful, new functional pathways would be necessary between the artificial inputs and outputs. Indeed, stimulation of S1 that is contingent upon the consequences of motor command signals recorded from M1 might form the basis for artificial Hebbian associations not unlike those driving learning in the normal brain. In this chapter, we review recent developments in both efferent and afferent BMIs, as well as experimental attempts to understand and mimic the Hebbian processes that give rise to plastic changes within the cortex. We have used a rat model to develop the computational and experimental tools necessary to describe changes in the way small networks of sensorimotor neurons interact and process information. We show that by repetitively pairing the recorded spikes of one neuron with electrical stimulation of another or by repetitively pairing electrical stimulation of two neurons, we can strengthen the inferred functional connection between the pair of neurons. We have also used the dual-stimulation protocol to enhance

  1. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty. PMID:25159815

  2. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  3. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

  4. Anxiety in first year medical students taking gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Cartmill, Matt; Reiter, Jerry; Spaulding, Jean; Haviland, James; Valea, Fidel; Thibodeau, Patricia L; McCorison, Stacey; Halperin, Edward C

    2014-09-01

    To study anxiety levels in first-year medical students taking gross anatomy. Thirty medical students per year, for 2 years, completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) 10 times during a 13-week gross anatomy course. In addition, behavioral observations were made by a psychiatrist during gross anatomy for demonstrations of assertive, destructive, neutral, or passive behavior. Additional qualitative outcome measures were group exit interviews with the faculty and students. The mean BAI for all 60 students per year, for 2 years, was 2.19 ± 3.76, 93% of the scores indicated minimal anxiety, and 89% of BAI values were less than five which confirmed a minimal level of anxiety. The low level of reported BAI contrasted sharply with verbal reports by the same students and face-to-face exit interviews with the psychiatrist. Symptoms of stress and anxiety emerged as a result of these conversations. The high levels of subjective stress and anxiety revealed by the interviews were unknown to the gross anatomy faculty. The low scores of students on the BAI's stand in sharp contrast to the BAI's reported for medical students in other published reports. Although it is possible that our students were truthfully devoid of anxiety, it is more likely that our students were denying even minimal anxiety levels. There have been reports that medical students feel that admitting stress, depression, or anxiety put their competitiveness for a residency at risk. We conclude that students may be in frank denial of experiencing anxiety and, if so, this behavior is not conducive to good mental health. PMID:24740887

  5. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  6. Connecting with Different Audiences: The Anatomy of Communication is Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, communication has become truly global. Advances in technology have opened up a host of ways in which we are able to communicate to retrieve or pass on information and knowledge. In many cases we have moved from a place-based communication approach to one of increasing mobility. With this shift in approach, it is…

  7. Determination of the Posterior Boundary of Wernicke’s Area Based on Multimodal Connectivity Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Wenting; Jiang, Tao; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Wernicke’s area is one of the most important language regions and has been widely studied in both basic research and clinical neurology. However, its exact anatomy has been controversial. In this study, we proposed to address the anatomy of Wernicke’s area by investigating different connectivity profiles. First, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), traditionally called “Wernicke’s area”, was parcellated into three component subregions with diffusion MRI. Then, whole-brain anatomical connectivity, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) analyses were used to establish the anatomical, resting-state and task-related coactivation network of each subregion to identify which subregions participated in the language network. In addition, behavioral domain analysis, meta-analyses of semantics, execution speech, and phonology and intraoperative electrical stimulation were used to determine which subregions were involved in language processing. Anatomical connectivity, RSFC and MACM analyses consistently identified that the two anterior subregions in the posterior STG primarily participated in the language network, whereas the most posterior subregion in the temporoparietal junction area primarily participated in the default mode network. Moreover, the behavioral domain analyses, meta-analyses of semantics, execution speech and phonology and intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping also confirmed that only the two anterior subregions were involved in language processing, whereas the most posterior subregion primarily participated in social cognition. Our findings revealed a convergent posterior anatomical border for Wernicke’s area and indicated that the brain’s functional subregions can be identified on the basis of its specific structural and functional connectivity patterns. PMID:25619891

  8. Practice Ethical Behavior. Work Skills: Work Maturity Skills Competency 4.0. Connections. School and Work Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    This learning module is one of a series that teaches the competencies of "Job Search Skills," part of the "Work Skills" package--a set of competency-based instructional materials written for low-level readers that prepares students with specific job search and job keeping skills. ("Work Skills" is part of the "Connections" package, which…

  9. Digital morphology: modelling anatomy and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Bastir, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The morphology and anatomy of a biological structure can be seen as a structural and functional system, the final results of evolutionary pressures and stochastic processes related to the actual physical and physiological environment of its components. The current imaging techniques (digital anthropology) and the multivariate approaches to the study of geometric covariation (geometric morphometrics) provide a quantitative exploration of the extant and extinct human variability. Such tools allow the recognition of morphological relationships within anatomical systems, and their variation within phylogenetic processes. We apply these techniques and principles to the study of the cranial variability and integration, mostly within the framework of the evolution of the human genus. The craniofacial system is investigated in terms of modules and spatial relationships, along ontogenetic and phylogenetic trajectories. The reciprocal influences between the splanchnocranial, basicranial, and neurocranial components, as well as those between the hard (bones) and soft (brain, connectives, muscles) tissues are modelled using geometrical analyses and multivariate ordination methods, trying to localise adaptations and constraints. The main target is a dynamic and visualisation-based interpretation of the evolutionary changes, not grounded on the variation of single traits but on the covariation of the whole system. PMID:19934466

  10. Broca's area: nomenclature, anatomy, typology and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simon S; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-04-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural asymmetry of Broca's area with the differences in methodological approaches, (iv) consider the functional significance of cytoarchitectonic definitions of Broca's area, and (v) critically elucidate the significance of circumscribed regions of cortex for language lateralisation and language development. Contrary to what has previously been reported in the literature, asymmetry of Broca's area has not been reproducibly demonstrated, particularly on a gross morphological level. This may be due to major inconsistencies in methodology (including different anatomical boundaries, measurement techniques and samples studied) or that the sulcal contours defining Broca's area are so naturally variable between people making a standard definition difficult. Cytoarchitectonic analyses more often than not report leftward asymmetry of some component of area 44 and/or area 45. If a structural asymmetry of Broca's area does exist, it is variable, which differs from that of the functional asymmetry of language, which is more consistent. One reason for this might be that the link between cellular architecture, connectivity and language function still remains to be elucidated. There is currently no convincing explanation to associate asymmetry of Broca's area with the lateralisation of language. PMID:19155059

  11. Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

    PubMed Central

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The growth of transportation networks and their increasing interconnections, although positive, has the downside effect of an increasing complexity which make them difficult to use, to assess, and limits their efficiency. On average in the UK, 23% of travel time is lost in connections for trips with more than one mode, and the lack of synchronization decreases very slowly with population size. This lack of synchronization between modes induces differences between the theoretical quickest trip and the ‘time-respecting' path, which takes into account waiting times at interconnection nodes. We analyse here the statistics of these paths on the multilayer, temporal network of the entire, multimodal british public transportation system. We propose a statistical decomposition – the ‘anatomy' – of trips in urban areas, in terms of riding, waiting and walking times, and which shows how the temporal structure of trips varies with distance and allows us to compare different cities. Weaknesses in systems can be either insufficient transportation speed or service frequency, but the key parameter controlling their global efficiency is the total number of stop events per hour for all modes. This analysis suggests the need for better optimization strategies, adapted to short, long unimodal or multimodal trips. PMID:25371238

  12. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  13. Connecting thermoelectric performance and topological-insulator behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from first principles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-20

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this paper, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3. The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We also discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  14. Connecting Thermoelectric Performance and Topological-Insulator Behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this context, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3 . The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  15. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  16. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  17. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  18. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  19. The 2008 Anatomy Ceremony: Essays

    PubMed Central

    Elansary, Mei; Goldberg, Ben; Qian, Ting; Rizzolo, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    When asked to relate my experience of anatomy to the first-year medical and physician associate students at Yale before the start of their own first dissection, I found no better words to share than those of my classmates. Why speak with only one tongue, I said, when you can draw on 99 others? Anatomical dissection elicits what our course director, Lawrence Rizzolo, has called a “diversity of experience,” which, in turn, engenders a diversity of expressions. For Yale medical and physician associate students, this diversity is captured each year in a ceremony dedicated to those who donated their bodies for dissection. The service is an opportunity to offer thanks, but because only students and faculty are in attendance, it is also a place to share and address the complicated tensions that arise while examining, invading, and ultimately disassembling another’s body. It is our pleasure to present selected pieces from the ceremony to the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine readership. — Peter Gayed, Co-editor-in-chief, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine and Chair of the 2008 Anatomy Ceremony Planning Committee PMID:19325944

  20. Teaching anatomy: cadavers vs. computers?

    PubMed

    Biasutto, Susana Norma; Caussa, Lucas Ignacio; Criado del Río, Luis Esteban

    2006-03-01

    Our study was aimed to show if cadaver dissections are still important in the Anatomy Course for medical students or whether computerized resources could replace them. We followed three groups, one of them (698 students) proceeded through the Anatomy Course in a traditional way, meaning, with cadaver material enough to observe all the regions and structures; the second group (330 students) used many technological resources but not cadaver dissections; and the third group (145 students) followed the course, recently, with the same program but with both practical resources. Theoretical contents were developed in the same way and by the same professor. The traditional teaching group obtained better results than the technologically supported group, evaluated by the number of students that passed their exams. The third group results were better than the others, with regard to passed exams and marks. Even when computerized improvements have developed a new area giving students a lot of elements to facilitate their approach to imaging structures, the possibility of direct contact with tissues and anatomical elements cannot yet be replaced. We are demonstrating that the best possibility is the correct association of all these resources to complement one another. PMID:16551018

  1. Neural Population Tuning Links Visual Cortical Anatomy to Human Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Summary The anatomy of cerebral cortex is characterized by two genetically independent variables, cortical thickness and cortical surface area, that jointly determine cortical volume. It remains unclear how cortical anatomy might influence neural response properties and whether such influences would have behavioral consequences. Here, we report that thickness and surface area of human early visual cortices exert opposite influences on neural population tuning with behavioral consequences for perceptual acuity. We found that visual cortical thickness correlated negatively with the sharpness of neural population tuning and the accuracy of perceptual discrimination at different visual field positions. In contrast, visual cortical surface area correlated positively with neural population tuning sharpness and perceptual discrimination accuracy. Our findings reveal a central role for neural population tuning in linking visual cortical anatomy to visual perception and suggest that a perceptually advantageous visual cortex is a thinned one with an enlarged surface area. PMID:25619658

  2. Pubertal Stage and Brain Anatomy in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Rebecca E.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Eugène, Fanny; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of puberty have focused primarily on changes in hormones and on observable physical bodily characteristics. Little is known, however, about the nature of the relation between pubertal status and brain physiology. This is particularly important given findings that have linked the onset of puberty with both changes in cognitive functioning and increases in the incidence of depression and anxiety. The present study examined relations between pubertal stage, as assessed by Tanner Staging, and brain anatomy in a sample of 54 girls aged 9 - 15 years. Brain morphometric analysis was conducted using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hippocampus and amygdala were manually traced on MRI scans in all participants. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with total intracranial volume (ICV), age, and pubertal status as the predictor variables and hippocampus and amygdala volumes as outcome variables. Pubertal status was significantly associated with left amygdala volume, after controlling for both age and intracranial volume (ICV). In addition, puberty was related to right hippocampus and amygdala volumes, after controlling for ICV. In contrast, no significant associations were found between age and hippocampal and amygdala volumes after controlling for pubertal status and ICV. These findings highlight the importance of the relation between pubertal status and morphometry of the hippocampus and amygdala, and of limbic and subcortical structures that have been implicated in emotional and social behavior. PMID:22569152

  3. Frank Netter's legacy: Interprofessional anatomy instruction.

    PubMed

    Niekrash, Christine E; Copes, Lynn E; Gonzalez, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories: long-term, informal visits by pathologists' assistant students who work with the medical students to identify potential donor pathologies, and a short-term, formal visit by fourth-year dental students who teach craniofacial anatomy during the oral cavity dissection laboratory. A survey of attitudes of participants was analyzed and suggest the interprofessional experiences were mutually beneficial for all involved, and indicate that implementing multiple, contrasting interprofessional interactions with different goals within a single course is feasible. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. The first analysis examined attitudes of medical students towards a pathologists' assistant role in a health care team. The question addressing a pathologists' assistant involvement in the anatomy laboratory was most significant. The second analysis examined attitudes of medical students towards the importance of a good foundation in craniofacial anatomy for clinical practice. This perceived importance is influenced by the presence of dental students in the anatomy laboratory. In both instances, the peer interprofessional interactions in the anatomy laboratory resulted in an overall positive attitude of medical students towards pathologists' assistant and dental students. The consequences of these interactions led to better understanding, appreciation and respect of the different professionals that contribute to a health care team. PMID:26014811

  4. How useful is plastination in learning anatomy?

    PubMed

    Latorre, Rafael M; García-Sanz, Mari P; Moreno, Matilde; Hernández, Fuensanta; Gil, Francisco; López, Octavio; Ayala, Maria D; Ramírez, Gregorio; Vázquez, Jose M; Arencibia, Alberto; Henry, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    In recent years plastination has begun to revolutionize the way in which human and veterinary gross anatomy can be presented to students. The study reported here assessed the efficacy of plastinated organs as teaching resources in an innovative anatomy teaching/learning system. The main objective was to evaluate whether the use of plastinated organs improves the quality of teaching and learning of anatomy. For this purpose, we used an interdepartmental approach involving the departments of Veterinary Anatomy, Human Anatomy, Veterinary Surgery, and Education Development and Research Methods. The knowledge base of control and experimental student groups was examined before and after use of the fixed or plastinated resources, respectively, to gather information evaluating the effectiveness of these teaching resources. Significant differences (p < 0.001) between control and experimental groups of Human and Veterinary Anatomy were observed in the post-test results. The Veterinary Surgery students had the most positive opinion of the use of plastinated specimens. Using these data, we were able to quantitatively characterize the use of plastinated specimens as anatomy teaching resources. This analysis showed that all the plastinated resources available were heavily used and deemed useful by students. Although the properties of plastinated specimens accommodate student needs at various levels, traditional material should be used in conjunction with plastinated resources. PMID:17446645

  5. Evolutions equations in computational anatomy.

    PubMed

    Younes, Laurent; Arrate, Felipe; Miller, Michael I

    2009-03-01

    One of the main purposes in computational anatomy is the measurement and statistical study of anatomical variations in organs, notably in the brain or the heart. Over the last decade, our group has progressively developed several approaches for this problem, all related to the Riemannian geometry of groups of diffeomorphisms and the shape spaces on which these groups act. Several important shape evolution equations that are now used routinely in applications have emerged over time. Our goal in this paper is to provide an overview of these equations, placing them in their theoretical context, and giving examples of applications in which they can be used. We introduce the required theoretical background before discussing several classes of equations of increasingly complexity. These equations include energy minimizing evolutions deriving from Riemannian gradient descent, geodesics, parallel transport and Jacobi fields. PMID:19059343

  6. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration. PMID:24696510

  7. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  8. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  9. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    PubMed

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  10. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    PubMed Central

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  11. Behavior of Li abundances in solar-analog stars. II. Evidence of the connection with rotation and stellar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Y.; Honda, S.; Kawanomoto, S.; Ando, H.; Sakurai, T.

    2010-06-01

    Context. We previously attempted to ascertain why the Li i 6708 line-strengths of Sun-like stars differ so significantly despite the superficial similarities of stellar parameters. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of 118 solar analogs and reported that a close connection exists between the Li abundance (ALi) and the line-broadening width (vr+m; mainly contributed by rotational effect), which led us to conclude that stellar rotation may be the primary control of the surface Li content. Aims: To examine our claim in more detail, we study whether the degree of stellar activity exhibits a similar correlation with the Li abundance, which is expected because of the widely believed close connection between rotation and activity. Methods: We measured the residual flux at the line center of the strong Ca ii 8542 line, r0(8542), known to be a useful index of stellar activity, for all sample stars using newly acquired spectra in this near-IR region. The projected rotational velocity (ve sin i) was estimated by subtracting the macroturbulence contribution from vr+m that we had already established. Results: A remarkable (positive) correlation was found in the ALi versus (vs.) r0(8542) diagram as well as in both the r0(8542) vs. ve sin i and ALi vs. ve sin i diagrams, as had been expected. With the confirmation of rotation-dependent stellar activity, this clearly shows that the surface Li abundances of these solar analogs progressively decrease as the rotation rate decreases. Conclusions: Given this observational evidence, we conclude that the depletion of surface Li in solar-type stars, probably caused by effective envelope mixing, operates more efficiently as stellar rotation decelerates. It may be promising to attribute the low-Li tendency of planet-host G dwarfs to their different nature in the stellar angular momentum. Based on observations carried out at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (Okayama, Japan).

  12. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  13. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498

  14. Cytokine-dependent bidirectional connection between impaired social behavior and susceptibility to seizures associated with maternal immune activation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Washington, James; Kumar, Udaya; Medel-Matus, Jesus-Servando; Shin, Don; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) results in the development of autism in the offspring via hyperactivation of IL-6 signaling. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that the MIA-associated activation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concurrently with IL-6 increases the rate and the severity of hippocampal kindling in mice, thus offering an explanation for autism-epilepsy comorbidity. We examined whether epileptic phenotype triggered by prenatal exposure to IL-6 and IL-1β combination is restricted to kindling or whether it is reproducible in another model of epilepsy, whereby spontaneous seizures develop following kainic acid (KA)- induced status epilepticus. We also examined whether in mice prenatally exposed to IL-6 and IL-6+IL-1β, the presence of spontaneous seizures would exacerbate autism-like features. Between days 12 and 16 of pregnancy, C57bl/6j mice received daily injections of IL-6, IL-1β or IL-6+IL-1β combination. At postnatal day 40, male offspring was examined for the presence of social behavioral deficit and status epilepticus was induced by intrahippocampal KA injection. After six weeks of monitoring for spontaneous seizures, sociability was tested again. Both IL-6 and IL-6+IL-1β offspring presented with social behavioral deficit. Prenatal exposure to IL-6 alleviated, while such exposure to IL-6+IL-1β exacerbated the severity of KA-induced epilepsy. Increased severity of epilepsy in the IL-6+IL-1β mice correlated with the improvement of autism-like behavior. We conclude that complex and not necessarily agonistic relationships exist between epileptic and autism-like phenotypes in an animal model of MIA coupled with KA-induced epilepsy, and that the nature of these relationships depends on components of MIA involved. PMID:26103532

  15. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A.

    PubMed

    Chopade, Prashant D; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L; Myerson, Allan S

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described. PMID:26723665

  16. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    SciTech Connect

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Biermann, Kari L.; Yurttas, Nese

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  17. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.

    2015-12-01

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  18. The anatomy and pathophysiology of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Geoffrey

    2006-04-28

    A basic knowledge of the anatomy and the interrelationships of the structures that make up the joint is a prerequisite for understanding the pathomechanics of the wrist. In the paper, the anatomy (especially including carpal ligaments) and the mechanics of wrist movements, also under load, are described. The features of the common wrist disorders that occur as a result of injury are also explained. PMID:17603435

  19. Computed tomography of the calcaneus: normal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, L.; Wulff, K.

    1985-07-01

    The normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus was studied as the background for interpretation of computed tomography (CT) of fractures. Multiplanar CT examination of the normal calcaneus was obtained, and sections were matched with a simplified anatomic model. Sectional anatomy in the four most important planes is described. This facilitates three-dimensional understanding of the calcaneus from sections and interpretation of CT sections obtained in any atypical plane.

  20. Medial prefrontal cortex-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex connectivity during behavior selection without an objective correct answer.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Takashi; Osumi, Takahiro; Ohira, Hideki; Kasuya, Yukinori; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Northoff, Georg

    2010-10-01

    Life choices (e.g., occupational choice) often include situations with two or more possible correct answers, thereby putting us in a situation of conflict. Recent reports have described that the evaluation of conflict might be crucially mediated by neural activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), although the reduction of conflict might rather be associated with neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). What remains unclear is whether these regions mutually interact, thereby raising the question of their functional connectivity during conflict situations. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, this study shows that the dACC co-varied significantly higher with the MPFC during an occupational choice task with two possible correct answers when compared to the control task: a word-length task with one possible correct answer. These results suggest that the MPFC has a functional relation with dACC, especially in conflict situations where there is no objective correct answer. Taken together, this lends support to the assumption that the MPFC might be crucial in biasing the decision, thereby reducing conflict. PMID:20655361

  1. Medical student participation in surface anatomy classes.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, R; Brough, H; Ellis, H

    2006-10-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of medical education and enables medical students to learn skills for future medical practice. In the past decade, there has been a decline in the teaching of anatomy in the medical curriculum, and this study seeks to assess the attitudes of medical students to participation in surface anatomy classes. Consequently, all first year medical students at the Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Medical School, London, were asked to fill in an anonymous questionnaire at the end of their last surface anatomy session of the year. A total of 290 medical students completed the questionnaires, resulting in an 81.6% response rate. The students had a mean age of 19.6 years (range 18-32) and 104 (35.9%) of them were male. Seventy-six students (26.2%) were subjects in surface anatomy tutorials (60.5% male). Students generally volunteered because no one else did. Of the volunteers, 38.2% would rather not have been subjects, because of embarrassment, inability to make notes, or to see clearly the material being taught. Female medical students from ethnic minority groups were especially reluctant to volunteer to be subjects. Single-sex classes improved the volunteer rate to some extent, but not dramatically. Students appreciate the importance of surface anatomy to cadaveric study and to future clinical practice. Computer models, lectures, and videos are complementary but cannot be a substitute for peer group models, artists' models being the only alternative. PMID:16302232

  2. Amphetamine sensitization in mice is sufficient to produce both manic- and depressive-related behaviors as well as changes in the functional connectivity of corticolimbic structures.

    PubMed

    Pathak, G; Ibrahim, B A; McCarthy, S A; Baker, K; Kelly, M P

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that amphetamine abuse and withdrawal mimics the diverse nature of bipolar disorder symptomatology in humans. Here, we determined if a single paradigm of amphetamine sensitization would be sufficient to produce both manic- and depressive-related behaviors in mice. CD-1 mice were subcutaneously dosed for 5 days with 1.8 mg/kg d-amphetamine or vehicle. On days 6-31 of withdrawal, amphetamine-sensitized (AS) mice were compared to vehicle-treated (VT) mice on a range of behavioral and biochemical endpoints. AS mice demonstrated reliable mania- and depression-related behaviors from day 7 to day 28 of withdrawal. Relative to VT mice, AS mice exhibited long-lasting mania-like hyperactivity following either an acute 30-min restraint stress or a low-dose 1 mg/kg d-amphetamine challenge, which was attenuated by the mood-stabilizers lithium and quetiapine. In absence of any challenge, AS mice showed anhedonia-like decreases in sucrose preference and depression-like impairments in the off-line consolidation of motor memory, as reflected by the lack of spontaneous improvement across days of training on the rotarod. AS mice also demonstrated a functional impairment in nest building, an ethologically-relevant activity of daily living. Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in methylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9), but not lysine 4 (H3K4), in hippocampus of AS mice relative to VT mice. In situ hybridization for the immediate-early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) further revealed heightened activation of corticolimbic structures, decreased functional connectivity between frontal cortex and striatum, and increased functional connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus of AS mice. The effects of amphetamine sensitization were blunted in C57BL/6J mice relative to CD-1 mice. These results show that a single amphetamine sensitization protocol is sufficient to produce behavioral, functional, and biochemical

  3. Gaze patterns of gross anatomy students change with classroom learning.

    PubMed

    Zumwalt, Ann C; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study investigates whether changes in gaze patterns reflect learning by students in a medical gross anatomy course. Students were asked to examine photographs of dissections similar to those they experienced in class and to identify the tagged structure in each image. We postulated that, compared to naive behavior (behavior at baseline and when examining unfamiliar content) students would examine familiar content for longer and would direct proportionally more fixation time on cognitively salient regions of the images while using fewer, longer duration fixations. Our students examined familiar images for significantly longer than they did at baseline (P < 0.0001) or for unfamiliar images (P < 0.0001). They also spent significantly longer examining cognitively salient regions of familiar images, as compared to examining those regions at baseline (P < 0.0001) and on unfamiliar images (P < 0.0001). However, these gaze patterns were characterized by more numerous fixations rather than fewer, longer fixations. These individuals are successful learners in a challenging gross anatomy course, but are not experts in anatomy. Therefore we speculate that the gaze pattern they exhibit characterizes an earlier stage of the learning process than has previously been documented in studies of expertise, which have primarily focused on the gaze patterns of true experts. PMID:25156955

  4. The 2008 anatomy ceremony: essays.

    PubMed

    Elansary, Mei; Goldberg, Ben; Qian, Ting; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2009-03-01

    When asked to relate my experience of anatomy to the first-year medical and physician associate students at Yale before the start of their own first dissection, I found no better words to share than those of my classmates. Why speak with only one tongue, I said, when you can draw on 99 others? Anatomical dissection elicits what our course director, Lawrence Rizzolo, has called a "diversity of experience," which, in turn, engenders a diversity of expressions. For Yale medical and physician associate students, this diversity is captured each year in a ceremony dedicated to those who donated their bodies for dissection. The service is an opportunity to offer thanks, but because only students and faculty are in attendance, it is also a place to share and address the complicated tensions that arise while examining, invading, and ultimately disassembling another's body. It is our pleasure to present selected pieces from the ceremony to the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine readership. PMID:19325944

  5. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Andrew S.; Potter, S. Steven

    2015-01-01

    The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community. PMID:26168040

  6. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  7. Application of the one-minute preceptor technique by novice teachers in the gross anatomy laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP did not result in improvement in students' perceptions of their learning, probably because of the fact that the experienced teachers had already developed their own pedagogical approaches. In the current study, we examined the effects of training novice teachers with about four years of gross anatomy teaching experience, in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory, by surveying students to collect their views on their learning experiences, by observing the teachers' teaching behaviors before and after they were trained in OMP, and then by interviewing them. More students reported a better learning experience in the session after the teachers had been trained in the OMP than reported worse, in eight out of the nine items related to their learning experiences. The novice teachers were receptive to the OMP. After the OMP training, the novice teachers were observed to engage more in getting commitments from the students and in reinforcing what the students have done right, two of the five OMP microskills. They considered the OMP to be very useful for their development as anatomy teachers. PMID:25573139

  8. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18400922

  9. FASTGRASS implementation in BISON and Fission gas behavior characterization in UO2 and connection to validating MARMOT

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Ye, Bei; Jamison, Laura M.; Miao, Yinbin; Lian, Jie; Yao, Tiankei

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL). Two major accomplishments in FY 15 are summarized in this report: (1) implementation of the FASTGRASS module in the BISON code; and (2) a Xe implantation experiment for large-grained UO2. Both BISON AND MARMOT codes have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. To contribute to the development of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite, we have implemented the FASTGRASS fission gas model as a module in the BISON code. Based on rate theory formulations, the coupled FASTGRASS module in BISON is capable of modeling LWR oxide fuel fission gas behavior and fission gas release. In addition, we conducted a Xe implantation experiment at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) in order to produce the needed UO2 samples with desired bubble morphology. With these samples, further experiments to study the fission gas diffusivity are planned to provide validation data for the Fission Gas Release Model in MARMOT codes.

  10. The influence of contact conditions and micromotions on the fretting behavior of modular titanium alloy taper connections.

    PubMed

    Baxmann, M; Jauch, S Y; Schilling, C; Blömer, W; Grupp, T M; Morlock, M M

    2013-05-01

    Modularity of femoral stems and neck components has become a more frequently used tool for an optimized restoration of the hip joint center and improvement of patient biomechanics. The additional taper interface increases the risk of mechanical failure due to fretting and crevice corrosion. Several failures of titanium alloy neck adapters have been documented in case-reports. An experimental fretting device was developed in this study to systematically investigate the effect of micromotion and contact pressure on fretting damage in contact situations similar to taper interfaces of modular hip prostheses under cyclic loading representative of in vivo load conditions. As a first application, the fretting behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy components was investigated. Micromotions were varied between 10μm and 50μm, maximum contact pressures between 400 and 860N/mm(2). All modes of fretting damage were observed: Fretting wear was found for high micromotions in combination with low contact pressures. Fretting fatigue occurred with reduced movement or increased contact pressures. With small micromotions or high normal pressures, low fretting damage was observed. The developed device can be used to evaluate taper design (and especially contact geometry) as well as different materials prior to clinical use. PMID:22940445

  11. Exploring relationships between personality and anatomy performance.

    PubMed

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Walker, Simon J; Carter, Madeline; Cox, David R; Hewitson, Ruth; Smith, Claire F

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in medicine of the importance of noncognitive factors, including personality, for performance, and for good medical practice. The personality domain of conscientiousness is a well-established predictor of performance in workplace and academic settings. This study investigates the relationships between the "Big Five" personality domains, the facets of conscientiousness and performance in a practical anatomy examination. First- and second-year undergraduate medical students (n = 85) completed a paper-based questionnaire, which included a 50-item measure of the Big Five personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and a 60-item measure of the six conscientiousness facets (orderliness, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self-discipline, self-efficacy, and cautiousness) from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). In addition, routinely-collected academic performance scores from the end of semester anatomy practical examinations (spotters) were obtained. Anatomy examination performance correlated moderately with conscientiousness (r = 0.24, P = 0.03). Of the six facets of conscientiousness, a positive relationship was observed between anatomy examination performance and achievement striving (r = 0.22, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study found that performance in an anatomy examination was related to higher levels of conscientiousness and, more specifically, to higher levels of achievement striving. The results have implications for selection and assessment in medicine. PMID:25716097

  12. The surgical anatomy of the perineum.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, V; Chandak, P

    2013-03-01

    The anatomy of the perineum and pelvis is complex. Those outside the specialist fields of colorectal surgery, urology and gynaecological surgery often have a less-than-complete understanding of the anatomical details of this region. The recent increase in complicated pelvic and perineal injuries caused by the detonation of Improvised Explosive Devices has brought into sharp focus, the importance of this area of surgical anatomy. The following article describes, in a systematic and detailed manner, the anatomy of the urogenital and anal regions of the perineum. The terminology in relation to the fascial layers and structures encountered in the perineum is elucidated. In addition, the surgical anatomy of the scrotum and its contents and the ligamentous support of the penis are described, with clear illustrations throughout. It is intended that this article will go some way towards clarifying the anatomy underlying the surgical management of complex perineal/pelvic injuries, and benefit both the specialist and non-specialist military surgeon. PMID:23631319

  13. Anatomy in a Modern Medical Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Turney, BW

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments. PMID:17346399

  14. The topographical anatomy of the lumbar epidural space.

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, I G; Harrison, G R

    1985-01-01

    Although clinically important, the lumbar epidural space is inconsistently described in textbooks of both anatomy and anaesthetics. This anatomical study of twelve cadavers was performed in an attempt to clarify the description of this region. The dura mater, which possesses a midline fold in a very few cases, is apposed to the walls of the vertebral canal, and attached to them by connective tissue, which is sufficient to allow for displacement of the dural sac during movement of the spine and venous engorgement. Between the dura mater and the vertebral canal is a thin layer of areolar tissue. This contains the internal vertebral venous plexus and a posterior deposit of fat which lies in a recess between the ligamenta flava. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies in an attempt to arrive at a cohesive description of the epidural region. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:4077717

  15. Clinical anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle in dance.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jeffrey A; McEwan, Islay M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    The ankle is an important joint to understand in the context of dance because it is the connection between the leg and the foot that establishes lower extremity stability. Its function coordinates with the leg and foot and, thus, it is crucial to the dancer's ability to perform. Furthermore, the ankle is one of the most commonly injured body regions in dance. An understanding of ankle anatomy and biomechanics is not only important for healthcare providers working with dancers, but for dance scientists, dance instructors, and dancers themselves. The bony architecture, the soft tissue restraints, and the locomotive structures all integrate to allow the athletic artistry of dance. Yet, there is still much research to be carried out in order to more completely understand the ankle of the dancer. PMID:19618582

  16. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  17. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-12-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  18. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  19. Anatomy of the ethmoid: CT, endoscopic, and macroscopic

    SciTech Connect

    Terrier, F.; Weber, W.; Ruefenacht, D.; Porcellini, B.

    1985-03-01

    The authors illustrate the normal CT anatomy of the ethmoid region and correlate it with the endoscopic and macroscopic anatomy to define landmarks that can be recognized on CT and during endoscopically controlled transnasal ethmoidectomy.

  20. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1)

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet.

    Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions.

    Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1.

    The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped.

    The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris

  1. After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The intermediaries--Boston After…

  2. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  3. Surgical anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree

    PubMed Central

    Drevet, Gabrielle; Conti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Airway surgery is often indicated in the management of benign or malignant pathological processes of the tracheobronchial tree. The surgeon undertaking this type of work has, however, the responsibility of understanding the particular anatomy applicable to these structures and procedures as well as be able to correlate imaging, intraoperative findings and anatomy. These are important considerations if one wants to reduce operative morbidity and improve potential for better long-term results. This paper reviews the most important anatomic features of the tracheobronchial tree putting emphasis on those features that are important to surgeons performing surgical procedures on those organs. PMID:26981262

  4. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers’ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom's Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike. PMID:26170599

  5. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  6. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  7. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  8. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  9. Perceptions of Anatomy Education--A Student's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joslin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in anatomy education over the last two decades have, in large part, led to less emphasis on gross anatomy in the medical curriculum. This has led many to question whether streamlined anatomy courses truly provide adequate preparation for medical practice. Rather than wondering about the effects of these changes, we should be actively…

  10. The role of connectivity and stochastic osteocyte behavior in the distribution of perilabyrinthine bone degeneration. A Monte Carlo based simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Sune Land; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of undecalcified temporal bones labeled with fluorescent tissue time markers and basic fuchsine have documented the unique spatial and temporal patterns underlying inner ear bone development, morphology and degeneration, and has led to the identification of inner ear OPG as the candidate inhibiter of perilabyrinthine bone resorption. Resulting age related excessive matrix microdamage, osteocyte death and degeneration of the OPG signaling pathway is expected to trigger bone remodeling in the otic capsule, but when this happens the morphology of the remodeling bone is abnormal and the distribution is not entirely smooth and predictable, but rather multifocal and chaotic with a centripetal predilection at the window regions, as in otosclerosis. Based on the observed histological patterns, the fundamental preconditions of perilabyrinthine bone cell behavior can be deduced. When this information is used to generate a virtual computer representation of the cellular signaling network, the fate of the aging network can be studied by 'virtual histology' in any number of simulated 'individuals'. We demonstrate how a combination of simple osteocyte survival functions derived from histological observations and the effect of connectivity may account for gradual centripetal degeneration as well as occasional focal degeneration of the cellular anti resorptive signaling pathway around the fluid space of the inner ear and create a permissive environment for otosclerosis. PMID:26873526

  11. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  12. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  13. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. PMID:26003238

  14. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  15. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  16. Anatomy for blepharoplasty and brow-lift.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, James M; Larrabee, Wayne F

    2010-08-01

    The eyelids and eyebrows provide communicative, emotional, and protective functions through a complex interplay of muscles, tendons, and other local soft tissues. A surgical intervention involving these regions are renowned for their deceptive simplicity and notable complications. With these challenges in mind, this article provides the reader with a detailed and systematic review of the eyelid and brow anatomy. PMID:20524165

  17. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  18. Teaching Cell Anatomy with a Fabric Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluka, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Middle schoolers are often first introduced to detailed cellular anatomy through one-dimensional drawings in basic life science books, fill-in-the blank handouts accompanied by notes from the teacher, or desktop hard-plastic commercial models that resemble giant lollipops. One of the most important, yet difficult, life science concepts for…

  19. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  20. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  1. Teaching Modern Technique through Experiential Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    ````````Incorporation of an experiential anatomy component into the modern technique class educates students about the body in a way that permanently and positively impacts how they move. It is our responsibility as dance educators, whether at the elementary, secondary, or college level, to teach students how to care for their bodies and make…

  2. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc. PMID:26027397

  3. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  4. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  5. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  6. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. PMID:21538938

  7. Clarifying the atrioventricular junctional anatomy in the setting of double outlet right atrium

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Gupta, Anunay; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Double outlet atrium is a rare cardiac anomaly wherein one of the atriums, most frequently the right atrium, opens into both the ventricles. Although seen more commonly in the setting of atrioventricular septal defect, this arrangement can also be found when one of the atrioventricular connections is atretic due to absence of the atrioventricular connection and the other atrioventricular valve straddles the muscular ventricular septum. It is the specific anatomy and connections of the atrioventricular junction that clarifies the situation and distinguishes between these two types of double outlet atrium. In this report, we present a case of double outlet right atrium co-existing with the absence of left atrioventricular connection. We then discuss the morphologic aspects of this interesting anomaly. PMID:26556972

  8. Clarifying the atrioventricular junctional anatomy in the setting of double outlet right atrium.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Gupta, Anunay; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Double outlet atrium is a rare cardiac anomaly wherein one of the atriums, most frequently the right atrium, opens into both the ventricles. Although seen more commonly in the setting of atrioventricular septal defect, this arrangement can also be found when one of the atrioventricular connections is atretic due to absence of the atrioventricular connection and the other atrioventricular valve straddles the muscular ventricular septum. It is the specific anatomy and connections of the atrioventricular junction that clarifies the situation and distinguishes between these two types of double outlet atrium. In this report, we present a case of double outlet right atrium co-existing with the absence of left atrioventricular connection. We then discuss the morphologic aspects of this interesting anomaly. PMID:26556972

  9. The vascular anatomy of the developing zebrafish: an atlas of embryonic and early larval development.

    PubMed

    Isogai, S; Horiguchi, M; Weinstein, B M

    2001-02-15

    We have used confocal microangiography to examine and describe the vascular anatomy of the developing zebrafish, Danio rerio. This method and the profound optical clarity of zebrafish embryos make it possible to view the entire developing vasculature with unprecedented resolution. A staged series of three-dimensional images of the vascular system were collected beginning shortly after the onset of circulation at 1 day postfertilization through early- to midlarval stages at approximately 7 days postfertilization. Blood vessels in every region of the animal were imaged at each stage, and detailed "wiring patterns" were derived describing the interconnections between every major vessel. We present an overview of these data here in this paper and in an accompanying Web site "The interactive atlas of zebrafish vascular anatomy" online at (http://eclipse.nichd.nih.gov/nichd/lmg/redirect.html). We find a highly dynamic but also highly stereotypic pattern of vascular connections, with different sets of primitive embryonic vessels severing connections and rewiring in new configurations according to a reproducible plan. We also find that despite variation in the details of the vascular anatomy, the basic vascular plan of the developing zebrafish shows strong similarity to that of other vertebrates. This atlas will provide an invaluable foundation for future genetic and experimental studies of vascular development in the zebrafish. PMID:11161578

  10. Comparative Anatomy and Morphology of Nectar-producing Melastomataceae

    PubMed Central

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Penneys, Darin S.; Michelangeli, Fabian A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Most neotropical Melastomataceae have bee-pollinated flowers with poricidal anthers. However, nectar rewards are known to be produced in about 80 species in eight genera from four different tribes. These nectar-producing species are pollinated by both vertebrates and invertebrates. Methods The floral morphology and anatomy of 14 species was studied in six genera of nectar-producing Melastomataceae (Blakea, Brachyotum, Charianthus, Huilaea, Meriania and Miconia). Anatomical methods included scanning electron microscopy, and serial sections of paraffin-embedded flowers. Key Results All vertebrate-pollinated melastome flowers have petals that do not open completely at anthesis, thus forming a pseudo-tubular corolla, while closely related species that are bee pollinated have rotate or reflexed corollas. In most species, nectar secretion is related to stomatal or epidermal nectaries and not filament slits as previously reported. Moreover, the nectar is probably supplied by large vascular bundles near the release area. Blakea and Huilaea have nectary stomata located upon the dorsal anther connective appendages. Brachyotum also has nectary stomata on the anther connectives, but these are distributed lengthwise along most of the connective. Meriania may release nectar through the anther connective, but has additional nectary stomata on the inner walls of the hypanthium. Miconia has nectary stomata on the ovary apex. Charianthus nectaries were not found, but there is circumstantial evidence that nectar release occurs through the epidermis at the apex of the ovary and the lower portions of the inner wall of the hypanthium. Conclusions Nectar release in Melastomataceae is apparently related to nectary stomata and not filament slits. The presence of nectary stomata on stamens and on ovary apices in different lineages suggests that the acquisition of nectaries is a derived condition. Nectary location also supports a derived condition, because location is

  11. History of cardiac anatomy: A comprehensive review from the egyptians to today.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Youssef, Pamela; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-04-01

    The nature, function, and anatomy of the heart have been extensively studied since 3500 B.C. Greek and Egyptian science developed a basic understanding of the heart, although this was primarily related to religious beliefs. During the Hippocratic era, Hippocrates and his colleagues developed a more scientific and less religious understanding of the cardiovascular system. The post-Hippocratic era was characterized by more advanced descriptions of the location, structure, and function of the heart. The Alexandrian, Roman, Medieval Islamic, and European eras included turning points in the history of cardiac anatomy. Subsequently, after the structure and function of the heart were established, its connection with the lungs was investigated. Description of the pulmonary circulation was followed by the discovery of the conductive system and innervation of the heart. Clin. Anat. 29:270-284, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918296

  12. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Masi, A T; Carreiro, J E; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure. PMID:22994881

  13. The history of anatomy in Persia

    PubMed Central

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-01-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777–857 AD), Tabbari (838–870 AD), Rhazes (865–925 AD), Joveini (?−983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930–994 AD), Avicenna (980–1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042–1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in

  14. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  15. The emerging discipline of Computational Functional Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Qiu, Anqi

    2010-01-01

    Computational Functional Anatomy (CFA) is the study of functional and physiological response variables in anatomical coordinates. For this we focus on two things: (i) the construction of bijections (via diffeomorphisms) between the coordinatized manifolds of human anatomy, and (ii) the transfer (group action and parallel transport) of functional information into anatomical atlases via these bijections. We review advances in the unification of the bijective comparison of anatomical submanifolds via point-sets including points, curves and surface triangulations as well as dense imagery. We examine the transfer via these bijections of functional response variables into anatomical coordinates via group action on scalars and matrices in DTI as well as parallel transport of metric information across multiple templates which preserves the inner product. PMID:19103297

  16. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology. PMID:25434015

  17. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  18. Facial Nerve and Parotid Gland Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Amit; Larian, Babak; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of important anatomic and functional anatomy associated with the parotid gland and facial nerve for the practicing otolaryngologist, head and neck surgeon, facial plastic surgeon, and plastic surgeon. The discussion includes the important anatomic relationships and physiology related to the parotid gland and salivary production. A comprehensive description of the path of facial nerve, its branches, and important anatomic landmarks also are provided. PMID:27040583

  19. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. PMID:27278888

  20. The anatomy of choice: active inference and agency

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas; Moutoussis, Michael; Behrens, Timothy; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers agency in the setting of embodied or active inference. In brief, we associate a sense of agency with prior beliefs about action and ask what sorts of beliefs underlie optimal behavior. In particular, we consider prior beliefs that action minimizes the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence between desired states and attainable states in the future. This allows one to formulate bounded rationality as approximate Bayesian inference that optimizes a free energy bound on model evidence. We show that constructs like expected utility, exploration bonuses, softmax choice rules and optimism bias emerge as natural consequences of this formulation. Previous accounts of active inference have focused on predictive coding and Bayesian filtering schemes for minimizing free energy. Here, we consider variational Bayes as an alternative scheme that provides formal constraints on the computational anatomy of inference and action—constraints that are remarkably consistent with neuroanatomy. Furthermore, this scheme contextualizes optimal decision theory and economic (utilitarian) formulations as pure inference problems. For example, expected utility theory emerges as a special case of free energy minimization, where the sensitivity or inverse temperature (of softmax functions and quantal response equilibria) has a unique and Bayes-optimal solution—that minimizes free energy. This sensitivity corresponds to the precision of beliefs about behavior, such that attainable goals are afforded a higher precision or confidence. In turn, this means that optimal behavior entails a representation of confidence about outcomes that are under an agent's control. PMID:24093015

  1. The anatomy of choice: active inference and agency.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Moutoussis, Michael; Behrens, Timothy; Dolan, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers agency in the setting of embodied or active inference. In brief, we associate a sense of agency with prior beliefs about action and ask what sorts of beliefs underlie optimal behavior. In particular, we consider prior beliefs that action minimizes the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between desired states and attainable states in the future. This allows one to formulate bounded rationality as approximate Bayesian inference that optimizes a free energy bound on model evidence. We show that constructs like expected utility, exploration bonuses, softmax choice rules and optimism bias emerge as natural consequences of this formulation. Previous accounts of active inference have focused on predictive coding and Bayesian filtering schemes for minimizing free energy. Here, we consider variational Bayes as an alternative scheme that provides formal constraints on the computational anatomy of inference and action-constraints that are remarkably consistent with neuroanatomy. Furthermore, this scheme contextualizes optimal decision theory and economic (utilitarian) formulations as pure inference problems. For example, expected utility theory emerges as a special case of free energy minimization, where the sensitivity or inverse temperature (of softmax functions and quantal response equilibria) has a unique and Bayes-optimal solution-that minimizes free energy. This sensitivity corresponds to the precision of beliefs about behavior, such that attainable goals are afforded a higher precision or confidence. In turn, this means that optimal behavior entails a representation of confidence about outcomes that are under an agent's control. PMID:24093015

  2. Quantitative normal thoracic anatomy at CT.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Monica M S; Udupa, Jayaram K; Tong, Yubing; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A

    2016-07-01

    Automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodologies for a body region require detailed understanding of the morphology, architecture, and geographical layout of the organs within the body region. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively characterize the normal anatomy of the thoracic region for AAR. Contrast-enhanced chest CT images from 41 normal male subjects, each with 11 segmented objects, were considered in this study. The individual objects were quantitatively characterized in terms of their linear size, surface area, volume, shape, CT attenuation properties, inter-object distances, size and shape correlations, size-to-distance correlations, and distance-to-distance correlations. A heat map visualization approach was used for intuitively portraying the associations between parameters. Numerous new observations about object geography and relationships were made. Some objects, such as the pericardial region, vary far less than others in size across subjects. Distance relationships are more consistent when involving an object such as trachea and bronchi than other objects. Considering the inter-object distance, some objects have a more prominent correlation, such as trachea and bronchi, right and left lungs, arterial system, and esophagus. The proposed method provides new, objective, and usable knowledge about anatomy whose utility in building body-wide models toward AAR has been demonstrated in other studies. PMID:27065241

  3. Andreas Vesalius--the reformer of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Holomanova, A; Ivanova, A; Brucknerova, I; Benuska, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with two main topics. The first part provides data on the life of Andreas Vesalius, a scholar and anatomist of the 16th century, and describes the environment in which he lived and worked. It highlights his personality of a great doctor and teacher and points out the importance of his scientific methods and techniques as opposed to speculative methods that were prevalent in the scientific research in those days. The second part of the paper is devoted to the characteristics and description of his famous and, given the times he lived in, grand work called "De Humani Corporis Fabrica", which opened a new epoch in the history of anatomy. Andreas Vesalius is considered to be the founder of the science of anatomy which is based on observation and experience gained by using scalpel on dead bodies of humans. This is how he proved the then valid statements wrong. This complex view of life and work of Andreas Vesalius is aimed at highlighting the milestone which he represents in this traditional science of anatomy that has been conscientiously developed since the Classical times. (Fig. 4, Ref. 6.) PMID:11723674

  4. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  5. Anatomy of gravitationally deformed slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Shintaro; Hariyama, Takehiro

    2010-05-01

    fractures, which also suggests the low confining pressures. Vertical distribution of gravitational deformation with above features indicates that gravitational shear zones are nucleated in a distributed manner, then gradually connected to each other, and finally cut through the whole slope. This is the transition of gravitational mass rock creep to rock slide. First nucleation points seem to be controlled by the heterogeneity of rock properties. Thick black layers in pelitic schist, shale near thick sandstone beds in sedimentary rocks, were such nuclear points. The geometrical relationships between the distribution of fracture zones and the slope morphology suggest that they are formed in accordance to the valley incision and resultant slope destabilization.

  6. Spinal biomechanics and functional anatomy.

    PubMed

    Denoix, J M

    1999-04-01

    Knowledge of the normal functional behavior and mechanical properties of the vertebral column is important to understand the pathogenesis of back lesions, to identify the clinical manifestations of back pain, and to ensure a rational approach to physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to present a synthesis of in vivo and in vitro data obtained from different but complementary investigations. Presently, in vivo studies are limited; few gait-specific kinematic and electromyographic investigations are in process. Higher stresses to reach the maximal range of intervertebral motion can be applied on the spine on anatomical specimens than in living horses, and anatomical functional data can be obtained at the level of intervertebral structures. For each movement of flexion, extension, lateroflexion, and rotation, regional and intervertebral mobility is presented with an emphasis on craniocaudal variations and their anatomical causes. Because of the location of their ICR, the dorsoventral movements of a thoracolumbar intervertebral joint can be defined as a rotation around the center of the more caudal vertebral body. This information supports the new concept of intervertebral mobility in the horse and provides additional elements to facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis of back problems in the horse. PMID:10218240

  7. Functional neural anatomy of talent.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, M Layne

    2004-03-01

    The terms gifted, talented, and intelligent all have meanings that suggest an individual's highly proficient or exceptional performance in one or more specific areas of strength. Other than Spearman's g, which theorizes about a general elevated level of potential or ability, more contemporary theories of intelligence are based on theoretical models that define ability or intelligence according to a priori categories of specific performance. Recent studies in cognitive neuroscience report on the neural basis of g from various perspectives such as the neural speed theory and the efficiency of prefrontal function. Exceptional talent is the result of interactions between goal-directed behavior and nonvolitional perceptual processes in the brain that have yet to be fully characterized and understood by the fields of psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Some developmental studies report differences in region-specific neural activation, recruitment patterns, and reaction times in subjects who are identified with high IQ scores according to traditional scales of assessment such as the WISC-III or Stanford-Binet. Although as cases of savants and prodigies illustrate, talent is not synonymous with high IQ. This review synthesizes information from the fields of psychometrics and gifted education, with findings from the neurosciences on the neural basis of intelligence, creativity, profiles of expert performers, cognitive function, and plasticity to suggest a paradigm for investigating talent as the maximal and productive use of either or both of one's high level of general intelligence or domain-specific ability. Anat Rec (Part B: New Anat) 277B:21-36, 2004. PMID:15052651

  8. Learning of cross-sectional anatomy using clay models.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students in a clay modeling group responded positively to this approach, and their average score on CT examination was higher than that of a group that did not use clay models. Clay modeling appears to be a useful supplement to conventional anatomy or radiologic anatomy education. It can be applied to any part of human body, and its effectiveness will be greater when a more complicated understanding of cross-sectional anatomy is required. PMID:19588481

  9. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. PMID:27474188

  10. Use of a Self-Monitoring Application to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Adolescents with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation of I-Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Mason, Rose A.; Chambers, Angela; Wills, Howard P.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students with autism engage in a variety of complex stereotypic behaviors, impacting task completion and interfering with social opportunities. Self-monitoring is an intervention with empirical support for individuals with ASD to increase behavioral repertoires and decrease behaviors that are incompatible with successful outcomes. However,…

  11. Anatomy research under the knife of medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W. M. S.; Archana, R.; Prathibha, K. M.; Johnson, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    There is increased awareness and anxiety in conducting research for publication and at the same time ignorance about getting Ethical Committee clearance at least in Anatomy Departments among Basic Medical Sciences. While people are actively presenting papers, collect data, Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines does not cover aspects pertaining to Anatomy oriented research activities. This review article is an eye opener for fraternity in the medical field, especially in anatomy. PMID:26015746

  12. The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). I. General anatomy of the telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Riedel, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the cell groups in the telencephalon of the teleost Astyanax hubbsi, based on series of transverse sections stained with the Nissl-Klüver-Barrera and Bodian procedures. The work was conducted for two reasons. Firstly, it was intended to determine the contribution of the forebrain of blind cave fish to certain forms of behavior. An understanding of the anatomy of the telencephalic organization is essential for such a neuroethological approach. The second purpose was to provide the cytoarchitectural basis for the experimental analysis of the fiber connectivity of the telencephalon of A. hubbsi. Furthermore, information about the forebrain of characids is widely lacking, and this study may thus provide important knowledge about the cellular organization of characid forebrains for comparative anatomists. The brain of A. hubbsi is slender and elongated. Both optic nerves and optic tectum are reduced. Three longitudinal sulci-s. ypsiliformis, s. externus and s. limitans telencephali-can be distinguished in the telencephalon. A fiber lamina reaching from the s. externus to the s. limitans telencephali separates the area dorsalis (D) from the area ventralis telencephali (V). The two hemispheres are connected by fibers decussating in the anterior commissure. Although cross sections revealed no distinct fiber laminae between cytoarchitectonic components, 17 cell masses could be delineated: ten of these belong to D, seven to V. The topological analysis yielded the following results. The dorsal telencephalon D consists of three longitudinal columns, termed pars medialis (Dm), pars dorsalis and centralis (Dd and Dc) considered together, and par lateralis (Dl), which converge into a uniform posterior part (Dp). The columns can be divided into several subregions: Dm1 and Dm2, as well as Dlv and Dld, precommissurally, Dm3 and Dm4 postcommisurally. At polus posterior levels nucleus tenia can be identified. The ventral telencephalon (V) is arranged

  13. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Veronica; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education. Doctors without anatomy are like moles.They work in the dark and the work of their hands are mounds. Friedrich TiedemannThe foundation of the study of the art of operating must be laid in the dissecting room. Robert Liston PMID:24367240

  14. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to illustrate a process of making connections, not between mathematics and other activities, but within mathematics itself--between diverse parts of the subject. Novel connections are still possible in previously explored mathematics when the material happens to be unfamiliar, as may be the case for a learner at any career stage.…

  15. New Insights in Trigeminal Anatomy: A Double Orofacial Tract for Nociceptive Input.

    PubMed

    Henssen, Dylan J H A; Kurt, Erkan; Kozicz, Tamas; van Dongen, Robert; Bartels, Ronald H M A; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial pain in patients relies on the anatomical pathways that conduct nociceptive information, originating from the periphery towards the trigeminal sensory nucleus complex (TSNC) and finally, to the thalami and the somatosensorical cortical regions. The anatomy and function of the so-called trigeminothalamic tracts have been investigated before. In these animal-based studies from the previous century, the intracerebral pathways were mapped using different retro- and anterograde tracing methods. We review the literature on the trigeminothalamic tracts focusing on these animal tracer studies. Subsequently, we related the observations of these studies to clinical findings using fMRI trials. The intracerebral trigeminal pathways can be subdivided into three pathways: a ventral (contralateral) and dorsal (mainly ipsilateral) trigeminothalamic tract and the intranuclear pathway. Based on the reviewed evidence we hypothesize the co-existence of an ipsilateral nociceptive conduction tract to the cerebral cortex and we translate evidence from animal-based research to the human anatomy. Our hypothesis differs from the classical idea that orofacial pain arises only from nociceptive information via the contralateral, ventral trigeminothalamic pathway. Better understanding of the histology, anatomy and connectivity of the trigeminal fibers could contribute to the discovery of a more effective pain treatment in patients suffering from various orofacial pain syndromes. PMID:27242449

  16. New Insights in Trigeminal Anatomy: A Double Orofacial Tract for Nociceptive Input

    PubMed Central

    Henssen, Dylan J. H. A.; Kurt, Erkan; Kozicz, Tamas; van Dongen, Robert; Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial pain in patients relies on the anatomical pathways that conduct nociceptive information, originating from the periphery towards the trigeminal sensory nucleus complex (TSNC) and finally, to the thalami and the somatosensorical cortical regions. The anatomy and function of the so-called trigeminothalamic tracts have been investigated before. In these animal-based studies from the previous century, the intracerebral pathways were mapped using different retro- and anterograde tracing methods. We review the literature on the trigeminothalamic tracts focusing on these animal tracer studies. Subsequently, we related the observations of these studies to clinical findings using fMRI trials. The intracerebral trigeminal pathways can be subdivided into three pathways: a ventral (contralateral) and dorsal (mainly ipsilateral) trigeminothalamic tract and the intranuclear pathway. Based on the reviewed evidence we hypothesize the co-existence of an ipsilateral nociceptive conduction tract to the cerebral cortex and we translate evidence from animal-based research to the human anatomy. Our hypothesis differs from the classical idea that orofacial pain arises only from nociceptive information via the contralateral, ventral trigeminothalamic pathway. Better understanding of the histology, anatomy and connectivity of the trigeminal fibers could contribute to the discovery of a more effective pain treatment in patients suffering from various orofacial pain syndromes. PMID:27242449

  17. Compelling classroom demonstrations that link visual system anatomy, physiology, and behaviour.

    PubMed

    O'Drobinak, David M; Woods, Charles B

    2002-12-01

    One of our approaches to teaching a course in anatomy and physiology is to stress the fundamental, systems-level concepts. One successful strategy we use is to continually highlight the relationships among anatomy, physiology, and behavior. In this article, we describe a set of classroom demonstrations that stress these links while fostering critical thinking. These demonstrations, on the topic of sensory system structure and function, rely on two perceptual consequences of neural adaptation in the visual system: afterimages and aftereffects. Viewing specific visual stimuli under binocular or monocular conditions with interocular transfer permits several concepts to be observed and discussed, including neural adaptation, anatomical and functional segregation of visual system pathways, and the relationship among visual system structure, function, and perception. This article discusses how to produce and present the required visual stimuli, suggests a set of questions to stimulate critical thinking, and presents student evaluation of this activity. PMID:12189128

  18. School Psychology Awareness: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Andrea; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    A day in the life of a student at school is filled with potential connections (relationships, linkages in learning, behavioral choices, etc.). Friendships with peers, relationships with teachers, acknowledgements from administrators, encouragement from coaches: These are all interpersonal connections that are essential not only to making school an…

  19. Observations by a University Anatomy Teacher and a Suggestion for Curricular Change: Integrative Anatomy for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darda, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The observation that anatomical course offerings have decreased in undergraduate biology curricula is supported by a survey of undergraduate institutions in the state of Washington. This reduction, due partially to increased emphasis in other areas of the biology curriculum, along with the lack of anatomy prerequisites for admission to most…

  20. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice…

  1. The zebrafish anatomy and stage ontologies: representing the anatomy and development of Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Zebrafish Anatomy Ontology (ZFA) is an OBO Foundry ontology that is used in conjunction with the Zebrafish Stage Ontology (ZFS) to describe the gross and cellular anatomy and development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, from single cell zygote to adult. The zebrafish model organism database (ZFIN) uses the ZFA and ZFS to annotate phenotype and gene expression data from the primary literature and from contributed data sets. Results The ZFA models anatomy and development with a subclass hierarchy, a partonomy, and a developmental hierarchy and with relationships to the ZFS that define the stages during which each anatomical entity exists. The ZFA and ZFS are developed utilizing OBO Foundry principles to ensure orthogonality, accessibility, and interoperability. The ZFA has 2860 classes representing a diversity of anatomical structures from different anatomical systems and from different stages of development. Conclusions The ZFA describes zebrafish anatomy and development semantically for the purposes of annotating gene expression and anatomical phenotypes. The ontology and the data have been used by other resources to perform cross-species queries of gene expression and phenotype data, providing insights into genetic relationships, morphological evolution, and models of human disease. PMID:24568621

  2. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  3. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  4. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  5. Synthetic morphology: prospects for engineered, self-constructing anatomies

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jamie A

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines prospects for applying the emerging techniques of synthetic biology to the field of anatomy, with the aim of programming cells to organize themselves into specific, novel arrangements, structures and tissues. There are two main reasons why developing this hybrid discipline – synthetic morphology – would be useful. The first is that having a way to engineer self-constructing assemblies of cells would provide a powerful means of tissue engineering for clinical use in surgery and regenerative medicine. The second is that construction of simple novel systems according to theories of morphogenesis gained from study of real embryos will provide a means of testing those theories rigorously, something that is very difficult to do by manipulation of complex embryos. This paper sets out the engineering requirements for synthetic morphology, which include the development of a library of sensor modules, regulatory modules and effector modules that can be connected functionally within cells. A substantial number of sensor and regulatory modules already exist and this paper argues that some potential effector modules have already been identified. The necessary library may therefore be within reach. The paper ends by suggesting a set of challenges, ranging from simple to complex, the achievement of which would provide valuable proofs of concept. PMID:18510501

  6. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal. PMID:27278889

  7. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology. PMID:22699003

  8. Hallux Rigidus: Relevant Anatomy and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Douglas E; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Hallux rigidus is a painful condition of the great toe characterized by restriction of the metatarsophalangeal joint arc of motion and progressive osteophyte formation. Precise cause of hallux rigidus remains under debate. Anatomic variations and historical, clinical, and radiographic findings have been implicated in the development and progression of hallux rigidus. Radiologic findings associated with hallux rigidus include metatarsal head osteochondral defects, altered metatarsal head morphology, and an elevated hallux interphalangeus angle measure. Associated historical findings include a positive family history and history of trauma to the joint. An understanding of relevant anatomy and pathophysiology is essential during the approach to hallux rigidus treatment. PMID:26320553

  9. From college to clinic: reasoning over memorization is key for understanding anatomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sue Ann; Perrotti, William; Silverthorn, Dee U; Dalley, Arthur F; Rarey, Kyle E

    2002-04-15

    Anatomy and physiology are taught in community colleges, liberal arts colleges, universities, and medical schools. The goals of the students vary, but educators in these diverse settings agree that success hinges on learning concepts rather than memorizing facts. In this article, educators from across the postsecondary educational spectrum expand on several points: (1) There is a problem with student perception that anatomy is endless memorization, whereas the ability to manage information and use reasoning to solve problems are ways that professionals work. This misperception causes students to approach the subject with the wrong attitude. (2) The process of learning to use information is as important as the concepts themselves. Using understanding to explain and make connections is a more useful long-term lesson than is memorization. Anatomy should be presented and learned as a dynamic basis for problem solving and for application in the practice and delivery of quality health care. (3) Integration of form and function must be explicit and universal across all systems. (4) Using only models, images, audiovisuals, or computers cannot lead students to the requisite reasoning that comes from investigative dissection of real tissue. (5) Some undergraduate courses require students to memorize excessive musculoskeletal detail. (6) Learning tissue biology is a particular struggle for medical students who have no background from an undergraduate course. (7) Medical professors and students see benefits when students have taken undergraduate courses in anatomy, histology, and physiology. If medical schools suggest these electives to applicants, medical students might arrive better prepared and, thus, be able to learn clinical correlations more efficiently in the limited allocated time of medical school curricula. PMID:12001213

  10. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marc E. H.; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O’Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. Conclusions/Significance In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex. PMID:23144831

  11. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  12. Measuring Change in Professionalism Attitudes during the Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William G., Jr.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course.…

  13. Using Multimedia and Web3D to Enhance Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Harry; Hernandez, Juan; Bello, Fernando; Strutton, Paul; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Firth, Tony; Darzi, Ara

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy teaching is undergoing significant changes due to time constraints, limited availability of cadavers and technological developments in the areas of three-dimensional modelling and computer-assisted learning. This paper gives an overview of methods used to teach anatomy to undergraduate medical students and discusses the educational…

  14. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and learn a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes…

  15. The Use of Creative Projects in a Gross Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Nguyen, Vincent; Mourra, Sarah; Ross, Marianne; Thai, Trung; Leonard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students often describe the gross anatomy course as both stressful and a rite of passage. Research differs as to whether the stress it engenders is significant or transitory. This qualitative study of first year anatomy student reports on the use of optional creative projects to promote reflection and reduce stress. Methods:…

  16. Normal Penile, Scrotal, and Perineal Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Moira E.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Lightner, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    A broad overview is provided of the normal anatomy of the male genitalia to offer the best surgical outcomes in cases related to congenital abnormalities, trauma, cancer-related extirpation, and aesthetics. Neural and vascular anatomy is discussed in depth due to its critical role in maintaining function and in assuring tissue viability. PMID:22851909

  17. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  18. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative longitudinal…

  19. Anatomy "Steeplechase" Online: Necessity Sometimes Is the Catalyst for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Al Rawahy, Maimouna; Taranikanti, Varna; Habbal, Omar

    2011-01-01

    In most medical schools, summative practical examination in Anatomy usually takes the format of a "steeplechase" ("spotters" or "bell ringers") conducted in the gross anatomy laboratory using cadaveric material and prosected specimens. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in WebCT[TM] and…

  20. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  1. Evaluation of a Gross Anatomy Program Without Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norbert A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An experimental multimedia gross anatomy program for freshman medical students at Emory University includes audiovisuals, computer-assisted instruction, and tutorial sessions using prosected specimens. No lectures or dissection are included. A comparative study shows that multimedia students learned human anatomy as well as those in traditional…

  2. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  3. Student-Directed Fresh Tissue Anatomy Course for Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare providers in all areas and levels of education depend on their knowledge of anatomy for daily practice. As educators, we are challenged with teaching the anatomical sciences in creative, integrated ways and often within a condensed time frame. This article describes the organization of a clinical anatomy course with a peer taught…

  4. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student. PMID:18160994

  5. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  6. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  7. Perceptions of Anatomy: Critical Components in the Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Michelle D.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Leong, Shou Ling; Kauffman, Gordon L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in undergraduate medical school curricula has significantly impacted anatomy education. This study investigated the perceived role of clinical anatomy and evaluated perceptions of medical students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge in the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to enhance anatomical educational…

  8. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  9. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  10. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  11. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  12. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part One, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the first volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes discussions…

  13. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  14. A Minimally Invasive Approach to Undergraduate Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Madani, Hardi; Paraskeva, Paraskevas A.; Darzi, Ara

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the cornerstones of medical education. Unfortunately, sufficient evidence has accumulated to suggest a worldwide decline in the resources and time allocated to its teaching. Integration of anatomy with clinical medicine has been frequently advocated as the solution to this academic crisis. Consequently, new ways of harnessing…

  15. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures. PMID:26589693

  16. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  17. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26646315

  18. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  19. Corpus callosum: microsurgical anatomy and MRI.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Ferreira, A J; Herculano-Carvalho, M; Melancia, J P; Farias, J P; Gomes, L

    2001-01-01

    The anatomy of the corpus callosum has received renewed interest during recent years due to the increasing number of callosotomies performed to treat intraventricular lesions, as well as some forms of generalized epilepsy. We have previously reported on the microsurgical anatomy of the corpus callosum and identified specific anatomical reference landmarks that can be used during surgery. In the present study we have continued the anatomical aspect of this earlier work in a larger number of cases, with in vitro observations (brain out of skull) being compared with the corresponding in vivo features seen in sagittal MRI slices. Fifty-three in vitro microsurgical callosotomies was performed and the data collected compared with a series of 57 in vivo normal MR callosal images. Callosal dimensions were measured on both the anatomical and MRI material, thus overcoming the problems associated with in vitro callosal deformation. Of the anatomical landmarks studied the distance from the genu of the corpus callosum to the bifurcation of the columns of the fornix was found to be useful for the intraoperative evaluation of the extent of rostral callosotomy, as it is not significantly changed in in vitro. The main microsurgical features of rostral callosotomy are presented. PMID:11963623

  20. Professional storytelling in clinical dental anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class, consisting of 12 questions that students had to answer on a Likert scale of 1-5. An overall satisfaction score was obtained and we used a linear mixed model to compare differences in satisfaction between the two groups, with "group" as the fixed effect. We also conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the responses to investigate whether there were distinct constructs within the data. Overall satisfaction is high, with students "with stories" having higher satisfaction than those "without stories." The former group consistently gives higher satisfaction scores, regardless of which question is being asked. Factor analysis provides evidence that storytelling nurtures reflective learning, while students work on their clinical anatomy problems. PMID:19177386

  1. Anatomy of A Local Scale Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Ines, A. V. M.; Das, N. N.; Khedun, P.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is of global concern for society but it originates as a local problem. It has a significant impact on water quantity and quality and influences food, water, and energy security. The consequences of drought vary in space and time, from the local scale (e.g. county level) to regional scale (e.g. state or country level) to global scale. This study addresses a local-scale agricultural drought anatomy in Story County in Iowa, USA. This complex problem was evaluated using assimilated AMSR-E soil moisture and MODIS-LAI data into a crop model to generate surface and sub-surface drought indices to explore the anatomy of an agricultural drought. It was found that both surface and subsurface droughts have an impact on crop yields, albeit with different magnitudes, however, the total water available in the soil profile seemed to have a greater impact on the yield. We envisaged that the results of this study will enhance our understanding of agricultural droughts in different parts of the world.

  2. Obscuring Surface Anatomy in Volumetric Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The identifying or sensitive anatomical features in MR and CT images used in research raise patient privacy concerns when such data are shared. In order to protect human subject privacy, we developed a method of anatomical surface modification and investigated the effects of such modification on image statistics and common neuroimaging processing tools. Common approaches to obscuring facial features typically remove large portions of the voxels. The approach described here focuses on blurring the anatomical surface instead, to avoid impinging on areas of interest and hard edges that can confuse processing tools. The algorithm proceeds by extracting a thin boundary layer containing surface anatomy from a region of interest. This layer is then “stretched” and “flattened” to fit into a thin “box” volume. After smoothing along a plane roughly parallel to anatomy surface, this volume is transformed back onto the boundary layer of the original data. The above method, named normalized anterior filtering, was coded in MATLAB and applied on a number of high resolution MR and CT scans. To test its effect on automated tools, we compared the output of selected common skull stripping and MR gain field correction methods used on unmodified and obscured data. With this paper, we hope to improve the understanding of the effect of surface deformation approaches on the quality of de-identified data and to provide a useful de-identification tool for MR and CT acquisitions. PMID:22968671

  3. Arthroscopic Anatomy of the Ankle Joint.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ronald G

    2016-10-01

    There are a number of variations in the intra-articular anatomy of the ankle which should not be considered pathological under all circumstances. The anteromedial corner of the tibial plafond (between the anterior edge of the tibial plafond and the medial malleolus) can have a notch, void of cartilage and bone. This area can appear degenerative arthroscopically; it is actually a normal variant of the articular surface. The anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITF) can possess a lower, accessory band which can impinge on the anterolateral edge of the talar dome. In some cases it can cause irritation along this area of the talus laterally. If it is creating local irritation it can be removed since it does not provide any additional stabilization to the syndesmosis. There is a beveled region at the anterior leading edge of the lateral and dorsal surfaces of the talus laterally. This triangular region is void of cartilage and subchondral bone. The lack of talar structure in this region allows the lower portion of the AITF ligament to move over the talus during end range dorsiflexion of the ankle, preventing impingement. The variation in talar anatomy for this area should not be considered pathological. PMID:27599433

  4. Connectivity between the superior colliculus and the amygdala in humans and macaque monkeys: virtual dissection with probabilistic DTI tractography

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Kristin; Bultitude, Janet H.; Mullins, Paul; Ward, Robert; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that some cortically blind patients can process the emotional valence of visual stimuli via a fast, subcortical pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) that reaches the amygdala via the pulvinar. We provide in vivo evidence for connectivity between the SC and the amygdala via the pulvinar in both humans and rhesus macaques. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a streamlined path that passes dorsolaterally through the pulvinar before arcing rostrally to traverse above the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and connect to the lateral amygdala. To obviate artifactual connectivity with crossing fibers of the stria terminalis, the stria was also dissected. The putative streamline between the SC and amygdala traverses above the temporal horn dorsal to the stria terminalis and is positioned medial to it in humans and lateral to it in monkeys. The topography of the streamline was examined in relation to lesion anatomy in five patients who had previously participated in behavioral experiments studying the processing of emotionally valenced visual stimuli. The pulvinar lesion interrupted the streamline in two patients who had exhibited contralesional processing deficits and spared the streamline in three patients who had no deficit. Although not definitive, this evidence supports the existence of a subcortical pathway linking the SC with the amygdala in primates. It also provides a necessary bridge between behavioral data obtained in future studies of neurological patients, and any forthcoming evidence from more invasive techniques, such as anatomical tracing studies and electrophysiological investigations only possible in nonhuman species. PMID:26224780

  5. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects: A live gross anatomy and cadaveric histological study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA.This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry.Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of blepharoplasty

  6. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set I: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the first part in a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following topics: (1) organization of the human body; (2) biochemistry and microbiology; (3) infection,…

  7. Connecting thermoelectric performance and topological-insulator behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-20

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this paper, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3. The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We also discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  8. Brain anatomy changes associated with persistent neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gustin, S M; Wrigley, P J; Siddall, P J; Henderson, L A

    2010-06-01

    Persistent neuropathic pain commonly occurs following spinal cord injury (SCI). It remains one of the most challenging management problems in this condition. In order to develop more effective treatments, a better understanding of the neural changes associated with neuropathic SCI pain is required. The aim of this investigation was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to determine if persistent neuropathic pain following SCI is associated with changes in regional brain anatomy and connectivity. In 23 subjects with complete thoracic SCI, 12 with below-level neuropathic pain and 11 without pain, and 45 healthy control subjects, a series of whole-brain DTI scans were performed. The mean diffusivity (MD) of each voxel was calculated and values compared between groups. This analysis revealed that neuropathic pain following SCI is associated with significant differences in regional brain anatomy. These anatomical changes were located in pain-related regions as well as regions of the classic reward circuitry, that is, the nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal cortices. The right posterior parietal cortex projected to most regions that displayed an anatomical change. Analysis of the fiber tracts connecting areas of MD differences revealed no significance differences in MD values between the SCI pain, SCI no pain, and control groups. PMID:19815621

  9. Does tunica anatomy matter in penile implant?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng-Shuen; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Overall prosthesis survival is important in penile implant, which remains the final viable solution to many patients with refractory erectile dysfunction (ED). This paper is to retrospectively study the role of the anatomy of tunica albuginea (TA). Methods From March 1987 to March 1991 while the TA was regarded as a circumferential single layer, 21 organically ED men, aged from 27 to 77, received penile prosthesis implantation and were allocated to conventional group. From August 1992 to March 2013 while the tip of Hegar’s dilator was categorically directed medial-dorsally during corporal dilatation derived from newfound TA as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat, 196 ED males, aged from 35 to 83, underwent penile implant and were categorized to advanced group. The model of prosthesis was recorded. Prosthesis loss rate and survival time were analyzed and the follow up period ranged from 22.4-26.4 (average 24.3) years and 0.4-20.6 (average 15.8) years to the conventional and advanced group respectively. Results To the conventional and advanced group, the number of inflatable and rigid type prosthesis used were 2, 19 and 15, 181 respectively, whereas the prosthesis loss was encountered in 50.0% (1/2), 15.8% (3/19) and 0.0% (0/15), 0.6% (1/181) respectively. And the prosthesis survival time were 5.1-6.3 (5.7) years, 1.3-26.4 (15.2) years and 6.1-16.2 (11.2) years, 0.4-20.6 (15.3) years to the conventional and advanced group respectively. Statistical significance was noted on prosthesis loss in groups (P=0.01) while the Mentor Acuform stood out in prosthesis survival. Conclusions Anatomy-based managing maneuver appears to deliver better surgery success in penile implant. Tunica anatomy is significant in performing implant surgery. PMID:26816839

  10. Anatomy of the Adductor Magnus Origin

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Mitchel R.; Broski, Stephen M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Collins, Mark S.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Purpose: To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The gross anatomy and architecture of the proximal hamstring and AM tendons were studied. After dissecting the hamstring tendons away from their origin, the dimension, shape, and orientation of the tendon footprints on the ischial tuberosity were determined. Results: The AM was identified in all cadaveric specimens. The mean tendon thickness (anterior to posterior [AP]) was 5.7 ± 2.9 mm. The mean tendon width (medial to lateral [ML]) was 7.1 ± 2.2 mm. The mean tendon length was 13.1 ± 8.7 cm. The mean footprint height (AP dimension) was 12.1 ± 2.9 mm, and mean footprint width (ML dimension) was 17.3 ± 7.1 mm. The mean distance between the AM footprint and the most medial aspect of the conjoint tendon footprint was 8.5 ± 4.2 mm. Tendon measurements demonstrated a considerable degree of both intra- and interspecimen variability. Conclusion: The AM tendon is consistently present just medial to the conjoint tendon at the ischial tuberosity, representing the lateral-most portion of the AM muscle. This study found wide variation in the dimensional characteristics of the AM tendon between specimens. Its shape and location can mimic the appearance of an intact hamstring (conjoint or semimembranosus) tendon intraoperatively or on diagnostic imaging, potentially misleading surgeons and radiologists. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the AM tendon anatomy, footprint anatomy, and its relationship to the hamstring muscle complex is paramount when planning surgical approach and technique

  11. Device Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have to take numerous factors/data into their therapeutic decisions in daily life. Connecting the devices they are using by feeding the data generated into a database/app is supposed to help patients to optimize their glycemic control. As this is not established in practice, the different roadblocks have to be discussed to open the road. That large telecommunication companies are now entering this market might be a big help in pushing this forward. Smartphones offer an ideal platform for connectivity solutions. PMID:25614015

  12. Microsurgical anatomy of the arterial basket of the conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Kalani, M Yashar S; Lemole, G Michael; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The arterial basket of the conus medullaris (ABCM) consists of 1 or 2 arteries arising from the anterior spinal artery (ASA) and circumferentially connecting the ASA and the posterior spinal arteries (PSAs). The arterial basket can be involved in arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous malformations of the conus. In this article, the authors describe the microsurgical anatomy of the ABCM with emphasis on its morphometric parameters and important role in the intrinsic blood supply of the conus medullaris. METHODS The authors performed microsurgical dissections on 16 formalin-fixed human spinal cords harvested within 24 hours of death. The course, diameter, and branching angles of the arteries comprising the ABCM were then identified and measured. In addition, histological sections were obtained to identify perforating vessels arising from the ABCM. RESULTS The ASA tapers as it nears the conus medullaris (mean preconus diameter 0.7 ± 0.12 mm vs mean conus diameter 0.38 ± 0.08 mm). The ASA forms an anastomotic basket with the posterior spinal artery (PSA) via anastomotic branches. In most of the specimens (n= 13, 81.3%), bilateral arteries formed connections between the ASA and PSA. However, in the remaining specimens (n= 3, 18.7%), a unilateral right-sided anastomotic artery was identified. The mean diameter of the right ABCM branch was 0.49 ± 0.13 mm, and the mean diameter of the left branch was 0.53 ± 0.14 mm. The mean branching angles of the arteries forming the anastomotic basket were 95.9° ± 36.6° and 90° ± 34.3° for the right- and left-sided arteries, respectively. In cases of bilateral arterial anastomoses between the ASA and PSA, the mean distance between the origins of the arteries was 4.5 ± 3.3 mm. Histological analysis revealed numerous perforating vessels supplying tissue of the conus medullaris. CONCLUSIONS The ABCM is a critical anastomotic connection between the ASA and PSA, which play an important role in the intrinsic blood supply

  13. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales).

    PubMed

    Martins, Shirley; Alves, Marccus; Scatena, Vera L

    2015-01-01

    Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid) have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis) in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed in Eleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments. PMID:26628020

  14. Oral anatomy laboratory examinations in a physical therapy program.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days. During the time that a tagged examination is being created, student productivity may be reduced as the anatomy laboratory is inaccessible to students. Further, the type of questions that can be asked in a tagged laboratory examination may limit student assessment to lower level cognitive abilities and may limit the instructors' ability to assess the students' understanding of anatomical and clinical concepts. Anatomy is a foundational science in the Physical Therapy curriculum and a thorough understanding of anatomy is necessary to progress through the subsequent clinical courses. Physical therapy curricula have evolved to reflect the changing role of physical therapists to primary caregivers by introducing a greater scope of clinical courses earlier in the curriculum. Physical therapy students must have a thorough understanding of clinical anatomy early in the education process. However, traditional anatomy examination methods may not be reflective of the clinical thought processes required of physical therapy students. Traditional laboratory examination methods also reduce student productivity by limiting access during examination set-up and breakdown. To provide a greater complexity of questions and reduced overall laboratory time required for examinations, the Physical Therapy Program at Mercer University has introduced oral laboratory examinations for the gross anatomy course series. PMID:23225627

  15. A history of anatomy theaters in sixteenth-century Padua.

    PubMed

    Klestinec, Cynthia

    2004-07-01

    The history of anatomy includes not only professors and the support of their institutions but also medical students. Because medical students were quick to assess a teacher's pedagogy, their complaints tell us a great deal about the transition from Galenic to Aristotelian projects of anatomy. When Fabricius of Aquapendente instituted a new style of anatomical inquiry, one based on Aristotle and the search for universal principles, students repeatedly complained that his demonstrations did not provide technical education in structural anatomy (as demonstrations employing a hands-on, Galenic pedagogy did). Within the new anatomy theater (the second of its kind in Padua), however, students were persuaded to accept Fabricius's demonstrations. Fabricius's philosophical orientation combined with the formal atmosphere and aesthetic features of the new theater to create anatomy demonstrations that relied on orations and music for their structure (rather than on the progressive stages of human dissection). A place that emphasized a discourse of anatomy as the study of the "secrets of nature," the new theater so effectively publicized a new style of anatomy that a larger, more diverse group of spectators attended subsequent demonstrations and participated in the celebration of leading academic figures as well as the institution of the university. PMID:15270335

  16. Anatomy of a Lactococcal Phage Tail†

    PubMed Central

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Vogensen, Finn K.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae λ has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with λ with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with λ and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures. PMID:16707689

  17. Left Atrial Anatomy Relevant to Catheter Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Cabrera, José Angel; Saremi, Farhood

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of interventional procedures for the treatment of arrhythmias in humans, especially the use of catheter ablation techniques, has renewed interest in cardiac anatomy. Although the substrates of atrial fibrillation (AF), its initiation and maintenance, remain to be fully elucidated, catheter ablation in the left atrium (LA) has become a common therapeutic option for patients with this arrhythmia. Using ablation catheters, various isolation lines and focal targets are created, the majority of which are based on gross anatomical, electroanatomical, and myoarchitectual patterns of the left atrial wall. Our aim was therefore to review the gross morphological and architectural features of the LA and their relations to extracardiac structures. The latter have also become relevant because extracardiac complications of AF ablation can occur, due to injuries to the phrenic and vagal plexus nerves, adjacent coronary arteries, or the esophageal wall causing devastating consequences. PMID:25057427

  18. Anatomy of an Elementary Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Andrew J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1998-09-01

    The alchemists of old sought the knowledge to transform one material to another-for example, base metals into gold-as a path to the elixir of life. As chemists have concerned themselves with the transformation from compound to compound, so they have become involved in trying to uncover the structures of molecules and the pathways that reactions follow. Classically, the study of reaction mechanisms in chemistry encompasses reaction kinetics, the study of velocities or rates of reactions, and reaction dynamics, the study of the nanoscopic motion and rearrangement of atoms during a reactive event. An essential aim of this article is to bring the reader to a favorable vantage point with a brief introduction to reactive dynamics, and from there to describe some examples of recent strategies that have been employed to promote a fundamental understanding of the anatomy of elementary chemical reactions. In the final section we ponder future directions for this rapidly evolving field of research.

  19. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    PubMed

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  20. Guyon Canal: The Evolution of Clinical Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Maroukis, Brianna L.; Ogawa, Takeshi; Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    The eponym “Guyon canal” refers to the ulnar tunnel at the wrist that was named after the French surgeon Jean Casimir Félix Guyon who first described this space in 1861. After Guyon’s discovery, clinicians have focused their interest on symptoms caused by compression of structures occupying this canal (later named ulnar tunnel syndrome, or Guyon syndrome). However disagreement and confusion persisted over the correct anatomical boundaries and terminology used to describe the ulnar tunnel. Through anatomical investigation and evolving clinical case studies, the current understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar tunnel was established. This article examines the evolution of the anatomical description of the ulnar tunnel and its relevant clinical associations, and casts light on the life and contributions of Jean Casimir Félix Guyon. PMID:25446410

  1. Spinal Cord Anatomy and Clinical Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Eric; Morales, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn. Damage to the unilateral corticospinal tract (upper motor neuron information) or gracillis-cuneatus fasciculi (touch and vibration) correlates with ipsilateral clinical findings, whereas damage to unilateral spinothalamic tract (pain-temperature) correlates with contralateral clinical findings. Damage to commissural fibers correlates with a suspended bilateral "girdle" sensory level. Autonomic dysfunction is expected when there is bilateral cord involvement. PMID:27616310

  2. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space.

    PubMed

    J Salata, Michael; J Nho, Shane; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Van Thiel, Geoffrey; Ghodadra, Neil; Dwyer, Tim; A Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears. PMID:24191185

  3. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. PMID:24746380

  4. Marcello Malpighi: the father of microscopic anatomy.

    PubMed

    DiDio, L J

    1995-01-01

    Biographical data of Malpighi to justify naming him "the father of microscopic anatomy", as he used the microscope, soon after its invention, to study and discover and accurately describe many biological, particularly anatomical, structures. Although he utilized the microscope as a scientific instrument, his ideas, innovations and discoveries caused such an opposition that the microscope could be considered as Malpighi's weapon to start a scientific revolution. He was a naturalist for whom the "natural world, known and experienced scientifically, was all that existed". He was also a "cardiocentrist", who opposed Galen's "hepatocentrism". Several anatomical structures known eponymically to honor Malpighi are listed followed by their synonyms. Malpighi is another example of a genius as an extraordinary man who stood on the shoulders of giants, such as Galilei, Hans and Zacharias Janssen, Borelli, Harvey, B. Massari, among others. PMID:11322304

  5. Functional reorganization of the brain in humans following spinal cord injury: evidence for underlying changes in cortical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Luke A; Gustin, Sylvia M; Macey, Paul M; Wrigley, Paul J; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-02-16

    Loss of somatosensory drive results in functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). While the phenomenon of functional cortical reorganization is well established, it remains unknown whether in humans, functional reorganization results from changes in brain anatomy, or simply reflects an unmasking of already existing dormant synapses. In 20 subjects with complete thoracic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) and 23 controls, we used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether SI reorganization was associated with changes in SI anatomy. SCI resulted in a significant SI reorganization, with the little finger representation moving medially toward the lower body representation (i.e., area of sensory loss). Furthermore, although SCI was associated with gray matter volume loss in the lower body representation, this loss was minimized as reorganization increased. That is, the greater the medial shift in little finger representation, the greater the gray matter preservation in the lower body representation. In addition, in the region of greatest SI reorganization (little finger), fractional anisotropy was correlated with SI reorganization. That is, as SI reorganization increased, the extent of aligned structures decreased. Finally, although thalamocortical fibers remained unchanged, the ease and direction of water movement within the little finger representation was altered, being directed more toward the midline in SCI subjects. These data show that SI reorganization following SCI is associated with changes in SI anatomy and provide compelling evidence that SI reorganization in humans results from the growth of new lateral connections, and not simply from the unmasking of already existing lateral connections. PMID:21325531

  6. The anatomy of the hip abductor muscles.

    PubMed

    Flack, N A M S; Nicholson, H D; Woodley, S J

    2014-03-01

    The anatomy of the hip abductors has not been comprehensively examined, yet is important to understanding function and pathology in the gluteal region. For example, pathology of the hip abductor muscle-tendon complexes can cause greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be associated with gluteal atrophy and fatty infiltration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of gluteus medius (GMed), gluteus minimus (GMin), and tensor fascia lata (TFL), and determine whether the muscles comprised anatomical compartments. The gluteal region from 12 cadavers was dissected and data collected on attachment sites, volume, fascicular and tendinous anatomy, and innervation. Three sites of GMed origin were identified (gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posteroinferior edge of the iliac crest) and the distal tendon had lateral and posterior parts. GMed was the largest in volume (27.6 ± 11.6 cm(3); GMin 14.1 ± 11.1 cm(3); TFL 1.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Fascicles of GMin originated from the gluteal fossa, inserting onto the deep surface of its distal tendon and the hip joint capsule. TFL was encapsulated in the fascia lata, having no bony attachment. Primary innervation patterns varied for GMed, with three or four branches supplying different regions of muscle. Distinct secondary nerve branches entered four regions of GMin; no differential innervation was observed for TFL. On the basis of architectural parameters and innervation, GMed, and GMin each comprise of four compartments but TFL is a homogenous muscle. It is anticipated that these data will be useful for future clinical and functional studies of the hip abductors. PMID:23625344

  7. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  8. Get Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Hagevik, Rita; Adkinson, Bennett; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Technology can be both a blessing and a curse in the classroom. Although technology can provide greater access to information and increase student engagement, if screen time replaces time spent outside, then students stand to lose awareness and connectivity to the surrounding natural environment. This article describes how Google Earth can foster…

  9. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillen, Ian

    2014-01-01

    "We used to send out books that looked like this," says Barbara Dreyer, as she holds the 500-page volume from one of the first-ever courses offered online by Connections Academy. "You could look at this information online, but, frankly, a lot of people were doing this," she adds, thumbing through the book's pages. Dreyer,…

  10. Learning Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Regina D.; Richards, Patricia O.

    2005-01-01

    In this edition of Learning Connections, the authors show how technology can enhance study of weather patterns, reading comprehension, real-world training, critical thinking, health education, and art criticism. The following sections are included: (1) Social Studies; (2) Language Arts; (3) Computer Science and ICT; (4) Art; and (5) Health.…

  11. College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Scalzo, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Oakwood City School District's College Connection Study, which is now in its eighth year. The purpose of the study is to help the educators in the district learn how to effectively prepare students for success in the colleges of their choice. Teachers, administrators, and other staff members travel to colleges to conduct…

  12. Constructive, Collaborative, Contextual, and Self-Directed Learning in Surface Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Esther M.; Sieben, Judith M.; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and…

  13. Michelangelo: anatomy and its implication in his art.

    PubMed

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2009-06-01

    Michelangelo's major interest was the Life of the Soul as expressed in the beautiful structure and movement of the human body, which he often called the "mortal veil" of the divine intentions. This study ascertains Michelangelo's interest in and acquisition of the knowledge of human anatomy, the use of small anatomical models to crystallize his concepts into reality and the application of anatomy to his art. Relatively little is known of this interaction between anatomy and art in Michelangelo's life and work. PMID:20027756

  14. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. PMID:26880505

  15. Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

  16. The Steroids/Sports Supplements Connection: Pragmatism and Sensation-Seeking in the Attitudes and Behavior of JHS and HS Students on Long Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, C. Roger; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Lewis, Dawn K.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the importance of sensation seeking and pragmatism in the steroids and sports supplements behavior and attitudes of high school and junior high school students on Long Island, New York. Steroid use is much less acceptable than sports supplement use, although the reasons for use are similar. Respondents use supplements…

  17. Connecting with Parents: Mothers' Depressive Symptoms and Responsive Behaviors in the Regulation of Social Contact by One- and Young Two-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Cheng, Nina; Day, William H.

    2009-01-01

    When children act to involve mothers in positive interaction, they influence the amount, timing, and content of parent-child exchanges. By assessing children's smiling and positive initiation, we examined child behaviors that function to create positive interaction. In a non-clinical North American sample of 103 mothers and their 14- to…

  18. Technique and nuances of an S-2 alar iliac screw for lumbosacral fixation in patients with transitional and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Junichi; Vogel, Todd D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berven, Sigurd; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screw fixation has recently been recognized as a useful technique for pelvic fixation. The authors demonstrate two cases where S2AI fixation was indicated: one case was a sacral insufficiency fracture following a long-segment fusion in a patient with a transitional S-1 vertebra; the other case involved pseudarthrosis following lumbosacral fixation. S2AI screws offer rigid fixation, low profile, and allow easy connection to the lumbosacral rod. The authors describe and demonstrate the surgical technique and nuances for the S2AI screw in a case with transitional S-1 anatomy and in a case with normal S-1 anatomy. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Sj21lk13_aw . PMID:27364429

  19. A case of flying insects visiting an anatomy and embalming laboratory in Medellín, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amat, Eduardo; Serna-Giraldo, Claudia; Antia-Montoya, German

    2016-10-01

    From July to September of 2012, the fauna of flying insects visiting the anatomy and embalming laboratory of the Tecnológico de Antioquia, Faculty of Forensic Sciences, located in the city of Medellin, Colombia, were recorded. The first checklist in the literature of incidental flying insects occurring in this type of locale is provided, and a brief discussion is given of their behavioral habits related to this uncommon case. PMID:27491015

  20. Surgical anatomy of the pectoral nerves and the pectoral musculature.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    The pectoral nerves (PNs) may be selectively injured through various traumatic mechanisms such as direct trauma, hypertrophic muscle compression, and iatrogenic injuries (breast surgery and axillary node dissection, pectoralis major muscle transfers). The PN may be surgically recovered through nerve transfers. They may also be used as donors to the musculocutaneous, axillary, long thoracic, and spinal accessory nerves and for reinnervation of myocutaneous free flaps. Thus, in this article, we reviewed the surgical anatomy of PN. A meta-analysis of the available literature showed that the lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) arises most frequently with two branches from the anterior divisions of the upper and middle trunks (33.8%) or as a single root from the lateral cord (23.4%). The medial pectoral nerve (MPN) usually arises from the medial cord (49.3%), anterior division of the lower trunk (43.8%), or lower trunk (4.7%). The two PN are usually connected immediately distal to the thoracoacromial artery by the so-called ansa pectoralis. The MPN may also show communications with the intercostobrachial nerve. In 50%-100% of cases, it may pass, at least with some branches, through the pectoralis minor muscle. The LPN supplies the upper portions of the pectoralis major muscle; the MPN innervates the lower parts of the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor muscle. Among the accessory muscles of the pectoral girdle, the LPN may also innervate the tensor semivaginae articulationis humero-scapularis, pectoralis minimus, sternoclavicularis, axillary arch, sternalis, and infraclavicularis muscles; the MPN may innervate the pectoralis quartus, chondrofascialis, axillary arch, chondroepitrochlearis, and sternalis muscles. PMID:22125052

  1. How-To-Do-It: Pig Foot Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Paula M.

    1988-01-01

    Described is an activity used to introduce the anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems. A teacher conducted, video enhanced demonstration and a student activity are discussed. Included is a sample student laboratory paper. (CW)

  2. Teaching of clinical anatomy in rheumatology: a review of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Torralba, Karina D; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Evelyn, Christine M; Koolaee, R Michelle; Kalish, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Clinical anatomy may be defined as anatomy that is applied to the care of the patient. It is the foundation of a well-informed physical examination that is so important in rheumatologic practice. Unfortunately, there is both documented and observed evidence of a significant deficiency in the teaching and performance of a competent musculoskeletal examination at multiple levels of medical education including in rheumatology trainees. At the Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in Boston, MA, that took place in November 2014, a Clinical Anatomy Study Group met to share techniques of teaching clinical anatomy to rheumatology fellows, residents, and students. Techniques that were reviewed included traditional anatomic diagrams, hands-on cross-examination, cadaver study, and musculoskeletal ultrasound. The proceedings of the Study Group section are described in this review. PMID:26037454

  3. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  4. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  5. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  6. Computed tomography of the sacrum: 1. normal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, M.A.; Gold, R.P.

    1982-12-01

    The sacrum of a disarticulated pelvis was scanned with a Pfizer 0450 computed tomographic scanner using contiguous 5 mm sections to display the normal computed tomographic anatomy of the sacrum. These anatomic sections were then compared with normal sacrums. In analyzing the computed tomographic anatomy, emphasis was placed on the central canal and sacral foramina, in that these landmarks are important in determining not only the presence but also the type of pathology involving the sacrum.

  7. Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus. PMID:24386595

  8. The teleost anatomy ontology: anatomical representation for the genomics age.

    PubMed

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Lundberg, John G; Midford, Peter E; Balhoff, James P; Lapp, Hilmar; Vision, Todd J; Haendel, Melissa A; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2010-07-01

    The rich knowledge of morphological variation among organisms reported in the systematic literature has remained in free-text format, impractical for use in large-scale synthetic phylogenetic work. This noncomputable format has also precluded linkage to the large knowledgebase of genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotype data in model organism databases. We have undertaken an effort to prototype a curated, ontology-based evolutionary morphology database that maps to these genetic databases (http://kb.phenoscape.org) to facilitate investigation into the mechanistic basis and evolution of phenotypic diversity. Among the first requirements in establishing this database was the development of a multispecies anatomy ontology with the goal of capturing anatomical data in a systematic and computable manner. An ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts with defined relationships between those concepts. Multispecies anatomy ontologies in particular are an efficient way to represent the diversity of morphological structures in a clade of organisms, but they present challenges in their development relative to single-species anatomy ontologies. Here, we describe the Teleost Anatomy Ontology (TAO), a multispecies anatomy ontology for teleost fishes derived from the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology (ZFA) for the purpose of annotating varying morphological features across species. To facilitate interoperability with other anatomy ontologies, TAO uses the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology as a template for its upper level nodes, and TAO and ZFA are synchronized, with zebrafish terms specified as subtypes of teleost terms. We found that the details of ontology architecture have ramifications for querying, and we present general challenges in developing a multispecies anatomy ontology, including refinement of definitions, taxon-specific relationships among terms, and representation of taxonomically variable developmental pathways. PMID:20547776

  9. The functional anatomy of impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Probst, Catharina C; van Eimeren, Thilo

    2013-10-01

    Impulsive-compulsive disorders such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, and shopping are side effects of the dopaminergic therapy for Parkinson's disease. With a lower prevalence, these disorders also appear in the general population. Research in the last few years has discovered that these pathological behaviors share features similar to those of substance use disorders (SUD), which has led to the term "behavioral addictions". As in SUDs, the behaviors are marked by a compulsive drive toward and impaired control over the behavior. Furthermore, animal and medication studies, research in the Parkinson's disease population, and neuroimaging findings indicate a common neurobiology of addictive behaviors. Changes associated with addictions are mainly seen in the dopaminergic system of a mesocorticolimbic circuit, the so-called reward system. Here we outline neurobiological findings regarding behavioral addictions with a focus on dopaminergic systems, relate them to SUD theories, and try to build a tentative concept integrating genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral results. PMID:23963609

  10. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. PMID:24249485

  11. A sculpture masterpiece for the teaching of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    DUMITRASCU, DINU IULIU; CRIVII, CARMEN BIANCA; OPINCARU, IULIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The study of anatomy remains the backbone of medical education in the first years. There is a constant need for educational materials that enable the assimilation of knowledge by students. The casts after human bodies have not lost the value, even in the era of virtual education. We present in this paper a museal item destined to improve the anatomy teaching. Methods Given the existence in the department of anatomy from Cluj –Napoca of an item of exceptional artistic and scientific value, we intensively searched Pubmed and Scopus, as well as by manual search of printed only documents, for all papers related to the muscle man by Brancusi created for educational purposes of anatomy students. Results This paper presents summary data from the biography of the creators of this item, the world famous sculptor Constantin Brancusi and the professor of anatomy and surgery from Bucharest Dimitrie Gerota. We also describe this item and the conditions which generated it Conclusion Teaching anatomy relies on the quality of the didactic support. The muscle man by Brancusi is a very realistic reproduction of a man, very useful for anatomical training and teaching. PMID:27152086

  12. The thoracolumbar fascia: anatomy, function and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Willard, F H; Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Danneels, L; Schleip, R

    2012-01-01

    In this overview, new and existent material on the organization and composition of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) will be evaluated in respect to its anatomy, innervation biomechanics and clinical relevance. The integration of the passive connective tissues of the TLF and active muscular structures surrounding this structure are discussed, and the relevance of their mutual interactions in relation to low back and pelvic pain reviewed. The TLF is a girdling structure consisting of several aponeurotic and fascial layers that separates the paraspinal muscles from the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. The superficial lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF (PLF) is dominated by the aponeuroses of the latissimus dorsi and the serratus posterior inferior. The deeper lamina of the PLF forms an encapsulating retinacular sheath around the paraspinal muscles. The middle layer of the TLF (MLF) appears to derive from an intermuscular septum that developmentally separates the epaxial from the hypaxial musculature. This septum forms during the fifth and sixth weeks of gestation. The paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS) is in a key position to act as a ‘hydraulic amplifier’, assisting the paraspinal muscles in supporting the lumbosacral spine. This sheath forms a lumbar interfascial triangle (LIFT) with the MLF and PLF. Along the lateral border of the PRS, a raphe forms where the sheath meets the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis. This lateral raphe is a thickened complex of dense connective tissue marked by the presence of the LIFT, and represents the junction of the hypaxial myofascial compartment (the abdominal muscles) with the paraspinal sheath of the epaxial muscles. The lateral raphe is in a position to distribute tension from the surrounding hypaxial and extremity muscles into the layers of the TLF. At the base of the lumbar spine all of the layers of the TLF fuse together into a thick composite that attaches firmly to the posterior superior iliac spine

  13. [Anatomy and development of stamens and carpels of Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae)].

    PubMed

    Marquínez-Casas, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Winteraceae has long been considered a family with early diversification among angiosperms, with characters such as: flowers with many spirally arranged parts and apocarpic ovary formed by plicated carpels with sessile stigma. In Drimys, the presence or absence of conspicuous glands on the connective of the stamens have been used as a taxonomic character, and it is considered a synapomorphy for the clade including Drimys angustifolia, D. brasiliensis, D. granadensis and D. roraimensis (Northeastern clade); however, the anatomy of stamens and carpels has only been studied in detail for D. winteri (Southwestern clade). In this research, the presence and the structure of glands on the connective of stamens was studied in seven species of the genus from herbarium specimens, and a detailed study of the anatomy and development of stamens and carpels was carried out by scanning electron and optic microscopy in Drimys granadensis. We found similarities between D. granadensis and D. winteri for the following characters: Basic type anther wall formation, secretory tapetum that collapses at maturity, intermediate type microsporogenesis with formation of a transient cell plate in telophase I, ascidiated carpel due to the formation of an adaxial lip during development, stigma closed by interdigitation of epidermal cells. We also determined that the large glands on anther mature connective are originated by an overgrowth of subepidermal oil cells; this character is a Northeastern Drimys clade synapomorphy, while it was absent in both Drimys of Southwestern clade (which includes D. andina, D. confertifolia and D. winteri), and the rest of the Winteraceae. We are proposing the hypothesis that the highly variable enviromental conditions in the tropics where Drimys Northeastern clade is distributed, with a wide range of pollinators, would be associated with the emergence of glandular conspicuously stamens; while, as a prediction to be confirmed, temperated Southwestern clade species

  14. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. PMID:21381214

  15. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  16. The arthroscopic anatomy of symptomatic meniscal lesions.

    PubMed

    Dandy, D J

    1990-07-01

    The anatomy of 1000 symptomatic meniscus lesions is described and related to the age of the patients. All symptomatic lesions found during the study period were treated by arthroscopic surgery. Meniscal lesions were commoner in the right knee (56.5%) and 81% of the patients were men. Of the medial meniscus tears, 75% were vertical and 23% horizontal. Vertical tears of the medial meniscus occurred most often in the fourth decade and horizontal tears in the fifth. There were 22% type I, 37% type II and 31% type III vertical tears; 62% of type I tears and 23% of type II tears had locked fragments. Superior flaps were six times more common than inferior flaps. Of all medial meniscus fragments, 6% were inverted; 51% of these were flaps and the rest ruptured bucket-handle fragments. Of the lateral meniscus lesions 54% were vertical tears, 15% oblique, 15% myxoid, 4% were inverted and 5% were lesions of discoid menisci. The commonest pattern of tear in the lateral compartment (27%) was a vertical tear involving half the length and half the width of the meniscus. PMID:2380218

  17. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  18. Arterial anatomy of the hallucal sesamoids.

    PubMed

    Rath, Bjoern; Notermans, Hans-Peter; Frank, Daniel; Walpert, Juergen; Deschner, James; Luering, Christian M; Koeck, Franz X; Koebke, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones of the hallux. Twenty-two feet from adult cadavers were injected with epoxide resin or an acrylic polymer in methyl methacrylate (Acrifix) and subsequently processed by two slice plastination methods and the enzyme maceration technique. Afterwards, the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones was studied. The first plantar metatarsal artery provided a medial branch to the medial sesamoid bone. The main branch of the first plantar metatarsal artery continued its course distally along the lateral side of the lateral sesamoid and supplied it. The supplying arteries penetrated the sesamoid bones on the proximal, plantar, and distal sides. The analysis and cataloging of the microvascular anatomy of the sesamoids revealed the first plantar metatarsal artery as the main arterial source to the medial and lateral sesamoid bones. In addition, the first plantar metatarsal artery ran along the lateral plantar side of the lateral sesamoid bone, suggesting that this artery is at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as hallux valgus surgery. PMID:19644971

  19. Monte Carlo dose mapping on deforming anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a Monte Carlo-based energy and mass congruent mapping (EMCM) method to calculate the dose on deforming anatomy. Different from dose interpolation methods, EMCM separately maps each voxel's deposited energy and mass from a source image to a reference image with a displacement vector field (DVF) generated by deformable image registration (DIR). EMCM was compared with other dose mapping methods: energy-based dose interpolation (EBDI) and trilinear dose interpolation (TDI). These methods were implemented in EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, validated using a numerical deformable phantom and compared for clinical CT images. On the numerical phantom with an analytically invertible deformation map, EMCM mapped the dose exactly the same as its analytic solution, while EBDI and TDI had average dose errors of 2.5% and 6.0%. For a lung patient's IMRT treatment plan, EBDI and TDI differed from EMCM by 1.96% and 7.3% in the lung patient's entire dose region, respectively. As a 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation technique, EMCM is accurate and its speed is comparable to 3D Monte Carlo simulation. This method may serve as a valuable tool for accurate dose accumulation as well as for 4D dosimetry QA.

  20. Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS)™ as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, KENNETH; FEBO, MARCELO; MCLAUGHLIN, THOMAS; CRONJÉ, FRANS J.; HAN, DAVID; GOLD, S. MARK

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Following the first association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and severe alcoholism, there has been an explosion of research reports in the psychiatric and behavioral addiction literature and neurogenetics. With this increased knowledge, the field has been rife with controversy. Moreover, with the advent of Whole Genome-Wide Studies (GWAS) and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), along with Functional Genome Convergence, the multiple-candidate gene approach still has merit and is considered by many as the most prudent approach. However, it is the combination of these two approaches that will ultimately define real, genetic allelic relationships, in terms of both risk and etiology. Since 1996, our laboratory has coined the umbrella term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) to explain the common neurochemical and genetic mechanisms involved with both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Methods: This is a selective review of peer-reviewed papers primary listed in Pubmed and Medline. Results: A review of the available evidence indicates the importance of dopaminergic pathways and resting-state, functional connectivity of brain reward circuits. Discussion: Importantly, the proposal is that the real phenotype is RDS and impairments in the brain’s reward cascade, either genetically or environmentally (epigenetically) induced, influence both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Understanding shared common mechanisms will ultimately lead to better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of relapse. While, at this juncture, we cannot as yet state that we have “hatched the behavioral addiction egg”, we are beginning to ask the correct questions and through an intense global effort will hopefully find a way of “redeeming joy” and permitting homo sapiens live a life, free of addiction and pain. PMID:25317338

  1. Automatic thoracic anatomy segmentation on CT images using hierarchical fuzzy models and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kaioqiong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a thoracic anatomy segmentation method based on hierarchical recognition and delineation guided by a built fuzzy model. Labeled binary samples for each organ are registered and aligned into a 3D fuzzy set representing the fuzzy shape model for the organ. The gray intensity distributions of the corresponding regions of the organ in the original image are recorded in the model. The hierarchical relation and mean location relation between different organs are also captured in the model. Following the hierarchical structure and location relation, the fuzzy shape model of different organs is registered to the given target image to achieve object recognition. A fuzzy connected delineation method is then used to obtain the final segmentation result of organs with seed points provided by recognition. The hierarchical structure and location relation integrated in the model provide the initial parameters for registration and make the recognition efficient and robust. The 3D fuzzy model combined with hierarchical affine registration ensures that accurate recognition can be obtained for both non-sparse and sparse organs. The results on real images are presented and shown to be better than a recently reported fuzzy model-based anatomy recognition strategy.

  2. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26580309

  3. Vital connections.

    PubMed

    Pletcher, Scott D

    2004-05-12

    Scientists are currently exploring the structure and behavior of complex biological systems, which consist of networks of interacting entities. A recent paper in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences describes the distinctive characteristics of aging-related proteins in the yeast protein-protein interaction network. In this Perspective, I discuss the implications of these findings for longevity research. PMID:15141074

  4. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  5. Mobile technology: Creation and use of an iBook to teach the anatomy of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Stuart; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2015-01-01

    In an era of digitally connected students, there is a demand for academic material to be delivered through electronic mobile devices and not just through traditional methods such as lectures and tutorials. A digital interactive book-iBook (for use on the Apple iPad)-was created to teach undergraduate anatomical science students (n = 26) four key areas of the brachial plexus: definitions, gross anatomy, relative anatomy, and functions of terminal branches. Students were asked to complete preresource and postresource questionnaires, which were used to calculate the mean improvement score and ultimately the efficacy of the resource. Free text comments were gathered to evaluate student opinions on this mode of learning. The mean score on the preresource and postresource questionnaires was 4.07 of 8 and 5.69 of 8, respectively. The overall mean improvement score was 1.62, determined statistically significant by a dependent t-test (P = 0.0004). Findings demonstrate that digital books on the iPad provide a uniquely interactive way of delivering information and engaging students. Furthermore, digital books can be used alongside traditional methods of teaching anatomy to enhance and promote deep learning in students. PMID:25351850

  6. Neurovascular anatomy of the embryonic quail hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Matthew T; Poole, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    Blood vessel and nerve development in the vertebrate embryo possess certain similarities in pattern and molecular guidance cues. To study the specific influence of shared guidance molecules on nervous and vascular development, an understanding of the normal neurovascular anatomy must be in place. The present study documents the pattern of nervous and vascular development in the Japanese quail hindlimb using immunohistochemistry and fluorescently labeled intravital injection combined with confocal and epifluorescent microscopy. The developmental patterns of major nerves and blood vessels of embryonic hindlimbs between stages E2.75 (HH18) and E6.0 (HH29) are described. By E2.75, the dorsal aortae have begun to fuse into a single vessel at the level of the hindlimb, and have completely fused by E3 (HH20). The posterior cardinal vein is formed at the level of the hindlimb by E3, as is the main artery of the early hindlimb, the ischiadic artery, as an offshoot of the dorsal aorta. Our data suggest that eight spinal segments, versus seven as reported by others (Tanaka and Landmesser,1986a; Tyrrell et al.,1990), contribute to innervation of the quail hindlimb. Lumbosacral neurites reach the plexus region by E3.5 (HH21 & 22), pause for approximately 24 hr, and then enter the hindlimb along with the ischiadic and crural arteries through shared foramina in the pelvic anlage. The degree of anterior-posterior spatial congruency between major nerves and blood vessels of the quail hindlimb was found to be highest medial to the pelvic girdle precursor, versus in the hindlimb proper. PMID:19685501

  7. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers, and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars, and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological challenges to handle when aiming at producing (large) data sets of xylem anatomical data. Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 and 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors-if not avoided or corrected-may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful source for many

  8. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  9. An anatomy of occupational medicine1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Lee, W. R. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 111-117. An anatomy of occupational medicine. Previous writers have attempted to describe occupational medicine by considering the functions of a doctor working in industry. In different communities, and even in the same community at different times, a doctor working in industry may have different functions. `Occupational medicine', so described, would therefore not be a discipline but would merely be medicine practised in a certain area. Furthermore, such an approach leaves out other aspects of occupational medicine such as recompense for injury at work and statutory supervision of workplaces, and any interaction between these two. Men think in terms of conceptual models which predetermine to a greater or less extent their approach to future problems. The present essay attempts to formulate a coherent intellectual framework of occupational medicine. The conceptual model proposed here is based on the globe proposed by Himsworth (1970) as a model representing the structure of scientific knowledge. Using this, a place for occupational medicine can be determined related to medicine, industry, and the `basic' sciences. Occupational medicine is thus seen as a coherent entity. The argument is supported by a comparison of some of the provisions for occupational medicine in this country and in France. In this comparison the underlying components are distinguished from the mechanisms set up to deal with them. It is these components which go to make up the structure of occupational medicine and it is the coherence and close relationship of them which must be studied to find and describe an entity to be called occupational medicine. PMID:4270047

  10. Automatic anatomy recognition of sparse objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Wang, Huiqian; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    A general body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology was proposed in our previous work based on hierarchical fuzzy models of multitudes of objects which was not tied to any specific organ system, body region, or image modality. That work revealed the challenges encountered in modeling, recognizing, and delineating sparse objects throughout the body (compared to their non-sparse counterparts) if the models are based on the object's exact geometric representations. The challenges stem mainly from the variation in sparse objects in their shape, topology, geographic layout, and relationship to other objects. That led to the idea of modeling sparse objects not from the precise geometric representations of their samples but by using a properly designed optimal super form. This paper presents the underlying improved methodology which includes 5 steps: (a) Collecting image data from a specific population group G and body region Β and delineating in these images the objects in Β to be modeled; (b) Building a super form, S-form, for each object O in Β; (c) Refining the S-form of O to construct an optimal (minimal) super form, S*-form, which constitutes the (fuzzy) model of O; (d) Recognizing objects in Β using the S*-form; (e) Defining confounding and background objects in each S*-form for each object and performing optimal delineation. Our evaluations based on 50 3D computed tomography (CT) image sets in the thorax on four sparse objects indicate that substantially improved performance (FPVF~2%, FNVF~10%, and success where the previous approach failed) can be achieved using the new approach.

  11. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents. PMID:23734597

  12. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated. PMID:25370619

  13. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  14. Virtual modelling of the surgical anatomy of the petrous bone.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, P; Słoniewski, P

    2001-11-01

    The surgical anatomy of the petrous bone is difficult to learn and to imagine due to the porous structure. Obviously the surgeon's training is based on cadaver dissections as we are still lacking good, versatile models of the temporal bone and its important structures. The clearly visible, rapid development of computer science provides us with new possibilities that should be immediately engaged in modelling and simulating the human anatomy. The virtual, three-dimensional computer model of the bony pyramid was created based on the tomographic x-ray 1 mm slices and evaluated in accordance to its usefulness in learning and planning the neurosurgical approaches to the petrous region. The model was created in the virtual reality markup language, in order to make it available through the Internet. The basic anatomy of the main surgical approaches used in this region was visualised and evaluated in accordance with the real, intraoperative anatomy. The model could be easily accessed through the Internet. It was user-friendly and intuitive. The model seemed to be helpful in planning the basic approaches to the petroclival region. Computer science, with the help of the virtual modelling techniques, gives us a powerful method of learning and training surgical anatomy and approaches, although cadaveric dissection still remains the main point of the surgeon's training. PMID:11770347

  15. Breakdown of Inter-Hemispheric Connectivity Is Associated with Posttraumatic Symptomatology and Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Veksler, Ronel; Guez, Jonathan; Jacob, Yael; Shelef, Ilan; Shalev, Hadar; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Altered brain anatomy in specific gray-matter regions has been shown in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recently, white-matter tracts have become a focus of research in PTSD. The corpus callosum (CC) is the principal white-matter fiber bundle, crucial in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information between hemispheres. Alterations in CC fibers have been reported in PTSD and might be assumed to underlie substantial behavioral and cognitive sequelae; however most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adult-onset PTSD failed to address the clinical correlates between imaging and PTSD symptoms severity, behavioral manifestation and cognitive functions. In the current study we examined (a) to what extent microstructural integrity of the CC is associated with memory performance and (b) whether imaging and cognitive parameters are associated with PTSD symptom severity. DTI data were obtained and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were computed for 16 patients and 14 controls. PTSD symptom severity was assessed by employing the clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS) and memory was tested using a task probing item and associative memory for words and pictures. Significant correlations were found between PTSD symptoms severity, memory accuracy and reaction-time to CC FA values in the PTSD group. This study demonstrates meaningful clinical and cognitive correlates of microstructural connectivity. These results have implications for diagnostic tools and future studies aimed at identifying individuals at risk for PTSD. PMID:26863536

  16. Breakdown of Inter-Hemispheric Connectivity Is Associated with Posttraumatic Symptomatology and Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Veksler, Ronel; Guez, Jonathan; Jacob, Yael; Shelef, Ilan; Shalev, Hadar; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    Altered brain anatomy in specific gray-matter regions has been shown in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recently, white-matter tracts have become a focus of research in PTSD. The corpus callosum (CC) is the principal white-matter fiber bundle, crucial in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information between hemispheres. Alterations in CC fibers have been reported in PTSD and might be assumed to underlie substantial behavioral and cognitive sequelae; however most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adult-onset PTSD failed to address the clinical correlates between imaging and PTSD symptoms severity, behavioral manifestation and cognitive functions. In the current study we examined (a) to what extent microstructural integrity of the CC is associated with memory performance and (b) whether imaging and cognitive parameters are associated with PTSD symptom severity. DTI data were obtained and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were computed for 16 patients and 14 controls. PTSD symptom severity was assessed by employing the clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS) and memory was tested using a task probing item and associative memory for words and pictures. Significant correlations were found between PTSD symptoms severity, memory accuracy and reaction-time to CC FA values in the PTSD group. This study demonstrates meaningful clinical and cognitive correlates of microstructural connectivity. These results have implications for diagnostic tools and future studies aimed at identifying individuals at risk for PTSD. PMID:26863536

  17. Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Regnault, Sophie; Allen, Vivian; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar) joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich. PMID:25551024

  18. Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Kyle P; Regnault, Sophie; Allen, Vivian; Hutchinson, John R

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar) joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich. PMID:25551024

  19. Macroscopic Anatomy of the Saimaa Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) Lower Respiratory Tract.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    We studied the macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis). Examination of one adult and one young individual found dead showed that trachea had 85 and 86 complete cartilage rings. The adjacent cartilages exhibited very few random anastomoses. There was variation in the confirmation of the trachea between the cranial and caudal part of the trachea. The right lung was divided by partly incomplete inter-lobar fissures into cranial, middle, caudal, and accessory lobes. The left lung consisted of cranial, middle, and caudal lobes. The lungs were characterized by a high amount of interlobular connective tissue. Silicone casts were prepared of the two specimens to visualize the tracheobronchial branching which was similar to that of marine ringed seals but in the Saimaa ringed seal the right middle lobar bronchus originated at the same level as the accessory lobar bronchus. Anat Rec, 299:538-543, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26766601

  20. Dynamic three-dimensional reconstruction and modeling of cardiovascular anatomy in children with congenital heart disease using biplane angiography.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Craig; Chen, S Y; Hansgen, Adam; Chang, Dennis; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of cardiovascular biomechanics and fluid dynamics from patient-specific data is a continuing topic of research investigation. Several methodologies utilizing CT, MRI and ultrasound to re-create the three-dimensional anatomy of the cardiovascular system have been examined. Adaptation of these models to pediatric applications has not been studied as extensively. There is significant need for such techniques in pediatric congenital heart disease since local anatomy may exhibit highly unusual geometry, and three-dimensional information would be of significant use for surgical and interventional planning, biomechanical and fluid dynamic simulation, and patient counseling. We report here on the adaptation and application of a three-dimensional reconstruction technique that utilizes bi-plane angiographic images as the base data sets. The method has been validated in a variety of adult imaging situations including coronary artery imaging and intervention. The method uses a skeletonization approach whereby local centerline, diameter, branching and tortuosity of the vasculature are obtained to create the three-dimensional model. Ten patients with a variety of etiology were imaged and 3D reconstructions were obtained. Excellent images were obtained of complex anatomy including the highly branched pulmonary vasculature and Fontan surgical connections. The data were then translated into solid and surface models to facilitate viewing, export into computational fluid dynamic grids, and into files suitable for stereo lithography fabrication (STL). This method appears promising for the dynamic study of complex cardiovascular anatomy found in congenital heart disease. Optimization of the method to facilitate on-line reconstruction and simulation are currently ongoing. PMID:15133958

  1. Retinal connectivity and primate vision

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barry B.; Martin, Paul R.; Grünert, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  2. Retinal connectivity and primate vision.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barry B; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2010-11-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  3. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  4. YouTube: An emerging tool in anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this resource, as well as the effectiveness of YouTube videos within a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. The study was conducted on 91 second-year medical students for whom video links were suggested throughout the academic year. In addition, the Human Anatomy Education (HAE) Channel was launched on YouTube to support classroom teaching with videos that emphasized applied aspects of anatomy. The results demonstrated that 98% of the students used YouTube as an online information resource, albeit in different frequencies. Out of the 86% who have been to the HAE Channel, 92% agreed/strongly agreed that the channel helped them learn anatomy. The study also reports the popularity of and awareness about using YouTube as a social network as well as in learning. Based on these findings, YouTube can be considered as an effective tool to enhance anatomy instruction if the videos are scrutinized, diversified, and aimed toward course objectives. Faculty of average computer literacy should be enabled to produce videos on their own YouTube channels to support independent learning and integration in a PBL curriculum. The methods described for capturing and editing the videos can be used as a prototype. PMID:22383096

  5. [The anatomy collections of the Paris V University: their role in medical teaching for two centuries].

    PubMed

    Saban, R; Lassau, J P; Delmas, V; Iba-Zizen, M T; Cabanis, E

    2001-11-01

    The Museum of anatomy of the University Paris V exhibits a collection of ancient and high quality dissections and waxworks, very well preserved, which were used for teaching anatomy and have been classified historic monument since 1992. PMID:11760585

  6. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  7. Scimitar syndrome: Surgical approach to an unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Roy; Omoregbee, Benjamin; Saheed, Sanni

    2016-01-01

    Repair strategies in scimitar syndrome are varied and need to be individualized to the surgical anatomy. This report focuses on the repair achieved in a case with unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein. PMID:27212856

  8. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    PubMed

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips. PMID:26441104

  9. Pocket atlas of head and neck MRI anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Lufkin, R.B.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    This pocket atlas depicts the anatomy of the head and neck as seen in magnetic resonance (MR) images. The collection of 140 high-resolution images covers all major areas - neck, larynx, oropharynx, tongue, nasopharynx, skull base, sinuses, and temporal bone - displayed in sagittal, axial, and coronal MR image planes. The images show maximum fat/muscle contrast for better visualization of fascial planes. In certain areas of the anatomy, such as the neck and temporal bone, surface coils were used to achieve significant advantages in image quality over standard head or body coils.

  10. Normal and pathologic CT anatomy of the mandible

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, A.G.; Hanafee, W.H.; Mancuso, A.A.

    1982-09-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of facial lesions has been amply demonstrated. While a number of studies have focused on CT anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, nose, and nasopharynx, none has concentrated on the mandible. Although the mandible is difficult to image because of its complex, curving surfaces and the presence of artifact-producing amalgam fillings or restorations, CT of the mandible can nevertheless be highly informative in selected cases. This pictorial essay depicts normal gross and CT anatomy of the mandible and presents a series of cases that illustrate the utility of CT in examining mandibular lesions.

  11. The 2003 anatomy ceremony: a service of gratitude.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Karen; Turell, Mary Beth; Ahmed, Shobi; Ghazi, Ahmed; Vora, Sadhna; Lane, Meghan; Entigar, Linda Day

    2002-01-01

    In keeping with a long-standing tradition, Yale Medical and Physician Associate students gather at a ceremony each year after the completion of the anatomy course. The ceremony is a chance to reflect and to give thanks. It gives students the opportunity to articulate their gratitude to the selfless individuals who donated their bodies for the benefit of education. Many family members of the donors attend the ceremony. By reading poetry, performing musical pieces, and presenting works of art, the students and their teachers express some of the emotions and thoughts that the anatomy course has evoked. The following are some of the contributions presented at this year's ceremony. PMID:14580114

  12. FMA-RadLex: An application ontology of radiological anatomy derived from the foundational model of anatomy reference ontology.

    PubMed

    Mejino, Jose L V; Rubin, Daniel L; Brinkley, James F

    2008-01-01

    Domain reference ontologies are being developed to serve as generalizable and reusable sources designed to support any application specific to the domain. The challenge is how to develop ways to derive or adapt pertinent portions of reference ontologies into application ontologies. In this paper we demonstrate how a subset of anatomy relevant to the domain of radiology can be derived from an anatomy reference ontology, the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) Ontology, to create an application ontology that is robust and expressive enough to incorporate and accommodate all salient anatomical knowledge necessary to support existing and emerging systems for managing anatomical information related to radiology. The principles underlying this work are applicable to domains beyond radiology, so our results could be extended to other areas of biomedicine in the future. PMID:18999035

  13. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners. PMID:25729023

  14. Anatomy is strategy: Skilled reading differences associated with structural connectivity differences in the reading network

    PubMed Central

    Graves, William W.; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik H.; Humphries, Colin; Stengel, Benjamin C.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Are there multiple ways to be a skilled reader? To address this longstanding, unresolved question, we hypothesized that individual variability in using semantic information in reading aloud would be associated with neuroanatomical variation in pathways linking semantics and phonology. Left-hemisphere regions of interest for diffusion tensor imaging analysis were defined based on fMRI results, including two regions linked with semantic processing – angular gyrus (AG) and inferior temporal sulcus (ITS) – and two linked with phonological processing – posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). Effects of imageability (a semantic measure) on response times varied widely among individuals and covaried with the volume of pathways through the ITS and pMTG, and through AG and pSTG, partially overlapping the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the posterior branch of the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest strategy differences among skilled readers associated with structural variation in the neural reading network. PMID:24735993

  15. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  16. Spatial Abilities of Expert Clinical Anatomists: Comparison of Abilities between Novices, Intermediates, and Experts in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Ruth; Dror, Itiel E.; Smith, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Spatial ability has been found to be a good predictor of success in learning anatomy. However, little research has explored whether spatial ability can be improved through anatomy education and experience. This study had two aims: (1) to determine if spatial ability is a learned or inherent facet in learning anatomy and (2) to ascertain if there…

  17. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  18. Surgical Clinical Correlates in Anatomy: Design and Implementation of a First-Year Medical School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubert, Lisa M.; Jones, Kenneth; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Medical students state the need for a clinically oriented anatomy class so to maximize their learning experience. We hypothesize that the first-year medical students, who take the Surgical Clinical Correlates in Anatomy program, will perform better than their peers in their anatomy course, their surgical clerkships and ultimately choose surgical…

  19. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…

  20. Spatial Abilities in an Elective Course of Applied Anatomy after a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    A concern on the level of anatomy knowledge reached after a problem-based learning curriculum has been documented in the literature. Spatial anatomy, arguably the highest level in anatomy knowledge, has been related to spatial abilities. Our first objective was to test the hypothesis that residents are interested in a course of applied anatomy…

  1. Interprofessional Anatomy Education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claire F.; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to…

  2. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  3. Effectiveness of a Shortened, Clinically Engaged Anatomy Course for Physician Assistant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J.; Rando, William C.; O'Brien, Michael K.; Garino, Alexandria; Stewart, William B.

    2011-01-01

    There is little consensus among programs that train physician assistants (PAs) regarding how much time should be devoted to the study of anatomy, what should be included, or how it should be taught. Similar concerns led us to redesign anatomy for medical students and introduce clinically engaged anatomy, an approach designed in collaboration with…

  4. The Weak Relationship between Anatomy Competence and Clinical Skills in Junior Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    In modern curricula, the early integration of anatomy and clinical skills education at undergraduate level is seen as important. However, the direct relationship between medical students' competence in anatomy, and their clinical proficiency during early undergraduate years, has scarcely been studied. In this study, the marks for anatomy and…

  5. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  6. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  7. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  8. [Anatomy and mechanism of inguinal hernias].

    PubMed

    Flament, J B; Avisse, C; Delattre, J F

    1997-02-01

    Anterior abdominal wall presents a weak point between the pelvic bone and the muscular arch of transverse and internal oblique muscles. This myo-pectineal orifice, crossed by the inguinal ligament is closed by the transversalis fascia. All groin hernias, inguinal directs, indirects or femoral, result from a defect of the transversalis fascia. They have two causes. Congenital hernias result from a persisting peritoneo-vaginal canal. Acquired hernias result from a progressive weakening of the transversalis fascia depending on connective tissue insufficiency and increase of intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:9122597

  9. Anatomy of a SAR impulse response.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-08-01

    A principal measure of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image quality is the manifestation in the SAR image of a spatial impulse, that is, the SAR's Impulse Response (IPR). IPR requirements direct certain design decisions in a SAR. Anomalies in the IPR can point to specific anomalous behavior in the radar's hardware and/or software.

  10. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. I. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in mesaticephalic breeds.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Silvana; Pichetto, Michela; Roccabianca, Paola; Romussi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    The gross anatomy and overall structure of the soft palate has been described in the average dog's head, however, no descriptive microanatomical studies of the dog soft palate are available, despite their possible utility in view of the manifold and important repercussions of this organ physiology. This is the first of two companion papers, dealing with the caudal part of the soft palate in the canine species, in mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs. Specimens from mesaticephalic healthy dogs (N = 8) were collected after euthanasia, processed for histology and sectioned at six transversal levels. Morphological stainings were used for a microscopic evaluation of the tissue layers composing the distal part of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic dogs, and histochemical reactions were applied to assess mucin types within glandular tissue and to investigate the connective tissues. The organ was characteristically organized into a major deep musculo-connective axis mixed with salivary glands and covered by the mucosal lining on either the nasopharyngeal or the oral sides. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of the anatomy of soft palate in the canine species and establish baseline information for the parallel study on the long and thickened soft palate, which is typical of adult brachycephalic dogs. PMID:21634021

  11. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  12. Diffusion of Innovations: Smartphones and Wireless Anatomy Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trelease, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular…

  13. Translaminar lumbar epidural endoscopy: anatomy, technique, and indications.

    PubMed

    De Antoni, D J; Claro, M L; Poehling, G G; Hughes, S S

    1996-06-01

    This article describes a new technique to achieve access to the epidural space via a direct posterior portal. This minimally invasive technique allows treatment of disc protrusions and extrusions with full visualization and minimal dissection of the paraspinal musculature. Hemostasis, visualization, and triangulation is performed with standard arthroscopic instrumentation. The anatomy of, indications for, and advantages of this techniques are described. PMID:8783828

  14. How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy?

    PubMed

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available human heart anatomy videos on YouTube. Using the search engine of the platform we searched for relevant videos using various keywords. Videos with irrelevant content, animal tissue, non-English language, no sound, duplicates, and physiology focused were excluded from further elaboration. The initial search retrieved 55,525 videos, whereas only 294 qualified for further analysis. A unique scoring system was used to assess the anatomical quality and details, general quality, and the general data for each video. Our results indicate that the human heart anatomy videos available on YouTube conveyed our anatomical criteria poorly, whereas the general quality scoring found borderline. Students should be selective when looking up on public video databases as it can prove challenging, time consuming, and the anatomical information may be misleading due to absence of content review. Anatomists and institutions are encouraged to prepare and endorse good quality material and make them available online for the students. The scoring rubric used in the study comprises a valuable tool to faculty members for quality evaluation of heart anatomy videos available on social media platforms. PMID:23564745

  15. The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice: An Anatomy Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travill, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to optimize medical students' enthusiasm to learn rather than to be taught, an anatomy learning program has been introduced into an evolving medical curriculum at Queen's University in Ontario. It uses a course guide, slide presentation, prosection by senior students, and peer-directed group tutorials. Surgical and radiological…

  16. Peer assessment among first year medical students in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The objective of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the use of a validated peer assessment tool in Gross Anatomy. Students in a first year medical school class evaluated three members of their dissection group using an online survey tool. The mid-course and end-of-course evaluation included open-ended comments, as well as a five-point scale that measured three work habits, two interpersonal attributes and one overall score. All 267 students completed the assignment. The overall score and four of the five other assessed categories showed significant improvement from the mid- to end-of-course evaluations. Quantitative and qualitative data also revealed significant improvement among the students who received the lowest mid-course assessments. Seventy-six percent of the class agreed with the statement: "Based on the feedback I received, I made a change in how I worked with or taught my peers." The use of this peer assessment tool used by students in anatomy was associated with improvements in work habits and interpersonal attributes, particularly by the cohort of students who received the lowest mid-course feedback. Peer assessment offers students an opportunity to improve their interpersonal skills and work habits. PMID:23959790

  17. Computed Tomography-Enhanced Anatomy Course Using Enterprise Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the…

  18. The Anatomy of Amnesia: Neurohistological Analysis of Three New Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    The most useful information about the anatomy of human memory comes from cases where there has been extensive neuropsychological testing followed by detailed post-mortem neurohistological analysis. To our knowledge, only eight such cases have been reported (four with medial temporal lobe damage and four with diencephalic damage). Here we present…

  19. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node. PMID:27142063

  20. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…