Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.; MacLane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M.
Objective: College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a…
Welch, Stacy Shaw; Kim, Junny
Results and a case study for a DBT-enhanced habit reversal treatment (HRT) for adult trichotillomania (TTM) (Keuthen & Sprich, 2012) is adapted for use with adolescents. Trichotillomania in adolescence is a very important but understudied problem. Onset often occurs in adolescence, and yet very little treatment research exists. DBT-enhanced habit…
Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M
The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT. PMID:24295464
Panos, Patrick T.; Jackson, John W.; Hasan, Omar; Panos, Angelea
Objective: The objective was to quantitatively and qualitatively examine the efficacy of DBT (e.g., decreasing life-threatening suicidal and parasuicidal acts, attrition, and depression) explicitly with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and using conservative assumptions and criteria, across treatment providers and settings. Method: Five…
Kerr, Patrick L.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Larsen, Margo Adams
University training clinics offer state-of-the-art treatment opportunities for clients, particularly for underserved and underinsured client populations. Little has been published regarding the implementation of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in settings such as a university training clinic, which may face challenges in utilizing such a…
DiGiorgio, Kimberly E.; Glass, Carol R.; Arnkoff, Diane B.
The purpose of this study was to examine how therapists conduct Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) individual psychotherapy with clients, focusing on clinical factors that could account for decisions regarding modifications of DBT (e.g., client diagnosis, therapist theoretical orientation, and intensity of DBT training). Additionally, the study…
A pilot randomized controlled trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy with and without the Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure protocol for suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD
Harned, Melanie S.; Korslund, Kathryn E.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Objective This study evaluates the efficacy of integrating PTSD treatment into Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for women with borderline personality disorder, PTSD, and intentional self-injury. Methods Participants were randomized to DBT (n=9) or DBT with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol (n=17) and assessed at 4-month intervals during the treatment year and 3-months post-treatment. Results Treatment expectancies, satisfaction, and completion did not differ by condition. In DBT + DBT PE, the DBT PE protocol was feasible to implement for a majority of treatment completers. Compared to DBT, DBT + DBT PE led to larger and more stable improvements in PTSD and doubled the remission rate among treatment completers (80% vs. 40%). Patients who completed the DBT PE protocol were 2.4 times less likely to attempt suicide and 1.5 times less likely to self-injure than those in DBT. Among treatment completers, moderate to large effect sizes favored DBT + DBT PE for dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and global functioning. Conclusions DBT with the DBT PE protocol is feasible, acceptable, and safe to administer, and may lead to larger improvements in PTSD, intentional self-injury, and other outcomes than DBT alone. The findings require replication in a larger sample. PMID:24562087
Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…
Sharma, Binali; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ninan, Philip T.; Bradley, Rebekah
Objective: The authors describe the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder during psychiatry residency, and assess the status of DBT education within psychiatry residencies in the United States. Method: The authors present a patient with borderline personality disorder treated by a resident using DBT,…
Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise
The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…
Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…
MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…
Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.
Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…
Comtois, Katherine Anne; Elwood, Lynn; Holdcraft, Laura C.; Smith, Wayne R.; Simpson, Tracy L.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials with women with borderline personality disorder and histories of chronic self-inflicted injury including suicide attempts. The present study is a pre-post replication of a comprehensive DBT program in a community mental health center for individuals…
Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim
Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…
Woodberry, Kristen A.; Popenoe, Ellen J.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment for adult women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has been increasingly adapted for use with adolescents across a variety of settings. This article describes a community-based application of DBT principles and strategies for adolescents and their families.…
Chugani, Carla D.
This article examines the topic of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) applied in college counseling centers. Trends in mental health issues on college campuses are briefly reviewed in support of the increased need for evidence-based treatment of severe mental health issues. The article next presents an overview of the standard DBT model and…
Manning, Sharon Y.
Telephone consultation is an integral mode of the comprehensive treatment in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). The mode of telephone consultation functions primarily to ensure that the skills learned in skills training group and the solutions created in DBT individual psychotherapy generalize to the client's environment. However, there are many…
Waltz, Jennifer; Dimeff, Linda A.; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M.; Taylor, Laura; Miller, Christopher
This study tested the feasibility of using a psychoeducational video recording to teach a behavioral skill from the Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a, 1993b) skills training program to individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. A video presenting a DBT emotion-regulation skill was developed and the extent to…
Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige
Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278
Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Harned, Melanie S.; Beadnell, Blair
This study evaluated the efficacy of methods of training community mental health providers (N=132) in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) distress tolerance skills, including (a) Linehan's (1993a) Skills Training Manual for Borderline Personality Disorder (Manual), (b) a multimedia e-Learning course covering the same content (e-DBT), and (c) a…
Steinberg, Jennifer A.; Steinberg, Sara J.; Miller, Alec L.
Preliminary studies evaluating dialectical behavior therapy with adolescents have obtained promising outcomes. This multimodal therapy includes telephone consultation for adolescents and for their family members to help ensure generalization of skills from the therapy office to their natural environments. Telephone contact with the DBT therapist…
Marsha M. Linehan; Linda A. Dimeff; Sarah K. Reynolds; Katherine Anne Comtois; Stacy Shaw Welch; Patrick Heagerty; Daniel R. Kivlahan
We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a treatment that synthesizes behavioral change with radical acceptance strategies, would be more effective for heroin-dependent women with borderline personality disorder (N=23) than Comprehensive Validation Therapy with 12-Step (CVT+12S), a manualized approach that provided the major acceptance-based strategies used in DBT in combination with participation in 12-Step
Rizvi, Shireen L.; Dimeff, Linda A.; Skutch, Julie; Carroll, David; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has received strong empirical support and is practiced widely as a treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and BPD with comorbid substance use disorders (BPD-SUD). Therapeutic success in DBT requires that individuals generalize newly acquired skills to their natural environment. However, there have…
Shireen L. Rizvi; Linda A. Dimeff; Julie Skutch; David Carroll; Marsha M. Linehan
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has received strong empirical support and is practiced widely as a treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and BPD with comorbid substance use disorders (BPD-SUD). Therapeutic success in DBT requires that individuals generalize newly acquired skills to their natural environment. However, there have been only a limited number of options available to achieve this end. The
Herschell, Amy D.; Lindhiem, Oliver J.; Kogan, Jane N.; Celedonia, Karen L.; Stein, Bradley D.
We examined the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) training in community-based agencies. Data were gathered at four time points over a two-year period from front-line mental health therapists (N = 64) from 10 community-based agencies that participated in a DBT implementation initiative. We examined change on therapist attitudes towards consumers with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, and use of DBT model components. All measures were self-report. Participating in DBT training resulted in positive changes over time, including improved therapist attitudes toward consumers with BPD, improved confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, and increased use of DBT components. Therapists who had the lowest baseline scores on the study outcomes had the greatest self-reported positive change in outcomes over time. Moreover, there were notable positive correlations in therapist characteristics; therapists who had the lowest baseline attitudes towards individuals with BPD, confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, or who were least likely to use DBT modes and components were the therapists who had the greatest reported increase over time in each respective area. DBT training with ongoing support resulted in changes not commonly observed in standard training approaches typically used in community settings. It is encouraging to observe positive outcomes in therapist self-reported skill, perceived self-efficacy and DBT component use, all of which are important to evidence-based treatment (EBT) implementation. Our results underscore the importance to recognize and target therapist diversity of learning levels, experience, and expertise in EBT implementation. PMID:24333657
Herschell, Amy D; Lindhiem, Oliver J; Kogan, Jane N; Celedonia, Karen L; Stein, Bradley D
We examined the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) training in community-based agencies. Data were gathered at four time points over a 2-year period from front-line mental health therapists (N=64) from 10 community-based agencies that participated in a DBT implementation initiative. We examined change on therapist attitudes toward consumers with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, and use of DBT model components. All measures were self-report. Participating in DBT training was associated with positive changes over time, including improved therapist attitudes toward consumers with BPD, improved confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, and increased use of DBT components. Therapists who had the lowest baseline scores on the study outcomes had the greatest self-reported positive change in outcomes over time. Moreover, there were notable positive correlations in therapist characteristics; therapists who had the lowest baseline attitudes toward individuals with BPD, confidence in the effectiveness of DBT, or who were least likely to use DBT modes and components were the therapists who had the greatest reported increase over time in each respective area. DBT training with ongoing support resulted in changes not commonly observed in standard training approaches typically used in community settings. It is encouraging to observe positive outcomes in therapist self-reported skill, perceived self-efficacy and DBT component use, all of which are important to evidence-based treatment (EBT) implementation. Our results underscore the importance to recognize and target therapist diversity of learning levels, experience, and expertise in EBT implementation. PMID:24333657
Ben-Porath, Denise D.; Peterson, Gregory A.; Smee, Jacqueline
This article describes an effort to implement and examine dialectical behavior therapy's (DBT) effectiveness in a community mental health setting. Modifications made to address unique aspects of community mental health settings are described. Barriers encountered in implementation of DBT treatment in community mental health settings, such as staff…
Anderson, Leslie K; Murray, Stuart B; Ramirez, Ana L; Rockwell, Roxanne; Le Grange, Daniel; Kaye, Walter H
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and family-based treatment (FBT) are two evidence-based interventions that have been applied in the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. While DBT focuses on providing skills for coping with emotion dysregulation that often co-occurs with BN, FBT targets the normalization of eating patterns. The purpose of the current article is to introduce an integration of both treatments to provide a more comprehensive approach that targets the full scope of the disorder. We provide a review of the conceptual similarities and differences between FBT-BN and DBT along with strategies to guide a blended treatment approach. Given the strengths and limitations of either independent treatment, DBT and FBT-BN complement one another and together can address the range of symptoms and behaviors typically seen in adolescent BN. PMID:26009868
Lisa G. Berzins; Robert L. Trestman
As a result of deinstitutionalization, currently there are three times as many men and women with mental illness in U.S. jails and prisons than in mental hospitals. Appropriate treatment of this population is critical to safety within correctional institutions, successful integration of offenders into the community upon release and a reduction in recidivism. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), originally developed by
Cunningham, Kiran; Wolbert, Randall; Lillie, Becky
While the existing research consistently points to the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder, little qualitative research has been conducted to ascertain the reasons for its success, especially from the perspective of those undergoing the treatment. Our qualitative investigation was…
Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Lungu, Anita; Harned, Melanie S.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Evidence suggests that heightened negative affectivity is a prominent feature of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. Nevertheless, there is little research examining treatment effects on the experience and expression of specific negative emotions. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for BPD, hypothesized to reduce negative affectivity (Linehan, 1993a). The present study analyzes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial with the aim to assess the unique effectiveness of DBT when compared to Community Treatment by Experts (CTBE) in changing the experience, expression, and acceptance of negative emotions. Suicidal and/or self-injuring women with BPD (n = 101) were randomly assigned to DBT or CTBE for one year of treatment and one year of follow-up. Several indices of emotional experience and expression were assessed. Results indicate that DBT decreased experiential avoidance and expressed anger significantly more than CTBE. No differences between DBT and CTBE were found in improving guilt, shame, anxiety, or anger suppression, trait, and control. These results suggest that DBT has unique effects on improving the expression of anger and experiential avoidance, whereas changes in the experience of specific negative emotions may be accounted for by general factors associated with expert therapy. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24418652
Axelrod, Seth R.; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita
Background Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Objective Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Method Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. Significance and Future Research Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dyregulation such as BPD and substance dependence, and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions. PMID:21091162
Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…
Safer, Debra L.; Hugo, Emily M.
To evaluate whether the specific techniques of a newly developed behavioral therapy exceed the effects of its common factors (e.g. therapeutic alliance), an ideal comparison control must omit the unique ingredients of the active treatment while possessing the common factors in equal measure. Reviews of the controlled-trial psychotherapy research literature show that such systematic matching is not a common practice. Addressing this gap between theory and practice, we delineate seven steps for designing a credible control for a recently developed behavioral therapy adapted for Binge Eating Disorder—Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Our detailed description of matching the common factors to the extent possible and specifically measuring these offers a useful research design template for investigators of controlled behavioral treatment trials. PMID:16823465
Carmel, Adam; Fruzzetti, Alan E; Rose, Monica L
There is a risk of experiencing clinical burnout among therapists providing treatment to clients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex, costly and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based treatment of BPD that has been widely disseminated. There is only one published study that has examined pre and post scores of burnout among clinicians who receive training in DBT, and none that have taken place within a public behavioral health system in the United States where resources for community-based agencies are limited and demands are high. The current study examined the rates of burnout among therapists treating clients with BPD within a large, urban public behavioral health system. The study included a sample of nine clinicians and showed significantly decreased scores of burnout after participants attended a series of DBT trainings over a period of 13 months. There were several key limitations to internal validity including the lack of a control group. Similar evaluations of training outcomes are needed to address the widespread occurrence of burnout among community-based clinicians providing treatment to clients with BPD in order to enhance the quality of patient care. PMID:24346223
Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F
The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A. PMID:26075841
Edward S. Friedman; Michael E. Thase
For longer than 40 years, the cognitive and behavioral therapies have evolved as alternatives to more traditional nondirective\\u000a and insight-oriented modes of psychotherapy (1). The cognitive and behavioral therapies now include a diverse group of interventions\\u000a that share several pragmatic and theoretical assumptions. First, there is an emphasis on psychoeducation: patients are assumed\\u000a to be capable of learning about their
Horan, John J.; And Others
This series of papers was presented in a symposium on behavior therapy. Each paper represents a separate study focusing on one aspect of behavior modification. The issue of reinforcement is prominant with regard to its type and source. Methods of self-reinforcement and older-peer modeling are studied. The suggestion that subjects who reinforce…
Apsche, J. A.; Ward Bailey, S. R.
This case study presents a theoretical analysis of implementing mode deactivation therapy (MDT) (Apsche & Ward Bailey, 2003) family therapy with a 13 year old Caucasian male. MDT is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that combines the balance of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) (Linehan, 1993), the importance of perception from…
Goodman, Marianne; Carpenter, David; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Avedon, Jennifer; Fernandez, Nicolas; Mascitelli, Kathryn A.; Blair, Nicholas J.; New, Antonia S.; Triebwasser, Joseph; Siever, Larry J.; Hazlett, Erin A.
Objective Siever and Davis’ (1991) psychobiological framework of borderline personality disorder (BPD) identifies affective instability (AI) as a core dimension characterized by prolonged and intense emotional reactivity. Recently, deficient amygdala habituation, defined as a change in response to repeated relative to novel unpleasant pictures within a session, has emerged as a biological correlate of AI in BPD. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an evidence-based treatment, targets AI by teaching emotion-regulation skills. This study tested the hypothesis that BPD patients would exhibit decreased amygdala activation and improved habituation, as well as improved emotion regulation with standard 12-month DBT. Methods Event-related fMRI was obtained pre- and post-12-months of standard-DBT in unmedicated BPD patients. Healthy controls (HCs) were studied as a benchmark for normal amygdala activity and change over time (n = 11 per diagnostic-group). During each scan, participants viewed an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral and pleasant pictures presented twice (novel, repeat). Change in emotion regulation was measured with the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation (DERS) scale. Results fMRI results showed the predicted Group × Time interaction: compared with HCs, BPD patients exhibited decreased amygdala activation with treatment. This post-treatment amygdala reduction in BPD was observed for all three pictures types, but particularly marked in the left hemisphere and during repeated-emotional pictures. Emotion regulation measured with the DERS significantly improved with DBT in BPD patients. Improved amygdala habituation to repeated-unpleasant pictures in patients was associated with improved overall emotional regulation measured by the DERS (total score and emotion regulation strategy use subscale). Conclusion These findings have promising treatment implications and support the notion that DBT targets amygdala hyperactivity—part of the disturbed neural circuitry underlying emotional dysregulation in BPD. Future work includes examining how DBT-induced amygdala changes interact with frontal-lobe regions implicated in emotion regulation. PMID:25038629
Kröger, Christoph; Roepke, Stefan; Röepke, Stefan; Kliem, Sören
Although one of the main aims of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is to increase the retention rates, premature termination rates for DBT inpatient programs were found to be over 30%. The aim of the study was to identify the reasons for, and to analyze, patient characteristics that are associated with premature termination. We studied 541 inpatients with BPD, who were consecutively admitted for an open-door 3-month DBT inpatient treatment in Berlin, Germany. All participants completed several self-rating measures and participated in clinical interviews. Fourteen percent, who did not complete the full 84 days of assigned treatment, were expelled, mainly due to treatment-disturbing behaviors, or substance abuse or possession. Nearly 19% dropped out of treatment, mostly due to lack of motivation, arguments with others, and poor tolerance of emotional distress. Using non-parametric conditional inference trees, expulsion was associated with anorexia nervosa and alcohol abuse, whereas more than 9 suicide attempts, antisocial personality disorders, and more than 86 weeks in a psychiatric hospital were risk factors for dropout. We discussed measures and interventions that might lead to an adaptation of DBT inpatient programs. Future research should examine the symptom course and utilization of health-care services of non-completers. PMID:25058040
Bedics, Jamie D; Atkins, David C; Harned, Melanie S; Linehan, Marsha M
The purpose of the present study was to explore facets of the client- and therapist-rated therapeutic alliance as predictors of suicide attempts, nonsuicidal self-injury, depression, and introject during the course of 2 psychosocial treatments for borderline personality disorder. A total of 101 women meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder participated in a randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus community treatment by experts. Clients and therapists rated the therapeutic alliance at 4 time points during 1 year of treatment. Multilevel models showed no significant differences in client ratings of the alliance by treatment condition. DBT therapists reported greater working strategy consensus early in treatment and an overall greater alliance during treatment. Client ratings of commitment and working capacity were associated with fewer suicide attempts in DBT. Client ratings of commitment were also associated with reduced nonsuicidal self-injury in DBT only. Therapist ratings of the alliance were predictive of reduced suicide attempts in both treatments. Therapist ratings of the alliance in community treatment by experts were predictive of increased nonsuicidal self-injury. Client and therapist ratings of the alliance were not significantly associated with changes in depression or introject across both treatments. The study supported theoretically predicted relationships between facets of the therapeutic alliance in DBT and suicidal behavior. Results are discussed in the context of recommendations for developing the therapeutic alliance in DBT. PMID:25751116
Fan, Jin-Yuan; Means, John C; Bjes, Edward S; Price, Jeffrey L
Drosophila DBT and vertebrate CKI?/? phosphorylate the period protein (PER) to produce circadian rhythms. While the C termini of these orthologs are not conserved in amino acid sequence, they inhibit activity and become autophosphorylated in the fly and vertebrate kinases. Here, sites of C-terminal autophosphorylation were identified by mass spectrometry and analysis of DBT truncations. Mutation of 6 serines and threonines in the C terminus (DBT(C/ala)) prevented autophosphorylation-dependent DBT turnover and electrophoretic mobility shifts in S2 cells. Unlike the effect of autophosphorylation on CKI?, DBT autophosphorylation in S2 cells did not reduce its in vitro activity. Moreover, overexpression of DBT(C/ala) did not affect circadian behavior differently from wild-type DBT (DBT(WT)), and neither exhibited daily electrophoretic mobility shifts, suggesting that DBT autophosphorylation is not required for clock function. While DBT(WT) protected S2 cells and larvae from UV-induced apoptosis and was phosphorylated and degraded by the proteasome, DBT(C/ala) did not protect and was not degraded. Finally, we show that the HSP-90 cochaperone spaghetti protein (SPAG) antagonizes DBT autophosphorylation in S2 cells. These results suggest that DBT autophosphorylation regulates cell death and suggest a potential mechanism by which the circadian clock might affect apoptosis. PMID:25939385
This thesis examines how perturbing selected adversary capabilities in a design basis threat (DBT) may affect the assessment of a facility's security system performance. We found that using a strictly defined DBT to design ...
Treating Co-Occurring Axis I Disorders in Recurrently Suicidal Women with Borderline Personality Disorder: A 2-Year Randomized Trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Community Treatment by Experts
Harned, Melanie S.; Chapman, Alexander, L.; Dexter-Mazza, Elizabeth T.; Murray, Angela; Comtois, Katherine A.; Linehan, Marsha M.
This study evaluated whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was more efficacious than treatment by nonbehavioral psychotherapy experts in reducing co-occurring Axis I disorders among suicidal individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Women with BPD and recent and repeated suicidal and/or self-injurious behavior (n = 101) were…
Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708
Kitchener, Richard F.
Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)
Ellen Flannery-Schroeder; Alexis N. Lamb
Increasingly, attention is turning to the significance of children's mental health. This attention results from a confluence\\u000a of information sources col lectively emphasizing the prevalence of childhood problems. Epidemiologi-cal estimates for the\\u000a prevalence rates of childhood emotional and behavioral disorders range between 15 and 22% (e.g., McCracken, 1992; Roberts,\\u000a Att-kisson,&Rosenblatt, 1998; Rutter, 1989; Kazdin&Weisz, 2003a; WHO, 2001). These rates may
Several therapies have been adapted for use with elderly people, including Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). These two therapies emphasize the importance of irrational or dysfunctional beliefs in the creation of emotional disturbance, and tend to use a number of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral methods of disputing and changing these beliefs for more functional ones.
James Cordova; Joseph Cautilli; Corrina Simon; Robin Axelrod Sabag
Behavioral couples' therapy has a long history of success with couples and is an empirically validated treatment for marital discord (Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995). However, only about 50% of all couples in treatment experience long-term change (2 years). One of the founders of behavioral couples' therapy called for the therapy to return to its
Our first concern is a general characterization of behaviour therapy. It cannot be produced by means of the description of its methods and techniques, since it includes a wide gamut of them, ranging from systematic desensitization to assertive training and aversive conditioning. It is necessary then to resort to the theoretical basis common to the different methods and techniques. The reciprocal inhibition principle, as stated by John Wolpe, is likely to provide a sound starting point. To Wolpe's mind, a neurosis is an anxiety response deeply rooted through conditioning. Most behaviour therapists share this conception. The therapist task is, according to it, to unchain the circuit between anxiety producing stimulus and neurotic responses. In order to achieve the disjunction, an antagonistic response is used, that reciprocally inhibits the anxiety response. Systematic desensitization based on relation is a typical application of the reciprocal inhibition principle. Nevertheless, other usual techniques, such as negative practice (used by Yates for the treatment of tics) or Skinner's operant conditioning are not based on that principle. A wider basis is thus required. Behaviour therapists claim that the theoretical basis is to be found in learning theory laws. The reciprocal inhibition principle is the counterpart of the counter-conditioning law, the negative practice principle is similar to the extinction law, and so on. However, there is not one single learning theory, but several ones, mutually contradictory. And they are not fit to provide the needed theoretical basis. That disagreement can be overcome looking for the common principle of all learning laws, namely, that the need is to create definite circuits that can operate in front of adequate stimulus. Still another set of criticisms to behaviour therapy comes from dynamic psychology and psychoanalysis. The fact is stressed that suppressing symptoms does not modify structural maladjustments. Behavior therapists acknowledge their treatments are kept at symptom level, but they claim it is the right approach, since the symptom is the neurosis, according to their conceptions. PMID:1163267
YEN, SHIRLEY; JOHNSON, JENNIFER; COSTELLO, ELLEN; SIMPSON, ELIZABETH B.
Objective This study describes naturalistic 3-month follow-up after discharge from a 5-day partial hospitalization dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also examined individual BPD criteria as predictors of treatment response. Methods Fifty women diagnosed with BPD were consecutively recruited from a partial hospital DBT program, 47 of whom (94%) completed all assessments including baseline (prior to discharge) and 3-months post-discharge assessments. Most continued with some combination of individual psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, and all had the option of continuing with weekly DBT skills classes. Baseline scores were compared to 3-month scores using paired two-tailed non-parametric (sign) tests. Regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of outcome. Results Depression, hopelessness, anger expression, dissociation, and general psychopathology scores significantly decreased over the 3-month follow-up interval, although scores on several measures remained in the clinical range. Those who endorsed emptiness, impulsivity, and relationship disturbance demonstrated improvement on a number of outcomes, while those who endorsed identity disturbance and fear of abandonment had less improvement on some outcomes. Conclusion These findings illustrate 1) that improvement occurred over a 3-month interval on a number of measures in patients receiving treatment as usual following discharge from a partial hospitalization program, and 2) that BPD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder for which there is no single pathognomonic criterion, so that each criterion should be considered individually in determining its potential effect on treatment outcomes. PMID:19461390
James, Sigrid; Freeman, Kim R; Mayo, Danessa; Riggs, Matt L; Morgan, Joshua P; Schaepper, Mary Ann; Montgomery, Susanne B
This paper presents the outcomes of a Dialectical Behavior Treatment (DBT) program, implemented in intensive outpatient care with two groups of adolescents (n = 55 and n = 45), ages 12-18, who engaged in deliberate self-harm (DSH) but had different insurance/funding sources and risk backgrounds. This pre-post study examined variability in clinical functioning and treatment utilization between the two groups and investigated moderating risk factors. Findings support DBT's effectiveness in improving clinical functioning for youth with DSH regardless of insurance type. However, lower rates of treatment completion among youth without private insurance call for extra engagement efforts to retain high-risk youth in DBT. PMID:25199812
Cepeda, Lisa Marie
and validated coding methods, the Helping Skills System (HSS) and the Client Behavior System (CBS; Hill & O’Brien, 1999). Although levels of client overall output (grammatical units) remained fairly constant throughout the course of therapy, the ratio...
... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...
Murray, Stuart B; Anderson, Leslie K; Cusack, Anne; Nakamura, Tiffany; Rockwell, Roxanne; Griffiths, Scott; Kaye, Walter H
Adolescent bulimia nervosa (BN) remains relatively understudied, and the complex interaction between core eating psychopathology and emotional regulation difficulties provides ongoing challenges for full symptom remission. In an open pilot trial, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of a program integrating family-based treatment (FBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating adolescent BN, without exclusion criteria. Participants were 35 adolescents who underwent partial hospital treatment for BN, and outcomes included measures of core BN pathology and emotional regulation difficulties, as well as parental measures of self-efficacy, completed at intake and discharge. Results indicate significant improvements in overall eating disorder pathology, t(68) = 4.52, p = .002, and in core BN symptoms, including objective binge episodes, t(68) = 2.01, p = .041, and self-induced vomiting, t(68) = 2.90, p = .005. Results also illustrated a significant increase in parental efficacy throughout the course of treatment, t(20) = .081, p = .001, although no global improvement in difficulties in emotion regulation was noted, t(68) = 1.12, p = .285. These preliminary findings support the utility of this integration of FBT and DBT, although raise interesting questions as to the mechanism of symptom remission. PMID:26009971
Marion L. Vetter; Lucy F. Faulconbridge; Victoria L. Webb; Thomas A. Wadden
This article reviews novel developments in the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of obesity and explores the potential contribution of genomics research to weight control. A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification, comprised of diet, physical activity and behavior therapy, induces a mean loss of 7–10% of initial weight in individuals with obesity. Two trials demonstrated that weight loss of this magnitude,
Horan, John J.; And Others
Of 50 students enrolled in an introductory group-counseling course, 19 chose to participate in a laboratory experience focusing on weight loss, in addition to other course objectives. Six weeks of comprehensive behavior programming produced a mean loss of 6.54 pounds. (Author)
Klepsch, R; Weber, K
During one year one day the week a psychiatrist and a behavior therapist cooperate in treating neurotic patients asking for help in the psychiatrist's praxis. The main interest has been to orientate the whole way of treatment-beginning with intake interview in the psychiatrist's praxis continuing in some cases with an offer of immediate behavioral therapy-at those principles the modern behavior therapy commonly uses. Those kinds of "behavioral" problem analyses the outpatient unit for behavior modification University Clinic Hamburg has developed the last ten years have been very helpful; further the different kinds of exposure in real life (in vivo) situations, but also exposure in sensu seemed to be applicable; both because of offering immediate help without looking at sex, age, socio-economic status. PMID:3615683
Carol K. Whalen; Barbara Henker
The background, rationale, and status of cognitive-behavior therapies for hyperactive children are summarized. Emerging themes and redirections are identified, including attributional foci, combination therapies, and tailored treatments. Dilemmas for the scientist-practitioner are highlighted, as the uneven track record of tangible improvements is balanced against the potential for less tangible (and more difficult to measure) gains in causal reasoning, self-perceived efficacy,
Franklin, Thomas N; Mouratidis, Maria
Psychoanalysis and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) benefit populations that overlap in many ways. Patients who seek both treatments often have significant problems with affect regulation, relationships, and workplace functioning. This article's case report describes a patient receiving both treatments concurrently, and demonstrates that these interventions may be synergistic and can be effective when used together. PMID:26039232
Zgliczynski, Susan M.
Evaluated the use of a Multimodal Behavior Therapy (MBT) orientation in group counseling of aged subjects. MBT techniques centered on identifying problems of group members and defining how the problem affected the person. Results indicated that group-counseled aged subjects showed a significant reduction in reported problems. Includes…
Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire
There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group. PMID:24773094
Gillian Butler; Melanie Fennell; Philip Robson; Michael Gelder
In a controlled clinical trial, 57 Ss meeting DSM–III–R criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, and fulfilling an additional severity criterion, were randomly allocated to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior therapy (BT), or a waiting-list control group. Individual treatment lasted 4–12 sessions; independent assessments were made before treatment, after treatment, and 6 months later, and additional follow-up data were collected after
In a controlled clinical trial, 57 Ss meeting DSM—III—R criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, and fulfilling an additional severity criterion, were randomly allocated to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior therapy (BT), or a waiting-list control group. Individual treatment lasted 4—12 sessions; independent assessments were made before treatment, after treatment, and 6 months later, and additional follow-up data were collected after
Insomnia is very common in older adults, but is generally related to medical and psychiatric illness, medication, circadian rhythm change. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia(CBT-I) is a brief, sleep-focused, multimodal intervention by psychological and behavioral procedures. The most common approach includes a behavioral (sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation) component combined cognitive and educational (cognitive strategies, sleep hygiene education) component. CBT-I has adequate evidence from clinical trials to support the management of insomnia. CBT-I has proved successful for older adults with primary and comorbid insomnia and for those with dependency on hypnotics. Proper treatment of insomnia is effective and can improve overall physical and mental health and quality of life in the elderly patient. PMID:26065131
Ball, Jillian; Mitchell, Philip
Very few studies have examined the role of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the outpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa. This study used a randomized, controlled design to evaluate a 12-month, manual based program of CBT, with behavioral family therapy as the comparison group. Twenty-five adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa, currently living with their families, were recruited into the study with both treatment groups receiving 21-25 sessions of therapy. Outcome measures included nutritional status, eating behaviors, mood, self-esteem, and family communication. Sixty percent of the total sample and 72% of treatment completers had "good" outcome (defined as maintaining weight within 10% of average body weight and regular menstrual cycles) at post-treatment and at six months follow-up. No significant differences between treatment groups were found and the majority of patients did not reach symptomatic recovery. While limited by the small sample size, the findings compliment and extend previous research. PMID:16864523
Xin, X Y; Liu, Y
58 of schizophrenia patients at restoration stage in the hospital were studied. The ineffective adaptive behaviors were assessed and behavior therapy plans were made. The behavior therapy was provided in group or individually. The result indicated that patients' ineffective adaptive behaviors such as laziness, passive, withdrawal, role conflict, sexual dysfunction, ineffective adaptation in the society, and aggressive were improved a lot than those before receiving therapy (P < 0.01). PMID:8716709
Dimeff, Linda A; Harned, Melanie S; Woodcock, Eric A; Skutch, Julie M; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M
The present study examined the efficacy of online training (OLT), instructor-led training (ILT), and a treatment manual (TM) in training mental health clinicians in two core strategies of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): chain analysis and validation. A randomized controlled trial compared OLT, ILT, and TM among clinicians naïve to DBT (N=172) who were assessed at baseline, post-training, and 30, 60, and 90days following training. Primary outcomes included satisfaction, self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, clinical proficiency, and clinical use. Overall, ILT outperformed OLT and TM in satisfaction, self-efficacy, and motivation, whereas OLT was the most effective method for increasing knowledge. The conditions did not differ in observer-rated clinical proficiency or self-reported clinical use, which both increased to moderate levels after training. In addition, ILT was particularly effective at improving motivation to use chain analysis, whereas OLT was particularly effective at increasing knowledge of validation strategies. These findings suggest that these types of brief, didactic trainings may be effective methods of increasing knowledge of new treatment strategies, but may not be sufficient to enable clinicians to achieve a high level of clinical use or proficiency. Additional research examining the possible advantages of matching training methods to types of treatment strategies may help to determine a tailored, more effective approach to training clinicians in empirically supported treatments. PMID:25892165
Groups (pre-group meeting required) DBT Skills If you struggle with managing your emotions, have chaos in your relationships, or often find yourself engaging in impulsive behaviors, the Dialectical Behavior of the DBT skills group will learn and practice mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation
Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia. PMID:15717733
S. Rezvan; I. Baghban; F. Bahrami; M. Abedi
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy with the combination of cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy on decreasing the excessiveness of pathological worry and increasing happiness of the individuals with generalized anxiety disorder.Method: The sample consisted of 36 female undergraduate students who referred themselves to the Isfahan University Counseling Center and
Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.
For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…
That psychoanalytic theory has not been displaced by the behavioral theory of neurosis is remarkable in view of the persuasive evidence that exists for the efficacy of behavior therapy. One reason for this seems to be the persistence of widespread misperceptions of behavior therapy. (Author)
Vetter, Marion L.; Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Webb, Victoria L.; Wadden, Thomas A.
This article reviews novel developments in the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of obesity and explores the potential contribution of genomics research to weight control. A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification, comprised of diet, physical activity and behavior therapy, induces a mean loss of 7–10% of initial weight in individuals with obesity. Two trials demonstrated that weight loss of this magnitude, combined with increased physical activity, substantially reduced the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. A third trial is now investigating whether a lifestyle intervention will reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals who already have diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy is recommended, in some patients, as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Two medications—orlistat and sibutramine—are currently approved in the US for long-term weight loss. Both are efficacious when combined with lifestyle modification, although health concerns have been raised about the use of sibutramine. Several novel combination therapies, which target multiple hypothalamic pathways that regulate appetite and body weight, are currently under investigation. Genomic studies provide further evidence for the role of these pathways in the regulation of body weight. Identification of new genes controlling satiety and energy expenditure may yield valuable clues for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments. PMID:20680034
Cepeda, Lisa Marie
and repeated opportunities (anticipate future communications) to exchange information and build relationships. To examine the extent to which the process of online therapy resembles face-to-face therapy, online therapy transcripts were examined through a...
Frank M. Dattilio
The field of couple and family therapy has grown in the direction of expanding its horizons by looking toward innovative ideas and whatever works to facilitate change. Despite its demonstrated track record with a broad range of behavioral and emotional disorders, the cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT) may have been underutilized by couples and family therapists unlike some of the more traditional
Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.
Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with sertraline. Conclusions Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00052078.) PMID:18974308
Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…
The historical roots and current trends in behavior therapy and their relationship to psychiatric occupational therapy are reviewed. Key concepts in behavior therapy are defined, case study examples in various psychiatric disorders are cited and examples of applying behavior therapy to occupational therapy are described. Social skills training and a model for developing an occupational therapy program to decrease stress
Curtis, David F
Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed. PMID:24377401
Papadomarkaki, E; Portinou, S
The present study constitutes a brief literature overview, in which the term of clinical perfectionism, its etiopathology, its assessment and its relation to psychopathology, as well as the therapeutic interventions based on the Cognitive Behavioral Model are discussed. According to Frost, perfectionism is associated with one's desire to achieve the greatest degree of performance and it is accompanied by an extremely strict evaluation of that particular performance. The relationship with oneself as well as the relationship with others are both characterised by high standards and demands which tend to exhaust one individual and dramatically toughen the development of proximity with the others. Perfectionism, as a personality trait, presents functional and dysfunctional elements for a person. Dysfunctional, clinical perfectionism -a term recently coined by researchers- has been linked to a number of disorders, such as social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders -anorexia and bulimia nervosa- depression and personality disorders. From a perfectionist's point of view, perfection exists and its attaintment is feasible. The existence of a particularly high and often unrealistic goal can lead the person to severe disappointment when this specific goal is not finally reached. A person with functional perfectionism is possible to set another, more achievable, goal next time, while a person with clinical perfectionism will interpret this failure as a sign of personal inadequacy and will either make another attempt to reach the same goal or will abandon the effort altogether. A sense of weakness and subsequent negative automatic thoughts are the aftermath of both the first and the second choice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy focuses on the realisation that clinical perfectionism is undesirable, on the dispute of negative automatic thoughts and on the replacement of unfunctional cognitive schemas with other, more functional ones. In the therapeutic process, one individual can learn how to set specific and realistic goals, to focus on the process of a task instead of its result, to organise activities in a hierarchy depending on their significance and, finally, to feel fulfilled even if they have not brought a task to completion. It is a fact that the core schemas of clinical perfectionism are characterised by rigidity due to the excessive number of secondary benefits they provide for one person. The exploration of those benefits and the discovery of alternative sources of fulfillment are areas of therapeutic work. PMID:22549041
JEFFREY J. WOOD; JOHN C. PIACENTINI; MICHAEL SOUTHAM-GEROW; BRIAN C. CHU; MARIAN SIGMAN
ObjectiveThis study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders.
Sollod, Robert N.
The new sex therapy, a brief outpatient treatment of sexual dysfunction consisting of structured sexual exercises and conjoint therapeutic sessions, is a systematic integration of behavioral and psychodynamic elements. The integration of approaches in the new sex therapy has general significance for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. (Author)
Ordman, Arnold M.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.
Examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia. Assigned 20 bulimic women to full- or brief-intervention therapy programs. Results indicated that full-intervention clients, relative to brief-intervention clients, substantially reduced the frequency of their bingeing-vomiting; improved their psychological adjustment; and…
Maglio, Christopher J.
This document applies the Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to grief counseling and grief therapy. Although most people are able to work through their grief with support from family and friends, some people may not want to burden loved ones with their loss. Grief counseling or grief therapy is best used by those individuals who need the opportunity to…
Jones, Enrico E.; Pulos, Steven M.
Used archival records to compare therapy process in 30 brief psychodynamic and 32 cognitive-behavioral therapies. Analyses of verbatim transcripts of 186 treatment sessions demonstrated that, although some features were common to both treatments, there were important differences. Identified what types of processes led to patient improvement in…
The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.
Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron
This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…
Ross, Colin A
Dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder resemble each other in trauma histories and comorbidity. Each disorder is frequently comorbid with the other. Treatment outcome data for Dialectical Behavior Therapy of borderline personality disorder and Trauma Model Therapy of dissociative identity disorder are reviewed. The author proposes a psychotherapy treatment study in which there are three subject groups and two treatment conditions. The subject groups are borderline personality disorder without dissociative identity disorder; dissociative identity disorder without borderline personality disorder; and both conditions present concurrently. Subjects would be randomized to receive Dialectical Behavior Therapy or Trauma Model Therapy. Such a study could provide answers to controversies in the field about a better treatment approach for dissociative identity disorder and potentially could broaden and strengthen the indications for Dialectical Behavior Therapy. PMID:16173357
Choi, Dennis C; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Gerardi, Maryrose; Ressler, Kerry J
Improved efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders is urgently needed. Traditional anxiety treatments of hypnosis and psychodynamic therapy may be of some help, but uncontrolled studies lead to inconclusive results on the efficacy of these treatment techniques. There is a larger literature supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral procedures with PTSD, including prolonged exposure therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and anxiety management techniques. The cutting-edge technology of virtual reality-based exposure therapy for PTSD is particularly exciting. To further build on effective psychosocial treatments, current pharmacological augmentation approaches to emotional learning are being combined with psychotherapy. In particular, D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA agonist, has shown to be effective in facilitating the exposure/extinction therapy to improve the efficacy of treating anxiety disorders, and may guide the way for new pharmacological enhancements of behavioral therapy. PMID:21309114
Jones, E E; Pulos, S M
Archival records were used to compare the therapy process in 30 brief psychodynamic and 32 cognitive-behavioral therapies. Verbatim transcripts of 186 treatment sessions were rated with the Psychotherapy Process Q-set, designed to provide a standard language for the description of process. Results demonstrated that although some features were common to both treatments, there were important differences. Cognitive-behavioral therapy promoted control of negative affect through the use of intellect and rationality combined with vigorous encouragement, support, and reassurance from therapists. In psychodynamic psychotherapies, there was an emphasis on the evocation of affect, on bringing troublesome feelings into awareness, and on integrating current difficulties with previous life experience, using the therapist-patient relationship as a change agent. The clinical theoretical precepts underlying psychodynamic treatments received considerable support. In cognitive-behavioral therapies, there was evidence for the importance of developmental, as opposed to rationalist, intervention strategies for treatment outcome. PMID:8473585
Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.
Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…
Steven A. Hobbs; Lea E. Moguin; Merle Tyroler; Benjamin B. Lahey
Considerable attention has recently been focused on intervention techniques designed to alter cognitive processes in an attempt to modify clinically relevant child behaviors. Studies in which children have been taught cognitive mediating strategies (methods collectively known as cognitive behavior therapy) are evaluated in terms of S populations, adequacy of outcome measures, experimental and statistical methodology, and consistency of findings. In
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian
Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…
Kazdin, Alan E.
Reviews advances in child behavior therapy by illustrating the range of problems treated and the techniques and accomplishments that have emerged. Discusses training of parents, teachers, peers, and children themselves in behavior change techniques, as well as general implications of therapeutic developments for enhancing child welfare. (GC)
Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…
Foa, Edna B.
Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and early behavioral therapy, neither of which produced successful outcomes with OCD. The main part of the paper will be devoted to current cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on variants of exposure and ritual or response prevention (EX/RP) treatments, the therapy that has shown the most empirical evidence of its efficacy. PMID:20623924
Robert D. Friedberg; Laura H. Wilt
Despite the recent proliferation of material on cognitive behavioral approaches with children and adolescents and the call\\u000a for these approaches to be more child-friendly, there is scant attention paid to the use of metaphors with youngsters. This\\u000a paper emphasizes the value metaphors add to cognitive behavioral therapy with children and adolescents. The advantages which\\u000a recommend metaphor use for cognitive behavioral
Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in which its procedures incorporate behavior analysis methods and principles. The intervention is founded on the concept of learned nonuse, a mechanism now empirically demonstrated to exist, which occurs after many different types of damage to the central nervous system (CNS). It results from the dramatic alteration of the contingencies of reinforcement that results from substantial CNS damage and leads to a greater deficit than is warranted by the actual damage sustained. CI therapy produces a countervailing alteration in the contingencies of reinforcement. The intervention has been used successfully to substantially improve motor deficits after stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, with cerebral palsy in a pediatric population, and for language impairment in poststroke aphasia. The protocol of CI therapy consists primarily of standard behavior-analytic methods. It produces a marked plastic brain change that is correlated with its therapeutic effect, and therefore provides an example of the way in which behavior change can contribute to a profound remodeling of the brain. CI therapy may be viewed as an example of behavioral neurorehabilitation. PMID:23449867
O'Hearn, Amanda; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.
Therapies that rely on written materials, information, or procedures involving familiarity with the dominant culture (e.g., colloquialisms, history) often pose barriers to people who use another language, have low English literacy, or are less familiar with the dominant culture. All this applies deaf individuals. One of the most well-validated…
Hayes, Steven C.
The first wave of behavior therapy countered the excesses and scientific weakness of existing nonempirical clinical traditions through empirically studied first-order change efforts linked to behavioral principles targeting directly relevant clinical targets. The second wave was characterized by similar direct change efforts guided by social…
Steven C. Hayes
The first wave of behavior therapy countered the excesses and scientific weakness of existing nonempirical clinical traditions through empirically studied first-order change efforts linked to behavioral principles targeting directly relevant clinical tar- gets. The second wave was characterized by similar direct change efforts guided by social learning and cognitive principles that included cognitive in addition to behav- ioral and emotive
Manjula, M.; Kumariah, V.; Prasadarao, P. S. D. V.; Raguram, R.
Background: Comprehensive cognitive behavior therapies have been proved to be more effective than behavioral interventions. However, the efficacy of CBT is not studied in the Indian context and also, the amount of change brought about by CBT is not known. Aims: This study aims to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) in the treatment of panic disorder. Our specific objectives were to assess the effectiveness of CBI in reducing symptom severity as well as cognitions related to panic and panic-related behaviors. Design: The study adopted a two-group comparison with pre- and postassessments design. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 patients sequentially allotted to the CBI (n = 15) and behavioral intervention (BI, n = 15) groups. Assessment was done using a semistructured interview schedule, panic disorder severity scale, Texas panic attack record form, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire, Behavioral avoidance checklist, and Panic appraisal inventory. The CBI group was provided with comprehensive cognitive behavior therapy and the BI group with psycho-education and applied relaxation. Results: CBI was found to be superior to BI in the reduction of panic symptoms, behavioral avoidance, safety behaviors, and cognitions. A large percentage of the CBI group patients met the criteria for clinically significant change with a large magnitude of change. Conclusion: Multicomponent CBI is superior to BI in terms of the amount of change it brings about with respect to panic symptoms, avoidance, safety behaviors, and cognitions. PMID:19823629
Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Miller, Megan A.; Ernecoff, Natalie C.
Objective Although light therapy is effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and other mood disorders, only 53–79% of individuals with SAD meet remission criteria after light therapy. Perhaps more importantly, only 12–41% of individuals with SAD continue to use the treatment even after a previous winter of successful treatment. Method Participants completed surveys regarding (1) social, cognitive, and behavioral variables used to evaluate treatment adherence for other health-related issues, expectations and credibility of light therapy, (2) a depression symptoms scale, and (3) self-reported light therapy use. Results Individuals age 18 or older responded (n?=?40), all reporting having been diagnosed with a mood disorder for which light therapy is indicated. Social support and self-efficacy scores were predictive of light therapy use (p's<.05). Conclusion The findings suggest that testing social support and self-efficacy in a diagnosed patient population may identify factors related to the decision to use light therapy. Treatments that impact social support and self-efficacy may improve treatment response to light therapy in SAD. PMID:22720089
Jean Cottraux; Sai Nan Yao; Sylviane Lafont; Evelyne Mollard; Martine Bouvard; Alain Sauteraud; Marc Bourgeois; Jean-François Dartigues
Background: The study was designed to compare cognitive therapy (CT) with intensive behavior therapy (BT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to study their change process. Methods: Sixty-five outpatients with DSM-4 OCD were randomized into 2 groups for 16 weeks of individual treatment in 3 centers. Group 1 received 20 sessions of CT. Group 2 received a BT program of 20
Slaughter, Richard L
There are conditions that cause a substantial change in drug clearance to such a degree that how a specific drug is managed to optimize drug response and minimize drug toxicity presents a challenge. This review will focus on recent literature (within the past 5 years) that evaluates pathophysiologic and genetic conditions and drug interactions which can change drug clearance to the magnitude that response is affected. Situations discussed that cause an increase in drug clearance will include: augmented renal clearance in critically ill patients; ultrafast drug metabolism caused by gene duplication; and enzyme induction interactions caused by rifampin. Situations discussed that result in a reduction in clearance will include: multiple organ failure in critically ill, patients with non-functioning CYP2D6 and CYP2C8/9 alleles, and CYP3A4 drug interactions with erythromycin and clarithromycin. In each case evaluated clearance is changed to the magnitude such that managing drug therapy can be difficult. PMID:24164611
Chorpita, Bruce F.; Taylor, Alissa A.; Francis, Sarah E.; Moffitt, Catherine; Austin, Ayda A.
The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific…
Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.
Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…
Franklin, Martin E.; Edson, Aubrey L.; Ledley, Deborah A.; Cahill, Shawn P.
Objective: To examine the efficacy and durability of a behavioral therapy (BT) protocol for pediatric TTM compared with a minimal attention control (MAC) condition. It was hypothesized that the BT condition would be superior to MAC at the end of acute treatment, and would also demonstrate durability of gains through the maintenance treatment…
The cognitive model of panic and cognitive-behavioral therapy were evaluated. It was argued that the cognitive model is not clear about the definition of threat, and that panic is evoked by the fear of the dissolution of the self. Furthermore, panic attacks will not lead to panic disorder unless the individual is experiencing general anxiety and is concerned with his\\/her
John T. Walkup; Anne Marie Albano; John Piacentini; Boris Birmaher; Scott N. Compton; Joel T. Sherrill; Golda S. Ginsburg; Moira A. Rynn; James McCracken; Bruce Waslick; Satish Iyengar; John S. March; Philip C. Kendall
Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and ado- lescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake in- hibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis
Bruce F. Chorpita; Alissa A. Taylor; Sarah E. Francis; Catherine Moffitt; Ayda A. Austin
The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cog- nitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific Island ethnicity ranging in age from 7 to 13
O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch
Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…
Yiheng Zhang; Heang-ping Chan; Mitchell M. Goodsitt; Andrea Schmitz; Jeffrey W. Eberhard; Bernhard E. H. Claus
Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) Mammography is an emerging technique that has the potential to improve breast cancer detection.\\u000a In DBT, low-dose mammograms are acquired at a number of projection angles over a limited range and the 3D breast volume is\\u000a reconstructed. In this study, we investigated the effect of different distributions of projection-view (PV) images that included\\u000a different angular range
Lewin, Adam B; Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Storch, Eric A
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is considered a first-line intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across the lifespan. Efficacy studies of CBT with exposure and response prevention suggest robust symptom reduction, often with sustained remission. Acceptability of CBT is high, and the treatment is devoid of adverse side effects. The primary mechanism of CBT is based on operant principles, specifically extinction learning. The efficacy of extinction-based treatments such as CBT is being shown for other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. This article reviews the theoretic basis, clinical application, and relevant treatment outcome research for CBT and related therapies for several obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. PMID:25150570
E. Klinger; S. Bouchard; P. Legeron; S. Roy; F. Lauer; I. Chemin; P. Nugues
Social phobia is one of the most frequent mental disorders and is accessible to two forms of scientifically validated treatments: anti-depressant drugs and cognitive behavior therapies (CBT). In this last case, graded exposure to feared social situations is one of the fundamental therapeutic ingredients. Virtual reality technologies are an interesting alternative to the stan- dard exposure in social phobia, especially
Swales, Michaela A.
Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is a cognitive behavioural treatment initially developed for adult women with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of chronic suicidal behaviour (Linehan, 1993a; 1993b). DBT was the first treatment for BPD to demonstrate its efficacy in a randomised controlled trial (Linehan ,…
Volery, M; Bonnemain, A; Latino, A; Ourrad, N; Perroud, A
The psychological assessment of the patient with obesity aims to identify the factors of maintenance of excess weight, such as eating disorders or anxio-depressive disorders. Psychotherapy helps a better weight management. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity. New psychotherapeutic approaches are explored. The hypnosis and mindfulness are proposed for the management of emotions and stress. A targeted approach on the body image disorder decreases body dissatisfaction. When post-traumatic stress syndrome is involved, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) is better than other types of therapies. Family therapy is indicated when the entourage is impacted. Psychological difficulties should be the subject of specific care. PMID:26111421
Anna Samoilov; Marvin R. Goldfried
In this article, we suggest that the long-term effective- ness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) may be en- hanced by going beyond symptoms at the cognitive level (i.e., intellectual meanings) and expanding thera- peutic focus to the underlying, implicit emotional mean- ings. Following a discussion of the state-of-the-art view on emotion in CBT, we present empirical, theoretical, and clinical evidence from
The present paper reconsiders the role of developmental theory in the use of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) with children. The implication of Piaget's theory of cognitive development and Selman's social perspectivetaking theory are reviewed briefly in regard to CBT. It is argued that the assessment of both logical\\/analytical thought structures and social perspective-taking abilities may be useful in planning a course
Harry J. Sivec; Vicki L. Montesano
Across two continents, Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis (CBT-P) has been endorsed as an adjunctive treatment for individuals who experience persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The moderate effect sizes reported in early studies and reviews were followed by better controlled studies indicating more limited effect sizes. This article provides a review of the literature that addresses the effectiveness of CBT-P, including
Keith C. Russell; John C. Hendee; Dianne Phillips-Miller
This paper summarizes findings from a detailed study of the processes employed by four leading wilderness therapy programs focusing on how wilderness therapy works, the kinds of behavioral problems to which it is commonly applied, expected outcomes and the role of wilderness in the intervention and treat- ment process (Russell, 1999). Wilderness therapy is an emerging intervention to help adolescents
Simone Munsch; Binia Roth; Tanja Michael; Andrea Hans Meyer; Esther Biedert; Sandra Roth; Vanessa Speck; Urs Zumsteg; Emanuel Isler; Jürgen Margraf
Background: Parent-child treatments have been shown to be superior to child-focused treatments of childhood obesity. Yet until now, the comparative effectiveness of parent-only and parent-child approaches has been little studied. Method: Fifty-six obese children and their families were randomly assigned to a 16-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the parents only or for a combined treatment of parents and children.
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a pioneering form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Acceptance and Commitment\\u000a Therapy (ACT) is part of the new wave of CBTs. In this article, I discuss the papers of Ciarrochi, Robb, and Godsell, and\\u000a of Ciarrochi and Robb, who propose that REBT and ACT can be quite suitably integrated, and the paper of Steven Hayes,
Laberge, Benoit; And Others
Investigated extent to which cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used successfully in treatment of secondary depressed panic patients. Findings from eight panic patients with major depression and seven panic patients without major depression showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was significantly superior to information-based therapy in…
Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others
Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…
Margolin, Gayla; And Others
Explores advantages and disadvantages of behavioral marital therapy. Features of behavioral marital therapy implicated as important in the consideration of sex role issues include underlying assumptions of egalitarianism, external causality, and orientation toward action as well as specific procedures such as goal setting, behavioral exchange and…
Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya
A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol. PMID:22066220
Samantha A. Rodman; Stacey B. Daughters; C. W. Lejuez
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is a widely utilized treatment approach for many mental disorders, but it has been\\u000a “relatively neglected in the professional scientific literature” (Ellis 2003b). This neglect has been attributed in part to a lack of solid REBT outcome studies, which in turn stems from the difficulty\\u000a of measuring constructs of interest in REBT, such as irrational beliefs,
Arnold A. P. van Emmerik; Jan H. Kamphuis; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp
Background: Writing assignments have shown promising results in treating traumatic symptomatology. Yet no studies have compared their efficacy to the current treatment of choice, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present study evaluated the efficacy of structured writing therapy (SWT) and CBT as compared to a waitlist control condition in treating acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods:
Pamela A. Hays
During the past decade, 3 major developments in psychotherapy have been converging: the establishment of evidence-based practices in psychology (EBPP); enormous growth in cognitive–behavior therapy and research (CBT); and increasing recognition of the impact of multicultural influences, as highlighted in the field of multicultural therapy (MCT). Cognitive–behavioral research has produced many empirically supported treatments used in the establishment of the
Goldstein, L.H.; Chalder, T.; Chigwedere, C.; Khondoker, M.R.; Moriarty, J.; Toone, B.K.; Mellers, J.D.C.
Objective: To compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical care (SMC) as treatments for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared CBT with SMC in an outpatient neuropsychiatric setting. Sixty-six PNES patients were randomized to either CBT (plus SMC) or SMC alone, scheduled to occur over 4 months. PNES diagnosis was established by video-EEG telemetry for most patients. Exclusion criteria included comorbid history of epilepsy, <2 PNES/month, and IQ <70. The primary outcome was seizure frequency at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included 3 months of seizure freedom at 6-month follow-up, measures of psychosocial functioning, health service use, and employment. Results: In an intention-to-treat analysis, seizure reduction following CBT was superior at treatment end (group × time interaction p < 0.0001; large to medium effect sizes). At follow-up, the CBT group tended to be more likely to have experienced 3 months of seizure freedom (odds ratio 3.125, p = 0.086). Both groups improved in some health service use measures and on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Mood and employment status showed no change. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than standard medical care alone in reducing seizure frequency in PNES patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT in addition to SMC, as compared to SMC alone, significantly reduces seizure frequency in patients with PNES (change in median monthly seizure frequency: baseline to 6 months follow-up, CBT group, 12 to 1.5; SMC alone group, 8 to 5). GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IQR = interquartile range; ITT = intention-to-treat; OR = odds ratio; PNES = psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SMC = standard medical care; WASAS = Work and Social Adjustment Scale. PMID:20548043
McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506
Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.
Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076
Flessner, Christopher A.
The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Tic disorders (i.e., Tourette's syndrome, chronic tic disorders) and trichotillomania (i.e., chronic hair pulling) are the most often studied and (arguably) most debilitating of these conditions. Therefore, this article will focus on the efficacy of CBT for tic disorders and trichotillomania. After a brief introduction to these disorders, the author will provide an overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns. In particular, this review will focus on a therapeutic technique that is at the core of most all CBT-based interventions, habit reversal training. Discussion of two recent empirical studies pointing to the immense potential of CBT for the treatment of childhood repetitive behavior disorders will follow. Finally, future areas of research will be discussed. PMID:21440858
Aaron Hogue; Sarah Dauber; Leyla Faw Stambaugh; John J. Cecero; Howard A. Liddle
The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and outcome (drug use, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms in both conditions) at
Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.
The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…
New effective, efficient, and accessible service delivery methods for cognitive–behavioral therapies for pediatric anxiety disorders are needed. Many anxious children do not receive needed treatment because of barriers such as limited availability of trained practitioners, costs of treatment, and time. A cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) stepped care approach that \\
Sallinen, Bethany J.; Nangle, Douglas W.; O'Grady, April C.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to a medication regimen of clomipramine and fluoxetine and the withdrawal of medication during cognitive-behavioral therapy. The participant was an 11-year-old girl with symptoms of obsessive thoughts about germs and illness and…
Walker, C. E.; And Others
Reproduced here are symposia papers dealing with behavior theory and therapy. Behavior therapy attempts to apply the findings of experimental psychology and the laboratory to the clinic. It takes the principles of learning and scientific psychology and makes them useful therapeutically. The two orientations in this area are operant and classical…
Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.
Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…
Andrew McKeon; Keith A. Josephs; Kevin J. Klos; Kathleen Hecksel; James H. Bower; J. Michael Bostwick; J. Eric Ahlskog
Unusual compulsive behaviors (weighing, card and video game playing, fishing, gardening, intense interest in established hobbies, locking and unlocking doors, repetitive dressing and undressing) occurred in relation to dopamine agonist therapy (six patients) and levodopa therapy (one patient) in seven patients with parkinsonism (seven Parkinson's disease, one multiple system atrophy). These behaviors occurred in tandem with pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive
Reddy, R P; Sharma, M P; Shivashankar, N
The present investigation was aimed at studying the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing the symptoms of stuttering and dysfunctional cognitions and in enhancing assertiveness and quality of life in clients with stuttering. Five clients with stuttering who met the inclusion criteria (male clients with diagnosis of stuttering) and exclusion criteria (clients with brian damage), substance abuse or mental retardation were enrolled for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, mid- and post-assessment were carried out using Stuttering Severity Scale (SSI), Perception of Stuttering Inventory (PSI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Dysfunctional Attitude (DAS), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE), Assertiveness Scale (AS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and World Health Organization - Quality of Life Scale (WHO-QOL). Five clients received cognitive behavioral intervention comprising of psycho-education, relaxation, deep breathing, humming, prolongation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving strategies and assertiveness. At post-treatment assessment, there was improvement. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research. PMID:21799560
Irwin F. Altrows
The case for rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with offenders is reviewed. Philosophical\\u000a and practical problems in conducting REBT assessment and treatment with this population are identified. Suggestions regarding\\u000a offender treatment address goals and content of therapy, the therapeutic relationship, overcoming client resistance, and self-care\\u000a for the practitioner. Therapists of offenders are encouraged to apply
Macgowan, Mark J.; Engle, Bretton
This article reviews behavior therapies (n = 12), motivational interviewing interventions (n = 12), and combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies (n = 12), across thirty-four peer-reviewed publications. Studies were included if they involved youth with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, included measures of AOD outcomes, and utilized controlled research designs with a control or comparison condition. Across the studies, there were mild to very serious AOD problems including comorbidity. The level of empirical support of the interventions was evaluated using established guidelines to determine if the interventions could be considered “well-established,” “probably efficacious,” or “promising.” The review determined that behavior therapies were “probably efficacious,” and motivational interviewing interventions easily met the criteria for “promising.” Due to small sample sizes, combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies marginally met the criteria for “promising.” The findings from this review underscore the value of individual and group behavior therapies and motivational interviewing in helping reduce mild to serious AOD use among adolescents. PMID:20682219
Dean, C E
A 35-year-old man with schizophrenia associated with a 10-year history of repetitive and often severe self-injurious behaviors was treated successfully with maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Initially his condition did not respond to multiple psychotropic agents (including a year-long trial of clozapine), 27 hospitalizations, two courses of bilateral electroconvulsive therapy, and supportive psychotherapy with partial hospitalization. After the initiation of maintenance electroconvulsive therapy, this patient was able to tolerate residential placement and begin a work therapy program with only one instance of self-injurious behavior in the past 17 months. PMID:11005055
Lu, Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Goodsitt, Mitch; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Schmitz, Andrea; Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.
We are investigating factors affecting the detection of microcalcifications in digital breast tomography (DBT). In this study, we analyzed the effects of projection-view (PV) distribution on spatial blurring of calcifications on the tomosynthesized slices (X-Y plane) and along the depth (Z) direction. DBT scans of a breast phantom with simulated microcalcifications were acquired with a GE prototype system at 21 angles in 3° increments over a +/-30° range. Six subsets of 11 PVs were selected from the full set to simulate DBT of different angular ranges and angular increments. SART was applied to each subset to reconstruct the DBT slices. The FWHMs of the line profiles of calcifications within their in-focus DBT slices and FWHMs of the inter-plane artifact spread function (ASF) in the Z-direction for the different PV distributions were compared. The results indicate that DBT acquired with a large angular range or a reasonable number of PVs at large angles yield superior ASF with smaller FWHM in the Z-direction. PV distributions with a narrow angular range have stronger inter-plane artifacts. In the X-Y focal planes, the effect of PV distributions on spatial blurring depends on the directions. The normalized line profiles of the calcifications reconstructed with the different PV distributions are similar in the X-direction. The differences in the FWHMs between the different PV distributions are less than half a pixel. In the Y-(x-ray tube motion) direction, the normalized line profiles of the calcifications reconstructed with DBT acquired with a narrow angular range or a reasonable number of PVs at small angles have less blurring in terms of smaller FWHMs of the line profiles. PV distributions with a wide angular range have stronger in-plane artifacts in the Y-direction. Further study is underway to compare different reconstruction techniques and parameters. The information will be useful for optimization of DBT for detection of microcalcifications.
Monast, Sheila; Smith, Elaine
A language therapy program designed for use with behavior-disordered adolescents was also used with language/learning-disabled adolescents. Line drawings of facial expressions were used to teach the concepts of feelings and identify ranges of similar emotions as well as to introduce new vocabulary. Special behavior considerations with the behavior…
David A. Clark
The past decade has witnessed a significant shift toward a more cognitive emphasis in our understanding and treatment of obsessive?compulsive disorders (OCD). This article discusses the shortcomings in more standard behavioral treatment of OCD, which despite its demonstrated efficacy, led to the recent cognitive?behavioral approaches to the disorder. Current cognitive behavior therapy for OCD is described and a short critical
Nesci, Salvatore; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Borgatti, Anna Rosa; Pagliarani, Alessandra
Tri-n-butyltin (TBT) has long been considered as the most toxic among organotins, especially to membrane systems. The partially dealkylated derivative di-n-butyltin (DBT) has up to now received poor attention and, whenever considered, shown to be less toxic than TBT except on the immune system. The present kinetic approach evidences that both TBT and DBT in vitro inhibit the Mg-ATPase in mussel digestive gland mitochondria by a different mechanism. DBT even displays a higher efficiency than TBT (IC(50)=0.32 ?M for TBT vs. 0.19 ?M for DBT) in inhibiting the enzyme hydrolytic activity. Differently from TBT which at high concentrations (>1 ?M) apparently decreases the oligomycin-sensitivity of the Mg-ATPase, DBT at any concentration tested does not affect the oligomycin sensitivity. TBT probably binds to F(0), either in the form of free enzyme or of enzyme-substrate complex (Ki=K'i), acting as non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the ATP substrate. Conversely DBT, which acts as uncompetitive inhibitor of ATP and as competitive inhibitor of Mg(2+) cofactor, may bind strongly to F(1) subunit, thus preventing ATP hydrolysis. The Mg-ATPase inhibition by both organotins warns against a potential threat to crucial cell energy metabolism processes even after years from contamination and partial TBT debutylation. PMID:20950683
Hjalmarsson, Erik; Kaver, Anna; Perseius, Kent-Inge; Cederberg, Kerstin; Ghaderi, Ata
The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility and impact of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a clinical outpatient setting. Eighteen clinicians were trained and supervised in using DBT. Twenty-seven female patients were assessed on a number of variables before the treatment,…
Sakdalan, J. A.; Shaw, J.; Collier, V.
Background: Dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT) has been widely used with individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who exhibit severe emotional and behavioural dysregulation. There is a paucity of research in assessing the effectiveness of DBT with forensic clients with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: This pilot study aims…
Patton, Susana R.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Smith, Laura B.; Brown, Morton B.; Powers, Scott W.
This study examined mealtime behaviors in families of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) on intensive insulin therapy. Behaviors were compared to published data for children on conventional therapy and examined for correlations with glycemic control. Thirty-nine families participated and had at least three home meals videotaped while children wore a continuous glucose monitor. Videotaped meals were coded for parent, child, and child eating behaviors using valid coding system. A group difference was found for child request for food only. There were also associations found between children's glycemic control and child play and away. However, no associations were found between parent and child behaviors within meals and children's corresponding post-prandial glycemic control. Results reinforce existing research indicating that mealtime behavior problems exist for families of young children even in the context of intensive therapy and that some child behaviors may relate to glycemic control. PMID:24183137
Baucom, Donald H.; Aiken, Pamela A.
Explored the relationships among masculinity, femininity, and marital satisfaction, and response to behavioral marital therapy in married couples (N=126). Results indicated that for each sex, both femininity and masculinity are significantly correlated with self-reported marital satisfaction. (LLL)
Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study published October 8, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Jeffrey J. Wood; Cori Fujii; Patricia Renno
\\u000a Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who have acquired functional communication strategies – particularly more\\u000a cognitively able individuals at or beyond the elementary school age group – may be candidates for talk-based therapies similar\\u000a to those employed with children and adults with mental health disorders, such as anxiety (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy,\\u000a CBT). While talk-based therapies are widely used in
Mary A. Jenni; Janet P. Wollersheim
The effectiveness of two treatments for reducing stress associated with the Type A behavior pattern was evaluated. One treatment, Stress Management Training, was a replication of a previously reported treatment. The Cognitive Therapy treatment, based on the principles of rational-emotive therapy, was designed specifically for this study. Both treatment groups were compared with a waiting list control group on several
Szigethy, Eva; Kenney, Elyse; Carpenter, Johanna; Hardy, Diana M.; Fairclough, Diane; Bousvaros, Athos; Keljo, David; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.; Noll, Robert; DeMaso, David Ray
Objective: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depressive symptomatology in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Therapy-Physical Illness(PASCET-PI) modified for youths with IBD was compared to treatment as usual (TAU), plus…
Michael S. Robbins; Charles W. Turner; James F. Alexander; Gonzalo A. Perez
This study examined the relationship between alliance and retention in family therapy. Alliance was examined at the individual (parent and adolescent) and family levels (within-family differences). Participants were 34 families who received functional family therapy for the treatment of adolescent (aged 12–18 years) behavior problems. Families were classified as treatment dropouts (n = 14) or completers (n = 20). Videotapes
Gosselin, Patrick; Ladouceur, Robert; Morin, Charles M.; Dugas, Michel J.; Baillargeon, Lucie
This study evaluated the specific effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) combined with medication tapering for benzodiazepine discontinuation among generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients by using a nonspecific therapy control group. Sixty-one patients who had used benzodiazepines for more than 12 months were randomly assigned to…
Chiu, Angela W.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Background: Few studies have examined the link between child-therapist alliance and outcome in manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children diagnosed with anxiety disorders. This study sought to clarify the nature and strength of this relation. Methods: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child…
Mizue Suzuki; Masao Kanamori; Motoko Watanabe; Shingo Nagasawa; Emi Kojima; Hajime Ooshiro; Daiichirou Nakahara
The present study investigated the effectiveness of music therapy for dementia patients using endo- crinological and behavioral evaluations. The study comprised 10 patients with senile dementia who received music therapy; six had Alzheimer's dementia and four had vascular dementia. Music ther- apy was performed twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks (16 sessions). As a result, total scores on the
Maureen L. Whittal; Dana S. Thordarson; Peter D. McLean
The efficacy of contemporary cognitive therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has only recently been investigated. The current study compares exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) delivered in an individual format. Participants were randomly assigned to the 12 consecutive-week CBT or ERP treatment. Based on 59 treatment completers, there was no significant difference in YBOCS scores between
Leslee L Subak; Charles P Quesenberry; Samuel F Posner; Eugene Cattolica; Krikor Soghikian
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of a low-intensity behavioral therapy program on urinary incontinence in older women.METHODS:A randomized clinical trial for community-dwelling women at least 55 years reporting at least one urinary incontinent episode per week was conducted. Women were randomly assigned to a behavioral therapy group (n = 77) or a control group (n = 75). The treatment group had
Meyer, Joffre Denis
APPROACHING COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL AND EXISTENTIAL THERAPY THROUGH NEO-CONFUCIANISM A Thesis by JOFFRE DENIS MEYER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Educational Psychology APPROACHING COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL AND EXISTENTIAL THERAPY THROUGH NEO-CONFUCIANISM A Thesis by JOFFRE DENIS MEYER Approved as to style and content by: (C axrman o ommxttee) William R...
Donald F. Walker; Jennifer B. Reese; John P. Hughes; Melissa J. Troskie
Psychologists have become increasingly concerned with the role of religion and spirituality in resolving childhood physical and sexual abuse, particularly religion-related abuse. In treating victims of child abuse, trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy has emerged as a leading treatment for recovery. In this article, we discuss the relevance of religious and spiritual issues in trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy for children and
M. F. M. Gielissen; S. Verhagen; F. Witjes; G. Bleijenberg
PURPOSE: Persistent fatigue is a long-term adverse effect experienced by 30% to 40% of patients cured of cancer. The main objective of this randomized controlled trial was to show the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) especially designed for fatigue in cancer survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 112 cancer survivors with somatically unexplained fatigue were allocated randomly to
Ellen Vedel; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp; Gerard M. Schippers
Background: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption and enhancing marital functioning, but no study has directly tested the comparative effectiveness of stand-alone BCT versus an
Schmidt, C P; Andrews, M L
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate consistency in clinicians' behaviors during two voice therapy sessions. The secondary purpose was to examine relationships between ratings of clinicians' and clients' behaviors. Each clinician (n = 7) was observed working with two different clients. Two experienced evaluators, using the Adjective Checklist and five-point semantic differential scales, rated clinicians and clients. Results indicated that 6 of 10 aspects of therapy studied were found to be relatively inconsistent, with the pace of therapy being the least stable. Ratings of individual clinician traits (e.g., favorable, unfavorable, intraception) were the most stable. PMID:8293067
Foster, Sharon L.; Hoier, Tamara S.
Compares the ways in which behavioral and family systems theories conceptualize family problems and explains maintenance and change processes within the family system. Systems and behavioral theories share functional views of problem behaviors and interactive sequences. Discusses areas of potential integration of the two perspectives. (Author)
Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.
Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…
Virgil L. Gregory Jr
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that has been considered to be the epitome of a severe mental illness. The negative psychosocial consequences of schizophrenia are well documented. Despite the advent of antipsychotic medication, residual symptoms persist for many persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has emerged as an adjunctive treatment to pharmacotherapy. Cognitive-behavioral theories of positive and negative symptoms
Michael Smith; Macletus Dejoie-Smith
Contends that there is a weak empirical basis for the move toward more behaviorally oriented modalities as appropriate for non-White and non-YAVIS (young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, and successful) clients. Behavior therapy has been proposed because traditional approaches are seen as \\
Debra L. Safer; Jennifer L. Couturier; James Lock
Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge eating as a behavioral attempt to influence, change, or control painful emotional states. With
Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.
This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…
Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…
Michael E. Thase; Amy L. Fasiczka; Susan R. Berman; Anne D. Simons; Charles F. Reynolds III
Background: Previous studies have not fully resolved the state-dependent vs traitlike behavior of the electro- encephalographic sleep abnormalities associated with de- pression. We therefore examined the sleep profiles of de- pressed patients before and after 16 weeks of treatment with cognitive behavior therapy to determine the stabil- ity or reversibility of selected abnormalities. Methods: Seventy-eight unmedicated patients with ma- jor
Dicker, Stacy L.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon
The first-line treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), uses food-based self-monitoring. Six young women presenting with BN or significant purging behavior were treated with a modification, Appetite-Focused CBT (CBT-AF), in which self-monitoring is based on appetite cues and food monitoring is proscribed. This change…
Baucom, Katherine J W; Baucom, Brian R; Christensen, Andrew
To examine changes in dyadic communication, as well as links between communication and long-term relationship outcomes, 134 distressed couples randomly assigned to either Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT; Jacobson & Christensen, 1998) were observed in video-recorded interactions. Observers rated discussions of relationship problems at 3 time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, 2-year follow-up) and relationship outcomes (i.e., treatment response and relationship stability) were measured at a 5-year follow-up. Consistent with previous examinations of individual partner communication (K.J.W. Baucom et al., 2011; Sevier et al., 2008), TBCT produced greater improvements from pre-therapy to post-therapy (d = 0.27-0.43) and superior communication at post-therapy (d = 0.30-0.37). However, IBCT produced greater improvements from post-therapy to 2-year follow-up (d = 0.32-0.39). Both levels of, and changes in, dyadic communication were associated with relationship outcomes, even when controlling for individual communication. Our findings lend additional support for theoretical and practical differences between these two therapies and the utility of assessment at the level of the couple. Furthermore, they contribute to a broader pattern of findings in which relationship outcomes are more consistently linked with constructive communication than with destructive communication. PMID:25549210
Thomas W. Miller; Robert F. Kraus
The impact of a modified dialectical behavior therapy and problem-solving model is examined on the work environment of a patient\\u000a with an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). A case study is presented examining the impact this client's OCPD\\u000a behavior in the work environment and on his subordinates. Discussed are interventions that were useful in treating a motivated\\u000a patient employing cognitive-behavioral models
Hiltunen, Arto J; Kocys, Elo; Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée
At the psychotherapy training center at Karlstad University, a study was carried out to examine the levels of symptom change and satisfaction with therapy in a heterogeneous population of clients treated using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) by less experienced trainee therapists with limited theoretical education. The clients received an average of 11 therapy sessions. The results suggested that CBT performed by less experienced trainee therapists can be effective. According to client estimations, a statistically significant reduction in symptoms, measured using the Symptoms Checklist, was achieved for seven of nine variables (p???.006), as well as a significant increase in satisfaction with life (p???.001). Also, the pre- and posttherapy measurements using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale showed a statistically significant improvement in the clients’ condition. According to the therapists’ estimations, 64% (SD?=?32.01) of the clients experienced a significant improvement in their condition. In addition, the results of a survey of client satisfaction demonstrated that the clients were very pleased with the therapy received. Also the therapists were, to a great extent, satisfied with the treatment process itself, including the supervision received, and very satisfied with the client alliance. A correlation analysis between the clients’ perceived level of improvement and therapist satisfaction showed a strong correlation between the two variables (r?=?.50, p?.005). By including the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS) in our study it was possible to measure trueness to therapy form. An analysis of the CPPS results confirmed that the form of therapy used at the training site was more strongly CBT than psychodynamic interpersonal treatment (p???.001). The CBT subscale score indicated that the therapy was characteristic of CBT, confirming that the interventions used in the therapy belong to the CBT genre. PMID:24436779
Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…
Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline
Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…
Nathan, P. E.
Behavior therapists view psychopathology differently from dynamically oriented therapists, in that behaviorists are taught to regard symptoms primarily as sets of learned behaviors rather than cues to underlying psychological disorders. Even though there is a split among behaviorists as to which procedure is best to follow, there are some special…
Tiffany Field; Tracy Kilmer; Iris Burman
Preschool children received 20?minute massages twice a week for five weeks. The massaged children as compared to children in the wait?list control group had better behavior ratings on state, vocalization, activity and cooperation after the massage sessions on the first and last days of the study. Their behavior was also rated more optimally by their teachers by the end of
Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhou, Chuan; Lu, Yao
DBT is one of the promising imaging modalities that may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer detection. We are developing a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications (MC) in DBT. A data set of two-view DBTs from 42 breasts was collected with a GE prototype system. We investigated a 2D approach to MC detection using projection view (PV) images rather than reconstructed 3D DBT volume. Our 2D approach consisted of two major stages: 1) detecting individual MC candidates on each PV, and 2) correlating the MC candidates from the different PVs and detecting clusters in the breast volume. With the MC candidates detected by prescreening on PVs, a trained multi-channel (MCH) filter bank was used to extract signal response from each MC candidate. A ray-tracing process was performed to fuse the MCH responses and localize the MC candidates in 3D using the geometrical information of the DBT system. Potential MC clusters were then identified by dynamic clustering of the MCs in 3D. A two-fold cross-validation method was used to train and test the CADe system. The detection performance of clustered MCs was assessed by free receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. It was found that the CADe system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 90% at an average false positive rate of 2.1 clusters per DBT volume. Our study demonstrated that the CADe system using 2D MCH filter bank is promising for detection of clustered MCs in DBT.
Eric A. StorchDean; Dean McKay; Jeannette M. Reid; Daniel A. Geller; Wayne K. Goodman; Adam B. Lewin; Tanya K. Murphy
This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine\\u000a (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based\\u000a therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction learning that is core to such therapies.\\u000a As well, pragmatic issues such as
Steven C. Hayes
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Relational Frame Theory (RFT) are part of the new wave of treatments and analyses\\u000a that seem to be emerging in cognitive behavior therapy. In this article, data in support of these new approaches are provided,\\u000a and evidence that ACT works through different processes than traditional CBT are presented. The integrative proposals of Ciarrochi\\u000a and
Jacqueline B. Persons; Nicole A. Roberts; Christine A. Zalecki; Whitney A. G. Brechwald
This article describes a case formulation-driven approach to the treatment of anxious depressed outpatients and presents naturalistic outcome data evaluating its effectiveness. Fifty-eight patients who received case formulation-driven cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in a private practice setting were studied. All received individual CBT guided by a case formulation and weekly outcome monitoring; in addition, 40 patients received adjunct therapies, including pharmacotherapy,
Donald A. Gordon; Jack Arbuthnot; Kathryn E. Gustafson; Peter Mcgreen
A replication of Alexander's behavioral-systems family therapy model was attempted for lower socioeconomic status juvenile offenders, most of whom had multiple offenses, including misdemeanors and felonies. Twenty-seven male and female delinquents who had either recently been placed out of the home or for whom placement was imminent were court referred to in-home time-unlimited family therapy (mean sessions=16). A comparison group
Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Eva M. Álvarez-Moya; Roser Granero; M. Neus Aymami; Monica Gómez-Peña; Nuria Jaurrieta; Bibiana Sans; Jaume Rodriguez-Marti; Julio Vallejo
The authors sought to examine short- and mid-term effectiveness of a group cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) in pathological gambling (PG) and to analyze predictors of therapy outcome. Two hundred ninety PG patients participated in the current study, all diagnosed on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria, and were given manualized outpatient group CBT (16
Panic is an often incapacitating and chronic disorder. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and alprazolam have been shown to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder. Patients who met the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder, were randomized and given 16 weeks of double-blind treatment with CBT (n=16), or alprazolam of up to 6 mg\\/day (n=18). The 17-item HAM-D and HAM-A
Owens, Mandy D.; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Rynes, Kristina; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth
This study examined the association between relationship satisfaction and drinking urges among women who participated in alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) and Alcohol Behavioral Couples Therapy (ABCT). Relationship satisfaction and drinking urges were not related on a daily level, but urges were related to mean levels of relationship satisfaction and this association was moderated by treatment condition and time in treatment. Women with higher relationship satisfaction had fewer drinking urges, and women in ABCT with higher relationship satisfaction experienced greater reductions in urges during treatment. These findings suggest that ABCT may target the association between relationship satisfaction and drinking urges. PMID:24187430
Rosqvist, J; Egan, D; Manzo, P; Baer, L; Jenike, M A; Willis, B S
The effectiveness of "home-based" exposure and response prevention was assessed in a series of 11 subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients received 24 treatment sessions in a range of natural settings and situations. Sixty-four percent of the patients responded to behavior therapy in these settings, and 36% achieved lasting improvements in their OCD symptoms. Implications for the impact on consumers of this seldom-used application of behavior therapy are discussed and some recommendations for future research are made. PMID:11583072
Groen, Gunter; Petermann, Franz
Cognitive behavior therapy offers a theoretically and empirically valid therapeutic approach for children and adolescents suffering from depression. It can be recommended according to present guidelines and efficacy studies. Further research and conceptual development, however, is necessary especially regarding the small to moderate effect sizes as well as the lack of long-term efficacy and effect factors. This article gives a short overview of the basics and contents of cognitive behavior therapy for depressive children and adolescents. It furthermore presents the latest findings and an assessment of its efficacy and relevant developments and perspectives. PMID:23109126
Lovaas, O. Ivar; Koegel, Robert; Simmons, James Q.; Long, Judith Stevens
We have treated 20 autistic children with behavior therapy. At intake, most of the children were severely disturbed, having symptoms indicating an extremely poor prognosis. The children were treated in separate groups, and some were treated more than once, allowing for within- and between-subject replications of treatment effects. We have employed reliable measures of generalization across situations and behaviors as well as across time (follow-up). The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Inappropriate behaviors (self-stimulation and echolalia) decreased during treatment, and appropriate behaviors (appropriate speech, appropriate play, and social non-verbal behaviors) increased. (2) Spontaneous social interactions and the spontaneous use of language occurred about eight months into treatment for some of the children. (3) IQs and social quotients reflected improvement during treatment. (4) There were no exceptions to the improvement, however, some of the children improved more than others. (5) Follow-up measures recorded 1 to 4 yr after treatment showed that large differences between groups of children depended upon the post-treatment environment (those groups whose parents were trained to carry out behavior therapy continued to improve, while children who were institutionalized regressed). (6) A brief reinstatement of behavior therapy could temporarily re-establish some of the original therapeutic gains made by the children who were subsequently institutionalized. PMID:16795385
Ellis, Deborah A; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Fowler, Sandra L
Objective?To present a case study using multisystemic therapy (MST), an intensive family focused psychotherapy. For the clinical trial from which this case was drawn, MST was adapted to address multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk behaviors in HIV-infected youth. Targeted behaviors included medication nonadherence, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use.?Method?One young woman's transmission risk behaviors are described, followed by a description of the MST procedures used to identify and treat the primary drivers of these risk behaviors. Outcome measures were self-report, urine screens, and blood draws.?Results?At discharge, the young woman showed significant improvements in medication adherence and related health status (e.g., reduced HIV viral load), healthier sexual behaviors, and reduced substance use. Importantly, neither her boyfriend nor her newborn tested positive for HIV. Conclusions?Findings from this case study suggest that MST has the potential to reduce transmission risk behaviors among teens with HIV. PMID:19815654
Robert J. McMahon; Julie S. Kotler
The primary purpose of this chapter is to present and critically evaluate current evidence-based interventions for oppositional behavior (OB) in young children. Children with OB are typically described by parents and teachers as argumentative, disobedient, disruptive, demanding, and defiant. We have operationalized “young children” as including children between the ages of 3 and 8, thus encompassing the preschool and early
Kendall, Philip C., Ed.
Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…
W. Edward Craighead; Andrew W. Meyers; Linda Wilcoxon Craighead
This paper briefly reviews the historical and conceptual developments that produced the cognitive-behavioral model for clinical interventions with children. It is suggested that this model should be expanded by including the person variables of emotion and developmental level and by broadening the scope of environmental variables to include the family, school, and other social\\/community contexts. The implications of this expansion
Wulfert, Edelgard; Blanchard, Edward B.; Freidenberg, Brian M.; Martell, Rebecca S.
Treatment for pathological gambling is in its infancy. Several cognitive and behavioral interventions have shown promise, but high attrition and relapse rates suggest that gamblers requesting treatment are not uniformly committed to change. This article describes an exploratory study with 9 severe pathological gamblers--in their majority horse…
Limbrunner, Heidi M.; Ben-Porath, Denise D.; Wisniewski, Lucene
The goal of this paper is to report on the typology, frequency, and duration of intersession calls placed by outpatient eating disorder clients to their therapists. Participants were 17 women, offered DBT after-hours telephone coaching adapted for individuals with eating disorders. Results indicated that clients used telephone coaching primarily…
T. Kircher; V. Arolt; A. Jansen; M. Pyka; I. Reinhardt; T. Kellermann; C. Konrad; U. Lueken; A. T. Gloster; A. L. Gerlach; A. Ströhle; A. Wittmann; B. Pfleiderer; H. U. Wittchen; B. Straube
Learning by conditioning is a key ability of animals and humans for acquiring novel behavior necessary for survival in a changing environment. Aberrant conditioning has been considered a crucial factor in the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD\\/A). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for PD\\/A. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of CBT on
Jessica L. Hamblen; Fran H. Norris; Siobhan Pietruszkiewicz; Laura E. Gibson; April Naturale; Claudine Louis
Many disaster survivors suffer from postdisaster distress regardless of whether or not they meet criteria for specific psychiatric\\u000a diagnoses. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postdisaster Distress (CBT-PD), a ten-session manualized intervention, was developed\\u000a to address a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to disaster. Trained community-based therapists provided\\u000a CBT-PD to adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina as part of InCourage, a
McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.
The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…
Brown, Lily A.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.
There has been much discussion in the literature recently regarding the conceptual and technical differences between so-called second- (e.g., Beckian cognitive therapy) and third-wave (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy) behavioral therapies. Previous research has not addressed the potential similarities and differences among the…
Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M
The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. PMID:25938187
Kristen C. Stone; Andrea K. Booth; Kenneth L. Lichstein
Practitioners knowledgeable in psychologically treating late-life insomnia improve the overall care of patients by (1) using\\u000a insomnia complaints and symptoms to screen for medical, mental, and organic sleep disorders and (2) treating the insomnia\\u000a instead of referring the patient to a sleep specialist, thereby ensuring efficient and effective individual tailoring of the\\u000a treatment through high familiarity with the patient. Cognitive-behavior
McCrady, Barbara S.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and behavior therapy have been characterized as having opposing views of alcoholism. This article describes theoretical foundations, view of the change process, and treatment practices of AA and behavior therapy. Theoretical and practice perspectives on integration of the two models are examined, and advantages and…
Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…
Kendall, Philip C.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Suveg, Cynthia
This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7-14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9%…
David R. Hodge; Robin P. Bonifas
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective method for treating many older adults with depression. Efficacy may be enhanced for some clients, however, by modifying cognitive behavioral therapy with beliefs and values drawn from clients' spiritual narratives. Potential enhancements include faster recovery, improved treatment adherence, lower posttreatment relapse, and reduced treatment disparities. In light of the lack of training many gerontological
Dietrich, Coralie; And Others
This study explored the efficacy of semantic behavior therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain in elderly patients as well as the relationships among pain, physical health, personality, and social characteristics in this population. The sample consisted of 8 elderly persons who had osteoarthritis of the knee, and 11 healthy elderly…
Notes that Rosen's concern with consumer effects produced by behavior therapy self-help programs is to be lauded, but that some problems are best left to the judgment of the public, rather than of those who would look after it. (Author/AM)
Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie
We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus…
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…
Frueh, B. Christopher; Monnier, Jeannine; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Elhai, Jon D.; Yim, Eunsil; Knapp, Rebecca
Using secondary analyses from a randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder, we compared ratings of therapist competency and adherence between two service delivery modes: telepsychiatry (TP) and same room (SR). Patients were 38 male treatment-seeking veterans recruited…
Boelen, Paul A.; de Keijser, Jos; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van den Bout, Jan
Few studies have examined treatments for complicated grief--a debilitating condition that can develop after the loss of a loved one. This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nonspecific treatment with supportive counseling (SC). Using a minimization method, 54 mourners with clinically significant levels of…
Weersing, V. Robin; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David J.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.
In this study, we examined the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. Outcomes of 80 youth treated with CBT in an outpatient depression specialty clinic, the Services for Teens at Risk Center (STAR), were compared to a "gold standard" CBT research benchmark. On average, youths treated with CBT in STAR…
Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.
Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…
Julie B. Schnur; Guy H. Montgomery
This case report describes an effort to control two primary side-effects of breast cancer radiotherapy (fatigue and skin discomfort) that used a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy with hypnosis (CBTH). Two patients, matched on demographic and medical variables (marital status, employment status, number of children, cancer diagnosis, surgical history, radiation dose), were compared: one who received a CBTH intervention and one
Guy H. Montgomery; Maria Kangas; Daniel David; Michael N. Hallquist; Sheryl Green; Dana H. Bovbjerg; Julie B. Schnur
Objective: The study purpose was to test the effectiveness of a psychological intervention combining cognitive–behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH) to treat radiotherapy-related fatigue. Design: Women (n = 42) scheduled for breast cancer radiotherapy were randomly assigned to receive standard medical care (SMC) (n = 20) or a CBTH intervention (n = 22) in addition to SMC. Participants assigned to receive
Miki Matsunaga; Yasumasa Okamoto; Shin-ichi Suzuki; Akiko Kinoshita; Shinpei Yoshimura; Atsuo Yoshino; Yoshihiko Kunisato; Shigeto Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT) to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one
Klosko, Janet S.; And Others
Compared panic control treatment (PCT), behavior therapy for panic disorders, with alprazolam medication, placebo, and waiting-list control groups. Percentage of clients (N=57) completing study who were free of panic attacks following PCT was 87 percent, compared with 50 percent for alprazolam, 36 percent for placebo, and 33 percent for…
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for panic disorder. However, few patients have access to this treatment, particularly those living in rural areas. In a pilot study, the author previously described the efficacy of a 2-day, intensive, exposure-based CBT intervention that was developed for the purpose of delivering…
Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen
The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Wu, Jade Q.; Boettcher, Hannah
OBJECTIVE Although cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorders, little is known about its effect on quality of life. To conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life, we searched for relevant studies in PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library, and conducted manual searches. METHOD The search identified 44 studies that included 59 CBT trials, totaling 3,326 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. RESULTS The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were moderately strong, Hedges’ g = 0.54 and Hedges’ g = 0.56, respectively. Improvements were greater for physical and psychological domains of quality of life than for environmental and social domains. The overall effect sizes decreased with publication year and increased with treatment duration. Face-to-face treatments delivered individually and in groups produced significantly higher effect sizes than internet-delivered treatments. CONCLUSION Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders is moderately effective for improving quality of life, especially in physical and psychological domains. Internet-delivered treatments are less effective in improving quality of life than face-to-face treatments. PMID:24447006
Dean McKay; Fugen Neziroglu; John Todaro; Jose A. Yaryura-Tobias
A study was conducted to determine the effect of behavior therapy on personality disorders when treatment focused on an Axis I diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-one patients diagnosed with OCD participated. At pretest, the mean number of personality disorders was approximately four, whereas the posttest number was approximately three. Analyses suggest that this change, although apparently small, is clinically
This article presents an overview of tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ears), its psychological effects, and the application of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for its treatment. Several studies have confirmed an association between psychological factors, such as anxiety and depression, and severe tinnitus and preliminary reports suggest that a proportion of tinnitus patients suffer from mental illness. Assessment strategies used
M. Linden; M. Staats; T. Bär; D. Zubrägel
A new method of how to assess treatment strategy is presented. In a controlled clinical trial of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 12 therapists and 30 patients were asked, after each of 25 sessions, to write down what they viewed to be the most important topic of that particular session. A content analytic scheme for the classification
T. D. Borkovec
Nondirective (ND), applied relaxation (AR), and cognitive behavioral (CBT) therapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were compared. The latter 2 conditions were generally equivalent in outcome but superior to ND at postassessment. The 3 conditions did not differ on several process measures, and ND created the greatest depth of emotional processing. Follow-up results indicated losses in gains in ND, maintained
Forand, Nicholas R.; Evans, Susan; Haglin, Dean; Fishman, Baruch
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective for a number of disorders, and can be delivered effectively by trainees in controlled settings. However, the effectiveness of trainee therapists in general practice compared to that of more experienced therapists is unknown. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to…
Background Questions remain regarding the sustainment of evidence-based practices following implementation. The present study examined the sustainment of community clinicians’ implementation (i.e., penetration) of cognitive-behavioral therapy, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and knowledge of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety two years following training and consultation in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety. Methods Of the original 115 participants, 50 individuals (43%) participated in the two-year follow-up. A t- test examined sustainment in penetration over time. Hierarchical linear modeling examined sustainment in knowledge and attitudes over time. Time spent in consultation sessions was examined as a potential moderator of the change in knowledge and attitudes. Results Findings indicated sustained self-reported penetration of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth, with low fidelity to some key CBT components (i.e., exposure tasks). Follow-up knowledge was higher than at baseline but lower than it had been immediately following the consultation phase of the study. Belief in the utility of evidence-based practices was sustained. Willingness to implement an evidence-based practice if required to do so, appeal of evidence-based practices, and openness toward evidence-based practices were not sustained. Participation in consultation positively moderated changes in knowledge and some attitudes. Conclusions Sustainment varied depending on the outcome examined. Generally, greater participation in consultation predicted greater sustainment. Implications for future training include higher dosages of consultation. PMID:25030651
Dianne L. Chambless
The relationship of expressed emotion (EE) to behavior therapy outcome for obsessive— compulsive disorder ( n = 60) and panic disorder with agoraphobia ( n = 41) was investigated. Relatives' emotional overinvolvement and hostility predicted higher rates of treatment dropout. Higher hostility, as assessed by the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), was related to poorer outcome for target ratings and for
Burns, David D.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Demonstrated that therapeutic empathy had moderate-to-large causal effect on recovery from depression among 185 patients treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Homework compliance had separate effect on clinical recovery, over and above effect of therapeutic empathy. Patients of novice therapists improved significantly less than did patients…
Burns, David D.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Factor analysis of Self-Help Inventory from 307 outpatients receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for affective disorders revealed 3 factors that assessed frequency of active coping strategies use when depressed, helpfulness of strategies, and willingness to learn new strategies. Frequency and Helpfulness scales were not correlated with patient…
Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas
The present study investigates the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program for bereaved people suffering complicated grief. The program combines established methods of psychotherapy with new technology--therapists and patients communicated exclusively by e-mail. Bereaved individuals diagnosed with complicated grief (n =…
Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.
Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…
Christine M. Courbasson; Yasunori Nishikawa; Leah B. Shapira
Individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often evidence comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD), resulting in poor outcome. This study is the first to examine treatment outcome for this concurrent disordered population. In this pilot study, 38 individuals diagnosed with BED and SUD participated in a 16-week group Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MACBT). Participants significantly improved on measures of objective
Ahmed, Mariyam; Westra, Henry A.; Stewart, Sherry H.
Although prescription rates may be declining, benzodiazepines (BZs) are still very commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Because many anxiety patients require assistance in successfully discontinuing BZs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have been specifically developed to target this issue, and an evidence base…
Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David
Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…
Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.
A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.
Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…
Natalie S. Gar; Jennifer L. Hudson
The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal expressed emotion (criticism and emotional overinvolvement) decreased across treatment for childhood anxiety. Mothers of 48 clinically anxious children (aged 6–14years) were rated on levels of criticism (CRIT) and emotional overinvolvement (EOI), as measured by a Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) from mothers, prior to and following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Jeffrey J. Wood; Amy Drahota; Karen Sze; Kim Har; Angela Chiu; David A. Langer
Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or remediate the social and adaptive skill deficits of children with ASD that could pose
Bogels, Susan M.; Siqueland, Lynne
Objective: A family cognitive-behavioral therapy for children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 years with clinical anxiety disorders was developed and evaluated. Method: Seventeen families were measured before and after waitlist, after treatment, and at 3-month and 1-year follow-up. Results: No children changed their diagnostic status during waitlist,…
JUDITH A. COHEN; ANTHONY P. MANNARINO; LUCY BERLINER; ESTHER DEBLINGER
This article reviews the four major components of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents: exposure, cognitive processing and reframing, stress management, and parental treatment. For each component, background, description, and the current empirical support for including each of these components in the treatment of traumatized children is presented. Although there is growing empirical support for the efficacy
Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.
Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…
Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester
Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…
T. D. Borkovec; Ellen Costello
Nondirective (ND), applied relaxation (AR), and cognitive behavioral (CBT) therapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were compared. The latter 2 conditions were generally equivalent in outcome but superior to ND at postassessment. The 3 conditions did not differ on several process measures, and ND created the greatest depth of emotional processing. Follow-up results indicated losses in gains in ND, maintained
Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…
Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul
Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…
Kaufman, Noah K.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric
Several possible mediators of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents were examined. Six measures specific to CBT (e.g., negative cognitions, engagement in pleasurable activities) and 2 nonspecific measures (therapeutic alliance, group cohesion) were examined in 93 adolescents with comorbid major depressive disorder…
Ngo, Victoria K; Centanni, Angela; Wong, Eunice; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Miranda, Jeanne
Numerous challenges exist in implementing evidence-based practices, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, in resource poor, ethnic minority, and/or disaster-affected communities with disparities in mental health. Community-academic participatory partnerships are a promising approach to addressing disparities by implementing community-appropriate, evidence-based depression care. A community-academic collaborative was formed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina to expand resources for effective depression care, including cognitive behavioral therapy. In this article, we: 1) describe our model of building capacity to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in post-disaster community-based settings; 2) discuss the impact of this training program on therapist reported practice; and 3) share lessons learned regarding disseminating and sustaining evidence-based interventions in the context of a disaster impacted community. Using a mixed methods approach, we found that this model was feasible, acceptable, and disseminated knowledge about cognitive behavioral therapy in community settings. Over the course of two years, community providers demonstrated the feasibility of implementing evidence-based practice and potential for local community leadership. The lessons learned from this model of implementation may help address barriers to disseminating evidence-based interventions in other low-resource, disaster-impacted community settings. PMID:22352079
Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…
Ngo, Victoria K.; Centanni, Angela; Wong, Eunice; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Miranda, Jeanne
Numerous challenges exist in implementing evidence-based practices, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, in resource poor, ethnic minority, and/or disaster-affected communities with disparities in mental health. Community-academic participatory partnerships are a promising approach to addressing disparities by implementing community-appropriate, evidence-based depression care. A community-academic collaborative was formed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina to expand resources for effective depression care, including cognitive behavioral therapy. In this paper, we 1) describe our model of building capacity to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in post-disaster community-based settings, 2) discuss the impact of this training program on therapist reported practice, and 3) share lessons learned regarding disseminating and sustaining evidence-based interventions in the context of a disaster impacted community. Using a mixed methods approach, we found that this model was feasible, acceptable, and disseminated knowledge about cognitive behavioral therapy in community settings. Over the course of two years, community providers demonstrated the feasibility of implementing evidence-based practice and potential for local community leadership. The lessons learned from this model of implementation may help address barriers to disseminating evidence-based interventions in other low-resource, disaster-impacted community settings. PMID:22352079
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike
In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing a…
Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.
This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…
Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…
Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.
The present article summarizes the assumptions, model, techniques, evidence, and diversity/social justice commitments of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT focused on six processes (acceptance, defusion, self, now, values, and action) that bear on a single overall target (psychological flexibility). The ACT model of behavior change has…
Post, Phyllis B.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Penn, Saundra L.
The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines for child-centered play therapists to set behavioral outcome goals to effectively work with families and to meet the demands for accountability in the managed care environment. The child-centered play therapy orientation is the most widely practiced approach among play therapists who…
Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bouman, Theo K.
Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psychotic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic disorder. For the at-risk mental state, treatment…
Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried
Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…
Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.
Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…
Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…
Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie
Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…
Clarke, Gregory; DeBar, Lynn; Lynch, Frances; Powell, James; Gale, John; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Ludman, Evette; Bush, Terry; Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Von Korff, Michael; Hertert, Stephanie
Objective: To test a collaborative-care, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program adjunctive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in HMO pediatric primary care. Method: A randomized effectiveness trial comparing a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition consisting primarily of SSRI medication delivered outside the…
Choate, Laura H.
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…
Bishop, Michele R.; Kenzer, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to examine group classroom instruction and the need for in vivo feedback when teaching 11 behavioral therapists how to conduct a brief paired-stimulus preference assessment, when to conduct preference assessments, and how to interpret the data during regular therapy sessions. Group classroom instruction, consisting of…
Menzies, Ross G.; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; St Clare, Tamsen; Block, Susan
Purpose: The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the rate of social phobia among adults who stutter, (b) study the effects of speech restructuring treatment on social anxiety, and (c) study the effects on anxiety and stuttering of a cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) package for social anxiety. Method: Thirty-two adults with chronic…
Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James
Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.
Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…
Szigethy, Eva; Whitton, Sarah W.; Levy-Warren, Anna; DeMaso, David Ray; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.
Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in physically ill adolescents. Method: In an open trial, 11 adolescents (12-17 years) with inflammatory bowel disease and either major or minor depression underwent 12 sessions of a manual-based CBT enhanced by social skills, physical illness…
Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.
Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…
Debbie Sookman; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Sabine Wilhelm; Dean McKay
Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, OCD subtypes have received limited attention in trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Because many patients with OCD do not respond optimally to CBT, it is important for clinicians to consider whether variability in treatment response is related to symptom presentation. Treatment modifications for patients without overt compulsions or with hoarding symptoms
Hodge, David R.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…
Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7-13 (M = 10.1 [plus or minus] 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were…
Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and recent studies have sought to determine if the effects can be enhanced by an adjunctive parent component. The rationale for adding parents as active participants to treatment for anxious youth includes the notions that…
W. Stewart Agras; B. Timothy Walsh; Christopher G. Fairburn; G. Terence Wilson; Helena C. Kraemer
Background: Research suggests that cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most effective psycho- therapeutic treatment for bulimia nervosa. One excep- tion was a study that suggested that interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) might be as effective as CBT, al- though slower to achieve its effects. The present study is designed to repeat this important comparison. Method: Two hundred twenty patients meeting DSM-
THOMAS G. STAMPFL; DONALD J. LEVIS
DESCRIBES A LEARNING THEORY BASED METHOD OF PSYCHOTHERAPY (IMPLOSIVE THERAPY), WHICH INTEGRATES PSYCHODYNAMIC CONCEPTS INTO ITS THEORETICAL MODEL AND LEADS TO A NEW TECHNIQUE OF TREATMENT. THE TECHNIQUE HAS BEEN APPLIED TO A WIDE VARIETY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY WITH APPARENT SUCCESS. TREATMENT TIME RANGES FROM 1-30 1-HR SESSIONS WITH MARKED CHANGES IN SYMPTOMATOLOGY USUALLY OCCURRING WITHIN 1-15 IMPLOSIVE SESSIONS. (39 REF.)
Jean Cottraux; Sai Nan Yao; Chantal de Mey-Guillard; Françoise Bonasse; Diane Djamoussian; Evelyne Mollard; Yaohua Chen
Background: To date, there have been no studies comparing cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with Rogerian therapy in post-traumatic stress disorder. Method: Sixty outpatients with DSM-IV chronic post-traumatic stress disorder were randomized into two groups for 16 weekly individual sessions of CBT or Rogerian supportive therapy (ST) at two centers. No medication was prescribed. Measures included the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.
This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…
McKeon, Andrew; Josephs, Keith A; Klos, Kevin J; Hecksel, Kathleen; Bower, James H; Michael Bostwick, J; Eric Ahlskog, J
Unusual compulsive behaviors (weighing, card and video game playing, fishing, gardening, intense interest in established hobbies, locking and unlocking doors, repetitive dressing and undressing) occurred in relation to dopamine agonist therapy (six patients) and levodopa therapy (one patient) in seven patients with parkinsonism (seven Parkinson's disease, one multiple system atrophy). These behaviors occurred in tandem with pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping or punding in six of the seven cases. Obsessive thoughts were present in one patient, with no prior history of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The simultaneous occurrence of these phenomenologically distinct behaviors in this group of patients suggests that a broad spectrum of psychopathology may occur in this context and should be monitored for in routine neurological practice. PMID:17544807
Shor-Posner, Gail; Baez, Jeannette; Soto, Solange; Mendoza, Rosangela; Castillo, Raquel; Quintero, Noaris; Perez, Eddy; Zhang, Guoyan
Forty-eight children (M age?=?4.8 years) infected with HIV/AIDS and living in the Dominican Republic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a play session control group. The children in the massage therapy group received two weekly 20-min massages for 12 weeks; the children in the control group participated in a play session (coloring, playing with blocks) for the same duration and length as the massage therapy group. Overall, the children in the massage therapy group improved in self-help abilities and communication, suggesting that massage therapy may enhance daily functioning for children with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the HIV infected children who were six or older also showed a decrease in internalizing behaviors; specifically depressive/anxious behaviors and negative thoughts were reduced. Additionally, baseline assessments revealed IQ equivalence below normal functioning for 70% of the HIV infected children and very high incidences of mood problems (depression, withdrawn) for 40% of the children and anxiety problems for 20% of the children, suggesting the need for better monitoring and alternative interventions in countries with limited resources to improve cognition and the mental health status of children infected with HIV/AIDS. PMID:18830444
Carroll, Kathleen M
In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers, and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction-treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847
Gregory B. Smith; Andrew I. Schwebel
Practitioners and family scientists can use cognitive-behavioral family theory (CBF), along with systems and behavioral theories, to gain deeper understandings of and to facilitate change in the family unit. CBF states that every individual has a family schema. This construct contains the complete set of cognitions that guide individuals as they behave, react, perceive, and process information in the family
Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah
This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions. PMID:22678107
Deckersbach, Thilo; Wilhelm, Sabine; Keuthen, Nancy J; Baer, Lee; Jenike, Michael A
Self-injurious skin picking is characterized by repetitive, ritualistic, or impulsive skin picking that leads to tissue damage and causes significant distress or impairment in daily functioning. Little is known about effective behavioral or cognitive-behavioral treatments for self-injurious skin picking. As described by Azrin and colleagues, habit reversal is a promising behavioral treatment for modifying nervous habits or tics. To the authors' knowledge, only one case series currently exists in the literature that shows self-injurious skin picking, in the absence of an underlying dermatological condition or without psychiatric comorbidity, can be successfully treated with habit reversal. In the current article, the authors describe the implementation and outcome of cognitive-behavior therapy for three patients with severe self-injurious skin picking, two of which had psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:12080906
Fields, Barry G.; Schutte-Rodin, Sharon; Perlis, Michael L.; Myers, Megin
Despite the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in treating chronic insomnia, it remains underutilized. Lack of appropriately-trained CBT-I providers is a major reason. Master's-level practitioners (MLPs) may, in addition to doctoral-level psychologists, be uniquely positioned to fill this role, based not only on “goodness of professional fit” but also given a handful of studies showing these individuals' care outcomes meet or exceed standard outcomes. However, the ability of MLPs to provide CBT-I will be significantly restricted until a clear pathway is established that extends from training opportunities to credentialing. Further questions remain about how to attract and incorporate MLPs into established practices. Citation: Fields BG; Schutte-Rodin S; Perlis ML; Myers M. Master's-level practitioners as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia providers: an underutilized resource. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1093-1096. PMID:24127157
Mignogna, Joseph; Hundt, Natalie E; Kauth, Michael R; Kunik, Mark E; Sorocco, Kristen H; Naik, Aanand D; Stanley, Melinda A; York, Kaki M; Cully, Jeffrey A
Effective implementation strategies are needed to improve the adoption of evidence-based psychotherapy in primary care settings. This study provides pilot data on the test of an implementation strategy conducted as part of a multisite randomized controlled trial examining a brief cognitive-behavioral therapy versus usual care for medically ill patients in primary care, using a hybrid (type II) effectiveness/implementation design. The implementation strategy was multifaceted and included (1) modular-based online clinician training, (2) treatment fidelity auditing with expert feedback, and (3) internal and external facilitation to provide ongoing consultation and support of practice. Outcomes included descriptive and qualitative data on the feasibility and acceptability of the implementation strategy, as well as initial indicators of clinician adoption and treatment fidelity. Results suggest that a comprehensive implementation strategy to improve clinician adoption of a brief cognitive-behavioral therapy in primary care is feasible and effective for reaching high levels of adoption and fidelity. PMID:24904701
Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L.; Chang, Susanna; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Dziura, James; Levi-Pearl, Sue; Walkup, John T.
Context Tourette disorder is a chronic and typically impairing childhood-onset neurological condition. Antipsychotic medications, the first-line treatments for moderate to severe tics, are often associated with adverse effects. Behavioral interventions, although promising, have not been evaluated in large-scale controlled trials. Objective To determine the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for reducing tic severity in children and adolescents. Design, Setting, Participants Randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of 126 youngsters recruited from December, 2004 through May, 2007 and aged 9–17 years with impairing Tourette or chronic tic disorder as primary diagnosis randomized to 8 sessions over 10 weeks of behavior therapy (n=61) or a control treatment consisting of supportive therapy and education (n=65). Responders received 3 monthly treatment booster sessions and were reassessed at 3- and 6-months post-treatment. Intervention Comprehensive behavioral intervention. Main Outcome Measures Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (range 0–40, score >15 indicating clinically significant tics), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (range 1-very much improved to 8-very much worse). Results Behavioral intervention led to a significantly greater decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.7; CI:23.1,26.3) to 17.1 CI:15.1,19.1) from baseline to endpoint compared to the control treatment (24.6 CI:23.2,26.0) to 21.1 CI:19.2,23.0) (P<.001; 95% CI for difference between groups: 6.2, 2.0); (effect size=0.68). Compared to children in control treatment, significantly more children receiving behavioral intervention were rated as “very much” or “much improved” on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (52.5% to 18.5%, respectively; P<0.001; number-needed-to-treat=3). Attrition was low (12/126 or 9.5%); tic worsening was reported by 4% of children (5/126). Treatment gains were durable with 87% of available responders to behavior therapy showing continued benefit 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions A comprehensive behavioral intervention, compared with supportive therapy and education, resulted in greater improvement in symptom severity among children with Tourette and chronic tic disorder. PMID:20483969
Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan
Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415
Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.
Purpose/Objectives The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves post-operative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about CRT’s effect on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first five years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Prior to CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning was commensurate with that of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5-years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first five years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period – during the first year post-treatment – may be beneficial. PMID:24462384
McKee, Sherry A.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Sinha, Rajita; Robinson, Jane E.; Nich, Charla; Cavallo, Dana; O’Malley, Stephanie
Background We investigated the impact of enhancing brief cognitive behavioral therapy with motivational interviewing techniques for cocaine abuse or dependence, using a focused intervention paradigm. Methods Participants (n=74) who met current criteria for cocaine abuse or dependence were randomized to 3-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or 3-session enhanced CBT (MET + CBT), which included an initial session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET). Outcome measures included treatment retention, process measures (e.g., commitment to abstinence, satisfaction with treatment), and cocaine use. Results Participants who received the MET+CBT intervention attended more drug treatment sessions following the study interventions, reported significantly greater desire for abstinence and expectation of success, and they expected greater difficulty in maintaining abstinence compared to the CBT condition. There were no differences across treatment conditions on cocaine use. Conclusions These findings offer mixed support for the addition of MET as an adjunctive approach to CBT for cocaine users. In addition, the study provides evidence for the feasibility of using short-term studies to test the effects of specific treatment components or refinements on measures of therapy process and outcome. PMID:17573205
In this study, the spin coating of template-assisted method is used to synthesize poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) nanorod bundles. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are enhanced by varying the spin coating rate (100, 500, and 1,000 rpm) of the common spin coater. The denser morphological distributions of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are favorably yielded at the low spin coating rate of 100 rpm, while at high spin coating rate, it is shown otherwise. The auspicious morphologies of highly dense PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are supported by the augmented absorption and photoluminescence. PMID:24872806
Laura P. Kohn; Tatia Oden; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Ayinka Robinson; Daria Leavitt
In this study we examine the degree to which a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention can be adapted to be culturally sensitive in treating depressed low-income African American women with multiple stressors. We describe the adaptations we made to an existing intervention, a group treatment developed for depressed low-income medical patients. We also describe our evaluation of the adapted treatment in
Brett Deacon; Jonathan Abramowitz
The present study investigated the short-term efficacy of brief, intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD). The treatment involved 9h of therapist contact over two consecutive days and was developed for the purpose of delivering CBT for PD to a largely rural patient population that must travel long distances to find a treatment provider. Ten patients who elected to
Lars-Göran Öst; Bengt E. Westling
The present study investigated the efficacy of a coping-technique, applied relaxation (AR) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in the treatment of panic disorder. Thirty-eight outpatients fulfilling the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with no (n = 30) or mild (n = 8) avoidance were assessed with independent assessor ratings, self-report scales and self-observation of panic attacks before and after treatment,
Michael T. Smith; Michael L. Perlis
Chronic insomnia impacts 1 in 10 adults and is linked to accidents, decreased quality of life, diminished work productivity, and increased long-term risk for medical and psychiatric diseases such as diabetes and depression. Recent National Institutes of Health consensus statements and the American Academy of Sleep Medicine's Practice Parameters recommend that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) be considered the 1st
D. Kimhy; N. Tarrier; S. Essock; D. Malaspina; D. Cabannis; A. T. Beck
Objective: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is an evidence-based treatment for psychosis-related disorders. However, despite the strong evidence-base and inclusion in national treatment guidelines, CBTp remains poorly disseminated in the US. It is proposed that this state is a product of lack of CBTp knowledge among clinical training leaders along with limited availability of training opportunities.Method: We surveyed training directors
Floor M. Sauter; David Heyne; P. Michiel Westenberg
Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group.\\u000a Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support\\u000a for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report anxiety symptoms post-treatment.\\u000a This paper underscores the need to
Muniya S. Khanna; Philip C. Kendall
Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7–13 (M = 10.1 ± 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to (a) CCAL, (b) individual CBT (ICBT), or (c) a
Cynthia Suveg; Philip C. Kendall; Jonathan S. Comer; Joanna Robin
Examined the efficacy of an Emotion-focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (ECBT) for six anxious youths ages 7–13 years. All participants had a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, or social phobia) based on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for Children—Child and Parent versions. Children and parents reported on anxious symptomatology using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To
Jennifer L. PodellPhilip; Philip C. Kendall
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials and found\\u000a to be an efficacious treatment. Studies have investigated the effects of increased parental\\/family involvement in treatment.\\u000a In the majority of these studies, however, parental involvement is synonymous with maternal involvement leaving the role of\\u000a fathers unknown. Studies including parents in treatment have yet
Joseph A. Durlak; Teresa Fuhrman; Claudia Lampman
This review aims to identify variables that moderate the outcomes of cognitive–behavior therapy for dysfunctional children. Theoretical considerations led to the hypothesis that children's cognitive developmental level would moderate treatment effectiveness, and analyses confirmed this hypothesis. The effect size (0.92) for children presumably functioning at the formal operational level (ages 11–13) was almost twice that for children at less advanced
Cynthia Suveg; Erica Sood; Jonathan S. Comer; Philip C. Kendall
This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and\\/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a reduction in anxiety and increased anxiety self-efficacy and emotional awareness at posttreatment. Treated
Tatiana L. Taylor; Paul Montgomery
This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving self-esteem among depressed adolescents aged 13–18 years. A search identified 265 references, 33 articles were acquired, of which two papers met the inclusion criteria. Two excluded studies are also discussed. A total of 82 participants from two trials were included in the meta-analysis. The data suggest CBT may be
Adriana Tapus; Cristian ??pu?; Maja J. Matari?
This paper describes a hands-off socially assistive therapist robot designed to monitor, assist, encourage, and socially interact\\u000a with post-stroke users engaged in rehabilitation exercises. We investigate the role of the robot’s personality in the hands-off\\u000a therapy process, focusing on the relationship between the level of extroversion–introversion of the robot and the user. We\\u000a also demonstrate a behavior adaptation system capable
Siamak Khodarahimi; Nnamdi Pole
This article describes the treatment of a 27-year-old female with a particularly challenging manifestation of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with prominent worry. A manualized cognitive—behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol, including problem-solving training, cognitive restructuring, and relaxation training techniques, was tailored to the patient’s presenting profile. Several self-report measures administered during the pretreatment, post-treatment, and follow-up periods, including: the Penn State Worry
Laura Dreessen; Rense Hoekstra; Arnoud Arntz
This study examined whether categorical or dimensional personality disorder variables affected treatment outcome in a sample of 52 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder who followed a standardized cognitive behavior therapy program. Treatment consisted of 12 weekly sessions and was completed by 43 patients. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders (SCID-II) was taken before the start of treatment by
Michael Rufer; Dada Held; Julia Cremer; Susanne Fricke; Steffen Moritz; Helmut Peter; Iver Hand
Background: Previous studies have found a strong association between dissociation and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether dissociation is a predictor of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome in patients with OCD. Methods: Fifty-two patients with OCD were assessed using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.
M. Rufer; S. Fricke; S. Moritz; M. Kloss; I. Hand
Objective: A significant number of patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to benefit sufficiently from treatments. This study aimed to evaluate whether certain OCD symptom dimensions were associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. Method: Symptoms of 104 CBT-treated in-patients with OCD were assessed with the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Logistic regression analyses examined outcome predictors. Results: The
Mary L. Keeley; Eric A. Storch; Lisa J. Merlo; Gary R. Geffken
This paper reviews predictors of treatment response in open and controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We focus on demographic characteristics, aspects of OCD symptoms, comorbidity, family factors, cognitive influences, and treatment-specific characteristics as predictor variables. Although inconsistent findings characterize much of the literature, several relatively consistent and salient predictors have emerged, including symptom severity, symptom subtype,
DeVito, Elise E.; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Kober, Hedy; Potenza, Marc N.
Background The mechanisms by which behavioral therapies for substance use disorders (SUDs) exert their effects and the components of treatment that contribute most to substance use outcome remain unclear. Disruptions to aspects of impulse control and attention have been hypothesized to contribute to the development and maintenance of addiction; moreover, alterations in these processes may underlie responses to treatment. Methods Individuals participating in a randomized clinical trial evaluating computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance abuse participated in fMRI Stroop before and after treatment. A non-substance-using comparison group performed the same task under test-retest conditions. Results The patient group demonstrated decreased Stroop-related BOLD signal in regions including the anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and midbrain at post-treatment relative to pre-treatment, and displayed a greater decrease in the subthalamic nucleus and surrounding regions compared to healthy controls following test-retest. Conclusions Behavioral therapies may be associated with reduction in substance use and effects on neural systems involved in cognitive control, impulsivity, motivation and attention. PMID:22041256
Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J
Whither, or wither, empirically supported therapies? Increasingly rigorous research in behavioral therapies has yielded a large number of effective therapies, but comparatively little work, demonstrating that integrating empirically supported therapies (ESTs) into standard practice results in meaningful improvements in patient outcomes. Methodology and strategies for evaluating ESTs and their effectiveness in clinical practice is a fairly recent innovation, and a host of unanswered questions remain regarding issues such as selection among different ESTs and what type of ESTs should be emphasized in dissemination efforts, what type of clinicians should be trained in what type of ESTs, the most effective training strategies for various types of clinicians, the need for ongoing supervision to maintain minimum levels of treatment fidelity and skill. In this review, we call for broader use of new research strategies and methods relevant to dissemination of ESTs; these may include adaptive designs, identification of mechanisms of action to foster greater emphasis on effective change principles, training and adoption trials, as well as novel implementation strategies including computer-assisted therapy and computer-assisted training. PMID:17523974
Gipson, Tanjala T.; Jennett, Heather; Wachtel, Lee; Gregory, Mary; Poretti, Andrea; Johnston, Michael V.
Background Self-injury and aggression have been reported in individuals with TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex), yet few data exist about treatment. Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, has been FDA-approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) and renal angiomyolipomas in TSC. However, clinical use of everolimus with direct, real-time observations of self-injury and aggression in an individual with TSC has not been reported. Methods During an inpatient admission to a neurobehavioral unit, real-time measurements of behaviors and seizures were recorded. An interdisciplinary team used these data to make treatment decisions and applied behavioral and pharmacological treatments, one at a time, in order to evaluate their effects. Results Aggression and self-injury improved with applied behavioral analysis (ABA), lithium, and asenapine. Improvements in SEGA size, facial angiofibromas, seizures, and the most stable low rates of self-injury were observed during the interval of treatment with everolimus. Conclusion Mechanism-based treatments in the setting of an evidence-based behavioral and psychopharmacological intervention program may be a model with utility for characterization and treatment of individuals with severe behavior and TSC. PMID:25667844
Denise H. M. Bodden; Susan M. Bögels; Maaike H. Nauta; Else De Haan; Jaap Ringrose; Carla Appelboom; Andries G. Brinkman; Karen C. M. M. J. Appelboom-Geerts
ObjectiveThe efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age.
Annmarie McDonagh; Matthew Friedman; Gregory McHugo; Julian Ford; Anjana Sengupta; Kim Mueser; Christine Carney Demment; Debra Fournier; Paula P. Schnurr; Monica Descamps
The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be more effective than PCT and WL in decreasing PTSD and related symptoms.
David J. Kolko
Few studies have evaluated short-term psychosocial treatments with physically abused school-aged children and their offending parents or families. This study compares the treatment outcomes of 55 cases that were randomly assigned to individual child and parent cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy (FT) with those who received routine community services (RCS). Measures of child, parent, and family dysfunction and
Harned, Melanie S.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Despite the high rate of trauma and PTSD among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), no studies have specifically evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population. These case studies illustrate the use of a protocol based on prolonged exposure therapy that can be integrated into standard dialectical behavior therapy to treat…
Michael S. Scheeringa; Alison Salloum; Ruth A. Arnberger; Carl F. Weems; Lisa Amaya-Jackson; Judith A. Cohen
New evidence raises concerns that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in preschool children is unremit- ting over years even with unstructured community treatment. This report presents proof of concept of the feasibility and effectiveness of a structured therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), for preschool PTSD that follows a range of different traumatic events. Two cases are presented, including transcribed dialogue, from a
Robert T. Ammerman; Frank W. Putnam; Jack Stevens; Lauren J. Holleb; Amy L. Novak; Judith B. Van Ginkel
This study examined the impact of In-Home Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT), an adaptation of standard cognitive-behavioral therapy, for 26 mothers with depres- sion. All mothers were concurrently receiving home visitation services from either a Healthy Families America (HFA) or Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) agency. Pre- treatment and posttreatment assessments were conducted using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), the
Jinah Kim; Tony Wigram; Christian Gold
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in\\u000a pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two\\u000a different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis\\u000a of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes
Philip C. Kendall; Jennifer L. Hudson; Elizabeth Gosch; Ellen Flannery-Schroeder; Cynthia Suveg
This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive–behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive–behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education\\/support\\/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7–14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9% African American, 3% Hispanic, 3% other\\/mixed) with a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, social
Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek
This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886
Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek
This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886
Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.
Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…
Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping
This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P?.001) and all sub-scores (Ps?.01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps?0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders. PMID:24375428
Rickson, Daphne J; Watkins, William G
This pilot study was undertaken to investigate whether music therapy is effective in promoting prosocial behaviors in aggressive adolescent boys who have social, emotional, and learning difficulties. Fifteen subjects (aged 11-15 years), enrolled at a special residential school in New Zealand, were randomly assigned to music therapy treatment groups (n = 6, n = 5), and a waitlist control group (n = 4). Examination of demographic data identified differences between groups for diagnosis (p =.044), with Group 1 all having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and for age (p =.027), with Group 2 having a mean age 1.38 years older. Measures included parent and teacher versions of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P & DBC-T) (Einfeld & Tonge, 1994; Einfeld, Tonge, & Parmenter, 1998). While no definite treatment effects could be detected, results suggest that a music therapy program promoting autonomy and creativity may help adolescents to interact more appropriately with others in a residential villa setting, but might also lead to a temporary mild increase in disruptive behavior in the classroom. A more highly structured program and smaller group numbers may be advantageous for boys who have ADHD. PMID:15015908
Sevier, Mia; Eldridge, Kathleen; Jones, Janice; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew
To investigate changes in couple communication and potential mechanisms of change during treatment, 134 distressed couples, who were randomly assigned to either traditional or integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT; IBCT), were observed in relationship and personal problem discussions prior to and near the end of treatment. Analyses were conducted using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling program. Over the time in therapy, during relationship problem discussions, positivity and problem solving increased while negativity decreased. Compared to IBCT, TBCT couples had the largest gains in positivity and reductions in negativity. During personal problem discussions, negativity decreased, while withdrawal increased and positivity decreased. TBCT couples had larger declines in negativity. In both discussion types, increases in marital satisfaction were associated with increases in positivity and problem solving. Declines in marital satisfaction were associated with increased negativity during relationship problem interactions and increased withdrawal during personal problem interactions. However, no treatment differences in these associations were found. Differences in rule-governed and contingency-shaped behavior change strategies between the two therapies and implications of findings are discussed. PMID:18502247
Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.
In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.
McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy (CT), has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered. PMID:25937054
Savaskan, Egemen; Bopp-Kistler, Irene; Buerge, Markus; Fischlin, Regina; Georgescu, Dan; Giardini, Umberto; Hatzinger, Martin; Hemmeter, Ulrich; Justiniano, Isabella; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas; Mosimann, Urs P; Mueri, Renè; Munk, Anna; Popp, Julius; Schmid, Ruth; Wollmer, Marc A
In patients with dementia, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent findings that accompany deficits caused by cognitive impairment and thus complicate diagnostics, therapy and care. BPSD are a burden both for affected individuals as well as care-givers, and represent a significant challenge for therapy of a patient population with high degree of multi-morbidity. The goal of this therapy-guideline issued by swiss professional associations is to present guidance regarding therapy of BPSD as attendant symptoms in dementia, based on evidence as well as clinical experience. Here it appears to be of particular importance to take into account professional experience, as at this point for most therapeutic options no sufficiently controlled clinical trials are available. A critical discussion of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention is necessary, as this patient-population is particularly vulnerable for medication side-effects. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on incorporating and systematically reporting psycho-social and nursing options therapeutic intervention. PMID:24468453
Jensen, Tine K.; Holt, Tonje; Ormhaug, Silje M.; Egeland, Karina; Granly, Lene; Hoaas, Live C.; Hukkelberg, Silje S.; Indregard, Tore; Stormyren, Shirley D.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore
The efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, few trials have been conducted in community clinics, few have used therapy as usual (TAU) as a comparison group, and none have been conducted outside of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT in regular community settings compared with TAU. One hundred fifty-six traumatized youth (M age = 15.1 years, range = 10–18; 79.5% girls) were randomly assigned to TF-CBT or TAU. Intent-to-treat analysis using mixed effects models showed that youth receiving TF-CBT reported significantly lower levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (est. = 5.78, d = 0.51), 95% CI [2.32, 9.23]; depression (est. = 7.00, d = 0.54), 95% CI [2.04, 11.96]; and general mental health symptoms (est. = 2.54, d = 0.45), 95% CI [0.50, 4.58], compared with youth in the TAU group. Youth assigned to TF-CBT showed significantly greater improvements in functional impairment (est. = ?1.05, d = ?0.55), 95% CI [?1.67, ?0.42]. Although the same trend was found for anxiety reduction, this difference was not statistically significant (est. = 4.34, d = 0.30), 95% CI [?1.50, 10.19]. Significantly fewer youths in the TF-CBT condition were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder compared to youths in the TAU condition, ?2(1, N = 116) = 4.61, p = .031, Phi = .20). Findings indicate that TF-CBT is effective in treating traumatized youth in community mental health clinics and that the program may also be successfully implemented in countries outside the United States. PMID:23931093
Baucom, Katherine J. W.; Sevier, Mia; Eldridge, Kathleen A.; Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew
Objective: To examine changes in observed communication after therapy termination in distressed couples from a randomized clinical trial. Method: A total of 134 distressed couples were randomly assigned to either traditional behavioral couple therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT; Jacobson &…
Mewton, Louise; Smith, Jessica; Rossouw, Pieter; Andrews, Gavin
The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years), as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders), and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of iCBT, as well as the extent to which therapy enhancers and advancing technology can be accommodated into established iCBT frameworks. PMID:24511246
Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.
Youth traumatized by natural disasters report high levels of posttraumatic stress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapies are promising interventions for symptom reduction; however, few cognitive behavioral treatments have been systematically…
McEvoy, Peter M; Perini, Sarah J
The Self-Regulatory Executive Function model [S-REF; Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1996). Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: the S-REF model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 881-888] proposes that metacognitive beliefs, inflexible self-focused attention, and perseverative thinking (rumination and worry) play an important role in maintaining emotional dysfunction. Attention training [ATT; Wells, A. (1990). Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: an attentional training approach to treatment. Behavior Therapy, 21, 273-280] is a technique designed to increase attentional control and flexibility, and thereby lessen the impact of these maintaining factors. The main aim of this study was to determine whether or not supplementing cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) with ATT could potentiate greater changes in social anxiety, depression, attentional control, metacognitive beliefs, and anticipatory and post-event processing in a clinical sample with social phobia. Patients (N=81) were allocated to CBGT with ATT or relaxation training (RT). ATT did not potentiate greater change on any outcome variable, with both groups achieving significant improvements on all measures. Exploratory correlational analyses (pre-treatment and changes scores) showed that some metacognitive beliefs were associated with attentional control, anticipatory processing, and symptoms of social anxiety and depression. However, attentional control was more consistently associated with anticipatory processing, post-event processing, and symptoms of social anxiety and depression, than with metacognitive beliefs. Results are discussed with reference to cognitive behavioral models of social phobia. It is tentatively concluded that while supplementing CBGT with ATT does not improve outcomes, increasing attentional control during CBGT is associated with symptom relief. PMID:19059753
Wilhelm, Frank H; Pfaltz, Monique C; Gross, James J; Mauss, Iris B; Kim, Sun I; Wiederhold, Brenda K
J. A. Gray's (1975) theory distinguishes between two motivational systems, which he refers to as the behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). D. C. Fowles (1980) has shown that heart rate responses reflect activity of the BAS, and electrodermal responses reflect activity of the BIS. Both BAS and BIS are reliably activated during in-vivo exposure to fearful situations (F. H. Wilhelm & W. T. Roth, 1998). However, due to the constraints imposed by virtual reality (VR), we hypothesized that VR exposure to fearful situations would activate the BIS alone. To test this hypothesis, a VR free-standing elevator simulation was presented to participants selected for high and low fear of heights. As predicted, the high-anxious group strongly responded electrodermally (effect size d = 1.53), but showed only minimal HR elevations during exposure (d = 0.12), and little other cardiovascular or respiratory changes. The low-anxious control group showed little electrodermal and HR reactivity (d = 0.28 and 0.12). A comparison with data from a previous study demonstrated that this pattern was in stark contrast to the large electrodermal and cardiovascular response observed during situational in-vivo exposure outside the laboratory. We conclude that the BIS, but not BAS, is selectively activated during VR exposure, causing discordance between self-report and commonly used physiological measures of anxiety. Results are discussed within the framework of E. B. Foa & M. J. Kozak's (1986) emotional processing theory of fear modification, suggesting different mechanisms underlying VR and in-vivo exposure treatments. PMID:16167191
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of implementing BCBT. Case conceptualization, session details, and pre-, post- and follow-up-treatment information are provided. Conclusions regarding clinical advantages and future directions are made. PMID:25083131
Cohen, Judith A; Mannarino, Anthony P
Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is a family-focused treatment in which parents or caregivers participate equally with their traumatized child or adolescent. TF-CBT is a components-based and phase-based treatment that emphasizes proportionality and incorporates gradual exposure into each component. Child and parent receive all TF-CBT components in parallel individual sessions that enhance skills to help the child recognize and regulate trauma responses, express thoughts and feelings about the child's trauma experiences and master avoidance of trauma memories and reminders. Parental participation significantly enhances the beneficial impact of TF-CBT for traumatized children. PMID:26092739
O’Kelly, Julian; James, L.; Palaniappan, R.; Taborin, J.; Fachner, J.; Magee, W. L.
Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p???0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p?=?0.05–0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p?=?0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p?=?0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p???0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy procedures. A third MCS case study is presented highlighting how more sensitive selective attention may distinguish MCS from VS. The findings suggest that further investigation is warranted to explore the use of music therapy for prognostic indicators, and its potential to support neuroplasticity in rehabilitation programs. PMID:24399950
Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L
47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25?mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P?=?0.007), Social Cognition (P?=?0.006), and Total T-score (P?=?0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P?=?0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P?=?0.024), Affective Problems (P?=?0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P?=?0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25939399
Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Boswell, James F.; Szkodny, Lauren E.; Nordberg, Samuel S.
Objective: Recent models suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms may be maintained by emotional processing avoidance and interpersonal problems. Method: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test directly whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) could be augmented with the addition of a module targeting interpersonal…
Hamblen, Jessica L; Norris, Fran H; Pietruszkiewicz, Siobhan; Gibson, Laura E; Naturale, April; Louis, Claudine
Many disaster survivors suffer from postdisaster distress regardless of whether or not they meet criteria for specific psychiatric diagnoses. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postdisaster Distress (CBT-PD), a ten-session manualized intervention, was developed to address a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to disaster. Trained community-based therapists provided CBT-PD to adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina as part of InCourage, a program sponsored by the Baton Rouge Area Foundation. Participants (n = 88) who were assessed at referral, pretreatment, intermediate treatment, and posttreatment showed significant and large improvements. The overall pre-post effect size was 1.4 in intention-to-treat analyses. Improvements were comparable for persons with more severe distress and persons with moderate distress at referral. Benefits were maintained at follow-up for the 66 adults who have been assessed. PMID:19365725
Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José
Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions. PMID:18605440
Davis, Michelle L; Powers, Mark B; Handelsman, Pamela; Medina, Johnna L; Zvolensky, Michael; Smits, Jasper A J
Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral therapies (BTs) produce better outcomes than control conditions for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). However, the strength and consistency of this effect has not been directly empirically examined. The present meta-analysis combined multiple well-controlled studies to help clarify the overall impact of behavioral interventions in the treatment of CUDs. A comprehensive literature search produced 10 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n = 2,027) that were included in the final analyses. Analyses indicated an effect of BTs (including contingency management, relapse prevention, and motivational interviewing, and combinations of these strategies with cognitive behavioral therapy) over control conditions (including waitlist [WL], psychological placebo, and treatment as usual) across pooled outcomes and time points (Hedges' g = 0.44). These results suggest that the average patient receiving a behavioral intervention fared better than 66% of those in the control conditions. BT also outperformed control conditions when examining primary outcomes alone (frequency and severity of use) and secondary outcomes alone (psychosocial functioning). Effect sizes were not moderated by inclusion of a diagnosis (RCTs including treatment-seeking cannabis users who were not assessed for abuse or dependence vs. RCTs including individuals diagnosed as dependent), dose (number of treatment sessions), treatment format (either group vs. individual treatment or in-person vs. non-in-person treatment), sample size, or publication year. Effect sizes were significantly larger for studies that included a WL control comparison versus those including active control comparisons, such that BT significantly outperformed WL controls but not active control comparisons. PMID:24695072
Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth
This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967
King, Gillian; Tam, Cynthia; Fay, Linda; Pilkington, Martha; Servais, Michelle; Petrosian, Hasmik
There is growing interest in understanding the usefulness of mentorship programs for children's rehabilitation service providers. This evaluation study examined the effects of an occupational therapy mentorship program on the skills and behaviors of 8 new and 17 experienced occupational therapists practicing at a regional children's rehabilitation center. Self- and peer-report measures of family-centered behavior, critical thinking ability, listening/interactive communication skill, and clinical behavior were collected before and after an 11-month facilitated, collaborative group mentorship intervention. Significant pre-post changes associated with intervention were found on 9 of 12 outcome measures, including information provision, respectful treatment, self-confidence, and listening and clinical skill. Changes were not found on the more trait-like variables of open-mindedness, interpersonal sensitivity, and interpersonal skill. Experienced therapists had higher scores than new therapists on most variables, including family-centered behavior, listening skill, and clinical skill. Implications regarding the utility of mentorship programs in children's rehabilitation centers are discussed. PMID:20950057
Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul
Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206
van der Gaag, Mark
Background : Evidence for the effectiveness of treatments for subjects at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for developing psychosis remains inconclusive. Objective : A new cognitive behavioral intervention specifically targeted at cognitive biases (ie, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] for UHR patients plus treatment as usual [TAU] called CBTuhr) is compared with TAU in a group of young help-seeking UHR subjects. Methods : A total of 201 patients were recruited at 4 sites and randomized. In most cases, CBTuhr was an add-on therapy because most people were seeking help for a comorbid disorder. The CBT was provided for 6 months, and the follow-up period was 18 months. Results : In the CBTuhr condition, 10 patients transitioned to psychosis compared with 22 in the TAU condition (? 2 (1) = 5.575, P = .03). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–89.9). At 18-month follow-up the CBTuhr group was significantly more often remitted from an at-risk mental state, with a NNT of 7 (95% CI: 3.7–71.2). Intention-to-treat analysis, including 5 violations against exclusion criteria, showed a statistical tendency (? 2 (1) = 3.338, P = .06). Conclusions : Compared with TAU, this new CBT (focusing on normalization and awareness of cognitive biases) showed a favorable effect on the transition to psychosis and reduction of subclinical psychotic symptoms in subjects at UHR to develop psychosis. PMID:22941746
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Khanbani, Mehdi; Farid, Saeedeh; Chiti, Parisa
Objective The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method Using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected. Among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens which were supported by the welfare organization were randomly selected. Of all the pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children who could have behavioral disorder, according to their teachers and parents, were carefully tested. Of them, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, were selected via the results obtained from the child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4), teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, Then, the subjects were randomly divided into one control and one experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is conducted using pre-test, post-test, and control group. Results Values of the calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control group and experimental group was meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (P<0/001). Therefore, a meaningful difference existed between the means of post-test scores of disobedience disorder in the experimental and control groups through the fixed effect of the pre-test effect. Comparison of adjusted means of the 2 groups showed that the mean of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in experimental group was lower than control group. Therefore, applying play therapy reduced severity of ADHD in those children in experimental group compared to those in control group who did not receive such instructions. Conclusion Results of this research demonstrates that children's disobedience can be reduced by play therapy. PMID:22952519
Nancy E. Richeson
The effects of a therapeutic recreation intervention using animal-assisted therapy (AAT) on the agitated behaviors and social interactions of older adults with dementia were examined using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the Animal-Assisted Therapy Flow Sheet. In a pilot study, 15 nursing home residents with dementia participated in a daily AAT intervention for three weeks. Results showed statistically significant decreases
Juliette M. Liber; Bryce D. McLeod; Brigit M. Van Widenfelt; Arnold W. Goedhart; Elisabeth M. W. J. Utens; Philip D. A. Treffers
Little is known about the contribution of technical and relational factors to child outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety disorders. This study investigated the association between treatment adherence, the child-therapist alliance, and child clinical outcomes in manual-guided individual- and group-based CBT for youths diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Trained observers rated tapes of therapy sessions for treatment
Peter Muris; Cor Meesters; Marion van Melick
The present study examined the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Thirty high-anxious children (aged 9–12 years) were assigned to either (a) group CBT (n=10), (b) a psychological placebo intervention (i.e., emotional disclosure [ED]; n=10), or (c) a no-treatment control condition (n=10). Therapy outcome measures (i.e., children's self-report of anxiety disorders symptoms, depression,
B. Christopher Frueh; Samuel M. Turner; Deborah C. Beidel; Robert F. Mirabella; Walter J. Jones
The development and initial evaluation of a new, comprehensive and multicomponent behavioral treatment (Trauma Management Therapy, or TMT) for chronic combat-related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is described. The program utilizes elements of intensive exposure therapy, programmed practice, and structured social and emotional skills training to target the multiple aspects of chronic combat-related PTSD. The treatment was found to be effective
Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Heidary, Shima; Afshar, Zohreh
Background: Infertility has been described as creating a form of stress leading to a variety of psychological problems. Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are effective treatments for infertility stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy along with fluoxetine for improvement infertility stress in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 89 infertile women with mild to moderate depression (Beck scores 10-47) were recruited into the following three groups: i. cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), ii. antidepressant therapy, and iii. control group. Twenty-nine participants in the CBT method received gradual relaxation training, restructuring, and eliminating of negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes to infertility for 10 sessions. Thirty participants in the pharmacotherapy group took 20 mg fluoxetine daily for 90 days. Thirty individuals in control group did not receive any intervention. All participants completed fertility problem inventory (FPI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. We applied Chi-square paired t test, ANOVA and Turkey’s test to analyze the data. Results: The mean of the infertility stress scores in CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were as follows, respectively: 3.5 ± 0.62 vs.2.7 ± 0.62 (p<0.05), 3.5 ± 0.53 vs.3.2 ± 4.4 (p<0.05), and 3.4 ± 0.55 vs. 3.5 ± 0.48. In CBT group, the mean scores of social concern, sexual concern, marital concern, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood decreased meaningfully compared to those before starting the therapy. But in fluoxetine group, mean score of women sexual concern out of those five main problems of infertility reduced significantly. Also, fluoxetine and CBT reduced depression compared to the control group. Conclusion: CBT improved the social concerns, sexual concerns, marital concerns, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood more than floxitine group. Thus, CBT was not only a reliable alternative to pharmacotherapy, but also superior to fluoxetine in resolving and reducing of infertility stress (Registration Number: IRCT2012061710048N1). PMID:24520487
Banken, J A; Mahone, C H
This is a case report of a male undergraduate pilot student referred from the aerospace medicine service because of difficulty coping with stresses associated with undergraduate pilot training (UPT). Two phases of a short-term cognitive-behavioral treatment program were undertaken. The initial phase of treatment involved assisting the student to become aware of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological cues that were associated with increased levels of stress, and relaxation training. The second treatment phase involved stress inoculation strategies and coping procedures that were competency based, rather than mastery based. The latter had previously been unsuccessfully used by the student. Results indicated increases in self-reported stress management skills and in objective reports of training performance. Although generalizability of this study is limited, short-term cognitive behavioral therapy procedures are felt to be an important tool for improving the performance of UPT students, and may also reduce the probability of self-initiated elimination due to subjective stress complaints. PMID:1741723
Grasso, Damion J; Joselow, Beth; Marquez, Yahaira; Webb, Charles
This case study involves the use of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to treat a preadolescent male patient referred to the Delaware public mental health system due to a history of family violence and symptoms associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Pre- to post-treatment data on self- and parent-report measures demonstrate symptom reduction and exemplify the effectiveness of the model. Data on parent participation in the session and facilitation of trauma discussion at home illustrate the parent's contribution to the therapeutic process. Excerpts of clinical dialogue between child, parent, and therapist highlight the capacity of the model to accommodate individual needs and circumstances. Clinical recommendations supplement the treatment manual and provide clinicians with practical information for use in their own practices. PMID:21639663
Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie
Understanding the onset and course of sudden gains in treatment provides clinical information to the patient and clinician, and encourages clinicians to strive for these sudden clinical gains with their patients. This study characterizes the occurrence of sudden gains with Behavioral Activation (BA; Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001), and the extent to which pre-treatment dysfunctional depressive thinking predicts sudden gains during treatment. We enrolled a sample of adults (n = 42) between ages 18-65 diagnosed with primary Major Depressive Disorder. All participants completed a 16-week course of BA, with clinical and self-report assessments at pre-, mid- and post-treatment. Results indicated that sudden gain and non-sudden gain participants showed differential improvement across treatment. No significant effects emerged for the dysfunctional cognitive style as a predictor of sudden gain status. Sudden gains may result from interaction of non-specific factors with the BA techniques implemented during early phases of therapy. PMID:22336434
Kaufman, Noah K; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Clarke, Gregory N; Stice, Eric
Several possible mediators of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents were examined. Six measures specific to CBT (e.g., negative cognitions, engagement in pleasurable activities) and 2 nonspecific measures (therapeutic alliance, group cohesion) were examined in 93 adolescents with comorbid major depressive disorder and conduct disorder who were randomly assigned to the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course or a life skills control condition. Change on the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (S. D. Hollon & P. C. Kendall, 1980) appeared to mediate treatment effects on depressive symptoms. Therapeutic alliance by the 3rd session was higher among the CWD-A participants but did not predict reductions in depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that reducing negative thinking may be the primary mechanism through which the CWD-A intervention reduces depression. PMID:15709830
Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; El Ghoch, Marwan; Conti, Maddalena; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Introduction: Inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa is often successful in restoring body weight, but a high percentage of patients relapse following discharge. The aim of the present study was to establish the immediate and longer-term effects of a novel inpatient program for adolescents that was designed to produce enduring change. Method: Twenty-seven consecutive patients with severe anorexia nervosa were admitted to a 20-week inpatient treatment program based on the enhanced cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-E). The patients were assessed before and after hospitalization, and 6 and 12?months later. Results: Twenty-six patients (96%) completed the program. In these patients, there was a substantial improvement in weight, eating disorder features, and general psychopathology that was well maintained at 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: These findings suggest that inpatient CBT-E is a promising approach to the treatment of adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa. PMID:24575055
Lombardi, Diana R.; Button, Melissa
How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. The present study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early in-session statements against change (counter-change talk) were found to be robust predictors of post-treatment worry scores and differentiated treatment responders from nonresponders. Moreover, client motivational language predicted outcomes beyond initial symptom severity and self-report measures of motivation. These results strongly support the relevance of client motivational language outcomes in CBT and provide a foundation for advancing research on motivation for change in a CBT context. PMID:24134594
Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J.; Muir, Joan A.; Brown, C. Hendricks
This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563–573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112–122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described. PMID:23936750
Berg, Carla; Raminani, Sudha; Greer, Joseph; Harwood, Meaghan; Safren, Steven
As part of the process of developing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for medical adherence and depression (Safren, Gonzalez, & Soroudi, 2007), the authors conducted exit interviews among 14 HIV-infected patients who received the intervention, and transcribed, coded, and analyzed these data. The authors concluded that CBT was structured yet flexible, developed self-awareness emphasized social support, and involved therapist empathy and supportiveness. Limitations included the discomfort of discussing personal information and the impact of feeling ill on attendance and homework completion. Suggestions included more sessions, more flexibility in scheduling appointments, and more realistic and clear expectations regarding homework. These results provide insights about strengths and limitations of this psychotherapy with medically ill patients and may help to maximize intervention effectiveness and client acceptability. PMID:18815979
Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie
Understanding the onset and course of sudden gains in treatment provides clinical information to the patient and clinician, and encourages clinicians to strive for these sudden clinical gains with their patients. This study characterizes the occurrence of sudden gains with Behavioral Activation (BA; Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001), and the extent to which pre-treatment dysfunctional depressive thinking predicts sudden gains during treatment. We enrolled a sample of adults (n = 42) between ages 18–65 diagnosed with primary Major Depressive Disorder. All participants completed a 16-week course of BA, with clinical and self-report assessments at pre-, mid- and post-treatment. Results indicated that sudden gain and non-sudden gain participants showed differential improvement across treatment. No significant effects emerged for the dysfunctional cognitive style as a predictor of sudden gain status. Sudden gains may result from interaction of non-specific factors with the BA techniques implemented during early phases of therapy. PMID:22336434
Turner, Samuel M; Beidel, Deborah C; Frueh, B Christopher
Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex psychiatric disorder resulting in considerable emotional distress and impaired social functioning and often constitutes a significant treatment challenge. Although a range of psychotherapeutic strategies for chronic PTSD have been advanced, behavioral treatments emphasizing various methods of exposure therapy have been the most carefully studied and show the most promise. However, chronic PTSD exposure alone does not appear to have a significant effect on the negative symptoms of PTSD (e.g., avoidance, interpersonal difficulties) or anger control. This may be because exposure is more focused on anxiety and fear reduction and does not address basic skill deficits, help reestablish impaired relationships, or teach anger control. Therefore, we developed a multicomponent treatment program to complement exposure by targeting those areas of the clinical syndrome (e.g., social skills) not found to be helped by exposure alone. This treatment program, trauma management therapy (TMT), has showed good preliminary results in an open trial. In this article, we describe the treatment program, including elements of education, individually administered exposure therapy, programmed practice (i.e., homework), and group-administered social and emotional skills training. The appendix includes a detailed description of how to implement the social and emotional skills training components on a session-by-session basis; the full TMT treatment manual is available on request. PMID:15557478
Abstract According to the American Psychological Association (Division 12), there is strong, long-standing research support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to treat chronic pain. Furthermore, meta-analytic comparisons have shown CBT to be highly efficacious. However, not all researchers agree with this conclusion. The purpose of the current pilot study was to determine whether a CBT outpatient, group-based treatment facilitated by junior therapists benefited veterans who suffer from mixed idiopathic, chronic, noncancer pain, thus replicating results from effective CBT programs from the past. A sample of 46 veterans aged 33 to 81 years with chronic, noncancer pain who participated in an outpatient CBT pain group therapy protocol at a Midwestern Veterans Affairs Medical Center between November 3, 2009, and September 2, 2010 was evaluated. All participants completed a pre- and postintervention assessment. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of the program on veterans' scores on assessment measures. No significant difference was found between the pre- and posttest primary outcome measures of pain intensity. A significant difference was established between the pre- and posttest secondary outcome measure of catastrophizing. However, there were no other significant differences found among the remaining pre- and posttest secondary outcome measures of pain interference, disability, and psychological distress. Training junior therapists on how to use CBT protocols may be enhanced by paying greater attention to what mechanisms are responsible for the desired outcomes among veterans with chronic pain. PMID:25597391
Pugh, Nicole E; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Hampton, Amy J D; Bowen, Angela; Williams, Jaime
Postpartum depression (PPD) afflicts up to 15 % of women following childbirth and negatively impacts both mother and child. Therapist-assisted internet cognitive behavior therapy (TAICBT) is a promising intervention for the treatment of PPD; however, women's perceptions of TAICBT have not been examined. Responses to 10 open-ended questions from 24 women who received TAICBT for PPD were thematically analyzed. The majority of women expressed that the TAICBT program afforded flexibility, accessibility, and convenience, as well as anonymity and privacy. Some participants described the program as helping them take a step in the right direction and enhance their self-awareness and parenting skills. Participants also described having the internet therapist individualize their treatment. Challenges related to the TAICBT program were also identified by a minority of participants including managing time to log onto the program, the fast pace, completion of homework around childcare duties, and challenges of not having a face-to-face therapist. Participants also made suggestions for future programming. The large majority of participants consistently described their internet therapist favorably; however, challenges related to the internet therapy were also identified. Results should be integrated in the development of future programming. PMID:25109484
Summary Impulse control disorders (ICD) (most commonly pathologic gambling, hypersexuality, and uncontrollable spending) and compulsive behaviors can be triggered by dopaminergic therapies in Parkinson disease (PD). ICD are especially prevalent in patients receiving a dopamine agonist as part of their treatment regimen for PD, and have also been reported when dopamine agonists are used for other indications (e.g., restless legs syndrome). Although these iatrogenic disorders are common, affecting 1 in 7 patients with PD on dopamine agonists, they often elude detection by the treating physician. ICD lead to serious consequences, causing significant financial loss and psychosocial morbidity for many patients and families. ICD can appear at any time during treatment with dopamine agonists, sometimes within the first few months, but most often after years of treatment, particularly when patients receive dopamine agonists and levodopa together. In most cases ICD resolve if the dopamine agonist is withdrawn, and PD motor symptoms are managed with levodopa monotherapy. Familiarity with the clinical aspects, risk factors, pathophysiology, and management of ICD is essential for physicians using dopaminergic therapies to treat PD and other disorders. PMID:23634371
Ashouri, Ahmad; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Rasoulian, Maryam
Objective: The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy (MCT) and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in treating Iranian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Thirty three outpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD without any other axis I and II disorders were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions, i.e. MCT, CBT and pharmacotherapy. The Beck Depression Inventory-II-Second Edition (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) were administered for pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow-up. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Based on repeated measures ANOVA, all the participants demonstrated improvement in depression, anxiety, dysfunctional attitude and ruminative response. Based on percentage results, all the patients in MCT and CBT groups showed significant improvement at post-treatment phase. Conclusions: MCT and CBT were more effective than pharmacotherapy alone In treatment of MDD. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644507
Fiorentino, Lavinia; McQuaid, John R; Liu, Lianqi; Natarajan, Loki; He, Feng; Cornejo, Monique; Lawton, Susan; Parker, Barbara A; Sadler, Georgia R; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia
Purpose Estimates of insomnia in breast cancer patients are high, with reports of poor sleep lasting years after completion of cancer treatment. This randomized controlled crossover pilot study looked at the effects of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (IND-CBT-I) on sleep in breast cancer survivors. Patients and methods Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions followed by six weeks of follow up) or a delayed treatment control group (no treatment for six weeks followed by six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions). Of these, 14 participants completed the pilot study (six in the treatment group and eight in the delayed treatment control group). Results Self-rated insomnia was significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the waiting period in the delayed treatment control group. The pooled pre-post-IND-CBT-I analyses revealed improvements in self-rated insomnia, sleep quality, and objective measures of sleep. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that IND-CBT-I is appropriate for improving sleep in breast cancer survivors. Individual therapy in a clinic or private practice may be a more practical option for this population as it is more easily accessed and readily available in an outpatient setting. PMID:23616695
Taylor, S; Fedoroff, I C; Koch, W J; Thordarson, D S; Fecteau, G; Nicki, R M
Road traffic collisions (RTCs) are common precipitants of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Two preliminary studies suggest that cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is, on average, effective in treating this disorder, although the major patterns of treatment outcome remain to be identified. Such outcomes might include treatment response, partial response, and response followed by relapse. To identify these patterns. 50 people with RTC PTSD completed a 12-week course of CBT, with outcome assessment extending to 3-month follow up. Dynamic cluster analyses revealed 2 replicable patterns of outcome: one for responders (n = 30) and one for partial responders (n = 20). Partial responders, compared with responders, tended to have more severe pretreatment numbing symptoms and greater anger about their RTC, along with lower global levels of functioning, greater pain severity and interference, and greater depression and were more likely to be taking psychotropic medications. Responders and partial responders did not differ in homework adherence, number of sessions attended, therapist effects, or stressors occurring during therapy or in the presence or absence of RTC-related litigation. Implications for enhancing treatment outcome are discussed. PMID:11495183
Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P
The current randomized study evaluated an online cognitive behavioral therapy program for female sexual problems. PursuingPleasure (PP) consisted of six online modules that included psychoeducation, sensate focus, communication exercises, cognitive exercises, and e-mail contact with a therapist. PP incorporated mindfulness training and online chat groups as well as assessed partner sexual functioning. Participants demonstrated a completion rate of 57%, with 26 women with female sexual problems and related distress completing the program compared to a wait-list control group of 31 women also experiencing sexual problems and distress. Sexual problems reported by women in both groups included difficulties with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. The treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in all domains of female sexual response (except for sexual pain) and significant reductions in the reported frequency of sexual problems and distress. Partner sexual functioning showed positive change. Improvements in female sexual functioning and some improvements in male partner sexual functioning were maintained at three-month follow-up. Limitations and suitability of clients for this treatment approach for women who are geographically isolated, who are unable to attend face-to-face therapy, and who possess a high degree of motivation are discussed. PMID:24742343
Juliette Margo Liber; Brigit M. van Widenfelt; Adelinde J. M. van der Leeden; Arnold W. Goedhart; Elisabeth M. W. J. Utens; Philip D. A. Treffers
The present study investigated the impact of comorbidity over and above the impact of symptom severity on treatment outcome\\u000a of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children with anxiety disorders. Children (aged 8–12, n?=?124) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder were treated with a short-term CBT protocol. Severity was assessed with a composite\\u000a measure of parent-reported behavior problems. Two approaches to comorbidity were
Mancil, G. Richmond; Conroy, Maureen A.; Haydon, Todd F.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining milieu therapy and functional communication training (FCT) to replace aberrant behavior with functional communicative skills in 3 male preschool or elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in the natural…
Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Mann, Giselle; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Adkins, Jennifer; Grabill, Kristen M.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.
Objective: To examine the relative efficacy of intensive versus weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Forty children and adolescents with OCD (range 7-17 years) were randomized to receive 14 sessions of weekly or intensive (daily psychotherapy sessions) family-based…
Simons, Anne D.; Padesky, Christine A.; Montemarano, Jeremy; Lewis, Cara C.; Murakami, Jessica; Lamb, Kristen; DeVinney, Sharon; Reid, Mark; Smith, David A.; Beck, Aaron T.
Objective: In this study, the authors examined the feasibility and effectiveness of training community therapists to deliver cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression. Method: Participants were therapists (n = 12) and clients (n = 116; mean age = 41 years, 63% women) presenting for treatment of depression at a not-for-profit and designated…
David O. Antonuccio; Michael Thomas; William G. Danton
Depression affects at least 11 million Americans per year and costs the U.S. economy an estimated 44 billion dollars annually. Comprehensive review of the existing sci- entific evidence suggests that psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), is at least as effective as medication in the treatment of depression, even if severe (Antonuccio, Danton, & DeNelsky, 1995). These conclusions hold for
Reaven, Judy; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Culhane-Shelburne, Kathy; Hepburn, Susan
Background: Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for developing significant anxiety. Anxiety can adversely impact functioning across school, home and community environments. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are frequently used with success for children with anxiety symptoms. Modified CBT interventions…
Miller, Lynn D.; Short, Christina; Garland, E. Jane; Clark, Sandra
This study evaluated a locally developed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention program in a public elementary school. In the prevention approach, 118 children were randomly assigned either to an 8-week intervention or to a wait-list control. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the manualized CBT intervention did not reduce…
Dia, David A.
This study examines the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a six-year-old boy who was having at least one panic attack a day. It uses a four-phased program that includes a psychoeducational approach. The outcome studies demonstrated how CBT shows promise as a treatment modality with…
Oldershaw, Anna; Simic, Mima; Grima, Emanuela; Jollant, Fabrice; Richards, Clair; Taylor, Lucy; Schmidt, Ulrike
Research shows poor decision making in adolescents who self-harm and a positive correlation between decision-making abilities and duration since last self-harm episode. This exploratory study investigated whether decision making in self-harming adolescents could be improved through treatment with a novel cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). It also…
Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.
Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…
Geller, Josie; Dunn, Erin C.
This paper focuses on the integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of eating disorders. Although CBT is regarded as the treatment of choice in this population, it nevertheless has limitations: some patients fail to engage, drop out from treatment prematurely, or simply do not improve.…
Background: Panic Disorder (PD) is a relatively common ailment in the United States, and health care utilization among patients with PD is disproportionately high. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a unique form of psychotherapy based on the assumption that how we think, feel, and act are intrinsically related. In CBT, the provider and patient collaborate in a highly-structured time-limited environment
Bodden, Denise H. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Nauta, Maaike H.; De Hann, Else; Ringrose, Jaap; Appelboom, Carla; Brinkman, Andries G.; Appelboom-Geerts, Karen C. M. M. J.
Child-focused and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for 128 children with clinical anxiety disorders and their parents were compared in terms of efficacy and partial effectiveness. Results indicate that 53% of the children under the child CBT became free of anxiety disorders at posttreamtent compared to only 28% under family CBT.…
Wilson, Courtney J.; Cottone, R. Rocco
A comprehensive review of the literature on clinical work with African American youth with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented. The strengths and limitations of CBT in relation to this population are outlined. Although CBT shows promise in helping, research on the efficacy and effectiveness of CBT in this group is lacking. (Contains 3…
Ost, Lars-Goran; Karlstedt, Anna; Widen, Sara
Relatively little is known about the efficacy of clinically inexperienced student therapists carrying out cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) under supervision during a professional, psychologist training program. The current study evaluated this by collecting pre- and post-treatment data on 591 consecutive patients receiving treatment at the…
Gaynor, Scott T.; Lawrence, P. Scott; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.
Despite the importance placed on completion of extra-session homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a review of the available literature suggests there is much about the nature of homework compliance that remains to be empirically evaluated. This is especially true among youth receiving CBT. The present study begins to address how best to…
Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan; Allen, Daniel N.; Romero, Valerie; Hill, Heather H.; Tracy, Kendra; Lapota, Holly; Gorney, Suzanne; Abdel-al, Ruweida; Caldas, Diana; Herdzik, Karen; Bradshaw, Kelsey; Valdez, Robby; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.
A comprehensive evidence-based treatment for substance abuse and other associated problems (Family Behavior Therapy) is described, including its application to both adolescents and adults across a wide range of clinical contexts (i.e., criminal justice, child welfare). Relevant to practitioners and applied clinical researchers, topic areas include…
Neural correlates of emotional processing in depression: Changes with cognitive behavioral therapy, USA c Department of Psychology and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University in revised form 24 August 2010 Accepted 11 September 2010 Keywords: Event-related fMRI Depression Mood
Stacey Nye; Thomas F. Cash
Body image change is an important component of the treatment of eating disorders, and cognitive behavioral body image therapy has substantial empirical support as efficacious in the improvement of body image difficulties and disorders. Most evidence comes from randomized, controlled, outcome studies and does not examine effectiveness for persons with clinical eating disorders in the context of “usual care” settings.
Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.
Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…
Hollon, Steven D.; Garber, Judy; Shelton, Richard C.
This article reviews and comments on the recent Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) that found that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was less efficacious than fluoxetine alone and no more efficacious than pill placebo in the treatment of depression in adolescents. Adding CBT to fluoxetine, however, improved treatment response in…
La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara
In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…
Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James
Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…
Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.
In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…
Asbahr, Fernando Ramos; Castillo, Ana Regina; Ito, Ligia Montenegro; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Moreira, Michele Nunes; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) and of sertraline in treatment-naive children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method: Between 2000 and 2002, 40 subjects between 9 and 17 years old were randomized to receive GCBT (n = 20) or sertraline (n = 20). GCBT consisted of a…
Jepson, Bryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Olive, Melissa L.; Stott, Carol; Braud, Scott; Yoo, J. Helen; Wakefield, Andrew; Allen, Michael S.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total…
P. J. M. Prins
Discusses the current status of cognitive behavior therapy with children (CBTC). It is maintained that this movement has been innovative mainly in terms of the development of new therapeutic interventions, whereas theoretical and assessment issues have been neglected and will require more serious attention in the coming years. The clinical relevance of outcome research is discussed and some guidelines are
Peyton White Lumpkin
This study investigated the efficacy of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) in the treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders in children. A partially nonconcurrent multiple baseline across groups design was used to assess the effects of the treatment on 12 clinically referred children and adolescents between 6 and 16 years of age who met DSM-IV criteria for an anxiety disorder. Targeted diagnoses
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn
This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…
Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Masek, Bruce; Henin, Aude; Blakely, Lauren Raezer; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; McQuade, Julia; DePetrillo, Lillian; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph
Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent-child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4-7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were…
Wysocki, Tim; Harris, Michael A.; Buckloh, Lisa M.; Mertlich, Deborah; Lochrie, Amanda Sobel; Taylor, Alexandra; Sadler, Michelle; White, Neil H.
We report a randomized trial of a revised Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes (BFST-D) intervention. Families of 104 adolescents with diabetes were randomized to standard care (SC) or to 6 months of an educational support group (ES) or BFST-D. Family communication and problem-solving skills were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months by…
Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.; Chu, Brian C.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Gordis, Elana B.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.
Objective: Most tests of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety disorders have shown beneficial effects, but these have been efficacy trials with recruited youths treated by researcher-employed therapists. One previous (nonrandomized) trial in community clinics found that CBT did not outperform usual care (UC). The present study used…
Spence, Susan H.; Holmes, Jane M.; March, Sonja; Lipp, Ottmar V.
Seventy-two clinically anxious children, aged 7 to 14 years, were randomly allocated to clinic-based, cognitive-behavior therapy, the same treatment partially delivered via the Internet, or a wait-list control (WL). Children in the clinic and clinic-plus-Internet conditions showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety from pre-to…
Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Baucom, Brian; Yi, Jean
Objective: To follow distressed married couples for 5 years after their participation in a randomized clinical trial. Method: A total of 134 chronically and seriously distressed married couples were randomly assigned to approximately 8 months of either traditional behavioral couple therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or integrative…
Dollinger, Stephen J.
Describes the use of behavioral procedures as part of systems-oriented family therapy for the treatment of an adolescent girl's functional blackouts. Treatment successfully eliminated blackouts without directly addressing clear psychosexual issues. Discusses the case in terms of conceptualizing etiology and treatments and advocates working with…
Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence
Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…
Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.
Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,…
This pilot study investigated the impact of group activity play therapy (GAPT) on displaced orphans aged 10 to 12 years living in a large children's village in Uganda. Teachers and housemothers identified 60 preadolescents exhibiting clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The participants' ethnicity was…
Liber, Juliette M.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.
Little is known about the contribution of technical and relational factors to child outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety disorders. This study investigated the association between treatment adherence, the child-therapist alliance, and child clinical outcomes in manual-guided individual- and group-based CBT for…
Sung, Min; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Goh, Tze Jui; Pathy, Pavarthy; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chua, Alina; Lam, Chee Meng
We compared the effects of a 16-week Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) program and a Social Recreational (SR) program on anxiety in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Seventy children (9-16 years old) were randomly assigned to either of the programs (n CBT = 36; n SR = 34). Measures on child's anxiety using the Spence Child Anxiety…
Elizeth Heldt; Gisele Gus Manfro; Leticia Kipper; Carolina Blaya; Sandra Maltz; Luciano Isolan; Vânia Naomi Hirakata; Michael W. Otto
Background: In Brazil, treatment of panic disorder is most frequently initiated with pharmacotherapy, but only half of the patients can be expected to be panic free after medication. Studies have suggested that individual or group cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment strategy for panic patients who have failed to respond to pharmacotherapy. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with panic disorder
Pier J. M. Prins; Thomas H. Ollendick
In this review, we examine the recent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome literature with anxiety-disordered children and, specifically, explore the status of cognitive change and increased coping ability as (1) specific treatment effects, and (2) possible mediators of the efficacy of CBT. In the past decade, the number of controlled CBT studies with clinically diagnosed anxiety-disordered children has increased substantially.
Dobson, Keith S.; Hollon, Steven D.; Dimidjian, Sona; Schmaling, Karen B.; Kohlenberg, Robert J.; Gallop, Robert J.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Dunner, David L.; Jacobson, Neil S.
This study followed treatment responders from a randomized controlled trial of adults with major depression. Patients treated with medication but withdrawn onto pill-placebo had more relapse through 1 year of follow-up compared to patients who received prior behavioral activation, prior cognitive therapy, or continued medication. Prior…
Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah
This study describes a multimethod evaluation of treatment fidelity to the family therapy (FT) approach demonstrated by front-line therapists in a community behavioral health clinic that utilized FT as its routine standard of care. Study cases (N=50) were adolescents with conduct and/or substance use problems randomly assigned to routine family therapy (RFT) or to a treatment-as-usual clinic not aligned with the FT approach (TAU). Observational analyses showed that RFT therapists consistently achieved a level of adherence to core FT techniques comparable to the adherence benchmark established during an efficacy trial of a research-based FT. Analyses of therapist-report measures found that compared to TAU, RFT demonstrated strong adherence to FT and differentiation from three other evidence-based practices: cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and drug counseling. Implications for rigorous fidelity assessments of evidence-based practices in usual care settings are discussed. PMID:23314000
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093
Dhingra, Narender K.
NATIONAL BRAIN RESEARCH CENTRE (NBRC), Manesar-122 051, Gurgaon, requires a "JRF / SRF" in a project funded by Wellcome Trust/DBT India Alliance. Applications are invited for JRF/SRF position of Vacancies: 2 (JRF / SRF) (The vacancies number may vary) Essential Qualification: For JRF: Masters degree
Marchiori, Cleber F. N.; Yamamoto, Natasha A. D.; Matos, Carolina F.; Kujala, Jiri; Macedo, Andréia G.; Tuomisto, Filip; Zarbin, Aldo J. G.; Koehler, Marlus; Roman, Lucimara S.
In this work, poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) was used as active layer in bilayer solar cell with C60 as electron acceptor. As cast devices already show reasonable power conversion efficiency (PCE) that increases to 4% upon annealing at 100 °C. Space charge limited measurements of the hole mobility (?) in PSiF-DBT give ? ˜ 1.0 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) which does not depend on the temperature of the annealing treatment. Moreover, positron annihilation spectroscopy experiments revealed that PSiF-DBT films are well stacked even without the thermal treatment. The variations in the transport of holes upon annealing are then small. As a consequence, the PCE rise was mainly induced by the increase of the polymer surface roughness that leads to a more effective interface for exciton dissociation at the PSiF-DBT/fullerene heterojunction.
Murray B Stein; G Ron Norton; John R Walker; Mariette J Chartier; Roger Graham
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) are both considered as first-line treatments for panic disorder, but the advantages of a combined therapy have yet to be definitively demonstrated. We evaluated in this pilot study the effects of combining SSRIs (vs. a placebo) with a very brief form of cognitive-behavioral therapy provided to all participants. Thirty-three subjects
Afshari, Afrooz; Neshat-Doost, Hamid Taher; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Ahmady, Mozhgan Kar; Amiri, Shole
Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT) is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys) with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group). Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms), Children's Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms), and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software package (v. 20). Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children's reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping in posttest. None of treatments affected on anger and sadness inhibition and positive cognitive coping in separation anxious children. Conclusion: ECBT, in comparison with CBT; effectively improved emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety. PMID:24949029
Zhao, Chuansheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Shanshan; Nie, Yingxue
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) has been extensively used for stroke rehabilitation. CIMT encourages use of the impaired limb along with restraint of the ipsilesional limb in daily life, and may promote behavioral recovery and induce structural changes in brain after stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CIMT enhances neurogenesis in rat brain after stroke that was generated by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult rats were divided into sham group, ischemia group and ischemia treated with CIMT group. Rats of CIMT group were treated with a plaster cast to restrain the healthy forelimb for 14 days beginning 1 week after ischemia. The proliferation of neuronal cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and behavioral recovery were analyzed at day 29 after ischemia. We also measured the tissue level of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) by ELISA. SDF-1 might be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis following stroke. In the subventricular zone of the animals treated with CIMT, there was a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells (135 +/- 18, P < 0.05), compared with ischemia group (87 +/- 12) or sham group (18 +/- 3.6). Likewise, in the dentate gyrus, animals treated with CIMT showed a significant increase in BrdU-positive cells (296 +/- 26, P < 0.05) compared with ischemia group (225 +/- 18) or sham group (162 +/- 11). CIMT treatment after stroke significantly improved behavioral performances and increased the SDF-1 protein levels in the cortex and dentate gyrus. In conclusion, CIMT treatment enhances neurogenesis and functional recovery after stroke. PMID:19638734
Nichols, Sharon L.; Bethel, James; Garvie, Patricia A.; Patton, Doyle E; Thornton, Sarah; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Ren, Weijia; Major-Wilson, Hanna; Puga, Ana; Woods, Steven P.
Purpose Youth living with HIV account for over one-third of new HIV infections and are at high risk of adverse psychosocial, everyday living, and health outcomes. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are known to affect health outcomes of HIV-infected adults even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus, the current study aimed to characterize the prevalence and clinical correlates of HAND in youth living with HIV. Here we report baseline neurocognitive data for behaviorally HIV-infected youth enrolled in a prospective study evaluating strategies of antiretroviral treatment initiation and use. Methods Two hundred twenty participants, age 18-24, naïve to treatment (except for prevention of mother to child HIV transmission; n=3), completed a comprehensive neurocognitive, substance use, and behavioral health assessment battery. Results 64.7% of youth met criteria for HAND (96.4% asymptomatic, 3.5% syndromic), with deficits in episodic memory and fine-motor skills emerging as the most commonly affected ability areas. Multivariable models showed that lower CD4 count, longer time since HIV diagnosis, and high risk alcohol use were uniquely associated with neurocognitive deficits. Conclusions Over two-thirds of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV evidence neurocognitive deficits, which have modest associations with more advanced HIV disease as well as other factors. Research is needed to determine the impact of such neuropsychiatric morbidity on mental health and HIV disease treatment outcomes (e.g., non-adherence) and transition to independent living responsibilities in HIV-infected youth, as well as its long-term trajectory and possible responsiveness to cognitive rehabilitation and pharmacotherapy. PMID:23972941
Schnicker, Katja; Hiller, Wolfgang; Legenbauer, Tanja
In the present study, drop-out-analyses were carried out for a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for 104 females with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), in the service setting of a university outpatient clinic (naturalistic setting). A total of 22.9% of patients with AN terminated therapy prematurely (drop-outs), compared to 40.6% of patients with BN. Group differences between drop-outs and completers show that the group of drop-outs with BN had higher values in the depression score at the start of therapy and was almost two times more likely to have a comorbid disorder (odds ratio 1.69), whereas drop-outs with AN had higher values in the outcome-scale drive for thinness and the odds ratio for being employed or living in a partnership was slightly lower. Completers and drop-outs did not differ significantly within groups in regard to age, body mass index at the start and end of therapy, or the number of comorbid disorders. On the whole, the therapy effect in the group of drop-outs was relatively moderate. For patients with AN, even higher therapy effects were observed among the drop-outs than among the completers. These data suggest that moderate therapy effects and responses can be achieved even among the drop-outs. PMID:23587528
Mullenix, P J; Kernan, W J; Tassinari, M S; Schunior, A; Waber, D P; Howes, A; Tarbell, N J
Central nervous system prophylactic therapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can reduce intelligence quotient scores and impair memory and attention in children. Cranial irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate, and steroids are commonly utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. How they induce neurotoxicity is unknown. This study employs an animal model to explore the induction of neurotoxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 17 and 18 days of age were administered 18 mg/kg prednisolone, 2 mg/kg methotrexate, and 1000 cGy cranial irradiation. Another 18-day-old group was administered 1000 cGy cranial irradiation but no drugs. Matching controls received saline and/or a sham exposure to radiation. All animals at 6 weeks and 4 months of age were tested for alterations in spontaneous behavior. A computer pattern recognition system automatically recorded and classified individual behavioral acts displayed during exploration of a novel environment. Measures of behavioral initiations, total time, and time structure were used to compare treated and control animals. A permanent sex-specific change in the time structure of behavior was induced by the prednisolone, methotrexate, and radiation treatment but not by radiation alone. Unlike hyperactivity, the effect consisted of abnormal clustering and dispersion of acts in a pattern indicative of disrupted development of sexually dimorphic behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an animal model delineating the agent/agents responsible for the neurotoxicity of central nervous system prophylactic therapy. PMID:2208105
Mullenix, P.J.; Kernan, W.J.; Tassinari, M.S.; Schunior, A.; Waber, D.P.; Howes, A.; Tarbell, N.J. (Forsyth Research Institute, Boston, MA (USA))
Central nervous system prophylactic therapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can reduce intelligence quotient scores and impair memory and attention in children. Cranial irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate, and steroids are commonly utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. How they induce neurotoxicity is unknown. This study employs an animal model to explore the induction of neurotoxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 17 and 18 days of age were administered 18 mg/kg prednisolone, 2 mg/kg methotrexate, and 1000 cGy cranial irradiation. Another 18-day-old group was administered 1000 cGy cranial irradiation but no drugs. Matching controls received saline and/or a sham exposure to radiation. All animals at 6 weeks and 4 months of age were tested for alterations in spontaneous behavior. A computer pattern recognition system automatically recorded and classified individual behavioral acts displayed during exploration of a novel environment. Measures of behavioral initiations, total time, and time structure were used to compare treated and control animals. A permanent sex-specific change in the time structure of behavior was induced by the prednisolone, methotrexate, and radiation treatment but not by radiation alone. Unlike hyperactivity, the effect consisted of abnormal clustering and dispersion of acts in a pattern indicative of disrupted development of sexually dimorphic behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an animal model delineating the agent/agents responsible for the neurotoxicity of central nervous system prophylactic therapy.
Young, Brittany Mei; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domains of Hand Function (HF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC) to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p < 0.05). Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in performance on ARAT (R (2) = 0.21), 9-HPT (R (2) = 0.41), SIS HF (R (2) = 0.27), and SIS ADL (R (2) = 0.40). Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory component of BCI therapy. PMID:25071547
Young, Brittany Mei; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domains of Hand Function (HF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC) to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p < 0.05). Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in performance on ARAT (R2 = 0.21), 9-HPT (R2 = 0.41), SIS HF (R2 = 0.27), and SIS ADL (R2 = 0.40). Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory component of BCI therapy. PMID:25071547
Lopes, Alessandra Pereira; Macedo, Tânia Fagundes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula Rui
Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder after earthquakes. However, further studies with stronger methodologies, i.e. randomized-control trials and non-randomized controlled trials, are needed. PMID:25296020
Dittmann, Ingeborg; Jensen, Tine K
The efficacy of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, to our knowledge no one has studied the TF-CBT model from a user's perspective. The objective of this study was to explore traumatized youths' experiences of receiving TF-CBT. Thirty youths between 11 and 17 years old (M=15, SD=1.8) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide after they had received TF-CBT as part of an effectiveness trial. The interviews were analyzed according to thematic analysis. The youths' responses were grouped into four themes: (1) expectations, (2) experiences of talking to the therapist and sharing information, (3) experiences of trauma narrative work, and (4) experiences of change and change processes. Findings showed how an initial fear of talking about traumatic events and not knowing what to expect from therapy was reduced when the youth experienced the therapist as empathetic and knowledgeable. Talking to the therapist was experienced as positive because of the therapist's expertise, neutrality, empathy, and confidentiality. Talking about the trauma was perceived as difficult but also as most helpful. Learning skills for reducing stress was also perceived as helpful. Important change processes were described as resuming normal functioning and getting "back on track,", or as acquiring new perspectives and "moving forward." Because TF-CBT is recommended as a first line treatment for traumatized youth and treating posttraumatic stress may entail special challenges, understanding more about how youths experience this mode of treatment contributes to our knowledge base and may help us tailor interventions. PMID:24367942
Falsetti, Sherry A.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Davis, Joanne
A large proportion of patients who present for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience comorbid panic attacks, yet it is unclear to what extent currently available PTSD treatment programs address this problem. Here we describe a newly developed treatment, multiple-channel exposure therapy (M-CET), for comorbid PTSD and panic…
Heyne, David; Sauter, Floor M; Ollendick, Thomas H; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel
School refusal can be difficult to treat and the poorest treatment response is observed among older school refusers. This poor response may be explained, in part, by the impact of developmental transitions and tasks upon the young person, their family, and the treatment process. This paper describes and illustrates the @school program, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to promote developmental sensitivity when planning and delivering treatment for adolescent school refusal. Treatment is modularized and it incorporates progress reviews, fostering a planned yet flexible approach to CBT. The treatment is illustrated in the case of Allison, a 16-year-old female presenting with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A case formulation guided the selection, sequencing, and pacing of modules targeting predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective factors. Treatment comprised 16 sessions with Allison (interventions addressing depression, anxiety, and school attendance) and 15 concurrent sessions with her mother (strategies to facilitate an adolescent's school attendance), including two sessions with Allison and mother together (family communication and problem solving to reduce parent-adolescent conflict). Two treatment-related consultations were also conducted with Allison's homeroom teacher. Allison's school attendance improved during the course of treatment. By post-treatment, there was a decrease in internalizing behavior, an increase in self-efficacy, and remission of depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. Clinically significant treatment gains were maintained at 2-month follow-up. Factors influencing outcome may include those inherent to the @school program together with less specific factors. Special consideration is given to parents' use of both authoritative and autonomy-granting approaches when helping an adolescent to attend school. PMID:24338067
Kronemyer, David; Bystritsky, Alexander
Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a non-linear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain's attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three) fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. PMID:24860491
Whiteside, Ursula; Richards, Julie; Steinfeld, Bradley; Simon, Gregory; Caka, Selin; Tachibana, Chris; Stuckey, Sarah; Ludman, Evette
Context: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a goal-oriented treatment that guides patients to healthy thoughts and behaviors. Internet-delivered CBT with supportive coaching can be as effective as in-person psychotherapy treatment of depression. Objective: To test the feasibility of engaging depressed primary care patients not currently receiving psychotherapy and to measure the outcomes of Internet-delivered CBT with supportive coaching. Design: Pilot feasibility project. Main Outcome Measures: 1) Uptake rate. 2) Reduction in depressive symptoms (average score on 20-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist) from baseline to 4-month follow-up. Methods: Medical records data were queried to identify patients experiencing a new episode of depression. Eligible patients were invited via secure messaging (patient and clinician communication using a secure Web site linked to the medical record) to participate in the Internet-delivered CBT program (also known as Thrive), which was algorithm-driven and delivered through didactic segments, interactive tools, and assessments. Patients completed a self-administered online follow-up survey four months after enrollment. Results: Of 196 eligible patients who were sent an invitation, 39 (20%) enrolled in the Internet-delivered CBT program. At follow-up, enrolled patients experienced a clinically significant decrease (average = 46%) in depressive symptoms. Suicidal thoughts also decreased both overall and by severity. Conclusions: Seamless, scalable integration of Internet-delivered CBT into health care systems is feasible. The 20% uptake rate suggests that future work should focus on strategies to increase the initial response rate. One promising direction is the addition of “human touch” to the secure message invitation. Depression outcomes suggest promise for systemwide implementation of Internet-delivered CBT programs. PMID:24867546
Pearce, Michelle J; Koenig, Harold G; Robins, Clive J; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F; Cohen, Harvey J; King, Michael B
Intervention studies have found that psychotherapeutic interventions that explicitly integrate clients' spiritual and religious beliefs in therapy are as effective, if not more so, in reducing depression than those that do not for religious clients. However, few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of religiously (vs. spiritually) integrated psychotherapy, and no manualized mental health intervention had been developed for the medically ill with religious beliefs. To address this gap, we developed and implemented a novel religiously integrated adaptation of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression in individuals with chronic medical illness. This article describes the development and implementation of the intervention. First, we provide a brief overview of CBT. Next, we describe how religious beliefs and behaviors can be integrated into a CBT framework. Finally, we describe Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (RCBT), a manualized therapeutic approach designed to assist depressed individuals to develop depression-reducing thoughts and behaviors informed by their own religious beliefs, practices, and resources. This treatment approach has been developed for 5 major world religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism), increasing its potential to aid the depressed medically ill from a variety of religious backgrounds. PMID:25365155
Pearce, Michelle J.; Koenig, Harold G.; Robins, Clive J.; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F.; Cohen, Harvey J.; King, Michael B.
Intervention studies have found that psychotherapeutic interventions that explicitly integrate clients’ spiritual and religious beliefs in therapy are as effective, if not more so, in reducing depression than those that do not for religious clients. However, few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of religiously (vs. spiritually) integrated psychotherapy, and no manualized mental health intervention had been developed for the medically ill with religious beliefs. To address this gap, we developed and implemented a novel religiously integrated adaptation of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression in individuals with chronic medical illness. This article describes the development and implementation of the intervention. First, we provide a brief overview of CBT. Next, we describe how religious beliefs and behaviors can be integrated into a CBT framework. Finally, we describe Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (RCBT), a manualized therapeutic approach designed to assist depressed individuals to develop depression-reducing thoughts and behaviors informed by their own religious beliefs, practices, and resources. This treatment approach has been developed for 5 major world religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism), increasing its potential to aid the depressed medically ill from a variety of religious backgrounds. PMID:25365155
Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. PMID:25812825
Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada
Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck's Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results: Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. Conclusions: This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety. PMID:25722507
Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wagner, Amy W; Russo, Joan; Love, Jeff; Zatzick, Douglas F
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions are efficacious in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but are challenging to implement in acute care and other non-specialty mental health settings. This investigation identified barriers impacting CBT delivery through a content analysis of interventionist chart notes from an acute care PTSD prevention trial. Only 8.5% of all intervention patients were able to complete CBT. Lack of engagement, clinical and logistical barriers had the greatest impact on CBT entry. Treatment preferences and stigma only prevented entry when more primary barriers resolved. Patients with prior diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were able to enter CBT after six months of sobriety. Based on the first trial, we developed a CBT readiness assessment tool. We implemented and evaluated the tool in a second early intervention trial. Lack of engagement emerged again as the primary impediment to CBT entry. Patients who were willing to enter CBT treatment but demonstrated high rates of past trauma or diagnosis of PTSD were also the least likely to engage in any PTSD treatment one month post-discharge. Findings support the need for additional investigations into engagement and alternative delivery strategies, including those which dismantle traditional office-based, multi-session CBT into stepped, deliverable components. PMID:21916628
Ong, Jason C; Shapiro, Shauna L; Manber, Rachel
This treatment-development study is a Stage I evaluation of an intervention that combines mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Thirty adults who met research diagnostic criteria for Psychophysiological Insomnia (Edinger et al., 2004) participated in a 6-week, multi-component group intervention using mindfulness meditation, sleep restriction, stimulus control, sleep education, and sleep hygiene. Sleep diaries and self-reported pre-sleep arousal were assessed weekly while secondary measures of insomnia severity, arousal, mindfulness skills, and daytime functioning were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Data collected on recruitment, retention, compliance, and satisfaction indicate that the treatment protocol is feasible to deliver and is acceptable for individuals seeking treatment for insomnia. The overall patterns of change with treatment demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvements in several nighttime symptoms of insomnia as well as statistically significant reductions in pre-sleep arousal, sleep effort, and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the number of meditation sessions and changes on a trait measure of arousal. Together, the findings indicate that mindfulness meditation can be combined with CBT-I and this integrated intervention is associated with reductions in both sleep and sleep-related arousal. Further testing of this intervention using randomized controlled trials is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention for this population and the specific effects of each component on sleep and both psychological and physiological arousal. PMID:18502250
Forkmann, Thomas; Scherer, Anne; Pawelzik, Markus; Mainz, Verena; Drueke, Barbara; Boecker, Maren; Gauggel, Siegfried
Introduction Emotion regulation plays an important role in the development and treatment of depression. The present study investigated whether the emotion regulation strategies, expressive suppression (ES) and cognitive reappraisal (CR) change in the course of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) of depressive inpatients. Furthermore, it also examined whether changes in CR and ES correlated with positive treatment outcomes. Methods Forty-four inpatients from a psychotherapeutic hospital who suffered from a depressive disorder (mean age =36.4 years, standard deviation =13.4 years; 63.6% female) filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory at admission and discharge. To detect changes in emotion regulation, and depression across treatment, data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measures, effect sizes, and Spearman correlations. A P-value of ?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Depression severity (F=10.42, P=0.003; ?2=0.22) and CR (F=4.71, P=0.04; ?2=0.11) changed significantly across CBT treatment. ES remained virtually stable. Post-treatment scores of CR were also positively correlated with reduction in depressive symptoms across treatment (?=0.30, P=0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that CBT affects emotion regulation in depressive inpatients only for CR and that higher post-treatment scores in CR were related to greater reduction in depressive symptoms across treatment. PMID:24872725
Kimhy, D; Tarrier, N; Essock, S; Malaspina, D; Cabannis, D; Beck, A T
Objective Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is an evidence-based treatment for psychosis-related disorders. However, despite the strong evidence-base and inclusion in national treatment guidelines, CBTp remains poorly disseminated in the US. It is proposed that this state is a product of lack of CBTp knowledge among clinical training leaders along with limited availability of training opportunities. Method We surveyed training directors in US psychiatry residency and clinical psychology doctoral programs to characterize the penetration of CBTp training and to assess their familiarity with basic CBTp facts. Results Directors displayed limited knowledge of CBTp effectiveness, with only 50% of psychiatry and 40% of psychology directors believing that CBTp is efficacious. Only 10% of psychiatry and 30% of psychology directors were aware that the CBTp evidence-base is based on meta-analyses. While 45% of all directors reported that their program offer CBTp training, trainees received limited training - 4 hours of didactics, 21 hours of treatment, and 12 hours of supervision. Conclusions CBTp dissemination in the US is characterized by training directors’ minimal awareness of the CBTp evidence-base along with training opportunities that are so limited, as to be unlikely to be adequate to provide CBTp effectively, hence unlikely to improve patients’ psychoses. PMID:24187582
Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti
In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing. PMID:20856608
Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Petkus, Andrew J; White, Kamila S; Nguyen, Hoang; Kornblith, Sander; Andreescu, Carmen; Zisook, Sidney; Lenze, Eric J
OBJECTIVE Generalized anxiety disorder is common among older adults and leads to diminished health and cognitive functioning. Although antidepressant medications are efficacious, many elderly individuals require augmentation treatment. Furthermore, little is known about maintenance strategies for older people. The authors examined whether sequenced treatment combining pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) boosts response and prevents relapse in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. METHOD Participants were individuals at least 60 years of age with generalized anxiety disorder (N=73) who were recruited from outpatient clinics at three sites. Participants received 12 weeks of open-label escitalopram and were then randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 16 weeks of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) plus modular CBT, followed by 28 weeks of maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram alone, followed by maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram plus CBT, followed by pill placebo; and escitalopram alone, followed by placebo. RESULTS Escitalopram augmented with CBT increased response rates on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire but not on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale compared with escitalopram alone. Both escitalopram and CBT prevented relapse compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates effective strategies for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in older adults. The sequence of antidepressant medication augmented with CBT leads to worry reduction in the short-term. Continued medication prevents relapse, but for many individuals, CBT would allow sustained remission without requiring long-term pharmacotherapy. PMID:23680817
Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028
McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G; Goldfried, Marvin R
Several authors have identified a disconnect between psychotherapy research, including research on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and real-world psychotherapy practice. This disconnect has several negative consequences, potentially including less-than-optimal practice standards as well as a lack of input from practicing psychotherapists on how research can be improved and made more relevant in their day-to-day clinical work. As part of an ongoing effort to engage practicing psychotherapists in a feedback loop with psychotherapy researchers, this study reports the results of a survey of CBT therapists who have used CBT in the treatment of social phobia (SP). The survey was designed primarily to document how often certain potential problems, identified by expert researchers and CBT manuals, actually act as barriers to successful treatment when CBT is employed in nonresearch environments. The participants were 276 psychotherapists responding to email, online, and print advertisements completing the online survey. Participants varied considerably in psychotherapy experience, work environment, experience in using CBT for SP, and in some ways varied in their usual CBT techniques when treating SP. Among the most prominent barriers identified by many of the participants were patient motivation, comorbidity, logistical problems (especially with exposures), patient resistance, and severity and chronicity of SP symptoms. These findings may be useful for psychotherapy researchers as areas for potential study. The results may also suggest topics requiring clinical guidelines, innovations within CBT, and dissemination of successful techniques to address the barriers identified here. PMID:24411111
Armento, Maria E A; Stanley, Melinda A; Marsh, Laura; Kunik, Mark E; York, Michele K; Bush, Amber L; Calleo, Jessica S
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is generally defined by its progressive motor features; but increased attention is being paid to its non-motor neuropsychiatric symptoms, which profoundly impact quality of life for patients and caregivers. Anxiety and depression are particularly problematic and are the strongest predictors of quality of life in PD. Recent research has focused on non-pharmacological approaches to treating depression and anxiety in patients with PD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a potentially efficacious non-pharmacological treatment for mood and anxiety symptoms associated with PD. Accordingly, this review examines empirical studies of CBT-based treatments for depression and anxiety symptoms in PD. Medical Subject Headings were used in searches of PsychInfo and PubMed of English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals, resulting in the identification of 10 articles. Four additional articles were identified from the references of these articles and upon the suggestions of experts, for 15 articles in all. Results of individual studies varied significantly; however, the randomized controlled trials showed encouraging results and support the need for further investigation of the utility of CBT for depressed and anxious patients with PD. CBT is potentially a useful treatment for patients with PD and comorbid depression and/or anxiety, but more systematic research will be necessary to measure its effects. PMID:23939438
Kumari, Veena; Peters, Emmanuelle R.; Fannon, Dominic; Antonova, Elena; Premkumar, Preethi; Anilkumar, Anantha P.; Williams, Steven C.R.; Kuipers, Elizabeth
Background Given the variable response to cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) when added to antipsychotic medication in psychosis and the evidence for a role of pretherapy level of frontal lobe–based cognitive function in responsiveness to CBT in other disorders, this study examined whether pretherapy brain activity associated with working memory neural network predicts clinical responsiveness to CBT in schizophrenia. Methods Fifty-two outpatients stable on medication with at least one distressing symptom of schizophrenia and willing to receive CBT in addition to their usual treatment and 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a parametric n-back task. Subsequently, 26 patients received CBT for psychosis (CBT+treatment-as-usual [TAU], 19 completers) for 6–8 months, and 26 continued with TAU alone (17 completers). Symptoms in both patient groups were assessed (blindly) at entry and follow-up. Results The CBT+TAU and TAU-alone groups did not differ clinically or in performance at baseline. The CBT+TAU group showed significant improvement in relation to the TAU-alone group, which showed no change, at follow-up. Stronger dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity (within the normal range) and DLPFC–cerebellum connectivity during the highest memory load condition (2-back > 0-back) were associated with post-CBT clinical improvement. Conclusions DLPFC activity and its connectivity with the cerebellum predict responsiveness to CBT for psychosis in schizophrenia. These effects may be mediated by PFC–cerebellum contributions to executive processing. PMID:19560121
Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Khanna, Muniya S.; Downey, Margaret Mary; Kendall, Philip C.
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental health difficulties experienced by youth. A well-established literature has identified cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as the gold-standard psychosocial treatment for youth anxiety disorders. Access to CBT in community clinics is limited, but a potential venue for the provision of CBT for child anxiety disorders is the school setting. The present study examined a subset of data from a larger study in which therapists from a variety of settings, including schools, were trained in CBT for child anxiety (N = 17). The study investigated the relationship between provider- and organizational-level variables associated with training and implementation among school mental health providers. The present findings indicate a positive relationship between provider attitudes and adherence to CBT. Self-reported barriers to implementation were also identified. Integrating CBT into school mental health providers’ repertoires through training and consultation is a critical step for dissemination and implementation of empirically supported psychosocial treatments. PMID:24817916
... psychotherapy. That is because it helps with your psychology — the mental and emotional parts of your life. ... for depression , anxiety , and several other problems is cognitive behavioral therapy. This type of therapy teaches you ...
Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Hahn, Kevin; Heimberg, Richard; Gross, James J.
Importance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder is thought to enhance cognitive reappraisal in patients with social anxiety disorder. Such improvements should be evident in cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex responses. Objective To determine whether Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder modifies cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex neural signal magnitude and timing when implementing cognitive reappraisal with negative self-beliefs. Design Randomized controlled trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder versus waitlist control group. Setting Psychology department. Participants Seventy-five patients with generalized social anxiety disorder randomly assigned to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or waitlist. Intervention Sixteen sessions of individual-Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety disorder during a study that enrolled patients from 2007 to 2010. Main Outcome Measures Negative emotion ratings and functional magnetic resonance blood oxygen-level dependent signal when reacting to and cognitively reappraising negative self-beliefs embedded in autobiographical social anxiety situations. Results During reactivity trials, compared to waitlist, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy produced (a) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings and (b) greater blood oxygen-level dependent signal magnitude in medial prefrontal cortex. During cognitive reappraisal trials, compared to waitlist, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy produced (c) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings, (d) greater blood oxygen-level dependent signal magnitude in dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, (e) earlier temporal onset of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity, and (f) greater dorsomedial prefrontal cortex-amygdala inverse functional connectivity. Conclusions and Relevance Modulation of cognitive reappraisal-related brain responses, timing and functional connectivity may be important brain changes that contribute to the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for social anxiety. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00380731; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00380731?term=social+anxiety+cognitive+behavioral+therapy+Stanford&rank=1 PMID:23945981
Bayard, Sophie; Langenier, Muriel Croisier; Dauvilliers, Yves
Study Objectives: To assess whether the frequency of impulse control disorders (ICDs), addictive behaviors, impulsivity, and impairment of decision-making task performance under ambiguous and risky conditions were present in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and whether changes could be related to dopaminergic medications. Design: Case-control prospective study. Setting: Academic Sleep Disorders Center. Participants: Of the 149 participants, there were 39 who were drug free with primary RLS, 50 who were taking dopamine agonists (DA), and 60 control subjects. Participants were assessed with a clinical interview screening for ICDs, augmentation syndrome, impulsivity, depression, and addictive behaviors. All participants completed two decision-making tasks, one under an ambiguous condition (Iowa Gambling Task) and the other under a risky condition (Game of Dice Task). Drug-free patients with RLS underwent 1 night of polysomnography recording. Measurements and Results: Seventy percent of patients were treated with pramipexole (median dose, 0.36 mg), and 30% with ropinirole (median dose, 0.75 mg). Median duration of DA intake was 11 mo (range, 1-72 mo). No differences were found on impulsivity scores, ICDs, and substance addiction between drug-free patients or those taking DA, or control subjects. Patients with RLS reported more depressive symptoms than control subjects, but without differences between patients taking or not taking DA. Drug-free and treated patients demonstrated reduced performances on the Iowa Gambling Task but not on the Game of Dice Task compared to control subjects, with no differences between patients taking medications and those who were not. No association was found between decision-making task performances, or polysomnographic and clinical variables. Conclusion: Impulse control disorders, impulsivity, and substance addiction were infrequent in drug-free patients with restless legs syndrome or those treated with a low dose of dopamine agonists. However, patients with restless legs syndrome, either drug free or taking dopamine agonists, had preferences toward risky choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, which led to negative consequences in the long run, a condition potentially leading to further development of impulse control disorders. Citation: Bayard S; Langenier MC; Dauvilliers Y. Decision-making, reward-seeking behaviors and dopamine agonist therapy in restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1501-1507. PMID:24082309
Burton, Mark; Schmertz, Stefan K.; Price, Matthew; Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.
Objectives This study examined the relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of nonmindfulness based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We expected that higher levels of mindfulness would be associated with a more positive response to treatment. Method This study is a secondary report from a randomized controlled trial in which participants (N = 65) diagnosed with SAD were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of 1 of 2 manualized treatments (exposure group therapy, n = 33; or virtual reality exposure therapy, n = 32) either immediately or following an 8 week waiting period. Results Fear of negative evaluation decreased following treatment and was negatively related to mindfulness throughout treatment and follow-up. Mindfulness did not moderate treatment outcome. Conclusions These findings indicate that while mindfulness is related to fear, it is not a moderator of symptom reduction in nonmindfulness-based treatment. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:23124529
Selles, Robert R; Arnold, Elysse B; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed anxiety symptoms in youth 10-26 months following treatment completion. Compared to baseline, follow-up scores were associated with large effects for treatment. Relative to post-treatment, a small effect for return in symptoms was present and significantly fewer individuals were rated as responders at follow-up. Future studies should investigate factors associated with poor treatment maintenance and modifications or additions to treatment that may help maintain treatment gains. PMID:24923895
Laura B. Allen; Kamila S. White; David H. Barlow; M. Katherine Shear; Jack M. Gorman; Scott W. Woods
Research evaluating the relationship of comorbidity to treatment outcome for panic disorder has produced mixed results. The\\u000a current study examined the relationship of comorbid depression and anxiety to treatment outcome in a large-scale, multi-site\\u000a clinical trial for cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for panic disorder. Comorbidity was associated with more severe panic\\u000a disorder symptoms, although comorbid diagnoses were not associated with treatment
N. R. Benazon; J. Ager; D. R. Rosenberg
This work aims is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had not previously been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy and who remained medication-free during CBT. Sixteen OCD outpatients, 8–17 years of age, were treated in a 12-week open trial with manualized CBT. Target symptoms were rated at
Philip C. Kendall; Andrea J. Barmish
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been reviewed and described as an empirically supported treatment for anxious youth. One component of CBT is the use of out-of-session “Show That I Can” tasks (STIC; i.e., homework tasks). STIC tasks vary in content and are to be completed between sessions. We discuss homework in CBT for Robert, a 13-year-old boy with social anxiety. Robert
Athena Lickel; William E. MacLean; Audrey Blakeley-Smith; Susan Hepburn
The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be\\u000a necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children\\u000a between the ages of 7–12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ, but children with ASD had\\u000a significantly lower verbal IQ.
Susan H. Spence; Jane M. Holmes; Sonja March; Ottmar V. Lipp
Seventy-two clinically anxious children, aged 7 to 14 years, were randomly allocated to clinic-based, cognitive–behavior therapy, the same treatment partially delivered via the Internet, or a wait-list control (WL). Children in the clinic and clinic-plus-Internet conditions showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety from pre- to posttreatment and were more likely to be free of their anxiety diagnoses, compared with the
Dina R. Hirshfeld-Becker; Bruce Masek; Aude Henin; Lauren Raezer Blakely; Rachel A. Pollock-Wurman; Julia McQuade; Lillian DePetrillo; Jacquelyn Briesch; Thomas H. Ollendick; Jerrold F. Rosenbaum; Joseph Biederman
Objective: To examine the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate parent–child cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for anxiety disorders in children ages 4–7 years. Method: Design: Randomized wait-list controlled trial. Conduct: Sixty-four children (53% female, mean age 5.4 years, 80% European American) with anxiety disorders were randomized to a parent–child CBT intervention (n = 34) or a 6-month wait-list condition (n
Tomas Furmark; Maria Tillfors; Ina Marteinsdottir; Hakan Fischer; Anna Pissiota; Bengt Langstrom; Mats Fredrikson
Methods: By means of positron emission tomography with oxygen 15-labeled water, rCBF was assessed in 18 previously untreated patients with social phobia during an anxiogenic public speaking task. Patients were matched for sex, age, and phobia severity, based on social anxi- ety questionnaire data, and randomized to citalopram medication, cognitive-behavioral group therapy, or a wait- ing-list control group. Scans were
Kendall, Philip C.; Barmish, Andrea J.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been reviewed and described as an empirically supported treatment for anxious youth. One component of CBT is the use of out-of-session "Show That I Can" tasks (STIC; i.e., homework tasks). STIC tasks vary in content and are to be completed between sessions. We discuss homework in CBT for Robert, a 13-year-old…
Carolina McBride; Leslie Atkinson; Lena C. Quilty; R. Michael Bagby
Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory—II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores, and remission status served as outcome measures. Patients higher on attachment avoidance showed significantly greater
Steven L. Pence Jr; Mirela A. Aldea; Michael L. Sulkowski; Eric A. Storch
Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is widely accepted as the most effective psychological treatment for obsessive–compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD). Although this modality flexibly treats a variety of OCD symptom subtypes, it is unclear how CBT should be\\u000a adapted to meet the needs of individuals with OCD and limitations in their cognitive functioning. In this paper, we report\\u000a on three adults with borderline intellectual
Alvares, Gail A.; Balleine, Bernard W.; Guastella, Adam J.
Social anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive fear and habitual avoidance of social situations. Decision-making models suggest that patients with anxiety disorders may fail to exhibit goal-directed control over actions. We therefore investigated whether such biases may also be associated with social anxiety and to examine the relationship between such behavior with outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patients diagnosed with social anxiety and controls completed an instrumental learning task in which two actions were performed to earn food outcomes. After outcome devaluation, where one outcome was consumed to satiety, participants were re-tested in extinction. Results indicated that, as expected, controls were goal-directed, selectively reducing responding on the action that previously delivered the devalued outcome. Patients with social anxiety, however, exhibited no difference in responding on either action. This loss of a devaluation effect was associated with greater symptom severity and poorer response to therapy. These findings indicate that variations in goal-directed control in social anxiety may represent both a behavioral endophenotype and may be used to predict individuals who will respond to learning-based therapies. PMID:24728288
Salloum, Alison; Dorsey, Crystal S; Swaidan, Victoria R; Storch, Eric A
This study explored parent and child experiences of a parent-led, therapist-assisted treatment during Step One of Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). Seventeen parents/guardians and 16 children who were between the ages of 8 and 12 years were interviewed after Step One and six weeks after the completion of a maintenance phase about their perceptions of the parent-led, therapist-assisted treatment. Participants were asked what they liked and disliked about the treatment as well as what they found to be most and least helpful. Generally, parents and children liked the treatment and found it helpful. In terms of treatment components, children indicated that the relaxation exercises were the most liked/helpful component (62.5%) followed by trauma narrative activities (56.3%). A few children (18.8%) did not like or found least helpful the trauma narrative component as they wanted to avoid talking or thinking about the trauma. Parents indicated that the parent-child meetings were the most liked/helpful (82.4%) followed by the Stepping Together workbook (58.8%) and relaxation exercises (52.9%). Some parents (23.5%) noted that the workbook seemed too repetitive and some parents (17.6%) at times were uncertain if they were leading the parent-child meetings the best way. Parent-led, therapist-assisted TF-CBT may be an acceptable type of service delivery for both parents and children, although more research is needed. PMID:25534316
Seminowicz, David A.; Shpaner, Marina; Keaser, Michael L.; Krauthamer, G. Michael; Mantegna, John; Dumas, Julie A.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Filippi, Christopher; Keefe, Francis J.; Naylor, Magdalena R.
Several studies have reported reduced cerebral gray matter (GM) volume/density in chronic pain conditions, but there is limited research on plasticity of the human cortex in response to psychological interventions. We investigated GM changes after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with chronic pain. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to compare anatomical MRI scans of 13 patients with mixed chronic pain types before and after an 11-week CBT treatment and to 13 healthy control participants. CBT led to significant improvements in clinical measures. Patients did not differ from healthy controls in GM anywhere in the brain. After treatment, patients had increased GM in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), posterior parietal (PPC), subgenual anterior cingulate (ACC)/orbitofrontal, and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hippocampus, and reduced GM in supplementary motor area. In most of these areas showing GM increases, GM became significantly higher than in controls. Decreased pain catastrophizing was associated with increased GM in left DLPFC and ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPFC), right PPC, somatosensory cortex, and pregenual ACC. While future studies with additional control groups will be needed to determine the specific roles of CBT on GM and brain function, we propose that increased GM in the PFC and PPC reflects greater top-down control over pain and cognitive reappraisal of pain, and that changes in somatosensory cortices reflect alterations in the perception of noxious signals. Perspective An 11-week CBT intervention for coping with chronic pain resulted in increased gray matter volume in prefrontal and somatosensory brain regions, as well as increased dorsolateral prefrontal volume associated with reduced pain catastrophizing. These results add to mounting evidence that CBT can be a valuable treatment option for chronic pain. PMID:24135432
Salam, K. P. Abdul; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Prakash, Om
Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome prevalent in the natives of the Indian subcontinent characterized by excessive concern about harmful consequences of loss of semen (ICD-10). Treatment offered to the patients suffering from it continues to be esoteric, unstructured and without standardization. The present study aimed to develop and examine the feasibility of Cognitive – Behavior Therapy module for patients with Dhat syndrome. A draft module was developed based on existing theoretical knowledge and suggestions from five mental health professionals. This module was then applied on five patients with Dhat syndrome to assess and judge the suitability of the module. The pre and post-assessments were carried out using Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire - II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, The Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Scale, Screener for Somatoform Disorder, International Index for Erectile Function, Clinical Global Impressions, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment - BREF. Experiences and insights gained from each patient were used to refine the module before applying on the next patient. The final module consisted of the following components was developed: Basic sex education, cognitive restructuring, relaxation training, imaginal desensitization, masturbatory training as homework and Kegel's exercises and ‘start-stop technique’ and ‘squeeze technique’ for sexual dysfunctions. Results of the study reveal that it is feasible to carry out the CBT module in clinical settings. Number of sessions ranged from 11 to 16 sessions. The duration of the session was 45 minutes on the average. Findings of the present study revealed improvement in sexual knowledge, anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms. Implications and limitations of the study are highlighted and suggestions for future research offered. PMID:23372242
Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Didie, Elizabeth; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Steketee, Gail
There are few effective treatments for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and a pressing need to develop such treatments. We examined the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a manualized modular cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD (CBT-BDD). CBT-BDD utilizes core elements relevant to all BDD patients (e.g., exposure, response prevention, perceptual retraining) and optional modules to address specific symptoms (e.g., surgery seeking). Thirty-six adults with BDD were randomized to 22 sessions of immediate individual CBT-BDD over 24 weeks (n = 17) or to a 12-week waitlist (n = 19). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS), Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were completed pre-treatment, monthly, post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The Sheehan Disability Scale and Client Satisfaction Inventory (CSI) were also administered. Response to treatment was defined as ? 30% reduction in BDD-YBOCS total from baseline. By week 12, 50% of participants receiving immediate CBT-BDD achieved response versus 12% of waitlisted participants (p = 0.026). By post-treatment, 81% of all participants (immediate CBT-BDD plus waitlisted patients subsequently treated with CBT-BDD) met responder criteria. While no significant group differences in BDD symptom reduction emerged by week 12, by post-treatment CBT-BDD resulted in significant decreases in BDD-YBOCS total over time (d = 2.1, p <0.0001), with gains maintained during follow-up. Depression, insight, and disability also significantly improved. Patient satisfaction was high, with a mean CSI score of 87.3% (SD = 12.8%) at post-treatment. CBT-BDD appears to be a feasible, acceptable, and efficacious treatment that warrants more rigorous investigation. PMID:24680228
Blechman, Elaine A.
Three folk psychology predispositions towards group behavior were proposed: (a) The folk psychologist breaks group behavior down into the actions of individuals; (b) He attributes group and group member behavior to causes internal to the group, and ignores situation causes; and (c) He attributes behavior to fixed rather than alterable causes. It…
Nicholas A. Sieveking
Discusses the use of behavior techniques from a clinical viewpoint. Examples of clinical treatments for homosexuality, focusing on the desirability of behavior change rather than the application of verified learning procedures, are noted. These involve bridging the homosexual's behavior gap by breaking it down into manageable steps. 3 behavioral hierarchies are discussed: interpersonal approach, assertions of oneself, and heterosexual involvement.
Boutin, Daniel L.
A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…
Atkins, David C.; Eldridge, Kathleen A.; Baucom, Donald H.; Christensen, Andrew
Infidelity is a common issue with which distressed couples and their therapists grapple. However, there are no data on the efficacy of commonly used therapies to treat couples in which there has been an affair. In the present exploratory study, the authors examined the therapy outcomes of a sample of infidelity couples (n=19) who had participated…
Dunn, Winnie; Hughes, Paula
This report describes the Managing Occupational Therapy in Rural Education (MORE) a project that is designing a preservice training curriculum for occupational therapy students preparing to work in rural settings. Therapists need to have an understanding of rural school systems, educational aims, philosophy, and the structure of the system itself…
Maria Hernandez-Reif; Miguel Diego; Tiffany Field
Preterm infants residing in an NICU were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or to a control group. The preterm infants in the massage therapy group received three 15-min massages each day for 5 consecutive days, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure stroking to the head, shoulders, back, arms and legs and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension
Angelica Escalona; Tiffany Field; Ruth Singer-Strunck; Christy Cullen; Kristen Hartshorn
Twenty children with autism, ages 3 to 6 years, were randomly assigned to massage therapy and reading attention control groups. Parents in the massage therapy group were trained by a massage therapist to massage their children for 15 minutes prior to bedtime every night for 1 month and the parents of the attention control group read Dr. Seuss stories to
Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kitahara, Tadashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of “constraint-induced sound therapy”, which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear (“constraint”) and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy in addition to the standard corticosteroid therapy showed significantly better recovery of hearing function compared to those who had only received corticosteroid treatments. Additionally, the brain activity obtained in a subgroup of patients suggested that the constraint-induced sound therapy could have prevented maladaptive auditory cortex reorganization. Constraint-induced sound therapy thus appears to be an effective, practical, and safe treatment option for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:24473277
Background Major depression is a world-wide problem that can be treated with various forms of psychotherapy. There is strong research support for treating major depression using cognitive behavior therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the Internet (ICBT). Recent research also suggests that psychodynamic psychotherapy can be delivered as guided self-help via the Internet (IPDT) and that it seem to be as effective as ICBT for mild to moderate depression. However, no head-to-head comparison between the two treatments exists. In the field of Internet interventions it is largely unexplored if treatment preference affects outcome and adherence. Methods Participants were allocated to IPDT or ICBT based on their stated preference. More than half of the participants preferred ICBT (N?=?30) over IPDT (N?=?14). Differences in efficacy between treatments were explored. Correlations between strength of preference and treatment outcome, adherence to treatment and completion of the whole treatment program were explored. Data were collected before and after treatment, as well as in a 7-month follow-up. Results During the treatment period, both programs performed equally well in reducing symptoms. More participants who received IPDT completed the entire program. At follow-up, mixed-effects models showed that participants who chose ICBT improved more in terms of quality of life. The ICBT group also had a significant increase in participants who recovered from their depression from post-treatment to follow-up. Exploratory analyses indicated that strength of preference was correlated with adherence to treatment and completion of the whole program, and long-term outcome for the ICBT group. Conclusions Few differences were found during the acute treatment phase, but the long-term effects are in favor of ICBT. Strength of preference for treatment seems to have a predictive value. Further research comparing the efficacy of ICBT and IPDT, and the effects of preference matching and strength of preference, is warranted. Trial registration This trial is a continuation of the study registered as NCT01324050 at Clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:24139066
Sai, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram; Huang, Chaofeng; Yuan, Liya; Zhou, Dong; Piwnica-Worms, David; Garbow, Joel R.; Engelbach, John A.; Mach, Robert H.; Rich, Keith M.; McConathy, Jonathan
The goal of this study was to evaluate the 18F-labeled nonnatural amino acid (S)-2-amino-3-[1-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]propanoic acid (18F-AFETP) as a PET imaging agent for brain tumors and to compare its effectiveness with the more-established tracers O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) and 18F-FDG in a murine model of glioblastoma. The tracer 18F-AFETP is a structural analog of histidine and is a lead compound for imaging cationic amino acid transport, a relatively unexplored target for oncologic imaging. Methods 18F-AFETP was prepared using the click reaction. BALB/c mice with intracranially implanted delayed brain tumor (DBT) gliomas (n = 4) underwent biodistribution and dynamic small-animal PET imaging for 60 min after intravenous injection of 18F-AFETP. Tumor and brain uptake of 18F-AFETP were compared with those of 18F-FDG and 18F-FET through small-animal PET analyses. Results 18F-AFETP demonstrated focally increased uptake in tumors with good visualization. Peak tumor uptake occurred within 10 min of injection, with stable or gradual decrease over time. All 3 tracers demonstrated relatively high uptake in the DBTs throughout the study. At late time points (47.5–57.5 min after injection), the average standardized uptake value with 18F-FDG (1.9 ± 0.1) was significantly greater than with 18F-FET (1.1 ± 0.1) and 18F-AFETP (0.7 ± 0.2). The uptake also differed substantially in normal brain, with significant differences in the standardized uptake values at late times among 18F-FDG (1.5 ± 0.2), 18F-FET (0.5 ± 0.05), and 18F-AFETP (0.1 ± 0.04). The resulting average tumor-to-brain ratio at the late time points was significantly higher for 18F-AFETP (7.5 ± 0.1) than for 18F-FDG (1.3 ± 0.1) and 18F-FET (2.0 ± 0.3). Conclusion 18F-AFETP is a promising brain tumor imaging agent, providing rapid and persistent tumor visualization, with good tumor–to–normal-brain ratios in the DBT glioma model. High tumor-to-brain, tumor-to-muscle, and tumor-to-blood ratios were observed at 30 and 60 min after injection, with higher tumor-to-brain ratios than obtained with 18F-FET or 18F-FDG. These results support further development and evaluation of 18F-AFETP and its derivatives for tumor imaging. PMID:23650628
Krüger, Antje; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Kathlen; Dyer, Anne S.; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin
Background Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods Female participants (N=74) were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results During treatment, only one participant (3%) experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome. PMID:25317254
Lauren Braswell; Philip C. Kendall; James Braith; Michael P. Carey; Christopher S. Vye
The rates of specific therapist and client verbal behaviors were examined within the context of behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and attention-control interventions with children exhibiting classroom behavior problems. The 27 third- through sixth-grade children were referred by their teachers for participation in a treatment outcome study (Kendall & Braswell, 1982). All subjects were exposed to identical training materials and were seen for
Capone, Christy; Eaton, Erica; McGrath, Ashlee C.; McGovern, Mark P.
Co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) is prevalent in military Veterans and is associated with poorer outcomes than either disorder alone. The current pilot study examines the feasibility of delivering integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for co-occurring PTSD-SUD to Veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Our primary aims were testing the feasibility of engaging and retaining Veterans with a complex clinical presentation in a 12-week structured therapy. We focused on two feasibility outcomes: 1) acceptability; and 2) tolerability. We also examined clinically meaningful change in PTSD and depressive symptoms as a secondary aim. Over the course of the study, we recruited 12 eligible Veterans, 6 of whom completed ICBT. We encountered challenges related to engaging and retaining Veterans in treatment and discuss adaptations and refinements of ICBT or other integrated treatments for returning Veterans with co-occurring PTSD-SUD to increase feasibility with military Veterans. PMID:25580442
Thase, Michael E; Kingdon, David; Turkington, Douglas
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), as exemplified by the model of psychotherapy developed and refined over the past 40 years by A.T. Beck and colleagues, is one of the treatments of first choice for ambulatory depressive and anxiety disorders. Over the past several decades, there have been vigorous efforts to adapt CBT for treatment of more severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia and the more chronic and/or treatment refractory mood disorders. These efforts have primarily studied CBT as an adjunctive therapy, i.e., in combination with pharmacotherapy. Given the several limitations of state-of-the-art pharmacotherapies for these severe mental disorders, demonstration of clinically meaningful additive effects for CBT would have important implications for improving public health. This paper reviews the key developments in this important area of therapeutics, providing a summary of the current state of the art and suggesting directions for future research. PMID:25273290
Frueh, B C; Turner, S M; Beidel, D C; Mirabella, R F; Jones, W J
The development and initial evaluation of a new, comprehensive and multicomponent behavioral treatment (Trauma Management Therapy, or TMT) for chronic combat-related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is described. The program utilizes elements of intensive exposure therapy, programmed practice, and structured social and emotional skills training to target the multiple aspects of chronic combat-related PTSD. The treatment was found to be effective in alleviating a broad spectrum of difficulties in combat veterans with chronic PTSD, most of whom had co-occurring Axis I and/or Axis II disorders. The results are discussed with respect to the implementation of the new treatment and the general need for a comprehensive approach to treating combat-related PTSD. Implications for the potential cost-effectiveness of the treatment program also are discussed. PMID:8826760
Lilian Thorpe; Joan Middleton; Gwen Russell; Norma Stewart
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of morning bright light on behavioral disturbances in dementia using a repeated measures ABA design. We hypothesized that morning bright light in demented patients reduces the agitation rating and directly observed disruptive behavior, but increases observed positive behavior.The study was done in a special care unit of a long term
Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Forray, Ariadna; Howell, Heather B.; Gotman, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Objective To compare the efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy coupled with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) to brief advice for treatment of substance use in pregnancy. Method This was a randomized, parallel, controlled trial that was yoked to prenatal care and delivered at hospital outpatient clinics. We enrolled 168 substance using women who had not yet completed an estimated 28 weeks of pregnancy. Obstetrical clinicians provided brief advice and study nurses administered manualized MET-CBT. The primary outcome was percentage of days in the prior 28 days, that alcohol and/or drugs were used immediately before and three months post delivery. Results There were no significant differences across groups in terms of self-reported percentage of days that drugs or alcohol were used prior to and three months post delivery. Biological measures showed similar results. There was a trend (p=0.08) for lower risk of preterm birth among those who received MET-CBT. Conclusions The tested interventions had similar therapeutic effects. Hence, both treatments may be suitable for pregnant substance users, depending on the population, setting, and provider availability. Interventions that are intensified after delivery may decrease postpartum ‘rebound’ effects in substance misuse. PMID:22795046
Siebke Melfsen; Martina Kühnemund; Judith Schwieger; Andreas Warnke; Christina Stadler; Fritz Poustka; Ulrich Stangier
Background Although literature provides support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as an efficacious intervention for social phobia,\\u000a more research is needed to improve treatments for children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Forty four Caucasian children (ages 8-14) meeting diagnostic criteria of social phobia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical\\u000a Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; APA, 1994) were randomly allocated to either a newly developed CBT
Erik Andersson; Brjánn Ljótsson; Filip Smit; Björn Paxling; Erik Hedman; Nils Lindefors; Gerhard Andersson; Christian Rück
Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is highly prevalent and is associated with a substantial economic burden. Cognitive behavior\\u000a therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in treating IBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness\\u000a of a new treatment alternative, internet-delivered CBT based on exposure and mindfulness exercises.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants (N = 85) with IBS were recruited through
Hinton, Devon E.; Otto, Michael W.
Among psychologically distressed Cambodian refugees, somatic complaints are particularly prominent. Cambodians interpret anxiety-related somatic sensations in terms of “Wind” (khyâl), an ethnophysiology that gives rise to multiple catastrophic interpretations; and they have prominent trauma-memory associations to anxiety-related somatic symptoms. In this article, we detail some of the common sensation-related dysphoric networks of Cambodian refugees, focusing on catastrophic cognitions and trauma associations. We argue that delineating symptom-related dysphoric networks is crucial to successfully adapt cognitive-behavioral interventions to treat panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder among Cambodian refugees, and that such an approach may be useful for the culturally sensitive adaptation of cognitive-behavior therapy for other traumatized non-Western groups. PMID:19823603
Baucom, Katherine J. W.; Sevier, Mia; Eldridge, Kathleen A.; Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew
Objective To examine changes in observed communication after therapy termination in distressed couples from a randomized clinical trial. Method 134 distressed couples were randomly assigned to either Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT; Jacobson & Christensen, 1998). Videotaped samples of each couple’s interactions were coded from pre-therapy, post-therapy, and 2-year follow-up assessments. At these three time points, each partner chose one current relationship problem to discuss. Relationship satisfaction was assessed at 2-year follow-up and clinically significant treatment response and marital status were assessed 5 years after treatment. Results Observed negativity and withdrawal decreased from therapy termination through the 2-year follow-up as expected but problem solving did not change and observed positivity decreased. IBCT produced superior changes from post-therapy to the 2-year follow-up assessment compared with TBCT. Post-therapy levels and changes in communication over follow-up were associated with wife satisfaction at 2-year follow-up; only post-therapy to 2-year follow-up changes in communication were associated with husband satisfaction at 2-year follow-up. Post-therapy levels of problem solving and changes in wives’ positivity from pre-therapy to post-therapy were associated with 5-year relationship outcomes. We found some counterintuitive results with positivity but they were no longer significant after controlling for withdrawal. Conclusion We found support for improvements in observed communication following treatment termination, with IBCT demonstrating greater maintenance of communication improvement over follow-up. We found limited evidence of associations between communication and relationship outcomes at 5-year follow-up. PMID:21942502
Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lewin, Adam B.; Henin, Aude; Micco, Jamie A.; Sprich, Susan; Wilhelm, Sabine; Bengtson, Michael; Geller, Daniel A.
Background Research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction has led to the examination of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the NMDA receptor in the amygdala, as a method of enhancing exposure therapy outcome. Preliminary results have supported the use of DCS to augment exposure therapy in adult anxiety disorders; however, no data have been reported in any childhood anxiety disorder. Thus, we sought to preliminarily examine if weight-adjusted DCS doses (25 or 50mg) enhanced the overall efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method Participants were 30 youth (ages 8–17) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The study design was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examining CBT+DCS versus CBT+Placebo (15 youth per group). All patients received 7 E/RP sessions paired with DCS or placebo taken 1 hour prior to sessions. Results Although not significantly different, compared to the CBT+Placebo group, youth in the CBT+DCS arm showed small-to-moderate treatment effects (d=.31 to .47 on primary outcomes). No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions The present results complement findings in adult OCD and non-OCD anxiety disorders and provide initial support for a more extensive study of DCS augmentation of CBT among youth with OCD. PMID:20817153
McDiarmid, Melanie D.; Bagner, Daniel M.
Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often present with comorbid disruptive behavior problems that may negatively affect their education, treatment, and social interactions. Therefore, treatments that reduce disruptive behavior in children with DD are critical. Three characteristics strongly suggest that PCIT is an appropriate treatment…
Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth
Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…
Espie, Colin A.
There is a large body of evidence that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia (CBT) is an effective treatment for persistent insomnia. However, despite two decades of research it is still not readily available, and there are no immediate signs that this situation is about to change. This paper proposes that a service delivery model, based on “stepped care” principles, would enable this relatively scarce healthcare expertise to be applied in a cost-effective way to achieve optimal development of CBT services and best clinical care. The research evidence on methods of delivering CBT, and the associated clinical leadership roles, is reviewed. On this basis, self-administered CBT is posited as the “entry level” treatment for stepped care, with manualized, small group, CBT delivered by nurses, at the next level. Overall, a hierarchy comprising five levels of CBT stepped care is suggested. Allocation to a particular level should reflect assessed need, which in turn represents increased resource requirement in terms of time, cost and expertise. Stepped care models must also be capable of “referring” people upstream where there is an incomplete therapeutic response to a lower level intervention. Ultimately, the challenge is for CBT to be delivered competently and effectively in diversified formats on a whole population basis. That is, it needs to become “scalable”. This will require a robust approach to clinical governance. Citation: Espie CA. “Stepped care”: A health technology solution for delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a first line insomnia treatment. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1549-1558. PMID:20041590
José Szapocznik; Seth J. Schwartz; Joan A. Muir; C. Hendricks Brown
This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563–573, Cambridge, MA: G.