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Sample records for bell inequality

  1. Boole and Bell inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.

  2. Polynomial Bell Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.

  3. Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.

    2005-01-01

    We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame.

  4. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  5. Multisetting Bell inequality for qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jinhyoung; Lim, James; Nagata, Koji; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2008-11-01

    We propose a generalized Bell inequality for two three-dimensional systems with three settings in each local measurement. It is shown that this inequality is maximally violated if local measurements are configured to be mutually unbiased and a composite state is maximally entangled. This feature is similar to Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits but is in contrast with the two types of inequalities, Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu and Son-Lee-Kim, for high-dimensional systems. The generalization to aribitrary prime-dimensional systems is discussed.

  6. Bell inequalities with communication assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Katherine; Chitambar, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the possible correlations between two parties using local machines and shared randomness with an additional amount of classical communication. This is a continuation of the work initiated by Bacon and Toner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157904 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.157904] who characterized the correlation polytope for 2×2 measurement settings with binary outcomes plus one bit of communication. Here, we derive a complete set of Bell inequalities for 3×2 measurement settings and a shared bit of communication. When the communication direction is fixed, nine Bell inequalities characterize the correlation polytope, whereas when the communication direction is bidirectional, 143 inequalities describe the correlations. We then prove a tight lower bound on the amount of communication needed to simulate all no-signaling correlations for a given number of measurement settings.

  7. Compact Bell inequalities for multipartite experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Chun; Żukowski, Marek; Chen, Jing-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-08-01

    A method for construction of multipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt- (CHSH-) type Bell inequalities, for the case of local binary observables, is presented. The standard CHSH-type Bell inequalities can be obtained as special cases. An iterative method for deriving (N+1)-partite CHSH-type Bell inequalities from N-partite ones is derived. As an application, compact Bell inequalities for eight observers involving just four correlation functions are proposed. They require much less experimental effort than standard methods and thus are experimentally friendly in multiphoton experiments.

  8. A simple proof of Bell's inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.

  9. Scalable Bell inequalities for multiqubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yingqiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting

    2015-08-01

    Based on Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, we show a fruitful method to exploit Bell inequalities for multipartite qubit systems. These Bell inequalities are designed with a simpler architecture tailored to experimental demonstration. With the point of view of the stabilizer formalism, we suggest a method to investigate quantum nonlocality for multipartite systems. Under the optimal setting we derive a set of compact Mermin-type inequalities and then discuss quantum violations for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GGHZ) states and two kinds of mixed states. Also, as an example, we reveal relationship between quantum nonlocality and four-partite entanglement for four-qubit GGHZ states.

  10. Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard

    2002-11-01

    We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular, we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and two or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition, we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than 1. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one should in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is high.

  11. Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehollain, Juan P.; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T.; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M.; Jamieson, David N.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity.

  12. Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon.

    PubMed

    Dehollain, Juan P; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity. PMID:26571006

  13. Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żukowski, Marek; Wieśniak, Marcin; Laskowski, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    The commonly used "practical" Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields, which use intensities as the observables, are derivable only if specific additional assumptions hold. This limits the range of local hidden variable theories, which are invalidated by their violation. We present alternative Bell inequalities, which do not suffer from any (theoretical) loophole. The inequalities are for correlations of averaged products of local rates. By rates we mean ratios of the measured intensity in the given local output channel to the total local measured intensity, in the given run of the experiment. Bell inequalities of this type detect entanglement in situations in which the "practical" ones fail. Thus, we have full consistency with Bell's theorem, and better device-independent entanglement indicators. Strongly driven type-II parametric down conversion (bright squeezed vacuum) is our working example. The approach can be used to modify many types of standard Bell inequalities, to the case of undefined particle numbers. The rule is to replace the usual probabilities by rates.

  14. Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.

  15. Relations between entanglement witnesses and Bell inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Hyllus, Philipp; Guehne, Otfried; Bruss, Dagmar; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2005-07-15

    Bell inequalities, considered within quantum mechanics, can be regarded as nonoptimal witness operators. We discuss the relationship between such Bell witnesses and general entanglement witnesses in detail for the Bell inequality derived by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969)]. We derive bounds on how much an optimal witness has to be shifted by adding the identity operator to make it positive on all states admitting a local hidden variable model. In the opposite direction, we obtain tight bounds for the maximal proportion of the identity operator that can be subtracted from such a CHSH witness, while preserving the witness properties. Finally, we investigate the structure of CHSH witnesses directly by relating their diagonalized form to optimal witnesses of two different classes.

  16. The probabilistic origin of Bell's inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenn, Guenther

    1994-01-01

    The concept of local realism entails certain restrictions concerning the possible occurrence of correlated events. Although these restrictions are inherent in classical physics they have never been noticed until Bell showed in 1964 that general correlations in quantum mechanics can not be interpreted in a classical way. We demonstrate how a local realistic way of thinking about measurement results necessarily leads to limitations with regard to the possible appearance of correlated events. These limitations, which are equivalent to Bell's inequality can be easily formulated as an immediate consequence of our discussion.

  17. Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Browne, Dan E.

    2011-12-15

    We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.

  18. Entropy inequalities and Bell inequalities for two-qubit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Emilio

    2004-02-01

    Sufficient conditions for the nonviolation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities in a mixed state of a two-qubit system are: (1) the linear entropy of the state is not smaller than 0.457; (2) the sum of the conditional linear entropies is not smaller than -0.086; (3) the von Neumann entropy is not smaller than 0.833; and (4) the sum of the conditional von Neumann entropies is not smaller than 0.280.

  19. Better Bell-inequality violation by collective measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Y.-C.; Doherty, Andrew C.

    2006-05-15

    The standard Bell-inequality experiments test for violation of local realism by repeatedly making local measurements on individual copies of an entangled quantum state. Here we investigate the possibility of increasing the violation of a Bell inequality by making collective measurements. We show that the nonlocality of bipartite pure entangled states, quantified by their maximal violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality, can always be enhanced by collective measurements, even without communication between the parties. For mixed states we also show that collective measurements can increase the violation of Bell inequalities, although numerical evidence suggests that the phenomenon is not common as it is for pure states.

  20. Entanglement estimation from Bell inequality violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Horst, Bohdan; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that the violation of Bell's inequality in the form given by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) in two-qubit systems requires entanglement, but not vice versa, i.e., there are entangled states which do not violate the CHSH inequality. Here we compare some standard entanglement measures with violations of the CHSH inequality (as given by the Horodecki measure) for two-qubit states generated by Monte Carlo simulations. We describe states that have extremal entanglement according to the negativity, concurrence, and relative entropy of entanglement for a given value of the CHSH violation. We explicitly find these extremal states by applying the generalized method of Lagrange multipliers based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The found minimal and maximal states define the range of entanglement accessible for any two-qubit states that violate the CHSH inequality by the same amount. We also find extremal states for the concurrence versus negativity by considering only such states which do not violate the CHSH inequality. Furthermore, we describe an experimentally efficient linear-optical method to determine the highest Horodecki degree of the CHSH violation for arbitrary mixed states of two polarization qubits. By assuming to have access simultaneously to two copies of the states, our method requires only six discrete measurement settings instead of nine settings, which are usually considered.

  1. Avoiding loopholes with hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the "clumsiness" Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the "disjoint sampling" Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell locality or a preparation conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical systems are poised to implement this test.

  2. Avoiding Loopholes with Hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell-locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally-invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the ``clumsiness'' Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the ``disjoint sampling'' Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell-locality, or a preparation-conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally-correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical implementations of this test are considered.

  3. Bell's Inequalities, Superquantum Correlations, and String Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu; Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    We offermore » an interpretation of superquantum correlations in terms of a “doubly” quantum theory. We argue that string theory, viewed as a quantum theory with two deformation parameters, the string tension α ' , and the string coupling constant g s , is such a superquantum theory that transgresses the usual quantum violations of Bell's inequalities. We also discuss the ℏ → ∞ limit of quantum mechanics in this context. As a superquantum theory, string theory should display distinct experimentally observable supercorrelations of entangled stringy states.« less

  4. Proposed test for temporal Bell inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Paz, J.P. ); Mahler, G. )

    1993-11-15

    Temporal Bell inequalities can be violated for sequences of events (histories) for which probabilities satisfying consistent sum rules cannot be defined. We discuss possible experiments in which such violations, never observed so far, may indeed be seen. The basic scheme, which uses three optically driven and mutually interacting two-level systems, could be implemented in a variety of nanostructures. It could even be mapped onto the dynamics of a single electron four-level system thus allowing for a realization in atomic physics.

  5. Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    2002-01-01

    This book, a critique of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray, explores what "inequality" in society means, how it arises, and how it can be measured or dealt with quantitatively. It also considers how societal and other variables work to increase or decrease inequality. The book argues that "The Bell Curve" vastly overestimates the…

  6. Bell's inequality violation with non-negative Wigner functions

    SciTech Connect

    Revzen, M.; Mann, A.; Mello, P.A.; Johansen, L.M.

    2005-02-01

    A Bell inequality violation allowed by the two-mode squeezed state, whose Wigner function is nonnegative, is shown to hold only for correlations among dynamical variables that cannot be interpreted via a local hidden variable theory. Explicit calculations and interpretation are given for Bell's suggestion that the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) state will not allow violation of Bell's inequality, in conjunction with its Wigner representative being nonnegative. It is argued that Bell's theorem disallowing the violation of Bell's inequality within a local hidden-variable theory depends on the dynamical variables having a definite value--assigned by the local hidden variables--even when they cannot be simultaneously measured. The analysis leads us to conclude that Bell's inequality violation is to be associated with endowing these definite values to the dynamical variables, and not with their locality attributes.

  7. Entanglement Measure and Quantum Violation of Bell-Type Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; He, Ying-Qiu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-05-01

    By calculating entanglement measures and quantum violation of Bell-type inequality, we reveal the relationship between entanglement measure and the amount of quantum violation for a family of four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the Bell-type inequality is completely violated by these four-qubit entangled states. The plot of entanglement measure as a function of the expectation value of Bell operator shows that entanglement measure first decreases and then increases smoothly with increasing quantum violation.

  8. Experimental Bell-inequality violation without the postselection loophole

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, G.; Vallone, G.; Chiuri, A.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.

    2010-04-15

    We report on an experimental violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality using energy-time-entangled photons. The experiment is not free of the locality and detection loopholes but is the first violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality using energy-time entangled photons which is free of the postselection loophole described by Aerts et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2872 (1999)].

  9. Violation of Bell inequality in perfect translation-invariant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhao-Yu; Wu, Yu-Ying; Xu, Jian; Huang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Bo-Jun; Wang, Bo

    2013-11-01

    Bell inequalities and nonlocality have been widely studied in one-dimensional quantum systems. As a kind of quantum correlation, it is expected that bipartite nonlocality should be present in quantum systems, just as bipartite entanglement does. Surprisingly, for various models, two-qubit states do not violate Bell inequalities, i.e., they are local. Recently, it is realized that the results are related to the monogamy trade-off obeyed by bipartite Bell correlations, thus it is believed that for general translation invariant systems, two-qubit states should not violate the Bell inequality [Oliveira, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/100/60004 100, 60004 (2012)]. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that in perfect translation-invariant systems with an even number of sites, the Bell inequality can be violated. A nontrivial model is constructed to confirm the conclusion.

  10. Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki

    2006-05-15

    An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation.

  11. Mathematical and physical meaning of the Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that the Bell inequalities are closely related to the triangle inequalities involving distance functions amongst pairs of random variables with values \\{0,1\\}. A hidden variables model may be defined as a mapping between a set of quantum projection operators and a set of random variables. The model is noncontextual if there is a joint probability distribution. The Bell inequalities are necessary conditions for its existence. The inequalities are most relevant when measurements are performed at space-like separation, thus showing a conflict between quantum mechanics and local realism (Bell's theorem). The relations of the Bell inequalities with contextuality, the Kochen–Specker theorem, and quantum entanglement are briefly discussed.

  12. Classical probability model for Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    We show that by taking into account randomness of realization of experimental contexts it is possible to construct common Kolmogorov space for data collected for these contexts, although they can be incompatible. We call such a construction "Kolmogorovization" of contextuality. This construction of common probability space is applied to Bell's inequality. It is well known that its violation is a consequence of collecting statistical data in a few incompatible experiments. In experiments performed in quantum optics contexts are determined by selections of pairs of angles (θi,θ'j) fixing orientations of polarization beam splitters. Opposite to the common opinion, we show that statistical data corresponding to measurements of polarizations of photons in the singlet state, e.g., in the form of correlations, can be described in the classical probabilistic framework. The crucial point is that in constructing the common probability space one has to take into account not only randomness of the source (as Bell did), but also randomness of context-realizations (in particular, realizations of pairs of angles (θi, θ'j)). One may (but need not) say that randomness of "free will" has to be accounted for.

  13. A loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiat, Paul G.; Steinberg, Aephraim M.; Chiao, Raymond Y.; Eberhard, Philippe H.

    1994-01-01

    The proof of Nature's nonlocality through Bell-type experiments is a topic of longstanding interest. Nevertheless, no experiments performed thus far have avoided the so-called 'detection loophole,' arising from low detector efficiencies and angular-correlation difficulties. In fact, most, if not all, of the systems employed to date can never close this loophole, even with perfect detectors. In addition, another loophole involving the non-rapid, non-random switching of various parameter settings exists in all past experiments. We discuss a proposal for a potentially loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment. The source of the EPR-correlated pairs consists of two simultaneously-pumped type-2 phase-matched nonlinear crystals and a polarizing beam splitter. The feasibility of such a scheme with current detector technology seems high, and will be discussed. We also present a single-crystal version, motivated by other work presented at this conference. In a separate experiment, we have measured the absolute detection efficiency and time response of four single-photon detectors. The highest observed efficiencies were 70.7 plus or minus 1.9 percent (at 633 nm, with a device from Rockwell International) and 76.4 plus or minus 2.3 percent (at 702 nm, with an EG&G counting module). Possible efficiencies as high as 90 percent were implied. The EG&G devices displayed sub-nanosecond time resolution.

  14. Higher-dimensional Bell inequalities with noisy qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polozova, Elena; Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-03-01

    Generalizations of the classic Bell inequality to higher-dimensional quantum systems known as qudits are reputed to exhibit a higher degree of robustness to noise but such claims are based on one particular noise model. We analyze the violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality subject to more realistic noise sources and their scaling with dimension. This analysis is inspired by potential Bell inequality experiments with superconducting resonator-based qudits. We find that the robustness of the inequality to noise generally decreases with increasing qudit dimension.

  15. Exclusivity principle and the quantum bound of the Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, Adán

    2014-12-01

    We show that, for general probabilistic theories admitting sharp measurements, the exclusivity principle together with two assumptions exactly singles out the Tsirelson bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality.

  16. The strong Bell inequalities: A proposed experimental test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Edward S.

    1994-01-01

    All previous experimental tests of Bell inequalities have required additional assumptions. The strong Bell inequalities (i.e. those requiring no additional assumptions) have never been tested. An experiment has been designed that can, for the first time, provide a definitive test of the strong Bell inequalities. Not only will the detector efficiency loophole be closed; but the locality condition will also be rigorously enforced. The experiment involves producing two Hg-199 atoms by a resonant Raman dissociation of a mercury dimer ((199)Hg2) that is in an electronic and nuclear spin singlet state. Bell inequalities can be tested by measuring angular momentum correlations between the spin one-half nuclei of the two Hg-199 atoms. The method used to make these latter measurements will be described.

  17. Unbounded Violation of Tripartite Bell Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-García, D.; Wolf, M. M.; Palazuelos, C.; Villanueva, I.; Junge, M.

    2008-04-01

    We prove that there are tripartite quantum states (constructed from random unitaries) that can lead to arbitrarily large violations of Bell inequalities for dichotomic observables. As a consequence these states can withstand an arbitrary amount of white noise before they admit a description within a local hidden variable model. This is in sharp contrast with the bipartite case, where all violations are bounded by Grothendieck’s constant. We will discuss the possibility of determining the Hilbert space dimension from the obtained violation and comment on implications for communication complexity theory. Moreover, we show that the violation obtained from generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is always bounded so that, in contrast to many other contexts, GHZ states do not lead to extremal quantum correlations in this case. In order to derive all these physical consequences, we will have to obtain new mathematical results in the theories of operator spaces and tensor norms. In particular, we will prove the existence of bounded but not completely bounded trilinear forms from commutative C*-algebras. Finally, we will relate the existence of diagonal states leading to unbounded violations with a long-standing open problem in the context of Banach algebras.

  18. Towards Loophole-Free Optical Bell Test of CHSH Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong-gang; Li, Hong-wei

    2016-09-01

    Bell test had been suggested to end the long-standing debate on the EPR paradox, while the imperfections of experimental devices induce some loopholes in Bell test experiments and hence the assumption of local reality by EPR cannot be excluded with current experimental results. In optical Bell test experiments, the locality loophole can be closed easily, while the attempt of closing detection loophole requires very high efficiency of single photon detectors. Previous studies showed that the violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with maximally entangled states requires the detection efficiency to be higher than 82.8 %. In this paper, we raise a modified CHSH inequality that covers all measurement events including the efficient and inefficient detections in the Bell test and prove that all local hidden models can be excluded when the inequality is violated. We find that, when non-maximally entangled states are applied to the Bell test, the lowest detection efficiency for violation of the present inequality is 66.7 %. This makes it feasible to close the detection loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously in optical Bell test of CHSH inequality.

  19. Towards Loophole-Free Optical Bell Test of CHSH Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong-gang; Li, Hong-wei

    2016-04-01

    Bell test had been suggested to end the long-standing debate on the EPR paradox, while the imperfections of experimental devices induce some loopholes in Bell test experiments and hence the assumption of local reality by EPR cannot be excluded with current experimental results. In optical Bell test experiments, the locality loophole can be closed easily, while the attempt of closing detection loophole requires very high efficiency of single photon detectors. Previous studies showed that the violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with maximally entangled states requires the detection efficiency to be higher than 82.8 %. In this paper, we raise a modified CHSH inequality that covers all measurement events including the efficient and inefficient detections in the Bell test and prove that all local hidden models can be excluded when the inequality is violated. We find that, when non-maximally entangled states are applied to the Bell test, the lowest detection efficiency for violation of the present inequality is 66.7 %. This makes it feasible to close the detection loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously in optical Bell test of CHSH inequality.

  20. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  1. Self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šupić, I.; Augusiak, R.; Salavrakos, A.; Acín, A.

    2016-03-01

    Self-testing is a device-independent technique based on non-local correlations whose aim is to certify the effective uniqueness of the quantum state and measurements needed to produce these correlations. It is known that the maximal violation of some Bell inequalities suffices for this purpose. However, most of the existing self-testing protocols for two devices exploit the well-known Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Bell inequality or modifications of it, and always with two measurements per party. Here, we generalize the previous results by demonstrating that one can construct self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities, defined for two devices implementing an arbitrary number of two-output measurements. On the one hand, this proves that the quantum state and measurements leading to the maximal violation of the chained Bell inequality are unique. On the other hand, in the limit of a large number of measurements, our approach allows one to self-test the entire plane of measurements spanned by the Pauli matrices X and Z. Our results also imply that the chained Bell inequalities can be used to certify two bits of perfect randomness.

  2. Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Pin; Li, Che-Ming; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a d-dimensional bipartite system (d ≥ 2) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for d-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension. Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of dimensionality d = 16 with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. We also estimate that our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of d > 4000. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite systems of large dimensionality and their application in quantum information processing. PMID:26917246

  3. Violations of Bell inequalities from random pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, Max R.; Zohren, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the expected violations of Bell inequalities from random pure states. More precisely, we focus on a slightly generalized version of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality, which concerns Bell experiments of two parties, two measurement options, and N outcomes, and analyze their expected quantum violations from random pure states for varying N , assuming the conjectured optimal measurement operators. It is seen that for small N the Bell inequality is not violated on average, while for larger N it is. Both ensembles of unstructured as well as structured random pure states are considered. Using techniques from random matrix theory this is obtained analytically for small and large N and numerically for intermediate N . The results show a beautiful interplay of different aspects of random matrix theory, ranging from the Marchenko-Pastur distribution and fixed-trace ensembles to the O (n ) model.

  4. EPR Correlations, Bell Inequalities and Common Cause Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor

    2014-03-01

    Standard common causal explanations of the EPR situation assume a so-called joint common cause system that is a common cause for all correlations. However, the assumption of a joint common cause system together with some other physically motivated assumptions concerning locality and no-conspiracy results in various Bell inequalities. Since Bell inequalities are violated for appropriate measurement settings, a local, non-conspiratorial joint common causal explanation of the EPR situation is ruled out. But why do we assume that a common causal explanation of a set of correlation consists in finding a joint common cause system for all correlations and not just in finding separate common cause systems for the different correlations? What are the perspectives of a local, non-conspiratorial separate common causal explanation for the EPR scenario? And finally, how do Bell inequalities relate to the weaker assumption of separate common cause systems?

  5. Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hsin-Pin; Li, Che-Ming; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-02-01

    Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a d-dimensional bipartite system (d ≥ 2) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for d-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension. Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of dimensionality d = 16 with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. We also estimate that our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of d > 4000. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite systems of large dimensionality and their application in quantum information processing.

  6. Violation of Bell inequality based on S4 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    In two recent papers [Phys. Rev. A 90, 062121 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062121 and Phys. Rev. A, 91, 052110 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.052110] an interesting method of analyzing the violation of Bell inequalities has been proposed which is based on the theory of finite group representations. Here we apply this method to more complicated examples of S4 symmetry. We show how the Bell inequality can be related to the symmetries of regular tetrahedron. By choosing the orbits of three-dimensional representations of S4 determined by the geometry of tetrahedron we find that the Bell inequality under consideration is violated in quantum theory. The corresponding nonlocal game is analyzed.

  7. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-22

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600

  8. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.

  9. Maximal violation of Bell inequalities by position measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2010-07-15

    We show that it is possible to find maximal violations of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality using only position measurements on a pair of entangled nonrelativistic free particles. The device settings required in the CHSH inequality are done by choosing one of two times at which position is measured. For different assignments of the '+' outcome to positions, namely, to an interval, to a half-line, or to a periodic set, we determine violations of the inequalities and states where they are attained. These results have consequences for the hidden variable theories of Bohm and Nelson, in which the two-time correlations between distant particle trajectories have a joint distribution, and hence cannot violate any Bell inequality.

  10. Bell inequalities stronger than the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for three-level isotropic states

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David

    2006-04-15

    We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I{sub 3322} Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination.

  11. Multisetting Bell-type inequalities for detecting genuine multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Karoly F.; Vertesi, Tamas

    2011-06-15

    In a recent paper, Bancal et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 250404 (2011)] put forward the concept of device-independent witnesses of genuine multipartite entanglement. These witnesses are capable of verifying genuine multipartite entanglement produced in a laboratory without resorting to any knowledge of the dimension of the state space or of the specific form of the measurement operators. As a by-product they found a multiparty three-setting Bell inequality which makes it possible to detect genuine n-partite entanglement in a noisy n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for visibilities as low as 2/3 in a device-independent way. In this paper, we generalize this inequality to an arbitrary number of settings, demonstrating a threshold visibility of 2/{pi}{approx}0.6366 for number of settings going to infinity. We also present a pseudotelepathy Bell inequality achieving the same threshold value. We argue that our device-independent witnesses are optimal in the sense that for n odd the above value cannot be beaten with n-party-correlation Bell inequalities.

  12. Violations of multisetting quaternion and octonion Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesewetter, S.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.

    2015-09-01

    We examine the N -partite quaternion and octonion dichotomic Bell inequalities derived by Vogel and Shchukin utilizing the square identities of Euler and Degen, which apply to experiments with M settings at each spatially separated site. We reveal these inequalities to be violated by the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, for N ≥3 and 2 ≤M ≤8 . Violations are robust with respect to loss, the threshold detection efficiency being η >22/N -1 for all M , implying violations for efficiencies as low as η ˜50 % at each site, as N →∞ .

  13. Unification of Bell, Leggett-Garg and Kochen-Specker inequalities: Hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddhartha; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.; Home, Dipankar

    2013-12-01

    The Bell-type (spatial), Kochen-Specker (contextuality) or Leggett-Garg (temporal) inequalities are based on classically plausible but otherwise quite distinct assumptions. For any of these inequalities, satisfaction is equivalent to a joint probability distribution for all observables in the experiment. This implies a joint distribution for all pairs of observables, and is indifferent to whether or not they commute in the theory. This indifference underpins a unification of the above inequalities into a general framework of correlation inequalities. When the physical scenario is such that the correlated pairs are all compatible, the resulting correlation is nonsignaling, which may be local or multi-particle, corresponding to contextuality or Bell-type inequalities. If the pairs are incompatible, the resulting correlation corresponds to Leggett-Garg (LG) inequalities. That quantum mechanics (QM) violates all these inequalities suggests a close connection between the local, spatial and temporal properties of the theory. As a concrete manifestation of the unification, we extend the method due to Roy and Singh (J. Phys. A, 11 (1978) L167) to derive and study a new class of hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities, where the correlated pairs in the experiment are both compatible or incompatible. The implications for cryptography and monogamy inequalities of the unification are briefly touched upon.

  14. The various versions of Bell's inequality: an alternative proof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, H.; Taqavi, M.

    2005-06-01

    By considering uncommon factors as spacetime events that influence the spin orientations in the EPRB thought experiment, it is intended to show that one can still introduce the correlation functions. These uncommon factors are positioned inside the common lightcone of two particles. Then, Bell inequalities are proved with the preassumptions of local realism and spin conservation law in the context of a new scenario of hidden variables.

  15. Bell's Inequalities and Methods of Quantifying Measures of Entanglement Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Bell inequalities provide a specific setting for investigating the physics of entanglement in quantum mechanics. They give a basis for providing an experimental realization of these kinds of quantum phenomena and exhibit some of its more unusual consequences. Some useful ways to look at entanglement quantitatively are presented. It is intended that the presentation and results will provide insights which make effective experimental observation easier.

  16. Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsin-Pin; Li, Che-Ming; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a d-dimensional bipartite system (d ≥ 2) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for d-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension. Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of dimensionality d = 16 with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. We also estimate that our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of d > 4000. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite systems of large dimensionality and their application in quantum information processing. PMID:26917246

  17. Violation of Bell's inequality with continuous spatial variables

    SciTech Connect

    Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Yarnall, Timothy; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2007-05-15

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument revealed the paradoxical properties of a two-particle system entangled continuously in the spatial parameter. Yet a direct test of quantum nonlocality exhibited by this state, via a violation of Bell's inequality, has not been forthcoming. In this paper, we identify and construct experimental arrangements comprising simple optical components, without nonlinearities or moving parts, that implement operators in the spatial-parity space of single-photon fields that correspond to the familiar Pauli spin operators. We achieve this by first establishing an isomorphism between the single-mode multiphoton electromagnetic-field space spanned by a Fock-state basis and the single-photon multimode electromagnetic-field space spanned by a spatial-eigenmode basis. We then proceed to construct a Hilbert space with a two-dimensional basis of spatial even-odd parity modes. In particular, we describe an arrangement that implements a rotation in the parity space of each photon of an entangled-photon pair, allowing for a straightforward experimental test of Bell's inequality using the EPR state. Finally, the violation of a Bell inequality is quantified in terms of the physical parameters of the two-photon source.

  18. Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Sebastian G; Lehnert, Konrad W; Hammerer, Klemens

    2016-02-19

    Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments. PMID:26943516

  19. Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Sebastian G.; Lehnert, Konrad W.; Hammerer, Klemens

    2016-02-01

    Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments.

  20. Bound on Bell inequalities by fraction of determinism and reverse triangle inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Li, Ben; Szarek, S. J.; Szarek, T.

    2015-09-01

    It is an established fact that entanglement is a resource. Sharing an entangled state leads to nonlocal correlations and to violations of Bell inequalities. Such nonlocal correlations illustrate the advantage of quantum resources over classical resources. In this paper, we quantitatively study Bell inequalities with 2 ×n inputs. As found in Gisin et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 05, 525 (2007), 10.1142/S021974990700289X], quantum mechanical correlations cannot reach the algebraic bound for such inequalities. Here we uncover the heart of this effect, which we call the fraction of determinism. We show that any quantum statistics with two parties and 2 ×n inputs exhibit a nonzero fraction of determinism, and we supply a quantitative bound for it. We then apply it to provide an explicit universal upper bound for Bell inequalities with 2 ×n inputs. As our main mathematical tool, we introduce and prove a reverse triangle inequality, stating in a quantitative way that if some states are far away from a given state, then their mixture is also. The inequality is crucial in deriving the lower bound for the fraction of determinism, but is also of interest on its own.

  1. Relevant multi-setting tight Bell inequalities for qubits and qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Zhou, Zi-Sui; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2009-09-01

    In the celebrated paper [D. Collins, N. Gisin, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 37 (2004) 1775], Collins and Gisin presented for the first time a three-setting Bell inequality (here we call it CG inequality for simplicity) which is relevant to the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. Inspired by their brilliant ideas, we obtained some multi-setting tight Bell inequalities, which are relevant to the CHSH inequality and the CG inequality. Moreover, we generalized the method in the paper [J.L. Chen, D.L. Deng, Phys. Rev. A 79 (2009) 012115] to construct Bell inequality for qubits to higher dimensional system. Based on the generalized method, we present, for the first time, a three-setting tight Bell inequality for two qutrits, which is maximally violated by nonmaximally entangled states and relevant to the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality.

  2. Relevant multi-setting tight Bell inequalities for qubits and qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Dongling; Zhou Zisui; Chen Jingling

    2009-09-15

    In the celebrated paper [D. Collins, N. Gisin, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 37 (2004) 1775], Collins and Gisin presented for the first time a three-setting Bell inequality (here we call it CG inequality for simplicity) which is relevant to the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. Inspired by their brilliant ideas, we obtained some multi-setting tight Bell inequalities, which are relevant to the CHSH inequality and the CG inequality. Moreover, we generalized the method in the paper [J.L. Chen, D.L. Deng, Phys. Rev. A 79 (2009) 012115] to construct Bell inequality for qubits to higher dimensional system. Based on the generalized method, we present, for the first time, a three-setting tight Bell inequality for two qutrits, which is maximally violated by nonmaximally entangled states and relevant to the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality.

  3. Maximal violation of tight Bell inequalities for maximal high-dimensional entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jaksch, Dieter

    2009-07-15

    We propose a Bell inequality for high-dimensional bipartite systems obtained by binning local measurement outcomes and show that it is tight. We find a binning method for even d-dimensional measurement outcomes for which this Bell inequality is maximally violated by maximally entangled states. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Bell inequality is applicable to continuous variable systems and yields strong violations for two-mode squeezed states.

  4. Single-qubit tests of Bell-like inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Zela, F. de

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses some tests of Bell-like inequalities not requiring entangled states. The proposed tests are based on consecutive measurements on a single qubit. Available hidden-variable models for a single qubit [see, e.g., J. S. Bell, Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 447 (1966)] reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics and hence violate the Bell-like inequalities addressed in this paper. It is shown how this fact is connected with the state 'collapse' and with its random nature. Thus, it becomes possible to test truly realistic and deterministic hidden-variable models. In this way, it can be shown that a hidden-variable model should entail at least one of the following features: (i) nonlocality, (ii) contextuality, or (iii) discontinuous measurement-dependent probability functions. The last two features are put to the test with the experiments proposed in this paper. A hidden-variable model that is noncontextual and deterministic would be at variance with some predictions of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the proposed tests are more likely to be loophole-free, as compared to former ones.

  5. Systematic Construction of Bell-Like Inequalities and Proposal of a New Type of Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Shogo

    2013-09-01

    Although it is usually argued that the violation of the Bell inequality is a manifestation of the nonlocality of quantum state, we show that it is a manifestation of the noncommutativity of quantum observables that are defined at the same location. From this point of view we invent a method for systematic construction of generalized Bell inequalities and derive a new inequality that belongs to a different type from the traditional Bell inequality. The new inequality provides a severer and fairer test of quantum mechanics.

  6. Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason; Team 1: University of Vienna, Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information; Team 2: UC San Diego Cosmology Group; Team 3: NASA/JPL/Caltech

    2016-06-01

    We report on an in progress "Cosmic Bell" experiment that will leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics and Bell's inequality using astronomical observations. Different iterations of our experiment will send polarization-entangled photons through the open air to detectors ~1-100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of Milky Way stars, and eventually distant, causally disconnected, cosmological sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, attempt to fully close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with unknown, local, causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. A full Cosmic Bell test would push any such influence all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 billion years ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude compared to the best previous experiments. Redshift z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our experiment is partially funded by the NSF INSPIRE program, in collaboration with MIT, UC San Diego, Harvey Mudd College, NASA/JPL/Caltech, and the University of Vienna. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the experiment were to uncover discrepancies from the quantum predictions, there could be crucial implications for early-universe cosmology, the security of quantum encryption

  7. Two destructive effects of decoherence on Bell inequality violation

    SciTech Connect

    Levkovich-Maslyuk, F. L.

    2009-05-15

    We consider a system of two spin-(1/2) particles, initially in an entangled Bell state. If one of the particles is interacting with an environment (e.g., a collection of N independent spins), the two-particle system undergoes decoherence. Using a simple model of decoherence, we show that this process has two consequences. First, the maximal amount by which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is violated decays to zero. Second, the set of directions of measurement for which the inequality is violated is reduced in the course of decoherence. The volume of that set is bounded above by constx|r|{sup 2}, where r is the decoherence factor. We obtain similar results for the case when each of the two particles is in interaction with a separate environment.

  8. Bell inequality for pairs of particle-number-superselection-rule restricted states

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, Libby; Jaksch, Dieter; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2010-10-15

    Proposals for Bell-inequality tests on systems restricted by the particle-number-superselection rule often require operations that are difficult to implement in practice. In this article, we derive a Bell inequality, where measurements on pairs of states are used as a method to bypass this superselection rule. In particular, we focus on mode entanglement of an arbitrary number of massive particles and show that our Bell inequality detects the entanglement in an identical pair of states when other inequalities fail. However, as the number of particles in the system increases, the violation of our Bell inequality decreases due to the restriction in the measurement space caused by the superselection rule. This Bell test can be implemented using techniques that are routinely used in current experiments.

  9. Separability of quantum states and the violation of Bell-type inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Loubenets, Elena R.

    2004-04-01

    In contrast to the widespread opinion that any separable quantum state satisfies every classical probabilistic constraint, we present a simple example where separable quantum state does not satisfy the original Bell inequality although the latter inequality, in its perfect correlation form, is valid for all joint classical measurements. In a very general setting, we discuss inequalities for joint experiments upon a bipartite quantum system. For any separable quantum state, we derive quantum analogs of the original Bell inequality and specify the conditions sufficient for a separable state to satisfy the original Bell inequality. We introduce the extended Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and prove that, for any separable quantum state, this inequality holds for a variety of linear combinations.

  10. Bell-like inequality for the spin-orbit separability of a laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, C. V. S.; Hor-Meyll, M.; Khoury, A. Z.; Huguenin, J. A. O.

    2010-09-15

    In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the nonseparability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and nonseparable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160401 (2007). As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for nonseparable modes. The inequality is discussed in both the classical and quantum domains.

  11. Tight correlation-function Bell inequality for multipartite d -dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-Ling; Deng, Dong-Ling

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the correlation functions of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality to multipartite d -dimensional systems. All the Bell inequalities based on this generalization take the same simple form as the CHSH inequality. For small systems, numerical results show that the new inequalities are tight and we believe this is also valid for higher-dimensional systems. Moreover, the new inequalities are relevant to the previous ones and, for bipartite systems, our inequality is equivalent to the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Masser-Popescu inequality.

  12. Strong violations of Bell-type inequalities for path-entangled number states

    SciTech Connect

    Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lund, Austin P.

    2007-11-15

    We show that nonlocal correlation experiments on the two spatially separated modes of a maximally path-entangled number state may be performed. They lead to a violation of a Clauser-Horne Bell inequality for any finite photon number N. We also present an analytical expression for the two-mode Wigner function of a maximally path-entangled number state and investigate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for such a state. We test other Bell-type inequalities. Some are violated by a constant amount for any N.

  13. Bell-inequality tests using asymmetric entangled coherent states in asymmetric lossy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chae-Yeun; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-04-01

    We study an asymmetric form of the two-mode entangled coherent state (ECS), where the two local amplitudes have different values, as a tool for testing the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality. We find that the asymmetric ECSs have obvious advantages over the symmetric form of ECSs in testing the Bell-CHSH inequality. We further study an asymmetric strategy in distributing an ECS over a lossy environment and find that such a scheme can significantly increase violation of the inequality.

  14. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators.

  15. Violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with classical subsystems via operationally local transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Mark S.; Son Wonmin; Heaney, Libby

    2010-09-15

    Recently, it was demonstrated by Son et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 110404 (2009), that a separable bipartite continuous-variable quantum system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality via operationally local transformations. Operationally local transformations are parametrized only by local variables; however, in order to allow violation of the CHSH inequality, a maximally entangled ancilla was necessary. The use of the entangled ancilla in this scheme caused the state under test to become dependent on the measurement choice one uses to calculate the CHSH inequality, thus violating one of the assumptions used in deriving a Bell inequality, namely, the free will or statistical independence assumption. The novelty in this scheme however is that the measurement settings can be external free parameters. In this paper, we generalize these operationally local transformations for multipartite Bell inequalities (with dichotomic observables) and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for violation within this scheme. Namely, a violation of a multipartite Bell inequality in this setting is contingent on whether an ancillary system admits any realistic local hidden variable model (i.e., whether the ancilla violates the given Bell inequality). These results indicate that violation of a Bell inequality performed on a system does not necessarily imply that the system is nonlocal. In fact, the system under test may be completely classical. However, nonlocality must have resided somewhere, this may have been in the environment, the physical variables used to manipulate the system or the detectors themselves provided the measurement settings are external free variables.

  16. Violation of Bell's inequality using classical measurements and nonlinear local operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stobinska, Magdalena; Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2007-05-15

    We find that Bell's inequality can be significantly violated (up to Tsirelson's bound) with two-mode entangled coherent states using only homodyne measurements. This requires Kerr nonlinear interactions for local operations on the entangled coherent states. Our example is a demonstration of Bell-inequality violations using classical measurements. We conclude that entangled coherent states with coherent amplitudes as small as 0.842 are sufficient to produce such violations.

  17. Bell inequality tests of four-photon six-qubit graph states

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Weibo; Yao Xingcan; Xu Ping; Lu He; Lu Chaoyang; Yang Tao; Chen Zengbing; Guehne, Otfried; Cabello, Adan; Pan Jianwei

    2010-10-15

    We now experimentally demonstrate a Y-shaped graph state with photons' polarization and spatial modes as qubits. Based on this state and a linear-type graph state, we report on the experimental realization of two different Bell inequality tests, which represent higher violation than previous Bell tests.

  18. Maximal non-classicality in multi-setting Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Zohren, Stefan; Pawlowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    The discrepancy between maximally entangled states and maximally non-classical quantum correlations is well-known but still not well understood. We aim to investigate the relation between quantum correlations and entanglement in a family of Bell inequalities with N-settings and d outcomes. Using analytical as well as numerical techniques, we derive both maximal quantum violations and violations obtained from maximally entangled states. Furthermore, we study the most non-classical quantum states in terms of their entanglement entropy for large values of d and many measurement settings. Interestingly, we find that the entanglement entropy behaves very differently depending on whether N = 2 or N\\gt 2: when N = 2 the entanglement entropy is a monotone function of d and the most non-classical state is far from maximally entangled, whereas when N\\gt 2 the entanglement entropy is a non-monotone function of d and converges to that of the maximally entangled state in the limit of large d.

  19. Bell inequality with an arbitrary number of settings and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Koji; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Paterek, Tomasz

    2006-12-15

    Based on a geometrical argument introduced by Zukowski, a new multisetting Bell inequality is derived, for the scenario in which many parties make measurements on two-level systems. This generalizes and unifies some previous results. Moreover, a necessary and sufficient condition for the violation of this inequality is presented. It turns out that the class of nonseparable states which do not admit local realistic description is extended when compared to the two-setting inequalities. However, supporting the conjecture of Peres, quantum states with positive partial transposes with respect to all subsystems do not violate the inequality. Additionally, we follow a general link between Bell inequalities and communication complexity problems, and present a quantum protocol linked with the inequality, which outperforms the best classical protocol.

  20. Violations of Bell inequalities as lower bounds on the communication cost of nonlocal correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Pironio, Stefano

    2003-12-01

    To reproduce in a local hidden variables theory correlations that violate Bell inequalities, communication must occur between the parties. We show that the amount of violation of a Bell inequality imposes a lower bound on the average communication needed to produce these correlations. Moreover, for every probability distribution there exists an optimal inequality for which the degree of violation gives the minimal average communication. As an example, to produce using classical resources the correlations that maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, ({radical}2)-1{approx_equal}0.4142 bits of communication are necessary and sufficient. For Bell tests performed on two entangled states of dimension d{>=}3 where each party has the choice between two measurements, our results suggest that more communication is needed to simulate outcomes obtained from certain nonmaximally entangled states than maximally entangled ones.

  1. Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I.; Guth, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an experiment which would leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics using astronomical observations. Our experiment would send entangled photons to detectors over 100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of distant, causally disconnected, cosmic sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the Cosmic Microwave Background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, close close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with some local "hidden variables" due to unknown causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. Our "Cosmic Bell" experiment would push any such hidden variable conspiracy all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 Gyr ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the real world feasibility of our experimental setup. While causally disjoint patches of the cosmic microwave background radiation at redshift z ~ 1090 could be used to set the detectors, z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are arguably the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our proposal is supported by some of the world's leading quantum experimentalists, who have begun to collaborate with us to conduct the experiment in the next 2-3 years using some of the instrumentation they have already built and used at two astronomical observatories in the Canary Islands. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the

  2. Guaranteed violation of a Bell inequality without aligned reference frames or calibrated devices

    PubMed Central

    Shadbolt, Peter; Vértesi, Tamás; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2012-01-01

    Bell tests — the experimental demonstration of a Bell inequality violation — are central to understanding the foundations of quantum mechanics, and are a powerful diagnostic tool for the development of quantum technologies. To date, Bell tests have relied on careful calibration of measurement devices and alignment of a shared reference frame between two parties — both technically demanding tasks. We show that neither of these operations are necessary, violating Bell inequalities (i) with certainty using unaligned, but calibrated, measurement devices, and (ii) with near-certainty using uncalibrated and unaligned devices. We demonstrate generic quantum nonlocality with randomly chosen measurements on a singlet state of two photons, implemented using a reconfigurable integrated optical waveguide circuit. The observed results demonstrate the robustness of our schemes to imperfections and statistical noise. This approach is likely to have important applications both in fundamental science and quantum technologies, including device-independent quantum key distribution. PMID:22737404

  3. Guaranteed violation of a Bell inequality without aligned reference frames or calibrated devices.

    PubMed

    Shadbolt, Peter; Vértesi, Tamás; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-01-01

    Bell tests - the experimental demonstration of a Bell inequality violation - are central to understanding the foundations of quantum mechanics, and are a powerful diagnostic tool for the development of quantum technologies. To date, Bell tests have relied on careful calibration of measurement devices and alignment of a shared reference frame between two parties - both technically demanding tasks. We show that neither of these operations are necessary, violating Bell inequalities (i) with certainty using unaligned, but calibrated, measurement devices, and (ii) with near-certainty using uncalibrated and unaligned devices. We demonstrate generic quantum nonlocality with randomly chosen measurements on a singlet state of two photons, implemented using a reconfigurable integrated optical waveguide circuit. The observed results demonstrate the robustness of our schemes to imperfections and statistical noise. This approach is likely to have important applications both in fundamental science and quantum technologies, including device-independent quantum key distribution. PMID:22737404

  4. Strong monogamies of no-signaling violations for bipartite correlation bell inequalities.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Horodecki, Paweł

    2014-11-21

    The phenomenon of monogamy of Bell inequality violations is interesting both from the fundamental perspective as well as in cryptographic applications such as the extraction of randomness and secret bits. In this article, we derive new and stronger monogamy relations for violations of Bell inequalities in general no-signaling theories. These relations are applicable to the class of binary output correlation inequalities known as XOR games, and to free unique games. In many instances of interest, we show that the derived relation provides a significant strengthening over previously known results. Our result connects, for the first time, the property of monogamy with that crucial part of the Bell expression that is necessary for revealing a contradiction with local realistic predictions, thus shifting the paradigm in the field of monogamy of correlations. PMID:25479479

  5. Strong Monogamies of No-Signaling Violations for Bipartite Correlation Bell Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Horodecki, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    The phenomenon of monogamy of Bell inequality violations is interesting both from the fundamental perspective as well as in cryptographic applications such as the extraction of randomness and secret bits. In this article, we derive new and stronger monogamy relations for violations of Bell inequalities in general no-signaling theories. These relations are applicable to the class of binary output correlation inequalities known as xor games, and to free unique games. In many instances of interest, we show that the derived relation provides a significant strengthening over previously known results. Our result connects, for the first time, the property of monogamy with that crucial part of the Bell expression that is necessary for revealing a contradiction with local realistic predictions, thus shifting the paradigm in the field of monogamy of correlations.

  6. Characterization of maximally entangled two-qubit states via the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zeqian

    2004-08-01

    Maximally entangled states should maximally violate the Bell inequality. It is proved that all two-qubit states that maximally violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality are exactly Bell states and the states obtained from them by local transformations. The proof is obtained by using the certain algebraic properties that Pauli's matrices satisfy. The argument is extended to the three-qubit system. Since all states obtained by local transformations of a maximally entangled state are equally valid entangled states, we thus give the characterizations of maximally entangled states in both the two-qubit and three-qubit systems in terms of the Bell inequality.

  7. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment and Bell inequality violation using Type 2 parametric down conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiess, Thomas E.; Shih, Yan-Hua; Sergienko, A. V.; Alley, Carroll O.

    1994-01-01

    We report a new two-photon polarization correlation experiment for realizing the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) state and for testing Bell-type inequalities. We use the pair of orthogonally-polarized light quanta generated in Type 2 parametric down conversion. Using 1 nm interference filters in front of our detectors, we observe from the output of a 0.5mm beta - BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal the EPRB correlations in coincidence counts, and measure an associated Bell inequality violation of 22 standard deviations. The quantum state of the photon pair is a polarization analog of the spin-1/2 singlet state.

  8. Two-qubit Bell inequality for which positive operator-valued measurements are relevant

    SciTech Connect

    Vertesi, T.; Bene, E.

    2010-12-15

    A bipartite Bell inequality is derived which is maximally violated on the two-qubit state space if measurements describable by positive operator valued measure (POVM) elements are allowed, rather than restricting the possible measurements to projective ones. In particular, the presented Bell inequality requires POVMs in order to be maximally violated by a maximally entangled two-qubit state. This answers a question raised by N. Gisin [in Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle: Essays in Honour of Abner Shimony, edited by W. C. Myrvold and J. Christian (Springer, The Netherlands, 2009), pp. 125-138].

  9. Tomographic test of Bell's inequality for a time-delocalized single photon

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Milena; Zavatta, Alessandro; Parigi, Valentina; Bellini, Marco

    2006-11-15

    Time-domain balanced homodyne detection is performed on two well-separated temporal modes sharing a single photon. The reconstructed density matrix of the two-mode system is used to prove and quantify its entangled nature, while the Wigner function is employed for an innovative tomographic test of Bell's inequality based on the theoretical proposal by Banaszek and Wodkiewicz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2009 (1999)]. Provided some auxiliary assumptions are made, a clear violation of the Banaszek-Bell inequality is found.

  10. Ghostly action at a distance: A non-technical explanation of the Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    We present a non-mathematical explanation of Bell's inequality. Using the inequality, we show how the results of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiments violate the principle of strong locality. This indicates, given some reasonable-sounding assumptions, that some sort of faster-than-light influence is present in nature. We discuss the implications, emphasizing the relationship between EPR and the Principle of Relativity, the distinction between causal influences and signals, and the tension between EPR and determinism.

  11. Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Younghun

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.

  12. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality.

    PubMed

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2015-01-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724

  13. Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality

    PubMed Central

    Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724

  14. Proposal for a motional-state Bell inequality test with ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis-Swan, R. J.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.

    2015-05-01

    We propose and theoretically simulate an experiment for demonstrating a motional-state Bell inequality violation for pairs of momentum-entangled atoms produced in Bose-Einstein condensate collisions. The proposal is based on realizing an atom-optics analog of the Rarity-Tapster optical scheme: it uses laser-induced Bragg pulses to implement two-particle interferometry on the underlying Bell state for two pairs of atomic scattering modes with equal but opposite momenta. The collision dynamics and the sequence of Bragg pulses are simulated using the stochastic Bogoliubov approach in the positive-P representation. We predict values of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) parameter up to S ≃2.5 for experimentally realistic parameter regimes, showing a strong violation of the CSHS-Bell inequality bounded classically by S ≤2 .

  15. Bound entanglement maximally violating Bell inequalities: Quantum entanglement is not fully equivalent to cryptographic security

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2006-07-15

    It is shown that Smolin four-qubit bound entangled states [J. A. Smolin, Phys. Rev. A 63, 032306 (2001)] can maximally violate the simple two-setting Bell inequality similar to the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. The simplicity of the setting and the robustness of the entanglement make it promising for current experimental technology. On the other hand, the entanglement does not allow for secure key distillation, so neither entanglement nor maximal violation of Bell inequalities implies directly the presence of a quantum secure key. As a result, one concludes that two tasks--reducing of communication complexity and cryptography--are not (even qualitatively) equivalent in a quantum multipartite scenario.

  16. Geometrical Bell inequalities for arbitrarily many qudits with different outcome strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieśniak, Marcin; Dutta, Arijit; Ryu, Junghee

    2016-01-01

    Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states are intuitively known to be the most nonclassical ones. They lead to the most radically nonclassical behavior of three or more entangled quantum subsystems. In the case of two-dimensional systems, it has been shown that GHZ states lead to an exponentially higher robustness of Bell nonclassicality against the white noise for geometrical inequalities than in the case of Weinfurter-Werner-Wolf-Żukowski-Brukner ones. We introduce geometrical Bell inequalities for collections of arbitrarily many systems of any dimensionality. We show that the violation factor of these inequalities grows exponentially with the number of parties and study their behavior in terms of dimensionality of subsystems and number of local measurements. We also investigate various strategies of assigning mathematical objects to events in the experiment, each leading to different violation ratios.

  17. Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, B.; Bernien, H.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Ruitenberg, J.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Abellán, C.; Amaya, W.; Pruneri, V.; Mitchell, M. W.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2015-10-01

    More than 50 years ago, John Bell proved that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory: in any local-realist theory, the correlations between outcomes of measurements on distant particles satisfy an inequality that can be violated if the particles are entangled. Numerous Bell inequality tests have been reported; however, all experiments reported so far required additional assumptions to obtain a contradiction with local realism, resulting in `loopholes'. Here we report a Bell experiment that is free of any such additional assumption and thus directly tests the principles underlying Bell's inequality. We use an event-ready scheme that enables the generation of robust entanglement between distant electron spins (estimated state fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0.03). Efficient spin read-out avoids the fair-sampling assumption (detection loophole), while the use of fast random-basis selection and spin read-out combined with a spatial separation of 1.3 kilometres ensure the required locality conditions. We performed 245 trials that tested the CHSH-Bell inequality S <= 2 and found S = 2.42 +/- 0.20 (where S quantifies the correlation between measurement outcomes). A null-hypothesis test yields a probability of at most P = 0.039 that a local-realist model for space-like separated sites could produce data with a violation at least as large as we observe, even when allowing for memory in the devices. Our data hence imply statistically significant rejection of the local-realist null hypothesis. This conclusion may be further consolidated in future experiments; for instance, reaching a value of P = 0.001 would require approximately 700 trials for an observed S = 2.4. With improvements, our experiment could be used for testing less-conventional theories, and for implementing device-independent quantum-secure communication and randomness certification.

  18. Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Bernien, H; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Ruitenberg, J; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Abellán, C; Amaya, W; Pruneri, V; Mitchell, M W; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2015-10-29

    More than 50 years ago, John Bell proved that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory: in any local-realist theory, the correlations between outcomes of measurements on distant particles satisfy an inequality that can be violated if the particles are entangled. Numerous Bell inequality tests have been reported; however, all experiments reported so far required additional assumptions to obtain a contradiction with local realism, resulting in 'loopholes'. Here we report a Bell experiment that is free of any such additional assumption and thus directly tests the principles underlying Bell's inequality. We use an event-ready scheme that enables the generation of robust entanglement between distant electron spins (estimated state fidelity of 0.92 ± 0.03). Efficient spin read-out avoids the fair-sampling assumption (detection loophole), while the use of fast random-basis selection and spin read-out combined with a spatial separation of 1.3 kilometres ensure the required locality conditions. We performed 245 trials that tested the CHSH-Bell inequality S ≤ 2 and found S = 2.42 ± 0.20 (where S quantifies the correlation between measurement outcomes). A null-hypothesis test yields a probability of at most P = 0.039 that a local-realist model for space-like separated sites could produce data with a violation at least as large as we observe, even when allowing for memory in the devices. Our data hence imply statistically significant rejection of the local-realist null hypothesis. This conclusion may be further consolidated in future experiments; for instance, reaching a value of P = 0.001 would require approximately 700 trials for an observed S = 2.4. With improvements, our experiment could be used for testing less-conventional theories, and for implementing device-independent quantum-secure communication and randomness certification. PMID:26503041

  19. Experimental investigation of the information entropic Bell inequality

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lian-Zhen; Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Xia; Yang, Yang; Li, Ying-De; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Lu, Huai-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Inequalities of information entropic play a fundamental role in information theory and have been employed effectively in finding bounds on optimal rates of various information-processing tasks. In this paper, we perform the first experimental demonstration of the information-theoretic spin-1/2 inequality using the high-fidelity entangled state. Furthermore, we study the evolution of information difference of entropy when photons passing through different noisy channels and give the experimental rules of the information difference degradation. Our work provides an new essential tool for quantum information processing and measurement, and offers new insights into the dynamics of quantum correlation in open systems. PMID:27034104

  20. Intermediate states in quantum cryptography and Bell inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.

    2003-06-01

    Intermediate states are known from intercept/resend eavesdropping in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum cryptographic protocol. But they also play fundamental roles in the optimal eavesdropping strategy on the BB84 protocol and in the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) inequality. We generalize the intermediate states to an arbitrary dimension and consider intercept/resend eavesdropping, optimal eavesdropping on the generalized BB84 protocol and present a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two entangled qudits based on these states.

  1. Experimental investigation of the information entropic Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lian-Zhen; Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Xia; Yang, Yang; Li, Ying-De; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Lu, Huai-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Inequalities of information entropic play a fundamental role in information theory and have been employed effectively in finding bounds on optimal rates of various information-processing tasks. In this paper, we perform the first experimental demonstration of the information-theoretic spin-1/2 inequality using the high-fidelity entangled state. Furthermore, we study the evolution of information difference of entropy when photons passing through different noisy channels and give the experimental rules of the information difference degradation. Our work provides an new essential tool for quantum information processing and measurement, and offers new insights into the dynamics of quantum correlation in open systems.

  2. Experimental investigation of the information entropic Bell inequality.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lian-Zhen; Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Xia; Yang, Yang; Li, Ying-De; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Lu, Huai-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Inequalities of information entropic play a fundamental role in information theory and have been employed effectively in finding bounds on optimal rates of various information-processing tasks. In this paper, we perform the first experimental demonstration of the information-theoretic spin-1/2 inequality using the high-fidelity entangled state. Furthermore, we study the evolution of information difference of entropy when photons passing through different noisy channels and give the experimental rules of the information difference degradation. Our work provides an new essential tool for quantum information processing and measurement, and offers new insights into the dynamics of quantum correlation in open systems. PMID:27034104

  3. Bell's inequality, random sequence, and quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Won-Young

    2005-05-01

    The Ekert 1991 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol appears to be secure regardless of whatever devices legitimate users adopt for the protocol, as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell’s inequality. However, this is not the case if they ignore nondetection events because Eve can make use of the detection loophole, as Larrson showed [Quantum Inf. Comput. 2, 434 (2002)]. We show that even when legitimate users take into account nondetection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the QKD system has been appropriately designed by the manufacturer. A loophole utilized here is that of “free choice” (or “real randomness”). Local QKD devices with a pseudorandom sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell’s inequality.

  4. Bell's inequalities for particles of arbitrary spin in fixed analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Mukamel, Ronen; Howell, John C.

    2004-11-01

    We propose a new set of observables for experiments on entangled particles of arbitrarily large spin that produce significant Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violations for fixed analyzer settings over a wider range of spins than was previously possible. These observables are better suited for experiments where analyzer orientations must be chosen before the spin of the entangled particles is known, such as experiments using polarization entangled downconverted photons.

  5. Violation of Bell inequalities in larger Hilbert spaces: robustness and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Werner; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Calarco, Tommaso; Paternostro, Mauro; Montangero, Simone

    2016-01-01

    We explore the challenges posed by the violation of Bell-like inequalities by d-dimensional systems exposed to imperfect state-preparation and measurement settings. We address, in particular, the limit of high-dimensional systems, naturally arising when exploring the quantum-to-classical transition. We show that, although suitable Bell inequalities can be violated, in principle, for any dimension of given subsystems, it is in practice increasingly challenging to detect such violations, even if the system is prepared in a maximally entangled state. We characterize the effects of random perturbations on the state or on the measurement settings, also quantifying the efforts needed to certify the possible violations in case of complete ignorance on the system state at hand.

  6. Towards loophole-free Bell inequality test with preselected unsymmetrical singlet states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stobińska, Magdalena; Töppel, Falk; Sekatski, Pavel; Buraczewski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Can a Bell test with no detection loophole be demonstrated for multiphoton entangled states of light within the current technology? We examine the possibility of a postselection-free Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)-Bell inequality test with an unsymmetrical polarization singlet. To that end we employ a preselection procedure which is performed prior to the test. It allows using imperfect (coarse-grained) binary photodetection in the test. We show an example of a preselection scheme which improves violation of the CHSH inequality with the micro-macro polarization singlet produced by the optimal quantum cloning. The preselection is realized by a quantum filter which is believed not to be useful for this purpose.

  7. Device-independent state estimation based on Bell's inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Bardyn, C.-E.; Liew, T. C. H.; Massar, S.; McKague, M.; Scarani, V.

    2009-12-15

    The only information available about an alleged source of entangled quantum states is the amount S by which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is violated: nothing is known about the nature of the system or the measurements that are performed. We discuss how the quality of the source can be assessed in this black-box scenario, as compared to an ideal source that would produce maximally entangled states (more precisely, any state for which S=2sq root(2)). To this end, we present several inequivalent notions of fidelity, each one related to the use one can make of the source after having assessed it, and we derive quantitative bounds for each of them in terms of the violation S. We also derive a lower bound on the entanglement of the source as a function of S only.

  8. Violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality using imperfect photodetectors with optical hybrid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyukjoon; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2013-11-01

    We show that a Bell inequality test using an optical hybrid state between a polarized single photon and a coherent field can be highly robust against detection inefficiency. The Bell violation occurs until the efficiency becomes as low as 67% even though its degree becomes small as the detection efficiency degrades. We consider on/off and photon number parity measurements, respectively, for the Bell test and they result in similar conditions. If the detection efficiency is higher than 98.68%, parity measurements give larger Bell violations close to Cirel'son's bound, while on/off measurements give larger but moderate violations for realistic values of detector efficiency. Experimental realization of our proposal seems feasible in the near future for the implementation of a loophole-free Bell inequality test.

  9. Bell inequalities for continuous-variable systems in generic squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Bell inequalities for continuous-variable bipartite systems are studied. The inequalities are expressed in terms of pseudo-spin operators, and quantum expectation values are calculated for generic two-mode squeezed states characterized by a squeezing parameter r and a squeezing angle φ . Allowing for generic values of the squeezing angle is especially relevant when φ is not under experimental control, such as in cosmic inflation, where small quantum fluctuations in the early universe are responsible for structures formation. Compared to previous studies restricted to φ =0 and to a fixed orientation of the pseudo-spin operators, allowing for φ ≠0 and optimizing the angular configuration leads to a completely new and rich phenomenology. Two dual schemes of approximation are designed that allow for comprehensive exploration of the squeezing parameter space. In particular, it is found that Bell inequalities can be violated when the squeezing parameter r is large enough, r ≳1.12 , and the squeezing angle φ is small enough, φ ≲0.34 e-r .

  10. Analytic quantification of the singlet nonlocality for the first Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisio, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Recently an alternative way to quantifying the Bell nonlocality has been proposed [E. A. Fonseca and F. Parisio, Phys. Rev. A 92, 030101(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030101]. In this work we further develop this concept, the volume of violation, and analytically calculate its value for the spin-singlet state with respect to the settings of the first Bell inequality. These settings correspond to three directions in space, or three arbitrary points on the unit sphere. It is shown that the triples of directions that lead to violations in local causality correspond to 1 /3 of all possible configurations. From the perspective of quantum communication, this means that two distant parties that were able to align their measurements in one direction only (the remaining direction in each site being random) have a probability of about 33.3 % to certify their entanglement.

  11. Maximal violation of a bipartite three-setting, two-outcome Bell inequality using infinite-dimensional quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Karoly F.; Vertesi, Tamas

    2010-08-15

    The I{sub 3322} inequality is the simplest bipartite two-outcome Bell inequality beyond the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, consisting of three two-outcome measurements per party. In the case of the CHSH inequality the maximal quantum violation can already be attained with local two-dimensional quantum systems; however, there is no such evidence for the I{sub 3322} inequality. In this paper a family of measurement operators and states is given which enables us to attain the maximum quantum value in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Further, it is conjectured that our construction is optimal in the sense that measuring finite-dimensional quantum systems is not enough to achieve the true quantum maximum. We also describe an efficient iterative algorithm for computing quantum maximum of an arbitrary two-outcome Bell inequality in any given Hilbert space dimension. This algorithm played a key role in obtaining our results for the I{sub 3322} inequality, and we also applied it to improve on our previous results concerning the maximum quantum violation of several bipartite two-outcome Bell inequalities with up to five settings per party.

  12. Experimental violation of bell-like inequalities by electronic shot noise.

    PubMed

    Forgues, Jean-Charles; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    We report measurements of the correlations between electromagnetic field quadratures at two frequencies f1=7  GHz and f1=7.5  GHz of the radiation emitted by a tunnel junction placed at very low temperature and excited at frequency f1+f2. We demonstrate the existence of two-mode squeezing and violation of a Bell-like inequality, thereby proving the existence of entanglement in the quantum shot noise radiated by the tunnel junction. PMID:25884119

  13. Event-by-event simulation of experiments to create entanglement and violate Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss a discrete-event, particle-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of Maxwell's theory and quantum theory by generating detection events one-by-one. This event-based approach gives a unified causeand- effect description of quantum optics experiments such as single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, quantum eraser, double-slit, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments, and various neutron interferometry experiments. We illustrate the approach by application to single-photon Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen-Bohm experiments and single-neutron interferometry experiments that violate a Bell inequality.

  14. Entanglement and Bell's inequality violation above room temperature in metal carboxylates.

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, A M; Soares-Pinto, D O; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Reis, Mario S; Brandao, Paula; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we show that a particular family of materials, the metal carboxylates, may have entangled states up to very high temperatures. From magnetic-susceptibility measurements, we have estimated the critical temperature below which entanglement exists in the copper carboxylate {Cu-2(O2CH)(4)}{Cu(O2CH)(2)(2-methylpyridine)(2)}, and we have found this to be above room temperature (T-e similar to 630 K). Furthermore, the results show that the system remains maximally entangled until close to similar to 100 K and the Bell's inequality is violated up to nearly room temperature (similar to 290 K).

  15. Security proof for cryptographic protocols based only on the monogamy of Bell's inequality violations

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, M.

    2010-09-15

    We show that monogamy of Bell's inequality violations, which is strictly weaker condition than the no-signaling principle is enough to prove security of quantum key distribution. We derive our results for a whole class of monogamy constraints and generalize our results to any theory that communicating parties may have access to. Some of these theories do not respect the no-signaling principle yet still allow for secure communication. This proves that no signaling is only a sufficient condition for the possibility of secure communication, but not the necessary one. We also present some new qualitative results concerning the security of existing quantum key distribution protocols.

  16. Computing the maximum violation of a Bell inequality is an NP-problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdalla, S.; Bagdasaryan, Armen

    2016-06-01

    The number of steps required in order to maximize a Bell inequality for arbitrary number of qubits is shown to grow exponentially with the number of parties involved. The proof that the optimization of such correlation measure is an NP-problem based on an operational perspective involving a Turing machine, which follows a general algorithm. The implications for the computability of the so-called nonlocality for any number of qubits is similar to recent results involving entanglement or similar quantum correlation-based measures.

  17. Entanglement like properties in Spin-Orbit Coupled Ultra Cold Atom and violation of Bell like Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sankalpa; Kumar, Rahul

    We show that the general quantum state of synthetically spin-orbit coupled ultra cold bosonic atom whose condensate was experimentally created recently (Y.J. Lin et al., Nature, 471, 83, (2011)), shows entanglement between motional degrees of freedom (momentum) and internal degrees of freedom (hyperfine spin). We demonstrate the violation of Bell-like inequality (CHSH) for such states that provides a unique opportunity to verify fundamental principle like quantum non-contextuality for commutating observables which are not spatially separated. We analyze in detail the Rabi oscillation executed by such atom-laser system and how that influneces quantities like entanglement entropy, violation of Bell like Inequality etc. We also discuss the implication of our result in testing the quantum non-contextuality and Bell's Inequality vioaltion by macroscopic quantum object like Bose-Einstein Condensate of ultra cold atoms.

  18. Local commutativity versus Bell inequality violation for entangled states and versus non-violation for separable states

    SciTech Connect

    Seevinck, Michael; Uffink, Jos

    2007-10-15

    By introducing a quantitative 'degree of commutativity' in terms of the angle between spin observables we present two tight quantitative trade-off relations in the case of two qubits. First, for entangled states, between the degree of commutativity of local observables and the maximal amount of violation of the Bell inequality: if both local angles increase from zero to {pi}/2 (i.e., the degree of local commutativity decreases), the maximum violation of the Bell inequality increases. Secondly, a converse trade-off relation holds for separable states: if both local angles approach {pi}/2 the maximal value obtainable for the correlations in the Bell inequality decreases and thus the non-violation increases. As expected, the extremes of these relations are found in the case of anticommuting local observables where, respectively, the bounds of 2{radical}(2) and {radical}(2) hold for the expectation value of the Bell operator. The trade-off relations show that noncommmutativity gives 'a more than classical result' for entangled states, whereas 'a less than classical result' is obtained for separable states. The experimental relevance of the trade-off relation for separable states is that it provides an experimental test for two qubit entanglement. Its advantages are twofold: in comparison to violations of Bell inequalities it is a stronger criterion and in comparison to entanglement witnesses it needs to make less strong assumptions about the observables implemented in the experiment.

  19. Violations of a Bell inequality for entangled SU(1,1) coherent states based on dichotomic observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hach, Edwin E.; Alsing, Paul M.; Gerry, Christopher C.

    2016-04-01

    We study the violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality for entangled SU(1,1) coherent states of the form proposed by Perelomov. Specifically, we examine Bell-CHSH violations by such states in the case in which distant observers Alice and Bob perform local, noncompact, SU(1,1) transformations characterized by hyperbolic angles on each of the subsystems and subsequently measure dichotomic observables, namely SU(1,1) parity operators. We find significant violations over a broad range of hyperbolic angles.

  20. Investigation of properties of time-dependent bell inequalities in Wigner's form for nonstationary and open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, N. V.; Sotnikov, V. P.; Toms, K. S.

    2015-10-01

    A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner's form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov's axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner's form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr' complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion-antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett-Garg approach, for example.

  1. Investigation of properties of time-dependent bell inequalities in Wigner’s form for nonstationary and open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, N. V. Sotnikov, V.P.; Toms, K. S.

    2015-10-15

    A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example.

  2. Bell's inequality violation for entangled generalized Bernoulli states in two spatially separate cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Franco, R.; Compagno, G.; Messina, A.; Napoli, A.

    2005-11-15

    We consider the entanglement of orthogonal generalized Bernoulli states in two separate single-mode high-Q cavities. The expectation values and the correlations of the electric field in the cavities are obtained. We then define, in each cavity, a dichotomic operator expressible in terms of the field states which can be, in principle, experimentally measured by a probe atom that 'reads' the field. Using the quantum correlations of couples of these operators, we construct a Bell's inequality which is shown to be violated for a wide range of the degree of entanglement and which can be tested in a simple way. Thus the cavity fields directly show quantum nonlocal properties. A scheme is also sketched to generate entangled orthogonal generalized Bernoulli states in the two separate cavities.

  3. Improvement of the polarized neutron interferometer setup demonstrating violation of a Bell-like inequality

    PubMed Central

    Geppert, H.; Denkmayr, T.; Sponar, S.; Lemmel, H.; Hasegawa, Y.

    2014-01-01

    For precise measurements with polarised neutrons high efficient spin-manipulation is required. We developed several neutron optical elements suitable for a new sophisticated setup, i.e., DC spin-turners and Larmor-accelerators which diminish thermal disturbances and depolarisation considerably. The gain in performance is exploited demonstrating violation of a Bell-like inequality for a spin-path entangled single-neutron state. The obtained value of S=2.365(13), which is much higher than previous measurements by neutron interferometry, is 28σ above the limit of S=2 predicted by contextual hidden variable theories. The new setup is more flexible referring to state preparation and analysis, therefore new, more precise measurements can be carried out. PMID:26089579

  4. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and Bell inequalities for Bose-Einstein spin condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Laloee, F.; Mullin, W. J.

    2008-02-15

    We discuss the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented quantum mechanically by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions (perpendicular to the spin quantization axis), giving access to the relative phase of the two macroscopically occupied states. Before the first spin measurement, the phase is completely undetermined; after a few measurements, a more and more precise knowledge of its value emerges under the effect of the quantum measurement process. This naturally leads to the usual notion of a quasiclassical phase (Anderson phase) and to an interesting transposition of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument to macroscopic physical quantities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this transposition, as well as situations where the notion of a quasiclassical phase is no longer sufficient to account for the quantum results, and where significant violations of Bell-type inequalities are predicted. Quantum mechanically, the problem can be treated exactly: the probability for all sequences of results can be expressed in the form of a double integral, depending on all parameters that define the experiment (number of particles, number and angles of measurements). We discuss the differences between this case and the usual two-spin case. We discuss the effect of the many parameters that the experimenters can adjust for their measurements, starting with a discussion of the effect of the angles of measurement (the 'settings'), and then envisaging various choices of the functions that are used to obtain violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. We then discuss how the 'sample bias loophole' (often also called 'efficiency loophole') can be closed in this case, by introducing a preliminary sequence of measurements to localize the particles into 'measurement boxes'. We finally show that the same nonlocal effects can be observed with distinguishable

  5. Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M

    2015-12-17

    Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing. PMID:26672554

  6. Spin Correlations of Strongly Interacting Massive Fermion Pairs as a Test of Bell's Inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Saito, T.; Kuboki, H.; Sasano, M.; Yako, K.; Ikeda, T.; Itoh, K.; Kawabata, T.; Maeda, Y.; Suda, K.; Uesaka, T.; Matsui, N.; Satou, Y.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Sekiguchi, K.; Tamii, A.

    2006-10-13

    We report the results of the first-time test of the local hidden variable theories (Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) involving strongly interacting pairs of massive spin 1/2 hadrons from the decay of short-lived ({tau}<10{sup -21}sec) {sup 2}He spin-singlet state, populated in the nuclear reaction {sup 2}H+{sup 1}H{yields}{sup 2}He+n. The novel features of this experiment are (a) the use of an 'event body' detector of nearly 100% efficiency to prepare an unbiased sample and (b) a focal-plane polarimeter of full 2{pi} sr acceptance with a random 'post selection' of the reference axes. The spin-correlation function is deduced to be S{sub exp}({pi}/4)=2.83{+-}0.24{sub stat}{+-}0.07{sub sys}. This result is in agreement with nonlocal quantum mechanical prediction and it violates the Bell-CHSH inequality of vertical bar S vertical bar{<=}2 at a confidence level of 99.3%.

  7. Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Cosmological Observations of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I; Guth, Alan

    2014-06-01

    We discuss a proposed experiment which would leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics using astronomical observations. Specifically, we aim to close the "setting independence" or so-called "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality by choosing the detector settings (e.g. polarizer orientations) using real-time observations of causally disconnected cosmic sources, for example sufficiently distant quasar pairs, all while the entangled particles are still in flight. This would help close one of the most important remaining Bell test loopholes whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with some local "hidden variables" due to unknown causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. Our "Cosmic Bell" experiment would push any such hidden variable conspiracy all the way back to the hot big bang 13.8 Gyr ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. The talk will demonstrate the real world feasibility of our experimental setup, with emphasis on the theoretical cosmology constraints needed to choose optimal sources. We thus describe general conditions for pairs of cosmological events with arbitrary redshifts and angular separations to have no shared causal pasts since the hot big bang in flat, dark energy dominated, accelerating Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes like our own. While causally disjoint patches of the cosmic microwave background radiation at redshift z ~ 1090 could be used to set the detectors, z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are arguably the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology that meet the condition of having no shared causal past since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 Gyr ago. Results are illustrated for our universe with causal structure animations to help visualize the intersections of past light cones for arbitrary event pairs.

  8. The lesson of causal discovery algorithms for quantum correlations: causal explanations of Bell-inequality violations require fine-tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Christopher J.; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2015-03-01

    An active area of research in the fields of machine learning and statistics is the development of causal discovery algorithms, the purpose of which is to infer the causal relations that hold among a set of variables from the correlations that these exhibit . We apply some of these algorithms to the correlations that arise for entangled quantum systems. We show that they cannot distinguish correlations that satisfy Bell inequalities from correlations that violate Bell inequalities, and consequently that they cannot do justice to the challenges of explaining certain quantum correlations causally. Nonetheless, by adapting the conceptual tools of causal inference, we can show that any attempt to provide a causal explanation of nonsignalling correlations that violate a Bell inequality must contradict a core principle of these algorithms, namely, that an observed statistical independence between variables should not be explained by fine-tuning of the causal parameters. In particular, we demonstrate the need for such fine-tuning for most of the causal mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie Bell correlations, including superluminal causal influences, superdeterminism (that is, a denial of freedom of choice of settings), and retrocausal influences which do not introduce causal cycles.

  9. Finite violations of a Bell inequality for high spin: An optical realization

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Albert, Jaroslav

    2005-10-15

    Some years ago Peres [Phys. Rev. A 46, 4413 (1992)] described a gedanken experiment for a pair of spatially spin j particles in a singlet state and showed using with a dichotomic observable (essentially a parity operator) that Bell's theorem in the form of the Clauser-Home-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is violated by a constant amount (24%) in the limit j{yields}{infinity}. In this paper we present a scheme for an optical realization of a state that is very close to the spin-j singlet state using two traveling-wave modes of the quantized field using a 50:50 beam splitter with an input number state. A near-singlet states comes about because the binomial output state of the beam splitter can be written as a sum in terms of states in the form vertical bar j,m>{sub 1}x vertical bar j,-m>{sub 2}, each state being associated with a Holstein-Primakoff realization of the su(2) spin algebra in terms of the Bose operators of each of the field modes, where j=N/2, N being the number of photons passing through the beam splitter. The binomial state can violate the CHSH inequality to a greater degree than does the singlet state.

  10. Violation of a Bell-like inequality by a combination of Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In this paper I propose a classical optics experiment that results in a maximum violation of a Bell-like inequality. The first part is concerned with the Bell-like inequality (the so-called CHSH-inequality) itself. Its importance and its maximum violation in Quantum Mechanics (QM) are discussed in detail by employing an abstract probability state concept in a 4-dim. but classical event space. A T-matrix that represents the integral part of a corresponding Green's function as well as a statistical operator that contains a negative quasi-probability can be related to the corresponding quantum mechanical experiment. It is demonstrated that the derivation and usage of the T-matrix and the Green's function is equivalent to what is known from classical scattering theory. It is shown moreover that the negative quasi-probability of the statistical operator may be interpreted as a sink of probabilities related to two single events of the considered 4-dim. event space. A necessary condition for the violation of the CHSH-inequality is derived and discussed afterwards. In the second part of this paper I discuss a modification of the 4-dim. event space considered in the first part. It is shown that a combination of conventional Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup would be able to put this modification into practice. Thus it becomes possible to achieve a maximum violation of the CHSH-inequality, if formulated in terms of intensities, on a pure classical way. The combination of classical light scattering with correlation experiments such as proposed in this paper may open new ways to study and to use the violation of Bell-like inequalities in modern optics.

  11. Quantum correlations and violation of the Bell inequality induced by an external field in a two-photon radiative cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Luqi; Das, Sumanta

    2011-06-15

    We study the polarization-dependent second-order correlation of a pair of photons emitted in a four-level radiative cascade driven by an external field. It is found that the quantum correlations of the emitted photons, degraded by the energy splitting of the intermediate levels in the radiative cascade, can be efficiently revived by a far-detuned external field. The physics of this revival is linked to an induced Stark shift and the formation of dressed states in the system by the nonresonant external field. Furthermore, we investigated the competition between the effect of the coherent external field and incoherent dephasing of the intermediate levels. We find that the degradation of quantum correlations due to the incoherent dephasing can be contained for small dephasing with the external field. We also studied the nonlocality of the correlations by evaluating the Bell inequality in the linear polarization basis for the radiative cascade. We find that the Bell parameter decreases rapidly with increase in the intermediate-level energy splitting or incoherent dephasing rate to the extent that there is no violation. However, the presence of an external field leads to control over the degrading mechanisms and preservation of nonlocal correlation among the photons. This in turn can induce a violation of Bell's inequality in the radiative cascade for arbitrary intermediate-level splitting and small incoherent dephasing.

  12. Experimental investigation of the robustness against noise for different Bell-type inequalities in three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Huaixin; Zhao Jiaqiang; Cao Lianzhen; Wang Xiaoqin

    2011-10-15

    There are different families of inequalities that can be used to characterize the entanglement of multiqubit entangled states by the violation of quantum mechanics prediction versus local realism prediction. In a noisy environment, the violation of different inequalities distinguishes a direct from a noise-free environment. That is, each inequality has a different robustness against noise. We investigate theoretically and experimentally this proposition with the Mermin inequality, Bell inequality, and Svetlichny inequality using three-qubit GHZ states for different levels of noise. Our purpose is to determine which one of the inequalities is more robust against noise and thus more suitable to characterize entanglement of states. Our results show that the Mermin inequality is the most robust against stronger noise and is, thus, more suitable for characterizing the entanglement of three-qubit GHZ states in a noisy environment.

  13. Proposal for a loophole-free violation of Bell's inequalities with a set of single photons and homodyne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesse, Jean; Blandino, Rémi; Kanseri, Bhaskar; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate that different kinds of mesoscopic quantum states of light can be efficiently generated from a simple iterative scheme. These states exhibit strong non-classical features, and could be of great interest for many applications such as quantum error-correcting codes or fundamental testings. Based on these states, we further propose a protocol allowing a large loophole-free violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)-type Bell's inequality with significant losses, thus showing that the quantum properties of some of these states can exhibit a remarkable robustness to losses.

  14. Comment on 'Separability of quantum states and the violation of Bell-type inequalities'

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Christoph

    2005-02-01

    The statement by Loubenets [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042102 (2004)] that separable states can violate classical probabilistic constraints is based on a misleading definition of classicality, which is much narrower than Bell's concept of local hidden variables. In a Bell-type setting, the notion of classicality used by Loubenets [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042102 (2004)] corresponds to the assumption of perfect correlations if the same observable is measured on both sides. While it is obvious that most separable states do not satisfy this assumption, this does not constitute 'nonclassical' behavior in any usual sense of the word.

  15. Possibilities of a test of the temporal Bell inequalities using the flux qubit coupled to a dcSQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Leggett, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Although then last few years have seen tests of the temporal Bell inequalities (TBI) on microscopic systems with the use of ``ideal negative result'' (INR) measurements, and on macroscopic systems using weak measurement, to date there have been no tests on macroscopic systems using INR measurements. Moreover, in neither case was the assumption of noninvasiveness explicitly tested in an ancillary experiment. Here we propose a complete INR protocol, including the ancillary experiment, for a test of the TBI on a macroscopic system, namely a flux qubit,with the measuring apparatus a dc SQUID. The general setup mirrors that of Knee et al., with the nuclear spins replaced by the flux qubit and the electron spins by the dc SQUID, and we analyze the relation between the theoretical concept of ``venality'' introduced in ref. and the experimental behavior expected in our ancillary test. On the basis of this analysis we assess the current feasibility of the proposed experiment. Supported by Macarthur supplement grant

  16. Beliefs about Intelligence and the Causes of Economic Inequality: Opinions on "The Bell Curve."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Eric Vanden; Wodtke, Kenneth

    Beliefs about intelligence as a cause of economic inequality and the extent to which educational experience, socioeconomic status, and class-consciousness mediate such beliefs were studied. A purposive sample of 184 advanced Business and Social Science university undergraduates and a sample of urban technical college students responded to a…

  17. Where Bell Went Wrong

    SciTech Connect

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

    2009-03-10

    It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.

  18. Possibilities of a test of the temporal Bell inequalities using a flux qubit coupling to a dcSQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Leggett, Anthony J.

    2014-03-01

    Although then last few years have seen tests of the temporal Bell inequalities (TBI) on microscopic systems with the use of ``ideal negative result'' (INR) measurements, and on macroscopic systems using weak measurement, to date there have been no tests on macroscopic systems using INR measurements. Moreover, in neither case was the assumption of noninvasiveness explicitly tested in an ancillary experiment. Here we propose a complete INR protocol, including the ancillary experiment, for a test of the TBI on a macroscopic system, namely a flux qubit,with the measuring apparatus a dc SQUID. The general setup mirrors that of Knee et al., with the nuclear spins replaced by the flux qubit and the electron spins by the dc SQUID, and we analyze the relation between the theoretical concept of ``venality'''' introduced in ref. and the experimental behavior expected in our ancillary test. On the basis of this analysis we assess the current feasibility of the proposed experiment. Supported by the Macarthur Profesorship endowed by the John D. and Catherine T. Macarthur Foundation at the University of Illinois.

  19. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: Generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Nguyen Ba An

    2006-08-15

    We study Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type (GHZ-type) and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions; i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors.

  20. Generation of tunable entanglement and violation of a Bell-like inequality between different degrees of freedom of a single photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallés, Adam; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Hendrych, Martin; Mičuda, Michal; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Torres, Juan P.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a scheme to generate noncoherent and coherent correlations, i.e., a tunable degree of entanglement, between degrees of freedom of a single photon. Its nature is analogous to the tuning of the purity (first-order coherence) of a single photon forming part of a two-photon state by tailoring the correlations between the paired photons. Therefore, well-known tools such as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell-like inequality can also be used to characterize entanglement between degrees of freedom. More specifically, CHSH inequality tests are performed, making use of the polarization and the spatial shape of a single photon. The four modes required are two polarization modes and two spatial modes with different orbital angular momentum.

  1. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment What Is Bell's Palsy? Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS Mar. ...

  2. Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barukčić, Ilija

    2012-12-01

    In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.

  3. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Bell's Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Bell's Palsy Print A A ... usually goes away on its own. What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's palsy weakens or paralyzes the muscles on ...

  4. Studies on Bell's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Veli Ugur

    In this work we look for novel classes of Bell's inequalities and methods to produce them. We also find their quantum violations including, if possible, the maximum one. The Jordan bases method that we explain in Chapter 2 is about using a pair of certain type of orthonormal bases whose spans are subspaces related to measurement outcomes of incompatible quantities on the same physical system. Jordan vectors are the briefest way of expressing the relative orientation of any two subspaces. This feature helps us to reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space on which we do searches for optimization. The work is published in [24]. In Chapter 3, we attempt to find a connection between group theory and Bell's theorem. We devise a way of generating terms of a Bell's inequality that are related to elements of an algebraic group. The same group generates both the terms of the Bell's inequality and the observables that are used to calculate the quantum value of the Bell expression. Our results are published in [25][26]. In brief, Bell's theorem is the main tool of a research program that was started by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen [19] and Bohr [8] in the early days of quantum mechanics in their discussions about the core nature of physical systems. These debates were about a novel type of physical states called superposition states, which are introduced by quantum mechanics and manifested in the apparent inevitable randomness in measurement outcomes of identically prepared systems. Bell's huge contribution was to find a means of quantifying the problem and hence of opening the way to experimental verification by rephrasing the questions as limits on certain combinations of correlations between measurement results of spatially separate systems [7]. Thanks to Bell, the fundamental questions related to the nature of quantum mechanical systems became quantifiable [6]. According to Bell's theorem, some correlations between quantum entangled systems that involve incompatible

  5. The experimental violation of Bell's inequality [as predicted by quantum mechanics]: A contribution to the study of its meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespel, Bertrand

    Au vu des expériences déjà réalisées, il est permis de penser que la violation de l'inégalité de Bell conformément aux prédictions de la mécanique quantique sera bientôt un fait établi. D'après les lectures qui en ont été le plus souvent données, en raison de la non- localité qu'il met en évidence et de l'incompatibilité qu'il y aurait entre cette propriété et celle de localité postulée par la relativité, ce fait annihilerait inéluctablement l'espoir qui animait le fondateur de la physique moderne et bon nombre de ses successeurs: à moins d'accepter d'abandonner l'exigence d'exactitude, nous devrions définitivement nous résoudre à admettre que nous ne pourrons jamais fournir du monde qu'une image incomplète. L'histoire de la philosophie suggère une toute autre interprétation. Lorsqu'on reconstitue les tentatives oubliées menées par Spinoza, Malebranche et Leibniz, pour bâtir, comme Newton, à la suite de Descartes, un Monde tout à la fois exact et complet, ce fait apparaît plutôt comme la preuve empirique que le monde est tout à la fois local et inséparable-phénoménalement local mais fondamentalement inséparable-et qu'une image adéquate ne pourra donc en être donnée qu'à la condition de reconnaître qu'il ne se réduit pas au contenu de l'espace-temps, c'est-à-dire que ce monde qui est l'objet de la physique n'est pas le tout du monde et qu'il convient de prolonger cette science, désormais quantique et relativiste, par une méta-physique.

  6. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  7. Bell's Palsy Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  8. Bell's Palsy Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Symptoms Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  9. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bell's palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis. It usually affects just one side of the ... become inflamed. You are most likely to get Bell's palsy if you are pregnant, diabetic or sick with ...

  10. Multipartite positive-partial-transpose inequalities exponentially stronger than local reality inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-08-15

    We show that positivity of every partial transpose of N-partite quantum states implies inequalities on Bell correlations which are stronger than standard Bell inequalities by a factor of 2{sup (N-1)/2}. A violation of the inequality implies that the system is in a bipartite distillable entangled state. It turns out that a family of N-qubit bound entangled states proposed by Duer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230402 (2001)] violates the inequality for N{>=}4.

  11. Noncontextuality Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekkens, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem demonstrates that the predictions of quantum theory are inconsistent with a noncontextual hidden variable model. Significantly, the notion of noncontextuality to which it appeals is only well-defined for models of quantum theory as opposed to models of an arbitrary physical theory and then only for projective measurements and deterministic models thereof. By contrast, the notion of local causality introduced by Bell is not so restricted in its scope. In this talk, I present an operational definition of noncontextuality that recovers the traditional notion as a special case and allows one to define ``noncontextuality inequalities'' for experimental statistics. I will demonstrate that a particular two-party information-processing task, ``parity-oblivious multiplexing,'' is powered by contextuality in the sense that there is an inequality that bounds its performance in noncontextual models, and I will report on an experimental violation of this inequality in good agreement with the quantum predictions. Joint work with Daniel Buzacott, Tony Keehn, Ben Toner and Geoff Pryde.

  12. Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin

    2016-04-01

    Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory.

  13. Steering Bell-diagonal states

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250

  14. Steering Bell-diagonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality.

  15. Steering Bell-diagonal states.

    PubMed

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250

  16. Bell's Palsy.

    PubMed

    Vakharia, Kavita; Vakharia, Kalpesh

    2016-02-01

    Bell's palsy is unilateral, acute onset facial paralysis that is a common condition. One in every 65 people experiences Bell's palsy in the course of their lifetime. The majority of patients afflicted with this idiopathic disorder recover facial function. Initial treatment involves oral corticosteroids, possible antiviral drugs, and protection of the eye from desiccation. A small subset of patients may be left with incomplete recovery, synkinesis, facial contracture, or hemifacial spasm. A combination of medical and surgical treatment options exist to treat the long-term sequelae of Bell's palsy. PMID:26611696

  17. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... works and circumstances that lead to nerve damage. Knowledge gained from this research may help scientists find the definitive cause of Bell's palsy, leading to the discovery of new effective treatments for the disorder. Other ...

  18. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions that cause injuries and damage to nerves. Knowledge gained from this research may help scientists find the definitive cause of Bell's palsy, leading to the discovery of new effective treatments for the disorder. Other ...

  19. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bell's palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis. It usually affects just one side of the face. ... from mild to severe and include Twitching Weakness Paralysis Drooping eyelid or corner of mouth Drooling Dry ...

  20. Bell's palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may cause Bell's palsy include: HIV infection Lyme disease Middle ear infection Sarcoidosis Having diabetes and ... done to look for medical problems such as Lyme disease, which may cause Bell’s palsy. If your ...

  1. Causality, Bell's theorem, and Ontic Definiteness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Bell's theorem shows that the reasonable relativistic causal principle known as ``local causality'' is not compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics. It is not possible maintain a satisfying causal principle of this type while dropping any of the better-known assumptions of Bell's theorem. However, another assumption of Bell's theorem is the use of classical logic. One part of this assumption is the principle of ontic definiteness, that is, that it must in principle be possible to assign definite truth values to all propositions treated in the theory. Once the logical setting is clarified somewhat, it can be seen that rejecting this principle does not in any way undermine the type of causal principle used by Bell. Without ontic definiteness, the deterministic causal condition known as Einstein Locality succeeds in banning superluminal influence (including signalling) whilst allowing correlations that violate Bell's inequalities. Objections to altering logic, and the consequences for operational and realistic viewpoints, are also addressed.

  2. Einstein, Bohr, and Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a

  3. John Bell and the nature of the quantum world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.

    2014-10-01

    I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  4. Bell Test experiments explained without entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    by Jeffrey H. Boyd. Jeffreyhboyd@gmail.com. John Bell proposed a test of what was called "local realism." However that is a different view of reality than we hold. Bell incorrectly assumed the validity of wave particle dualism. According to our model waves are independent of particles; wave interference precedes the emission of a particle. This results in two conclusions. First the proposed inequalities that apply to "local realism" in Bell's theorem do not apply to this model. The alleged mathematics of "local realism" is therefore wrong. Second, we can explain the Bell Test experimental results (such as the experiments done at Innsbruck) without any need for entanglement, non-locality, or particle superposition.

  5. Bell Experiment with Classical Optical Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Bethany; Qian, Xiao-Feng; Howell, John; Eberly, J. H.

    We theoretically and experimentally explore the implications of entanglement in statistically classical optical fields. The description of these fields in terms of polarization and amplitude degrees of freedom can take a non-separable form which employs a mathematical description of entanglement often associated with quantum phenomena. By subjecting these optical fields to a Bell analysis, we examine the role of entanglement in marking the quantum-classical boundary. We report a value of the Bell parameter greater than calB = 2 . 54 , many standard deviations outside the limit calB = 2 established by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. This suggests that Bell violation has less to do with quantum theory than previously thought, but everything to do with entanglement. University of Rochester Research Award, NSF PHY-1203931, NSF PHY-1505189, and NSF/INSPIRE PHY-1539859.

  6. Two-player conflicting interest Bayesian games and Bell nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Haozhen

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality, one of the most remarkable aspects of quantum mechanics, is closely related to Bayesian game theory. Quantum mechanics can offer advantages to some Bayesian games, if the payoff functions are related to Bell inequalities in some way, most of these Bayesian games that have been discussed are common interest games. Recently, the first conflicting interest Bayesian game is proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 020401 (2015). In the present paper, we present three new conflicting interest Bayesian games where quantum mechanics offers advantages. The first game is linked with Cereceda inequalities, the second game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement outcomes, and the third game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement settings.

  7. Leggett-Garg inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the spatial Bell's inequalities which probe entanglement between spatially separated systems, the Leggett-Garg inequalities test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of a genuine Leggett-Garg test implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. Quantum mechanics violates the inequalities on both accounts and the original motivation for these inequalities was as a test for quantum coherence in macroscopic systems. The last few years has seen a number of experimental tests and violations of these inequalities in a variety of microscopic systems such as superconducting qubits, nuclear spins, and photons. In this article, we provide an introduction to the Leggett-Garg inequalities and review these latest experimental developments. We discuss important topics such as the significance of the non-invasive measurability assumption, the clumsiness loophole, and the role of weak measurements. Also covered are some recent theoretical proposals for the application of Leggett-Garg inequalities in quantum transport, quantum biology and nano-mechanical systems.

  8. Unbounded Violation of Quantum Steering Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, M.; Rutkowski, A.; Yin, Z.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-10-01

    We construct steering inequalities that exhibit unbounded violation. The concept was to exploit the relationship between steering violation and the uncertainty relation. To this end, we apply mutually unbiased bases and anticommuting observables, known to exhibit the strongest uncertainty. In both cases, we are able to procure unbounded violations. Our approach is much more constructive and transparent than the operator space theory approach employed to obtain large violation of Bell inequalities. Importantly, using anticommuting observables we are able to obtain a dichotomic steering inequality with unbounded violation. Thus far, there is no analogous result for Bell inequalities. Interestingly, both the dichotomic inequality and one of our inequalities cannot be directly obtained from existing uncertainty relations, which strongly suggest the existence of an unknown kind of uncertainty relation.

  9. Exploring inequality violations by classical hidden variables numerically

    SciTech Connect

    Vongehr, Sascha

    2013-12-15

    There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation. -- Highlights: •The widely assumed superiority of the CHSH fails in the EPR problem. •We simulate Bell type inequalities behavior depending on the number of photons. •The core of Bell’s theorem in the EPR setup is introduced in a simple way understandable to a wide audience. •We present hidden variables that violate both inequalities with 50% probability. •Algorithms have been supplied in form of Mathematica programs.

  10. Entanglement, Bell inequality and all that

    SciTech Connect

    Narnhofer, Heide; Thirring, Walter

    2012-09-15

    We start from the geometrical observation that a finite set of pure states correspond to some points on a sphere and their convex span cannot be the whole set of states. If we call the left over entangled we can pursue this picture from the simplest case of a two dimensional Hilbert space to the usual Alice-and-Bob game of entangled states and then move to bigger systems and finely to quantum field theory where almost everything is entangled. On the way we encounter more or less known old friends up from the shell structure of states to the monogamy of squashed entanglement. We study how entanglement can be concentrated on a small slice and how it depends on the particular factorization of the Hilbert space.

  11. Requirements for a loophole-free photonic Bell test using imperfect setting generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofler, Johannes; Giustina, Marissa; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2016-03-01

    Experimental violations of Bell inequalities are in general vulnerable to so-called loopholes. In this work, we analyze the characteristics of a loophole-free Bell test with photons, closing simultaneously the locality, freedom-of-choice, fair-sampling (i.e., detection), coincidence-time, and memory loopholes. We pay special attention to the effect of excess predictability in the setting choices due to nonideal random-number generators. We discuss necessary adaptations of the Clauser-Horne and Eberhard inequality when using such imperfect devices and—using Hoeffding's inequality and Doob's optional stopping theorem—the statistical analysis in such Bell tests.

  12. Position-momentum Bell nonlocality with entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeloch, James; Knarr, Samuel H.; Lum, Daniel J.; Howell, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Witnessing continuous-variable Bell nonlocality is a challenging endeavor, but Bell himself showed how one might demonstrate this nonlocality. Although Bell nearly showed a violation using the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with sign-binned position-momentum statistics of entangled pairs of particles measured at different times, his demonstration is subject to approximations not realizable in a laboratory setting. Moreover, he does not give a quantitative estimation of the maximum achievable violation for the wave function he considers. In this article, we show how his strategy can be reimagined using the transverse positions and momenta of entangled photon pairs measured at different propagation distances, and we find that the maximum achievable violation for the state he considers is actually very small relative to the upper limit of 2 √{2 } . Although Bell's wave function does not produce a large violation of the CHSH inequality, other states may yet do so.

  13. A Geometrical Approach to Bell's Theorem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2000-01-01

    Bell's theorem can be proved through simple geometrical reasoning, without the need for the Psi function, probability distributions, or calculus. The proof is based on N. David Mermin's explication of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment, which involves Stern-Gerlach detectors which flash red or green lights when detecting spin-up or spin-down. The statistics of local hidden variable theories for this experiment can be arranged in colored strips from which simple inequalities can be deduced. These inequalities lead to a demonstration of Bell's theorem. Moreover, all local hidden variable theories can be graphed in such a way as to enclose their statistics in a pyramid, with the quantum-mechanical result lying a finite distance beneath the base of the pyramid.

  14. Clauser-Horne Bell test with imperfect random inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhao, Qi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2015-08-01

    The Bell test is one of the most important tools in quantum information science. On the one hand, it enables fundamental tests of the basic physics laws of nature, and on the other hand, it can also be applied in a variety of device-independent tasks such as quantum key distribution and random number generation. In practice, loopholes existing in experimental demonstrations of Bell tests may affect the validity of the conclusions. In this work, we focus on the randomness (freewill) loophole and investigate the randomness requirement in a well-known Bell test, the Clauser-Horne test, under various conditions. We explicitly bound the Bell value for all local hidden variable models by optimizing over all classical strategies exploiting the knowledge of the partially random inputs. Our result thus provides input randomness requirements on the Clauser-Horne test under varieties of practical scenarios. The employed analysis technique can also be generalized to other Bell inequalities.

  15. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  16. Bell Correlated and EPR States in the Framework of Jordan Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Sobotíková, Veronika

    2016-03-01

    We study Bell inequalities and EPR states in the context of Jordan algebras. We show that the set of states violating Bell inequalities across two operator commuting nonmodular Jordan Banach algebras is norm dense in the global state space. It generalizes hitherto known results in quantum field theory in several directions. We propose new Jordan quantity for incommensurable observables in a given state, introduce the concept of EPR state for Jordan structures, and study relationship between EPR states and Bell correlated states. Our analysis shows crucial role of spin factors and Pauli spin matrices for studying noncommutative properties of states and observables.

  17. The Pseudoscience of Psychometry and "The Bell Curve."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Joseph L., Jr.; Johnson, Amanda

    1995-01-01

    Argues that Herrnstein and Murray's "The Bell Curve" (1994) merely restates the notion that intelligence can be reduced to a single ordinal measure, i.e., the primary factor for determining group or individual social-class status. Evidence from the biological sciences and quantitative genetics is presented that reveals that social inequality is…

  18. Maximal Violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu Inequality for Infinite Dimensional States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohren, Stefan; Gill, Richard D.

    2008-03-01

    We present a much simplified version of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality for the 2×2×d Bell scenario. Numerical maximization of the violation of this inequality over all states and measurements suggests that the optimal state is far from maximally entangled, while the best measurements are the same as conjectured best measurements for the maximally entangled state. For very large values of d the inequality seems to reach its minimal value given by the probability constraints. This gives numerical evidence for a tight quantum Bell inequality (or generalized Csirelson inequality) for the 2×2×∞ scenario.

  19. Exploring inequality violations by classical hidden variables numerically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongehr, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation.

  20. Testing Leggett's Inequality Using Aharonov-Casher Effect

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Oh, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    Bell's inequality is established based on local realism. The violation of Bell's inequality by quantum mechanics implies either locality or realism or both are untenable. Leggett's inequality is derived based on nonlocal realism. The violation of Leggett's inequality implies that quantum mechanics is neither local realistic nor nonlocal realistic. The incompatibility of nonlocal realism and quantum mechanics has been currently confirmed by photon experiments. In our work, we propose to test Leggett's inequality using the Aharonov-Casher effect. In our scheme, four entangled particles emitted from two sources manifest a two-qubit-typed correlation that may result in the violation of the Leggett inequality, while satisfying the no-signaling condition for spacelike separation. Our scheme is tolerant to some local inaccuracies due to the topological nature of the Aharonov-Casher phase. The experimental implementation of our scheme can be possibly realized by a calcium atomic polarization interferometer experiment. PMID:23966132

  1. Experimentally testing Bell's theorem based on Hardy's nonlocal ladder proofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, WeiJie; Fan, DaiHe; Wei, LianFu

    2015-02-01

    Bell's theorem argues the existence of quantum nonlocality which goes basically against the hidden variable theory (HVT). Many experiments have been done via testing the violations of Bell's inequalities to statistically verify the Bell's theorem. Alternatively, by testing the Hardy's ladder proofs we experimentally demonstrate the deterministic violation of HVT and thus confirm the quantum nonlocality. Our tests are implemented with non-maximal entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversions (SPDCs). We show that the degree freedom of photon entanglement could be significantly enhanced by using interference filters. As a consequence, the Hardy's ladder proofs could be tested and Bell's theorem is verified robustly. The probability of violating the locality reach to 41.9%, which is close to the expectably ideal value 46.4% for the photon pairs with degree of entanglement ɛ = 0.93. The higher violating probability is possible by further optimizing the experimental parameters.

  2. Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2016-04-22

    Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations--Bell correlations--between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements. PMID:27102479

  3. Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations—Bell correlations—between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements.

  4. Hadron Physics at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Trabelsi, Karim

    2006-02-11

    We report recent results on the properties of the X(3872) produced via the B {yields} KX(3872) decay process in the Belle detector. We compare these properties with the expectations for possible assignments. The discoveries by Belle of other new particles : Y(3940), X(3940) and Z(3931) are briefly reviewed as well as the observation of an isotriplet of excited charmed baryons.

  5. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  6. Violation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality in Neutrino Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Formaggio, J A; Kaiser, D I; Murskyj, M M; Weiss, T E

    2016-07-29

    The Leggett-Garg inequality, an analogue of Bell's inequality involving correlations of measurements on a system at different times, stands as one of the hallmark tests of quantum mechanics against classical predictions. The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations should adhere to quantum-mechanical predictions and provide an observable violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. We demonstrate how oscillation phenomena can be used to test for violations of the classical bound by performing measurements on an ensemble of neutrinos at distinct energies, as opposed to a single neutrino at distinct times. A study of the MINOS experiment's data shows a greater than 6σ violation over a distance of 735 km, representing the longest distance over which either the Leggett-Garg inequality or Bell's inequality has been tested. PMID:27517759

  7. Violation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality in Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formaggio, J. A.; Kaiser, D. I.; Murskyj, M. M.; Weiss, T. E.

    2016-07-01

    The Leggett-Garg inequality, an analogue of Bell's inequality involving correlations of measurements on a system at different times, stands as one of the hallmark tests of quantum mechanics against classical predictions. The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations should adhere to quantum-mechanical predictions and provide an observable violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. We demonstrate how oscillation phenomena can be used to test for violations of the classical bound by performing measurements on an ensemble of neutrinos at distinct energies, as opposed to a single neutrino at distinct times. A study of the MINOS experiment's data shows a greater than 6 σ violation over a distance of 735 km, representing the longest distance over which either the Leggett-Garg inequality or Bell's inequality has been tested.

  8. Maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Li-Bin; Zhao, Xian-Geng; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2003-08-01

    The Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (BCHSH) inequality (in terms of correlation functions) of two qutrits is studied in detail by employing tritter measurements. A uniform formula for the maximum value of this inequality for tritter measurements is obtained. Based on this formula, we show that nonmaximally entangled states violate the BCHSH inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled one. This result is consistent with what was obtained by Acin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 052325 (2002)] using the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality (in terms of probabilities)

  9. Mini-``Bell in a Bell Jar''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhang; Jiali, Hou; Wenfang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    A number of versions of the well-known "bell-in-a-bell-jar" demonstration have been discussed in this journal.1-3 The basic idea is that when a sound source is placed inside an air-tight container, the volume of the sound that's heard decreases dramatically when the container is evacuated. This phenomenon is primarily due to the mismatch that is created between the sound transducer and the surrounding medium.4,5 Here we describe a simple small-scale version of this demonstration, one that may be added to the growing list of examples of how a simple syringe may be used as a tool in physics teaching.6-8

  10. Bell Could Become the Copernicus of Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to emphasize the role of mathematical models in physics, especially models of geometry and probability. We briefly compare developments of geometry and probability by pointing to similarities and differences: from Euclid to Lobachevsky and from Kolmogorov to Bell. In probability, Bell could play the same role as Lobachevsky in geometry. In fact, violation of Bell’s inequality can be treated as implying the impossibility to apply the classical probability model of Kolmogorov (1933) to quantum phenomena. Thus the quantum probabilistic model (based on Born’s rule) can be considered as the concrete example of the non-Kolmogorovian model of probability, similarly to the Lobachevskian model — the first example of the non-Euclidean model of geometry. This is the “probability model” interpretation of the violation of Bell’s inequality. We also criticize the standard interpretation—an attempt to add to rigorous mathematical probability models additional elements such as (non)locality and (un)realism. Finally, we compare embeddings of non-Euclidean geometries into the Euclidean space with embeddings of the non-Kolmogorovian probabilities (in particular, quantum probability) into the Kolmogorov probability space. As an example, we consider the CHSH-test.

  11. Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.

    PubMed

    Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C

    2010-04-15

    Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory. PMID:20393558

  12. Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvacho, Gonzalo; Cariñe, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B.

    2015-07-01

    Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure.

  13. An additional condition for Bell experiments for accepting local realistic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2013-12-01

    We assume that one source of two uncorrelated spin-carrying particles emits them in a state, which can be described as a spin-1/2 bipartite pure uncorrelated state. We consider a Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) experiment with two-orthogonal-settings. We propose an additional condition for the state to be reproducible by the property of local realistic theories. We use the proposed measurement theory in order to construct the additional condition (Nagata and Nakamura in Int J Theor Phys 49:162, 2010). The condition is that local measurement outcome is . Otherwise, such an experiment does not allow for the existence of local realistic theories even in the situation that all Bell-CHSH inequalities hold. Also we derive new set of Bell inequalities when local measurement outcome is.

  14. Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network.

    PubMed

    Carvacho, Gonzalo; Cariñe, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B

    2015-07-17

    Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure. PMID:26230776

  15. Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.

    PubMed

    Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A M; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E; Shalm, Lynden K; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-12-18

    Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74×10^{-31}, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect. PMID:26722905

  16. Open water bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2016-03-01

    A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.

  17. The collapse and revival of Bell-nonlocality of two macroscopic fields interacting with resonant atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Cheng-Li; Liao, Chang-Geng; Chen, Zi-Hong

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the nonlocality dynamics of two initially entangled macroscopic fields each interacting with a resonant two-level atom. The nonlocality of macroscopic field is characterized by the extent to which the Bell Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)'s inequality for continuous-variable states is violated. We show that the collapse and revival of the Bell-nonlocality are similar to the collapse and revival of the atomic population inversion of the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM).

  18. Loophole-free Bell test with one atom and less than one photon on average

    SciTech Connect

    Sangouard, N.; Bancal, J.-D.; Gisin, N.; Sekatski, P.; Rosenfeld, W.; Weber, M.; Weinfurter, H.

    2011-11-15

    We consider the entanglement between two internal states of a single atom and two photon number states describing either the vacuum or a single photon and thus containing, on average, less than one photon. We show that this intriguing entanglement can be characterized through substantial violations of a Bell inequality by performing homodyne detections on the optical mode. We present the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to pave the way toward a loophole-free Bell test.

  19. Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Di Domenico, Antonio; Curceanu, Catalina; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Moskal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement and its consequences—in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality—have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated " dynamical" nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and mathcal{CP} violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems.

  20. Bell, group and tangle

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A. I.

    2010-03-15

    The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.

  1. Software Development at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.

  2. Disentanglement, Bell-nonlocality violation and teleportation capacity of the decaying tripartite states

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang

    2012-09-15

    Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.

  3. The "Belles" Are Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    The "Bennett Belle." The words conjure an image that is genteel, old-fashioned--hats and gloves, brown-skinned women in flowing white dresses beaming as they take that final walk to graduation. The Bennett College for Women campus certainly reinforces the image, with its broad, tree-shaded lawns and quadrangle and its historic buildings--fully 15…

  4. Bell XP-77 (Mockup)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Bell XP-77 (Mockup): A proposed lightweight fighter built of non-strategic material (wood) for the Army Air Force, the XP-77 was tested in the 30 x 60 Full Scale Wind Tunnel. This diminutive aircraft never saw production, its physical manifestation limited to two production prototypes which flew in January 1944.

  5. Bell XP-39 Airacobra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Bell XP-39 Airacobra: The Army's XP-39 Airacobra in flight over Langley Field, 1943. The pilot of the cobra sat on the front end of the gearbox with the engine behind him and the propeller shaft passing underneath his legs. The P-39 was one of the first military airplanes with tricycle landing gear.

  6. Leggett-Garg inequalities and the geometry of the cut polytope

    SciTech Connect

    Avis, David; Hayden, Patrick; Wilde, Mark M.

    2010-09-15

    The Bell and Leggett-Garg tests offer operational ways to demonstrate that nonclassical behavior manifests itself in quantum systems, and experimentalists have implemented these protocols to show that classical worldviews such as local realism and macrorealism are false, respectively. Previous theoretical research has exposed important connections between more general Bell inequalities and polyhedral combinatorics. We show here that general Leggett-Garg inequalities are closely related to the cut polytope of the complete graph, a geometric object well-studied in combinatorics. Building on that connection, we offer a family of Leggett-Garg inequalities that are not trivial combinations of the most basic Leggett-Garg inequalities. We then show that violations of macrorealism can occur in surprising ways, by giving an example of a quantum system that violates the 'pentagon' Leggett-Garg inequality but does not violate any of the basic 'triangle' Leggett-Garg inequalities.

  7. Visualizing inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-07-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.

  8. Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, Gustavo; Barra, Johanna F.; Gómez, Esteban S.; Lima, Gustavo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Cabello, Adán

    2013-01-01

    Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold ηcrit that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of ηcrit assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possible deexcitation paths, a partial distinguishability between the two processes leads to the appearance of colored noise in the generated state. Recently, there was a proposal for a loophole-free Bell test [A. Cabello and F. Sciarrino, Phys. Rev. X 2, 021010 (2012)], where a specific colored noise appears as a consequence of the precertification of the photon's presence through single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Here we obtain ηcrit, the optimal quantum states, and the local settings for a loophole-free Bell test as a function of the amount of colored noise. We consider three bipartite Bell inequalities with n dichotomic settings: Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (n=2), I3322 (n=3), and A5 (n=4), both for the case of symmetric efficiencies, corresponding to photon-photon Bell tests, and for the totally asymmetric case, corresponding to atom-photon Bell tests. Remarkably, in all these cases, ηcrit is robust against the colored noise. The present analysis can find application in any test of Bell inequalities in which the dominant noise is of the colored type.

  9. Bell XP-39 Airacobra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Bell XP-39 Airacobra: The Army's XP-39 Airacobra in flight over Langley Field, 1943. The pilot of the cobra sat on the front end of the gearbox with the engine behind him and the propeller shaft passing underneath his legs. The P-39 was one of the first military airplanes with tricycle landing gear. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 200.

  10. Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Robert V.

    The lecture on Alexander Graham Bell by Dr. Robert V. Bruce, the author of a biography of Bell, focuses on Bell's association with the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts. Noted are Bell's employment by the school at 25 years of age and the preceding period during which Bell taught elocution at a boys' school in Scotland and used his…

  11. Bell's experiment with intra- and inter-pair entanglement: Single-particle mode entanglement as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco; Maruyama, Koji; Brukner, Caslav

    2009-12-15

    Theoretical considerations of Bell-inequality experiments usually assume identically prepared and independent pairs of particles. Here we consider pairs that exhibit both intrapair and interpair entanglement. The pairs are taken from a large many-body system where all the pairs are generally entangled with each other. Using an explicit example based on single mode entanglement and an ancillary Bose-Einstein condensate, we show that the Bell-inequality violation in such systems can display statistical properties that are remarkably different from those obtained using identically prepared independent pairs. In particular, one can have probabilistic violation of Bell's inequalities in which a finite fraction of all the runs result in violation even though there could be no violation when averaging over all the runs. Whether or not a particular run of results will end up being local realistically explainable is 'decided' by a sequence of quantum (random) outcomes.

  12. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  13. Utilizing clouds for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the use of cloud computing resources for the Belle II experiment. A number of different methods are used to exploit the private and opportunistic clouds. Clouds are making significant contributions to the generation of Belle II MC data samples and it is expected that their impact will continue to grow over the coming years.

  14. The Legacy of Dr. Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, H. Latham

    1990-01-01

    This article describes the family of Alexander Graham Bell, including research and therapeutic work in speech and hearing impairments spanning three generations. Bell's life and discoveries are discussed, including the formation of the American Association for the Promotion of Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, whose history and organization are…

  15. Bell Test for the Free Motion of Material Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gneiting, Clemens; Hornberger, Klaus

    2008-12-31

    We present a scheme to establish nonclassical correlations in the motion of two macroscopically separated massive particles without resorting to entanglement in their internal degrees of freedom. It is based on the dissociation of a diatomic molecule with two temporally separated Feshbach pulses generating a motional state of two counterpropagating atoms that is capable of violating a Bell inequality by means of correlated single-particle interferometry. We evaluate the influence of dispersion on the Bell correlation, showing it to be important but manageable in a proposed experimental setup. The latter employs Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic lithium atoms, uses laser-guided atom interferometry, and seems to be within the reach of present-day technology.

  16. Bell test for the free motion of material particles.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Clemens; Hornberger, Klaus

    2008-12-31

    We present a scheme to establish nonclassical correlations in the motion of two macroscopically separated massive particles without resorting to entanglement in their internal degrees of freedom. It is based on the dissociation of a diatomic molecule with two temporally separated Feshbach pulses generating a motional state of two counterpropagating atoms that is capable of violating a Bell inequality by means of correlated single-particle interferometry. We evaluate the influence of dispersion on the Bell correlation, showing it to be important but manageable in a proposed experimental setup. The latter employs Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic lithium atoms, uses laser-guided atom interferometry, and seems to be within the reach of present-day technology. PMID:19113762

  17. Challenging preconceptions about Bell tests with photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprara Vivoli, V.; Sekatski, P.; Bancal, J.-D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Christensen, B. G.; Martin, A.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.; Sangouard, N.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by very recent experiments, we consider a scenario "à la Bell" in which two protagonists test the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality using a photon-pair source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion and imperfect photon detectors. The conventional wisdom says that (i) if the detectors have unit efficiency, the CHSH violation can reach its maximum quantum value of 2 √{2 } . To obtain the maximal possible violation, it suffices that the source emits (ii) maximally entangled photon pairs (iii) in two well-defined single modes. Through a nonperturabive calculation of nonlocal correlations, we show that none of these statements are true. By providing the optimal pump parameters, measurement settings and state structure for any detection efficiency and dark count probability, our results give the recipe to close all the loopholes in a Bell test using photon pairs.

  18. Analysis of a proposal for a realistic loophole-free Bell test with atom-light entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, C.; Minář, J.; Cavalcanti, D.; Scarani, V.

    2013-11-01

    The violation of Bell inequalities where both detection and locality loopholes are closed is crucial for device-independent assessments of quantum information. While of a technological nature, the simultaneous closing of both loopholes still remains a challenge. In Teo [Nat. Commun.2041-172310.1038/ncomms3104 4, 2104 (2013)], a realistic setup to produce an atom-photon entangled state that could reach a loophole-free Bell inequality violation within current experimental technology is proposed. Here we improve the analysis of this proposal by giving an analytical treatment that shows that the state proposed in Teo [Nat. Commun.2041-172310.1038/ncomms3104 4, 2104 (2013)] can violate a Bell inequality for arbitrarily low photodectection efficiency, when all other losses are ignored. Moreover, it is also able to violate a Bell inequality considering only atomic and homodyne measurements eliminating the need to consider inefficient photocounting measurements. In this case, the maximum Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation achievable is 2.29, and the minimum transmission required for violation is about 68%. Finally, we show that by postselecting on an atomic measurement, one can engineer superpositions of coherent states for various coherent state amplitudes.

  19. Demonstrating entanglement by testing Bell's theorem in Majorana wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, David E.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Hou, Chang-Yu; Shtengel, Kirill; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2014-09-01

    We propose an experiment that would establish the entanglement of Majorana zero modes in semiconductor nanowires by testing the Bell and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. Our proposal is viable with realistic system parameters, simple "keyboard" gating, and projective measurement. Theoretical models and simulation results indicate entanglement can be demonstrated with moderately accurate gate operations. In addition to providing further evidence for the existence of the Majorana bound states, our proposal could be used as an experimental stepping stone to more complicated braiding experiments.

  20. Analog of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Eric G.; Foster, Christopher J.; Fuwa, Maria; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2015-04-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality (and its permutations), are necessary and sufficient criteria for Bell nonlocality in the simplest Bell-nonlocality scenario: 2 parties, 2 measurements per party and 2 outcomes per measurement. Here we derive an inequality for EPR-steering that is an analogue of the CHSH, in that it is necessary and sufficient in this same scenario. However, since in the case of steering the device at Bob's site must be specified (as opposed to the Bell case in which it is a black box), the scenario we consider is that where Alice performs two (black-box) dichotomic measurements, and Bob performs two mutually unbiased qubit measurements. We show that this inequality is strictly weaker than the CHSH, as expected, and use it to decide whether a recent experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 130401 (2013).] involving a single-photon split between two parties has demonstrated EPR-steering.

  1. Distributed Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Vikas; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-03-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e- collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a RUN I high-pT LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of high speed networking and of the Computing Grids in North America, Asia and Europe. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 5 ab-1 equivalent luminosity will be described.

  2. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian

    2007-03-01

    included a picture (figure 1) shown by him, taking it from the tape image which is of rather poor quality (we apologize for this) and three figures taken from his transparencies. Moreover, to help the reader in grasping the various points John Stewart Bell brilliantly raised in his talk we have divided the paper into six sections whose titles have been chosen by us to summarize the most crucial points of his argument. Presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect It is a great pleasure and an honour to introduce Professor Bell. When looking to my old papers I discovered that this 25th anniversary of the ICTP also coincides with the famous paper in which appeared, for the first time, inequalities that are now known as Bell's inequalities so it's a very good opportunity to have a talk by John Bell here. Many of us have been strongly influenced by this work of John Bell because he has shown us that quantum mechanics is much more difficult to understand that we thought it was. I am sure that today he will again raise some questions which are very embarrassing but that we have definitely to face.

  3. Nonlocality without inequalities for almost all entangled states of any quantum system

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca

    2005-07-15

    It is shown that it is possible to rule out all local and stochastic hidden variable models accounting for the quantum mechanical predictions implied by almost any entangled quantum state vector of any number of particles whose Hilbert spaces have arbitrary dimensions, without resorting to Bell-type inequalities. The present proof makes use of the mathematically precise notion of Bell locality and it involves only simple set theoretic arguments.

  4. Effects of reduced measurement independence on Bell-based randomness expansion.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dax Enshan; Hall, Michael J W; Setiawan; Pope, James E; Marletto, Chiara; Kay, Alastair; Scarani, Valerio; Ekert, Artur

    2012-10-19

    With the advent of quantum information, the violation of a Bell inequality is used to witness the absence of an eavesdropper in cryptographic scenarios such as key distribution and randomness expansion. One of the key assumptions of Bell's theorem is the existence of experimental "free will," meaning that measurement settings can be chosen at random and independently by each party. The relaxation of this assumption potentially shifts the balance of power towards an eavesdropper. We consider a no-signaling model with reduced "free will" and bound the adversary’s capabilities in the task of randomness expansion. PMID:23350071

  5. Magic moments with John Bell

    SciTech Connect

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.

    2015-07-15

    John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics.

  6. Quantum Griffiths Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-07-01

    We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.

  7. Quantum Griffiths Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-06-01

    We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.

  8. Magritte's Captivity in Robbe-Grillet's "La Belle Captive:" The Subjugation of the Image by the Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortquist, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Offers Alain Robbe-Grillet's novel "La Belle Captive" (which employs 77 paintings by the Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte) as playful interchange between word and image. Argues that the novel may be understood to demonstrate a fundamental relationship of inequality between word and image. (RS)

  9. Optimal quantum violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt like steering inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arup; Sankar Bhattacharya, Some; Mukherjee, Amit; Banik, Manik

    2015-10-01

    We study a recently proposed Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequality (Cavalcanti et al 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32 A74-A81). Analogous to Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality for Bell nonlocality, in the simplest scenario, i.e., two parties, two measurements per party and two outcomes per measurement, this newly proposed inequality has been proved to be necessary and sufficient for steering. In this article we find the optimal violation amount of this inequality in quantum theory. Interestingly, the optimal violation amount matches with optimal quantum violation of CHSH inequality, i.e., Cirel’son quantity. We further study the optimal violation of this inequality for different classes of 2-qubit quantum states.

  10. Detection loophole in Bell experiments: How postselection modifies the requirements to observe nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Branciard, Cyril

    2011-03-15

    A common problem in Bell-type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply postselects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all postselected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this postselected local polytope in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives interesting insights on the detection loophole problem.

  11. Improved Bell-in-a-Bell-Jar Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dejun

    2003-05-01

    It is well understood in acoustics that a medium is required to conduct sound. Stated in another way, sound is not transmitted through a vacuum. The earliest person to test this experimentally was the Irish physicist Robert Boyle (1627-1691). In his experiment, he put a ringing bell under a glass cover called a bell jar. After the air was pumped out, the ringing disappeared. This convinced him that sound cannot be conducted in vacuum. Here we describe an improved version of this demonstration.

  12. Geometric Decompositions of Bell Polytopes with Practical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhorst, Peter

    In the well-studied (2,2,2) Bell experiment consisting of two parties, two measurement settings per party, and two possible outcomes per setting, it is known that if the experiment obeys no-signaling constraints, then the set of admissible experimental probability distributions is fully characterized as the convex hull of 24 distributions: 8 Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes and 16 local deterministic distributions. Here, we refine this result to show that in the (2,2,2) case, any nonlocal nonsignaling distribution can always be uniquely expressed as a convex combination of exactly one PR box and (up to) eight local deterministic distributions. In this representation each PR box will always occur only with a fixed set of eight local deterministic distributions with which it is affiliated. This decomposition has multiple applications: we demonstrate an analytical proof that the minimum detection efficiency for which nonlocality can be observed is 2/3 even for theories constrained only by the no-signaling principle, and we develop new algorithms that speed the calculation of important statistical functions of Bell test data. Finally, we enumerate the vertices of the no-signaling polytope for the (2, n, 2) ``chained Bell'' scenario and find that similar decomposition results are possible in this general case. Here, our results allow us to prove the optimality of a bound, derived in (Barrett et al., PRL, 2006) on the proportion of local theories in a local/nonlocal mixture that can be inferred from the experimental violation of a chained Bell inequality.

  13. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  14. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  15. Bell P-39D Airacobra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Bell P-39D Airacobra: After initially seeing duty in the Pacific and European theaters of operation, P-39s were supplanted, then replaced by the P-38, P-47 and P-51. Many of the Bell Fighters made their way to the Soviet Union, while others, like this P-39D, were used in the Unites States. This Airacobra was flown by the NACA in early 1943. Note the engine located in the middle of the fuselage, and the cannon in the propeller spinner.

  16. Belle Physics at Wayne State

    SciTech Connect

    Cinabro, David

    2016-01-01

    The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64 channel PIN diode based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.

  17. The Price of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the key problems of educational equality -- equality of opportunities and inequality of performance; individual differences vs. group differences, coping with group inequality -- are made explicit. (Author/KM)

  18. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  20. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  3. 33 CFR 117.424 - Belle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...

  4. 33 CFR 117.424 - Belle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...

  5. 33 CFR 117.424 - Belle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...

  6. 33 CFR 117.424 - Belle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...

  7. 33 CFR 117.424 - Belle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...

  8. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  9. BELLE FOURCHE RIVER WATERSHED ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Belle Fourche River is a natural stream that drains portions of Butte, Lawrence, and Meade Counties in South Dakota and flows to the Cheyenne River in Meade County. The river receives runoff from agricultural operations and both the river and its tributaries have experienced...

  10. From "Bell Work" to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Making time for science is a genuine complaint among classroom teachers. As a former fifth-grade teacher and district curriculum coordinator, the author's moment of truth came one morning while juggling classroom housekeeping tasks. Her students were set to work on their "bell work," which consisted of some type of assignment that required little…

  11. For Whom the Bell Tolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Selfishness has spawned a new breed of racism, driven by fear, fed by scarcity, and manifested through economic imperatives. California's Proposition 187 and Herrnstein and Murray's book "The Bell Curve" are built on racist foundations. Our current obsession with race is driven by an economy and an elitist social system that is dismantling the…

  12. Experimental design of a loophole-free Bell test with spin qubits in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Reiserer, Andreas; Ruitenberg, Just; Blok, Machiel; Wehner, Stephanie; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Hanson, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    50 years ago, John Bell formulated his famous theorem. The outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects can reveal strong correlations that violate Bell's inequality. Until now, all experimental implementations of Bell's test required additional assumptions, that open the door for so-called loopholes. These loopholes are particularly important in a cryptography setting where Bell violations enable fully device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution and certified generation of randomness. Here we will present the experimental design of a Bell test, aimed at closing the detection loophole and addressing the locality and free-will loopholes in a single experiment. We use two qubits associated with the electronic spin of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, separated far enough to allow space-like separation between the two qubits during their measurement. The heralded nature of our remote entanglement protocol and efficient qubit readout allow us to use all entangled pairs, avoiding the fair-sampling assumption. Finally, the free-will loophole is addressed by the use of fast random number generators.

  13. Renormalization of quantum discord and Bell nonlocality in the XXZ model with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xue-ke; Wu, Tao; Xu, Shuai; He, Juan; Ye, Liu

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the dynamical behaviors of the two important quantum correlation witnesses, i.e. geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Bell–CHSH inequality in the XXZ model with DM interaction by employing the quantum renormalization group (QRG) method. The results have shown that the anisotropy suppresses the quantum correlations while the DM interaction can enhance them. Meanwhile, using the QRG method we have studied the quantum phase transition of GQD and obtained two saturated values, which are associated with two different phases: spin-fluid phase and the Néel phase. It is worth mentioning that the block–block correlation is not strong enough to violate the Bell–CHSH inequality in the whole iteration steps. Moreover, the nonanalytic phenomenon and scaling behavior of Bell inequality are discussed in detail. As a byproduct, the conjecture that the exact lower and upper bounds of Bell inequality versus GQD can always be established for this spin system although the given density matrix is a general X state.

  14. Inequality aversion, health inequalities and health achievement.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-07-01

    This paper addresses two issues. The first is how health inequalities can be measured in such a way as to take into account policymakers' attitudes towards inequality. The Gini coefficient and the related concentration index embody one particular set of value judgements. By generalising these indices, alternative sets of value judgements can be reflected. The other issue addressed is how information on health inequality can be used together with information on the mean of the relevant distribution to obtain an overall measure of health "achievement". PMID:12146594

  15. Minimum detection efficiencies for a loophole-free observable-asymmetric Bell-type test

    SciTech Connect

    Garbarino, G.

    2010-03-15

    We discuss the problem of finding the most favorable conditions for closing the detection loophole in a test of local realism with a Bell inequality. For a generic nonmaximally entangled two-qubit state and two incompatible bases to be adopted for alternative measurements of two observables a and b on each party, we apply Hardy's proof of nonlocality without inequality and derive an Eberhard-like inequality. For an infinity of nonmaximally entangled states we find that it is possible to refute local realism by requiring perfect detection efficiency for only one of the two observables, say b, to be measured on each party: The test is free from the detection loophole for any value of the detection efficiency corresponding to the other observable a. The maximum tolerable noise in such a loophole-free observable-asymmetric test is also evaluated.

  16. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  17. Building The Bell Rock Lighthouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the first mariners sailed off the east coast of Scotland the Bell Rock has claimed many vessels and countless lives. Also known as the Inch Cape Rocks they lie 18 km off the coast at Arbroath. Located near the mouth of the Firth of Forth and its important shipping ports these dangerous rocks cover an area some 440 m long and 90 m wide.…

  18. 1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.

  19. Common questions about Bell palsy.

    PubMed

    Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful. PMID:24506123

  20. Basic Bell-MHD turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Li, Hui

    2014-06-20

    Nonresonant current instability was identified by Bell as an important mechanism for magnetic field amplification in supernova remnants. In this paper we focus on studying the nonlinear stage of this instability using the incompressible MHD formulation. We demonstrate that the evolution of magnetic turbulence driven by the Bell instability resembles turbulence driven on large scales. More importantly, we demonstrate that the energy-containing scale for magnetic fields is proportional to the square root of the magnetic energy density. Given the observational constraints of the possible field amplification, this new relation allows us to directly estimate the maximum energy of particles scattered by such fields, and this estimate is normally below the average particle energy. This implies that, without taking into account the feedback to cosmic rays (CRs), the typical scales of Bell fields, in either the linear or nonlinear regime, will be too small to affect high-energy particle acceleration. We mention several scenarios of back reaction to CRs that could be important.

  1. Bell Canyon test and results

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C. L.; Hunter, T. O.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes of the Borehold Plugging Program are: to identify issues associated with sealing boreholes and shafts; to establish a data base from which to assess the importance of these issues; and to develop sealing criteria, materials, and demonstrative test for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Bell Canyon Test described in this report is one part of that program. Its purpose was to evaluate, in situ, the state of the art in borehole plugs and to identify and resolve problems encountered in evaluating a typical plug installation in anhydrite. The test results are summarized from the work of Peterson and Christensen and divided into two portions: system integrity and wellbore characterization tests prior to plug installation, and a series of tests to evaluate isolation characteristics of the 1.8-m-long plug. Conclusions of the Bell Canyon Test are: brine and fresh-water grouts, with acceptable physical properties in the fluid and hardened states, have been developed; the field data, taken together with laboratory data, suggest that the predominant flow into the test region occurs through the cement plug/borehold interface region, with lesser contributions occurring through the wellbore damage zone, the plug core, and the surrounding undisturbed anhydrite bed; and the 1.8-m-long by 20-cm-diameter grout plug, installed in anhydrite at a depth of 1370 m in the AEC-7 borehole, limits flow from the high pressure Bell Canyon aquifer to 0.6 liters/day.

  2. The evolution of inequality.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Siobhán M; Smith, Eric A; Shenk, Mary K; Cochrane, Ethan E

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality. We argue that while inequality may be produced by a variety of localized processes, its evolution is fundamentally dependent on the economic defensibility and transmissibility of wealth. Furthermore, these properties of wealth could become persistent drivers of inequality only following a shift to a more stable climate in the Holocene. We conclude by noting several key areas for future empirical research, emphasizing the need for more analyses of contemporary shifts toward institutionalized inequality as well as prehistoric cases. PMID:27519458

  3. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by marking “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION” next to the bell....

  4. Inequalities in Science

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  5. Geometric decompositions of Bell polytopes with practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhorst, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the well-studied (2,2,2) Bell experiment consisting of two parties, two measurement settings per party, and two possible outcomes per setting, it is known that if the experiment obeys no-signaling constraints, then the set of admissible experimental probability distributions is fully characterized as the convex hull of 24 distributions: eight Popescu–Rohrlich (PR) boxes and 16 local deterministic distributions. Furthermore, it turns out that in the (2,2,2) case, any nonlocal nonsignaling distribution can always be uniquely expressed as a convex combination of exactly one PR box and (up to) eight local deterministic distributions. In this representation each PR box will always occur only with a fixed set of eight local deterministic distributions with which it is affiliated. In this paper, we derive multiple practical applications of this result: we demonstrate an analytical proof that the minimum detection efficiency for which nonlocality can be observed is η \\gt 2/3 even for theories constrained only by the no-signaling principle, and we develop new algorithms that speed the calculation of important statistical functions of Bell test data. Finally, we enumerate the vertices of the no-signaling polytope for the (2,n,2) ‘chained Bell’ scenario and find that similar decomposition results are possible in this general case. Here, our results allow us to prove the optimality of a bound, derived in Barrett et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170409), on the proportion of local theories in a local/nonlocal mixture that can be inferred from the experimental violation of a chained Bell inequality.

  6. Do resonating bells increase jellyfish swimming performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    A current question in swimming and flight is whether or not driving flexible appendages at their resonant frequency results in faster or more efficient locomotion. It has been suggested that jellyfish swim faster and/or more efficiently when the bell is driven at its resonant frequency. Previous work has modeled the jellyfish bell as a damped harmonic oscillator, and this simplified model suggests that work done by the bell is maximized when force is applied at the resonant frequency of the bell. We extend the idea of resonance phenomena of the jellyfish bell to a fluid structure interaction framework using the immersed boundary method. We first examine the effects of the bending stiffness of the bell on its resonant frequency. We then further our model with the inclusion of a ``muscular'' spring that connects the two sides of a 2D bell and drives it near its resonant frequency. We use this muscular spring to force the bell at varying frequencies and examine the work done by these springs and the resulting swimming speed. We finally augment our model with a flexible, passive bell margin to examine its role in propulsive efficiency.

  7. Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2011-03-15

    We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

  8. 78 FR 34958 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ..., we issued AD 2009-05-09, Amendment 39-15833 (74 FR 11001, March 16, 2009), for Bell Model 412, 412CF... Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... directive (AD) for the Bell Model 412, 412CF, and 412EP helicopters. The AD currently requires...

  9. Violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and teleportation enhanced for a class of two-qubit X-states resulting from entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Cheng; Song, Wei; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Gang; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2015-10-01

    We consider entanglement swapping with two copies of a class of two-qubit X-states which do not violate Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality or exceed the maximal classical teleportation fidelity. It is shown that there exists a class of initial states for which that the final states violate CHSH inequality or exceed the maximal classical channel for some results of Bell measurements. This implies that, by using entanglement swapping, it is possible to increase the violation of CHSH inequality or teleportation fidelity probabilistically. We also demonstrate that the activation of violating CHSH inequality does not represent the increase in entanglement.

  10. Health Inequality and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…

  11. A Quality Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloyer, Clifford W.

    1975-01-01

    The inequality involving the arithmetic and geometric means is a powerful tool in dealing with applications of mathematics. It is very important in geometric programming. The article discusses this inequality and demonstrates two real world applications accessible to secondary teachers and students. (Author/KM)

  12. Schooling for Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dorothy E.

    2000-01-01

    Inequalities produced by the school system are an important topic for feminist thought and debate. Schools are an integral part of the institutional processes for the differential allocation of agency. They reproduce the social organization of inequality and exclusion at multiple levels. School systems are well-insulated from change initiatives…

  13. The Price of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    An examination of the implications of attempting to reconcile philosophical beliefs concerning equality of opportunity with observed differences in equality of performance, which argues that there can be no real escape from inequality. Efforts to ignore, deny, or cope with the issue of group differences and group inequality must exact a price,…

  14. Growth and inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-11-01

    How are growth and inequality related? Evidently, this question is of prime importance in the social sciences, as socioeconomic inequality is one of the major forces shaping the course of human history. Moreover, this question is of importance also in the physical sciences, as the notion of socioeconomic inequality can be applied to analyze physical growth. In this paper we consider general growth processes whose dynamics are governed by ordinary differential equations, and present a comprehensive inequality-based socioeconophysical study of their evolutions. From a social-sciences perspective, the results established describe the inequality that will be generated by different types of economic growth. From a physical-sciences perspective, the results established provide a socioeconomic classification of growth processes.

  15. Contemporary management of Bell palsy.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-04-01

    Bell palsy (BP) is the most common diagnosis in acute and chronic facial palsy. Although most patients fully recover, more than one-quarter will have residual dysfunction. Of these, nearly half will demonstrate severe limitations in facial expression. Though significant attention has been paid to acute management and prognosis, a paucity of literature exists addressing management of the long-term sequelae of BP. This article describes contemporary use of physical therapy, injectables, and static and dynamic surgical procedures in facial reanimation of acute and chronic BP. PMID:25958893

  16. A unified view on Hardyʼs paradox and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančinska, L.; Wehner, S.

    2014-10-01

    Bell's inequality fundamentally changed our understanding of quantum mechanics. Bell's insight that non-local correlations between quantum systems cannot be explained classically can be verified experimentally, and has numerous applications in modern quantum information. Today, the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is probably the most well-known Bell inequality and it has given us a wealth of understanding in what differentiates the classical from the quantum world. Yet, there are certainly other means of quantifying ‘Bell non-locality without inequalities’ such as the famous Hardy's paradox. As such, one may wonder whether these are entirely different approaches to non-locality. For this anniversary issue, we unify the perspective of the CHSH inequality and Hardy’s paradox into one family of non-local games which include both as special cases. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  17. The Bells' Capture note TH-3054-CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Ed P.

    2014-01-29

    This document revisits the paper by M. Bell and J. S. Bell “Capture of Cooling Electrons by Cool Protons” TH-3054-CERN (March 30, 1981). I expand the treatment to include e+e- capture.

  18. Bell's Paradox under Different Capital Market Regimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Johan Moonwon

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 "Economics of Education Review" paper, E. Bell indicates that, when capital markets are imperfect in a certain sense, demand for education may not always be directly related with present net value of education. This study shows Bell's paradox is possible under the alternative definitions of capital market imperfections and specifies…

  19. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  20. Exotic heavy-quark states at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Belle Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The search for multi-quark states beyond the meson (quark-antiquark) and baryon (three-quark) has resulted in the discovery of many new exotic states of matter, starting with the X(3872) discovery by Belle in 2003. We report selected recent results on searches for such states at Belle. supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

  1. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24190889

  2. Minimax discrimination of quasi-Bell states

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Kentaro

    2014-12-04

    An optimal quantum measurement is considered for the so-called quasi-Bell states under the quantum minimax criterion. It is shown that the minimax-optimal POVM for the quasi-Bell states is given by its square-root measurement and is applicable to the teleportation of a superposition of two coherent states.

  3. Stabilizing a Bell state of two superconducting qubits by dissipation engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leghtas, Z.; Vool, U.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.; Mirrahimi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We propose a dissipation-engineering scheme that prepares and protects a maximally entangled state of a pair of superconducting qubits. This is done by off-resonantly coupling the two qubits to a low-Q cavity mode playing the role of a dissipative reservoir. We engineer this coupling by applying six continuous-wave microwave drives with appropriate frequencies. The two qubits need not be identical. We show that our approach does not require any fine-tuning of the parameters and requires only that certain ratios between them be large. With currently achievable coherence times, simulations indicate that a Bell state can be maintained over arbitrary long times with fidelities above 94%. Such performance leads to a significant violation of Bell's inequality (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt correlation larger than 2.6) for arbitrary long times.

  4. The design of bells with harmonic overtones.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Neil; Nigjeh, Behzad Keramati; Hasell, Anton

    2003-07-01

    Musical bells have had limited application due to the presence of inharmonic partials in the lower part of their acoustic spectra. A series of bells has been designed that contains up to seven partial frequencies in the harmonic series beginning at the fundamental frequency. This was achieved by choosing geometries for finite-element analysis models in which as many purely circumferential bending modes as possible occurred at frequencies below any mode with an axial ring node. The bell models were then fine tuned using gradient projection method shape optimization and the resulting profiles were cast in silicon bronze. A range of bell geometries and timbres is analyzed using psycho-acoustic models and is discussed in relation to European carillon bells. PMID:12880061

  5. Social inequalities and health inequity in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2006-01-01

    Background According to the last census, Morocco has a population approaching 30 million people. The country has made good progress in the control of preventable childhood diseases but social inequalities and health inequities remain major problems for the third millennium. Despite the progress achieved during the last decade, the country still ranks at the 125th place according to the Human Development Index. This unpleasant position is mainly explained by illiteracy, education and health indicators. Method Our study was based mainly on annual reports and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organisation (WHO), The Moroccan Health Ministry and related papers published in international journals. Results and discussion As indicated by the last Arab Human Development Reports (AHDR 2002, AHDR 2003, AHDR 2004) and implicitly confirmed by the "National Initiative for Human Development" (NIHD) launched in May 2005 by the King of Morocco, many districts and shanty towns, urban or peri-urban, and a multitude of rural communes live in situations characterized by difficult access to basic social services of which education and health are examples. Conclusion Recent evidence showed that improved health is more than a consequence of development. It is a central input into economic and social development and poverty reduction. Serious initiatives for human development should consider the reduction of social inequalities and health inequities as a first priority. Otherwise, the eventual development achieved cannot be sustained. PMID:16522204

  6. Temporal steering inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueh-Nan; Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Shin-Liang; Ota, Yukihiro; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-01

    Quantum steering is the ability to remotely prepare different quantum states by using entangled pairs as a resource. Very recently, the concept of steering has been quantified with the use of inequalities, leading to substantial applications in quantum information and communication science. Here, we highlight that there exists a natural temporal analog of the steering inequality when considering measurements on a single object at different times. We give nontrivial operational meaning to violations of this temporal inequality by showing that it is connected to the security bound in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and thus may have applications in quantum communication.

  7. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Noor, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  8. Scales of Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1995-01-01

    "The Bell Curve"'s racist overtones have caused a furor, but the book's real (equally controversial) thesis is intellectual segregation's economic and political consequences. The authors bemoan this elitist segregation, yet favor industry's use of IQ tests to select workers. By using IQ to measure a person's ultimate worth, they encourage this…

  9. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be...—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.”...

  10. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  11. Sorting out the Baby Bells' strategies.

    PubMed

    Colby, M

    1994-05-01

    After months of uncertainty, the seven regional Bell operating companies have divided into two camps: those that provide only the infrastructure for health care networks, and those that offer infrastructure along with other networking features, such as systems integration and central data repositories. In their quest for health care market share, the Bells face a number of obstacles. For example, they can't provide long-distance service, and they face restrictive rate regulations. In addition, increased interest in cable TV and wireless communication ventures has led some of the Bells to downsize their health care ambitions. PMID:10141190

  12. Helicopter attempts tow of Liberty Bell 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Marine helicopter appears to have Liberty Bell 7 in tow after Virgil I. Grissom's successful flight of 305 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. Minutes after 'Gus' Grissom got out of the spacecraft, it sank.

  13. The Haunting Influence of Alexander Graham Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sue H.

    1971-01-01

    The article examines the significance that Alexander Graham Bell's attitude and actions had on the social and economic conditions experienced by deaf people during his lifetime and into the present. (CD)

  14. Software and Physics Simulation at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulsom, Bryan; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-03-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start taking physics data in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e-collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The new detector will use GEANT4 for Monte Carlo simulation and an entirely new software and reconstruction system based on modern computing tools. Examples of physics simulation including beam background overlays will be described.

  15. The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…

  16. The demographics of inequality.

    PubMed

    Pestieau, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper presents a survey of recent literature on the effects of demographic variables on economic inequality. First, a number of conceptual and methodological questions are raised and discussed. They pertain to what is meant by inequality, what the range of demographic variables is, and how variable and endogenous are the demographic variables most widely used. The paper then turns to a review of empirical works on the distributive incidence of the following demographic variables: baby boomers entering the job market, aging population, variable fertility and mortality rates, internal and external migrations, divorce and widowhood, and finally donations and bequests. It appears that a lot of caution is needed when assessing the incidence of any demographic variable changing the size of the population because in this case standard inequality measures yield conflicting signals." The geographical focus is on developed countries. PMID:12315947

  17. 78 FR 51126 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...-001, were manufactured with a defective body, P/N 205-001-742-001. Bell states the bodies were... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... incorrectly machined body. This proposed AD is prompted by a report from Bell that a defective body on...

  18. A loophole-free Bell test with spin quits in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreau, Anais; Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Reiserer, Andreas; Ruitenberg, Just; Blok, Machiel; Markham, Matthew; Twitchen, Daniel; Wehner, Stephanie; Hanson, Ronald; Element 6 Team

    2015-03-01

    One of the most intriguing phenomena in quantum physics is the entanglement of spatially separated objects. The benchmark to prove the fundamental non-locality of remote entanglement is provided by the famous Bell's theorem. Nevertheless, all its experimental implementations to date open the door to loopholes that restrict the practical validity of this theorem., we present our latest experimental results towards the realization of a Bell test, aimed to close the detection loophole and address the locality and free-will loopholes in a single experiment. Our qubits consist of the electronic spin associated with single NV center defects in diamond. An efficient remote entanglement protocol allows us to generate entangled qubit pairs between two labs separated by 1.3 km on the TU Delft campus. The moderate time (<3.5 us) required for high fidelity (>99%) qubit rotations and efficient (>97%) readout make our setup a good candidate to allow the experimental violation of Bell's inequalities between two space-like separated entangled spins without relying on the fair sampling assumption. FOM, NWO, ERC, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, QUTech, STW.

  19. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  20. Inequality from the Get Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews two recent books on different aspects of socioeconomic-status-based inequalities in the school readiness of children entering kindergarten: Lee and Burkam's "Inequality at the Starting Gate" and Coley's "An Uneven Start: Indicators of Inequality in School Readiness." Also discusses "America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being…

  1. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  2. Steps to defeat inequality.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elaine

    2016-06-15

    A team of nursing students has won a prestigious RCNi award for organising a conference aimed at reducing health inequalities affecting people with learning disabilities. The Learning Disability Awareness Network (LDAN) team was crowned winner of the RCNi Andrew Parker Student Nurse award 2016 at a ceremony held at London's Westminster Park Plaza on May 6. PMID:27305237

  3. Gender Inequality at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  4. Racial Inequality in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyna, Barry, Ed.

    Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview of…

  5. The Future in Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, David; North, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…

  6. The Inequality Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Faustine C.

    1973-01-01

    Critically reviews the current combined writing of Moynihan, Glazer, Herrnstein, Armor, Banfield, Jensen and others, discussing historical perspectives on inequality, the idea of equality, access to schooling as a means toward equality, unequal economic opportunity, and misrepresentations of the adequacies of the Black family. (JM)

  7. Marginality and Triangle Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nánásiová, O. L̆ga; Valášková, L̆ubica

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we study conditions for the existence of a 3-dimensional s-map on a quantum logic under assumption that marginal s-maps are known. We show that the existence of such a 3-dimensional s-map depends on the triangle inequality of d-map, which on a Boolean algebra represents a measure of symmetric difference.

  8. How Colleges Perpetuate Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Colleges, once seen as beacons of egalitarian hope, are becoming bastions of wealth and privilege that perpetuate inequality. The chance of a low-income child obtaining a bachelor's degree has not budged in three decades: Just 6 percent of students from the lowest-income families earned a bachelor's degree by age 24 in 1970, and in 2002 still only…

  9. Hacking the Bell test using classical light in energy-time entanglement–based quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson’s configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059

  10. Hacking the Bell test using classical light in energy-time entanglement-based quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-12-01

    Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059

  11. Violation of Bell’s inequality in a spin 1/2 quantum magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy Singh, Harkirat Mitra, Chiranjib

    2014-04-24

    Violation of Bell’s inequality test has been established as an efficient tool to determine the presence of entanglement in quantum spin 1/2 magnets. Herein, macroscopic thermodynamic quantities, namely, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat have been employed to perform Bell’s inequality test for [NH{sub 4}CuPO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O], a spin 1/2 antiferromagnet with nearest neighbor interactions. The mean value of the Bell operator is quantified and plotted as a function of temperature. The threshold temperature is determined above which the Bell’s inequality is not violated and a good consistency is found between the analyses done on magnetic and thermal data.

  12. Bell experiments with random destination sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Cabello, Adan

    2011-03-15

    It is generally assumed that sources randomly sending two particles to one or two different observers, random destination sources (RDSs), cannot be used for genuine quantum nonlocality tests because of the postselection loophole. We demonstrate that Bell experiments not affected by the postselection loophole may be performed with (i) an RDS and local postselection using perfect detectors, (ii) an RDS, local postselection, and fair sampling assumption with any detection efficiency, and (iii) an RDS and a threshold detection efficiency required to avoid the detection loophole. These results allow the adoption of RDS setups which are simpler and more efficient for long-distance free-space Bell tests, and extend the range of physical systems which can be used for loophole-free Bell tests.

  13. The Bell states in noncommutative algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beil, Charlie

    2014-10-01

    We introduce new mathematical aspects of the Bell states using matrix factorizations, non-noetherian singularities, and noncommutative blowups. A matrix factorization of a polynomial p consists of two matrices ϕ1, ϕ2 such that ϕ1ϕ2 = ϕ2ϕ1 = p id. Using this notion, we show how the Bell states emerge from the separable product of two mixtures, by defining pure states over complex matrices rather than just the complex numbers. We then show in an idealized algebraic setting that pure states are supported on non-noetherian singularities. Moreover, we find that the collapse of a Bell state is intimately related to the representation theory of the noncommutative blowup along its singular support. This presents an exchange in geometry: the nonlocal commutative spacetime of the entangled state emerges from an underlying local noncommutative spacetime.

  14. Communication acoustics in Bell Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    Communication aoustics has been a central theme in Bell Labs research since its inception. Telecommunication serves human information exchange. And, humans favor spoken language as a principal mode. The atmospheric medium typically provides the link between articulation and hearing. Creation, control and detection of sound, and the human's facility for generation and perception are basic ingredients of telecommunication. Electronics technology of the 1920s ushered in great advances in communication at a distance, a strong economical impetus being to overcome bandwidth limitations of wireline and cable. Early research established criteria for speech transmission with high quality and intelligibility. These insights supported exploration of means for efficient transmission-obtaining the greatest amount of speech information over a given bandwidth. Transoceanic communication was initiated by undersea cables for telegraphy. But these long cables exhibited very limited bandwidth (order of few hundred Hz). The challenge of sending voice across the oceans spawned perhaps the best known speech compression technique of history-the Vocoder, which parametrized the signal for transmission in about 300 Hz bandwidth, one-tenth that required for the typical waveform channel. Quality and intelligibility were grave issues (and they still are). At the same time parametric representation offered possibilities for encryption and privacy inside a traditional voice bandwidth. Confidential conversations between Roosevelt and Churchill during World War II were carried over high-frequency radio by an encrypted vocoder system known as Sigsaly. Major engineering advances in the late 1940s and early 1950s moved telecommunications into a new regime-digital technology. These key advances were at least three: (i) new understanding of time-discrete (sampled) representation of signals, (ii) digital computation (especially binary based), and (iii) evolving capabilities in microelectronics that

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  18. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  20. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  1. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  2. The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…

  3. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by...

  4. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  5. 46 CFR 169.731 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 169.731 Section 169.731 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.731 General alarm bells. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over each general alarm bell must be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch...

  6. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  7. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false PVHO-Closed bells. 197.330 Section 197.330 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each closed bell must meet the requirements of § 197.328 and—...

  8. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false PVHO-Closed bells. 197.330 Section 197.330 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each closed bell must meet the requirements of § 197.328 and—...

  9. Exploring the renormalization of quantum discord and Bell non-locality in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-cheng; Shi, Jia-dong; Ding, Zhi-yong; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of external magnet field g on the relationship among the quantum discord, Bell non-locality and quantum phase transition by employing quantum renormalization-group (QRG) method in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model is investigated. In our model, external magnet field g can influence the phase diagrams. The results have shown that both the two quantum correlation measures can develop two saturated values, which are associated with two distinct phases: long-ranged ordered Ising phase and the paramagnetic phase with the number of QRG iterations increasing. Additionally, quantum non-locality always existent in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase no matter whatever the value of g is and what times QRG steps are carried out and we conclude that the quantum non-locality always exists not only suitable for the two sites of block, but for nearest-neighbor blocks in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase. However, the block-block correlation in the paramagnetic phase is not strong enough to violate the Bell-CHSH inequality as the size of system becomes large. Furthermore, when the system violates the CHSH inequality, i.e., satisfies quantum non-locality, it needs to be entangled. On the other way, if the system obeys the CHSH inequality, it may be entangled or not. To gain further insight, the non-analytic and scaling behavior of QD and Bell non-locality have also been analyzed in detail and this phenomenon indicates that the behavior of the correlation can perfectly help one to observe the quantum critical properties of the model.

  10. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  11. Affine Isoperimetry and Information Theoretic Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Songjun

    2012-01-01

    There are essential connections between the isoperimetric theory and information theoretic inequalities. In general, the Brunn-Minkowski inequality and the entropy power inequality, as well as the classical isoperimetric inequality and the classical entropy-moment inequality, turn out to be equivalent in some certain sense, respectively. Based on…

  12. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...

  13. 78 FR 37152 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Bell Model 206L, L-1, L-3, and L-4 helicopters. This proposed AD would require measuring each main... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862... 10, 2011, to correct an unsafe condition for Bell Model 206L, L-1, L-3, and L-4 helicopters....

  14. Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2016-07-01

    Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity. PMID:26319412

  15. Bell X-5 Model and Molds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    A Langley model maker examines the molds used to form a model of the Bell X-5, a variable sweep craft that first flew in June of 1951. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 64), by James Schultz.

  16. Bell Yung on Music of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with Bell Yung, a scholar of Chinese music and ethnomusicology. Maintains that world music (music from many nations and cultures) should be taught as early as possible in the schools and at home. Includes two lesson plans for teaching about Chinese music. (CFR)

  17. How Skewed Is "The Bell Curve"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Norris M.

    Few books have generated as much controversy as the recently published "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life." The tremendous polarization on the issue of the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) to race and social class, reinforced by the book, and the potential this book has for undermining social programs…

  18. Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)

  19. MIDAS™ DEMONSTRATION PLOTS IN BELL PEPPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A demonstration trial comparing MIDAS™ (methyl iodide:chloropicrin 50:50) to methyl bromide:chloropicrin (67:33) was conducted in Saint Lucie County, FL on a commercial bell pepper production farm. Methyl bromide:chloropicrin was shank injected into performed beds at 392 kg/ha using three 25 cm dee...

  20. Bell nipple densitometer method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Rochon, R.W.; Sneed, J.W. Jr.

    1983-10-11

    A method and apparatus for continuously determining the amount of entrained gases and drilling fluid before the entrained gas is released to the atmosphere whereby differential pressures at vertically spaced locations in a bell nipple are monitored to determine changes in the weight of drilling fluid due to entrained gases.

  1. More sound of church bells: Authors' correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kasper, Lutz; Burde, Jan-Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In the recently published article "The Sound of Church Bells: Tracking Down the Secret of a Traditional Arts and Crafts Trade," the bell frequencies have been erroneously oversimplified. The problem affects Eqs. (2) and (3), which were derived from the elementary "coffee mug model" and in which we used the speed of sound in air. However, this does not make sense from a physical point of view, since air only acts as a sound carrier, not as a sound source in the case of bells. Due to the excellent fit of the theoretical model with the empirical data, we unfortunately failed to notice this error before publication. However, all other equations, e.g., the introduction of the correction factor in Eq. (4) and the estimation of the mass in Eqs. (5) and (6) are not affected by this error, since they represent empirical models. However, it is unfortunate to introduce the speed of sound in air as a constant in Eqs. (4) and (6). Instead, we suggest the following simple rule of thumb for relating the radius of a church bell R to its humming frequency fhum:

  2. "The Bell Curve" on Separated Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancher, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    "The Bell Curve" declares that studies of separated identical twins--the "purest" of "direct" methods for estimating IQ heritability--indicate a value of +.75-+.80. But, the main study cited suggests a heritability of "two-thirds" for the middle class, and Herrnstein and Murray neglect to mention numerous complicating factors in twin studies that…

  3. Transgressions: Teaching According to "bell hooks."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan E.; Fitzgerald, Linda May; Haack, Joel; Clayton, Scharron

    1998-01-01

    Four faculty members from different disciplines at the University of Northern Iowa discuss whether and to what extent they were engaging in the critical pedagogy proposed by bell hooks [sic], a writer on feminism, racism, pedagogy, and black intellectual life. They also consider the ways in which hooks's work informs their understanding of…

  4. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  5. Mouthpiece and Bell Effects on Trombone Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the vibrating air column in a trombone can be demonstrated quite readily by first calculating the expected resonant frequencies of a piece of PVC pipe that is the same length as a trombone, then replacing portions of the PVC pipe of the same length with first a cup-shaped mouthpiece and…

  6. Authenticated Quantum Dialogue Based on Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes an authenticated quantum dialogue (AQD) based on Bell states, allowing two communicants to perform mutual authentication and secure bidirectional communications simultaneously via public classical channels. Compared with the other AQDs, the proposed protocol is free from information leakage and is secure under several well-known attacks.

  7. Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Rezaee, M.; Seyed Yagoobi, S. K. A.

    2005-12-15

    It has been shown that finding generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for d{sub 1}xd{sub 2}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}xd{sub n} systems reduces to linear programming if the feasible region is a polygon by itself, and it can be solved approximately via linear programming if the feasible region is encircled by a polygon. Since solving linear programming for the generic case is difficult, multiqubit, 2xN and 3x3 systems for the special case of generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for some particular choice of parameters have been considered. We obtain the optimal nondecomposable entanglement witness for a 3x3 system for some particular choice of parameters. By proving the optimality of the well-known reduction map and combining it with the optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses (named critical entanglement witnesses) the family of optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses has also been obtained. Using the approximately critical entanglement witnesses, some 3x3 bound entangled states are so detected. So the well-known Choi map as a particular case of the positive map in connection with this witness via Jamiolkowski isomorphism has been considered.

  8. Communication cost of simulating Bell correlations.

    PubMed

    Toner, B F; Bacon, D

    2003-10-31

    What classical resources are required to simulate quantum correlations? For the simplest and most important case of local projective measurements on an entangled Bell pair state, we show that exact simulation is possible using local hidden variables augmented by just one bit of classical communication. Certain quantum teleportation experiments, which teleport a single qubit, therefore admit a local hidden variables model. PMID:14611317

  9. Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.

  10. Is "The Bell Curve" a Ringer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangler, David G.

    1995-01-01

    Calls for careful but unemotional criticism of "The Bell Curve." Notes that: three chapters that deal with the IQ-race relationship have received most critical attention; genetically based racial categories do not exist; disadvantaged minority-group students have achieved success in Catholic schools with high expectations of students; and social…

  11. Keep Them Bells A-Tolling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes "The Bell Curve" for its lack of understanding of the philosophical nature of intelligence (and mind). Points out that various philosophical attempts to analyze the concept of intelligence are routinely ignored by empirical workers in the field of IQ testing because such philosophical work makes obvious the lack of connection between IQ…

  12. "The Bell Curve": Review of Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    This paper reviews the book "The Bell Curve" by Harvard psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein and political scientist Charles Alan Murray. The paper asserts as the book's main points and implications: (1) one's socioeconomic place in life is now determined by IQ rather than family wealth and influence; (2) ruling white elites, who have benefited from…

  13. Unification of multiqubit polygamy inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-03-01

    I establish a unified view of polygamy of multiqubit entanglement. I first introduce a two-parameter generalization of the entanglement of assistance, namely, the unified entanglement of assistance for bipartite quantum states, and provide an analytic lower bound in two-qubit systems. I show a broad class of polygamy inequalities of multiqubit entanglement in terms of the unified entanglement of assistance that encapsulates all known multiqubit polygamy inequalities as special cases. I further show that this class of polygamy inequalities can be improved into tighter inequalities for three-qubit systems.

  14. The design and analysis of new musical bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, Neil M.

    2001-05-01

    The design and analysis of a series of new musical bells will be presented in this paper. Modal analysis of a wide range of bell-like geometries using FEA revealed the presence and significance of transverse axial modes in unconstrained bell models, leading to a new understanding of the relationships between bell geometry and modal behavior. This understanding was used to adjust simple parametric models of bell geometry to arrive at appropriate geometries to begin numerical shape optimization for the design of bells with a range of desired overtone tunings. Pitch salience is well known to depend on the degree of harmonic relationships between pure tones in complex stimuli. Bells intended to produce a single, highly salient pitch were designed and manufactured with up to the first 7 overtones tuned to the harmonic series. Other bells with overtones tuned to subsets of two or three harmonic series were also designed and manufactured. These bells were intended to produce multiple pitch perceptions of approximately equal strength. Spectral analysis and range of numerical psycho-acoustic models are used to evaluate the sounds of manufactured bells against these design objectives. [I would like to acknowledge the close collaboration of Dr. Anton Hasell of Australian Bell.

  15. A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.

  16. [Inequities in access to information and inequities in health].

    PubMed

    Filho, Alberto Pellegrini

    2002-01-01

    This piece presents evidence that inequities in information are an important determinant of health inequities and that eliminating these inequities in access to information, especially by using new information and communication technologies (ICTs), could represent a significant advance in terms of guaranteeing the right to health for all. The piece reviews the most important international scientific research findings on the determinants of the health of populations, emphasizing the role of socioeconomic inequities and of deteriorating social capital as factors that worsen health conditions. It is noteworthy that Latin America has both socioeconomic inequities and major sectors of the population living in poverty. Among the fundamental strategies for overcoming the inequalities and the poverty are greater participation by the poor in civic life and the strengthening of social capital. The contribution that the new ICTs could make to these strategies is analyzed, and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) is discussed. Coordinated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), the VHL is a contribution by the Pan American Health Organization that takes advantage of the potential of ICTs to democratize information and knowledge and consequently promote equity in health. The "digital gap" is discussed as something that can produce inequity itself and also increase other inequities, including ones in health. Prospects are discussed for overcoming this gap, emphasizing the role that governments and international organizations should play in order to expand access to the global public good that information for social development is. PMID:12162837

  17. On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Partha

    2010-01-01

    By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.

  18. Testing noncontextuality inequalities that are building blocks of quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Mauricio; Cañas, Gustavo; Gómez, Esteban S.; Barra, Johanna F.; Xavier, Guilherme B.; Lima, Gustavo; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Baccari, Flavio; Sciarrino, Fabio; Cabello, Adán

    2015-09-01

    Measurement scenarios containing events with relations of exclusivity represented by pentagons, heptagons, nonagons, etc., or their complements are the only ones in which quantum probabilities cannot be described classically. Interestingly, quantum theory predicts that the maximum values for any of these graphs cannot be achieved in Bell inequality scenarios. With the exception of the pentagon, this prediction remained experimentally unexplored. Here we test the quantum maxima for the heptagon and the complement of the heptagon using three- and five-dimensional quantum states, respectively. In both cases, we adopt two different encodings: linear transverse momentum and orbital angular momentum of single photons. Our results exclude maximally noncontextual hidden-variable theories and are in good agreement with the maxima predicted by quantum theory.

  19. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in…

  20. The Geography of Gender Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356

  1. The Geography of Gender Inequality.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356

  2. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  3. Loss-tolerant hybrid measurement test of CHSH inequality with weakly amplified N00N states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töppel, Falk; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    Although our understanding of Bell’s theorem and experimental techniques to test it have improved over the last 40 years, thus far all Bell tests have suffered at least from the detection or the locality loophole. Most photonic Bell tests rely on inefficient discrete-outcome measurements, often provided by photon counting detection. One possible way to close the detection loophole in photonic Bell tests is to involve efficient continuous-variable measurements instead, such as homodyne detection. Here, we propose a test of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality that applies photon counting and homodyne detection on weakly amplified two-photon N00N states. The scheme suggested is remarkably robust against experimental imperfections and suits the limits of current technology. As amplified quantum states are considered, our work also contributes to the exploration of entangled macroscopic quantum systems. Further, it may constitute an alternative platform for a loophole-free Bell test, which is also important for quantum-technological applications.

  4. Ringin' the water bell: dynamic modes of curved fluid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolinski, John; Aharoni, Hillel; Fineberg, Jay; Sharon, Eran

    2015-11-01

    A water bell is formed by fluid flowing in a thin, coherent sheet in the shape of a bell. Experimentally, a water bell is created via the impact of a cylindrical jet on a flat surface. Its shape is set by the splash angle (the separation angle) of the resulting cylindrically symmetric water sheet. The separation angle is altered by adjusting the height of a lip surrounding the impact point, as in a water sprinkler. We drive the lip's height sinusoidally, altering the separation angle, and ringin' the water bell. This forcing generates disturbances on the steady-state water bell that propagate forward and backward in the fluid's reference frame at well-defined velocities, and interact, resulting in the emergence of an interference pattern unique to each steady-state geometry. We analytically model these dynamics by linearizing the amplitude of the bell's response about the underlying curved geometry. This simple model predicts the nodal structure over a wide range of steady-state water bell configurations and driving frequencies. Due to the curved water bell geometry, the nodal structure is quite complex; nevertheless, the predicted nodal structure agrees extremely well with the experimental data. When we drive the bell beyond perturbative separation angles, the nodal locations surprisingly persist, despite the strikingly altered underlying water bell shape. At extreme driving amplitudes the water sheet assumes a rich variety of tortuous, non-convex shapes; nevertheless, the fluid sheet remains intact.

  5. Universal patterns of inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2010-07-01

    Probability distributions of money, income and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end, in agreement with the empirical data for the USA. We show that the increase in income inequality in the USA originates primarily from the increase in the income fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income. Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990, 2000 and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality of energy consumption.

  6. Unifying framework for relaxations of the causal assumptions in Bell's theorem.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Kueng, R; Brask, J B; Gross, D

    2015-04-10

    Bell's theorem shows that quantum mechanical correlations can violate the constraints that the causal structure of certain experiments impose on any classical explanation. It is thus natural to ask to which degree the causal assumptions-e.g., locality or measurement independence-have to be relaxed in order to allow for a classical description of such experiments. Here we develop a conceptual and computational framework for treating this problem. We employ the language of Bayesian networks to systematically construct alternative causal structures and bound the degree of relaxation using quantitative measures that originate from the mathematical theory of causality. The main technical insight is that the resulting problems can often be expressed as computationally tractable linear programs. We demonstrate the versatility of the framework by applying it to a variety of scenarios, ranging from relaxations of the measurement independence, locality, and bilocality assumptions, to a novel causal interpretation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violations. PMID:25910096

  7. Unifying Framework for Relaxations of the Causal Assumptions in Bell's Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, R.; Kueng, R.; Brask, J. B.; Gross, D.

    2015-04-01

    Bell's theorem shows that quantum mechanical correlations can violate the constraints that the causal structure of certain experiments impose on any classical explanation. It is thus natural to ask to which degree the causal assumptions—e.g., locality or measurement independence—have to be relaxed in order to allow for a classical description of such experiments. Here we develop a conceptual and computational framework for treating this problem. We employ the language of Bayesian networks to systematically construct alternative causal structures and bound the degree of relaxation using quantitative measures that originate from the mathematical theory of causality. The main technical insight is that the resulting problems can often be expressed as computationally tractable linear programs. We demonstrate the versatility of the framework by applying it to a variety of scenarios, ranging from relaxations of the measurement independence, locality, and bilocality assumptions, to a novel causal interpretation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violations.

  8. EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question.

  9. BELLE STARR CAVE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Stroud, Raymond B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Belle Starr Cave Wilderness Study Area in Arkansas concluded that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in the area. There is a probable resource potential for small quantities of natural gas. A coal bed that underlies the area contains demonstrated coal resources of about 22. 5 million tons in a bed that averages less than 28 in. thick. Despite its contained coal, this area is not shown as having a coal resource potential.

  10. Dual-bell altitude compensating nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, M.; Fisher, S.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this cold flow test effort was to assess the performance characteristics of dual bell nozzles and to obtain preliminary design criteria by testing a number of configurations. Characteristics of interest included low altitude performance, high altitude performance, and the flow transition process. In combination with this performance data, other factors such as cost, weight, fabricability, and vehicle related issues could then be traded to establish the feasibility of the concept.

  11. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Krbot Skoric, Magdalena; Adamec, Ivan; Habek, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate vestibular nerve involvement in patients with Bell's palsy with ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP and cVEMP). Ten patients who were diagnosed with Bell's palsy and ten healthy controls were included. All patients underwent VEMP recordings within 6 days after their initial presentation. Patients with Bell's palsy had greater oVEMP asymmetry ratio comparing to healthy controls (-38.4 ± 28.7 % vs -1.3 ± 19.3 %, p = 0.005). As well N10 latencies of the oVEMP response were prolonged comparing to healthy controls (11.575 vs 9.72 ms). There was no difference in cVEMP asymmetry ratio or latencies between groups. We found no correlation between House-Brackmann grading scale and oVEMP asymmetry ratio (r = 0.003, p = 0.994). There are three possible explanations for increased oVEMP amplitudes on the affected side: (1) oVEMP response on the ipsilateral eye could be contaminated by facial nerve activity (blink reflex); (2) the amplitude of N10-P33 could be affected through the stapedial reflex; and (3) increased oVEMP amplitude could be the consequence of the vestibular nerve dysfunction itself, with prolonged latencies of the N10 oVEMP further supporting this explanation. The results of this study indicate possible involvement of the superior branch of the vestibular nerve in patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24916836

  12. Perfect bell nozzle parametric and optimization curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, J. L.; Blount, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Nozzle contour data for untruncated Bell nozzles with expansion area ratios to 6100 and a specific heat ratio of 1.2 are provided. Curves for optimization of nozzles for maximum thrust coefficient within a given length, surface area, or area ratio are included. The nozzles are two dimensional axisymmetric and calculations were performed using the method of characteristics. Drag due to wall friction was included in the final thrust coefficient.

  13. Upgrade of the Belle Silicon Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Belle SVD Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    The Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) was inaugurated in 1999 and has delivered excellent physics results since then, which were, for example, recognized in the Nobel Prize award 2008 to Kobayashi and Masukawa. An overall luminosity of 895 fb -1 has been recorded as of December 2008, and the present system will be running until 1 ab -1 is achieved. After that, a major upgrade is foreseen for both the KEK-B machine and the Belle detector. Already in 2004, the Letter of Intent for KEK Super B Factory was published. Intermediate steps of upgrade were considered for the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), which performs very well but already got close to its limit regarding the occupancy in the innermost layer and dead time. Eventually it was decided to keep the existing SVD2 system until 1 ab -1 and completely replace the silicon detector as well as its readout system for Super-Belle. The future SVD will be composed of double-sided silicon sensors as the present detector, but equipped with faster readout electronics, namely the APV25 chips originally made for CMS at CERN. Moreover, it will be enlarged by two additional layers and equipped with a double layer of DEPFET pixel detectors surrounding the beam pipe. The silicon sensors will be fabricated from 6 in. wafers (compared to the current 4 in. types) and the readout chain will be completely replaced, including front-end, repeaters and the back-end electronics in the counting house.

  14. Search for dark particles at Belle (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaegle, Igal; Belle (II) Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We will present a search for the dark photon, A', and the dark Higgs boson, h', in the so-called Higgs-strahlung channel, e+e- -->A'h' , with h' -->A'A' . We investigated ten exclusive final-states with A' -->e+e- , μ+μ- , or π+π- , in the mass ranges 0 . 1 GeV/c2 Belle, we observed no significant signal. We will also discuss prospects for searches for the light dark matter and the dark photon in the radiative decay process at Belle and Belle II.

  15. Unified criterion for security of secret sharing in terms of violation of Bell inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek

    2003-09-01

    In secret sharing protocols, a secret is to be distributed among several partners such that leaving out any number of them, the rest do not have the complete information. Strong multiqubit correlations in the state by which secret sharing is carried out had been proposed as a criterion for security of such protocols against individual attacks by an eavesdropper. However we show that states with weak multiqubit correlations can also be used for secure secret sharing. That our state has weak multiqubit correlations is shown from the perspective of violation of local realism, and also by showing that its higher-order correlations are described by lower ones. We then present a unified criterion for security of secret sharing in terms of violation of local realism, which works when the secret sharing state is the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state (with strong multiqubit correlations), as well as states of a different class (with weak multiqubit correlations)

  16. Global multipartite nonlocality and Bell-type inequalities in infinite-size quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhao-Yu; Guo, Bin; Huang, Hai-Lin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we characterize the global multipartite nonlocality in one-dimensional infinite-size spin-1/2 chains. For this purpose, we calculate the multipartite nonlocality of n -site subchains, and take the large-n limit. As n increases from 2 to 100, we find that the average revenue and the marginal revenue of nonlocality converge gradually, thus they can be used to characterize the global multipartite nonlocality in infinite-size chains. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the quantum phase transition (QPT) points of the transverse-field Ising model and the XXZ model, in the large-n limit, multipartite nonlocality becomes extremely sensitive to external perturbation, that is, arbitrarily small perturbation away from the QPT points would lead to a drastic change in the global nonlocality. This signal of QPTs is easily distinguishable, and can be used to detect QPTs. We also draw a vivid physical picture of multipartite correlations and QPTs by analogy with magnetic domains in ferromagnets.

  17. Enhanced violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality with optimized time-bin-entangled ququarts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Takuya; Takesue, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    High-dimensional quantum entanglement is drawing attention because it enables us to perform quantum information tasks that are robust against noises. To test the nonlocality of entangled qudits, the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu (CGLMP) inequality has been proposed and demonstrated using qudits based on orbital angular momentum, time-energy uncertainty, and frequency bins. Here, we report the generation and observation of time-bin entangled ququarts. We implemented a measurement for the CGLMP inequality test using cascaded delay Mach-Zehnder interferometers fabricated by using planar light-wave circuit technology, with which we achieved a precise and stable measurement for time-bin-entangled ququarts. In addition, we generated an optimized entangled state by modulating the pump pulse intensities, with which we can observe the theoretical maximum violation for the CGLMP inequality test. As a result, we successfully observed a Bell-type parameter S4=2.774 ±0.025 violating the CGLMP inequality for the maximally entangled state and an enhanced Bell-type parameter S4=2.913 ±0.023 for the optimized entangled state.

  18. perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. This switching hall, built in 1890, was designed by Frederick j. osterling. Other Bell Telephone buildings on the block include the twenty-story headquarters building (1923, james t. windrim) on the left, and an eleven-story building (1905, alden & Harlow) on the right. - Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania Building, 416-420 Seventh Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…

  20. Generalized convexity and inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, G. D.; Vamanamurthy, M. K.; Vuorinen, M.

    2007-11-01

    Let and let be the family of all mean values of two numbers in (some examples are the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means). Given , we say that a function is (m1,m2)-convex if f(m1(x,y))[less-than-or-equals, slant]m2(f(x),f(y)) for all . The usual convexity is the special case when both mean values are arithmetic means. We study the dependence of (m1,m2)-convexity on m1 and m2 and give sufficient conditions for (m1,m2)-convexity of functions defined by Maclaurin series. The criteria involve the Maclaurin coefficients. Our results yield a class of new inequalities for several special functions such as the Gaussian hypergeometric function and a generalized Bessel function.

  1. Detecting nonlocality of noisy multipartite states with the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio; Aolita, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality was originally proposed as a Bell inequality to detect nonlocality in bipartite systems. However, it can also be used to certify the nonlocality of multipartite quantum states. We apply this to study the nonlocality of multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ), W, and graph states under local decoherence processes. We derive lower bounds on the critical local-noise strength tolerated by the states before becoming local. In addition, for the whole noisy dynamics, we derive lower bounds on the corresponding nonlocal content for the three classes of states. All the bounds presented can be calculated efficiently and, in some cases, provide significantly tighter estimates than with any other known method. For example, they reveal that N -qubit GHZ states undergoing local dephasing are, for all N , nonlocal throughout all the dephasing dynamics.

  2. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

  3. Bell's conspiracy, Schrödinger's black cat and global invariant sets.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T N

    2015-08-01

    A locally causal hidden-variable theory of quantum physics need not be constrained by the Bell inequalities if this theory also partially violates the measurement independence condition. However, such violation can appear unphysical, implying implausible conspiratorial correlations between the hidden variables of particles being measured and earlier determinants of instrumental settings. A novel physically plausible explanation for such correlations is proposed, based on the hypothesis that states of physical reality lie precisely on a non-computational measure-zero dynamically invariant set in the state space of the universe: the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate. To illustrate the relevance of the concept of a global invariant set, a simple analogy is considered where a massive object is propelled into a black hole depending on the decay of a radioactive atom. It is claimed that a locally causal hidden-variable theory constrained by the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality without being conspiratorial, superdeterministic, fine-tuned or retrocausal, and the theory readily accommodates the classical compatibilist notion of (experimenter) free will. PMID:26124256

  4. 76 FR 66609 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model 407 and 427 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... Textron Canada (Bell) Model 407 and 427 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT....

  5. 78 FR 33204 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation... AD requires inspecting the bearing to determine whether an incorrectly manufactured seal material is... incorrect seal material that does not meet Bell specifications. The actions specified by this AD...

  6. 78 FR 48822 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ..., 2013, we issued AD 2013-11-05, amendment 39-17465 (78 FR 33204, dated June 4, 2013) for Bell Model 214B... specifications and under extreme heat could result in seal failure and grease loss from the bearing. The... will affect 26 helicopters of U.S. Registry. We estimate that operators may incur the following...

  7. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  8. Radiative and Electroweak Penguins at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Hyo Jung

    2010-02-10

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are a sensitive probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model. We study the inclusive and exclusive radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B meson and also search an exotic particle seen by the HyperCP experiment. The measurements are based on a large data sample of 605 fb{sup -1} containing 657 millions BB-bar pairs collected at the UPSILON(4S) with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  9. Evidence based management of Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    McCaul, James A; Cascarini, Luke; Godden, Daryl; Coombes, Darryl; Brennan, Peter A; Kerawala, Cyrus J

    2014-05-01

    Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is caused by the acute onset of lower motor neurone weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of untreated cases. In the remainder facial nerve function will be impaired in the long term. We summarise current published articles regarding early management strategies to maximise recovery of facial nerve function and minimise long-term sequelae in the condition. PMID:24685475

  10. 46 CFR 197.334 - Open diving bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open diving bells. 197.334 Section 197.334 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.334 Open diving bells. Each open...

  11. 46 CFR 197.334 - Open diving bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open diving bells. 197.334 Section 197.334 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.334 Open diving bells. Each open...

  12. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  14. Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes strategies…

  15. Critical Race Pedagogy 2.0: Lessons from Derrick Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Marvin; Jennings, Michael E.; Hughes, Sherick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to honor the rich legacy of Derrick Bell by detailing how exploring his specific contributions to critical race theory (CRT) provided lessons for developing and refining critical race pedagogy (CRP). We examine Bell's racial realism thesis in connection with his pedagogical work. In doing so, we find that he was as…

  16. A Fine Balance: Margaret Bell--Physician and Physical Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrynn, Alison M.

    2005-01-01

    Margaret Bell's life illustrates the limited opportunities for women in higher education in addition to the restrictions they faced when attempting to control their narrow sphere of professional influence. Bell's career is also an outstanding exemplar of connections physical education had with health and medicine in its early years and the shift…

  17. 21. May 1985. DETAIL OF CALL BELLS (Located under hood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. May 1985. DETAIL OF CALL BELLS (Located under hood of back porch, each bell is mechanically rung and has a tone specific to one of several rooms on the first floor) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  18. Bell clapper impact dynamics and the voicing of a carillon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N. H.; McGee, W. T.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.

    2002-03-01

    The periodic re-voicing of the bell clappers of the Australian National Carillon in Canberra provided an opportunity for the study of the acoustic effects of this operation. After prolonged playing, the impact of the pear-shaped clapper on a bell produces a significant flat area on both the clapper and the inside surface of the bell. This deformation significantly decreases the duration of the impact event and has the effect of increasing the relative amplitude of higher modes in the bell sound, making it ``brighter'' or even ``clangy.'' This effect is studied by comparing the spectral envelope of the sounds of several bells before and after voicing. Theoretical analysis shows that the clapper actually strikes the bell and remains in contact with the bell surface until it is ejected by a displacement pulse that has traveled around the complete circumference of the bell. The contact time, typically about 1 ms, is therefore much longer than the effective impact time, which is only a few tenths of a millisecond. Both the impact time and the contact time are reduced by the presence of a flat on the clapper.

  19. Bell clapper impact dynamics and the voicing of a carillon.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, N H; McGee, W T; Tarnopolsky, A Z

    2002-03-01

    The periodic re-voicing of the bell clappers of the Australian National Carillon in Canberra provided an opportunity for the study of the acoustic effects of this operation. After prolonged playing, the impact of the pear-shaped clapper on a bell produces a significant flat area on both the clapper and the inside surface of the bell. This deformation significantly decreases the duration of the impact event and has the effect of increasing the relative amplitude of higher modes in the bell sound, making it "brighter" or even "clangy." This effect is studied by comparing the spectral envelope of the sounds of several bells before and after voicing. Theoretical analysis shows that the clapper actually strikes the bell and remains in contact with the bell surface until it is ejected by a displacement pulse that has traveled around the complete circumference of the bell. The contact time, typically about 1 ms, is therefore much longer than the effective impact time, which is only a few tenths of a millisecond. Both the impact time and the contact time are reduced by the presence of a flat on the clapper. PMID:11931320

  20. 3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  1. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all sleeping accommodations, public...

  2. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all sleeping accommodations, public...

  3. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all sleeping accommodations, public...

  4. Changing Career Patterns for Women in the Bell System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Virginia R.

    The Bell system is the largest nongovernmental employer of people in the country, and over 50 percent of the people employed by its systems are women. This paper deals with the new personnel policies concerning women within the Bell system; in particular, it describes the AT & T Management Assessment Program (MAP), the vehicle used to identify…

  5. 78 FR 7645 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model 412 and 412EP helicopters. This AD requires creating a component history card or equivalent record and begin counting and recording the number of accumulated landings for each high aft crosstube assembly (crosstube). Also, this AD requires installing ``caution'' decals regarding towing of a......

  6. The Spread of Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Deborah S.; Deshpande, Omkar; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of socioeconomic inequality have been debated since the time of Plato. Many reasons for the development of stratification have been proposed, from the need for hierarchical control over large-scale irrigation systems to the accumulation of small differences in wealth over time via inheritance processes. However, none of these explains how unequal societies came to completely displace egalitarian cultural norms over time. Our study models demographic consequences associated with the unequal distribution of resources in stratified societies. Agent-based simulation results show that in constant environments, unequal access to resources can be demographically destabilizing, resulting in the outward migration and spread of such societies even when population size is relatively small. In variable environments, stratified societies spread more and are also better able to survive resource shortages by sequestering mortality in the lower classes. The predictions of our simulation are provided modest support by a range of existing empirical studies. In short, the fact that stratified societies today vastly outnumber egalitarian societies may not be due to the transformation of egalitarian norms and structures, but may instead reflect the more rapid migration of stratified societies and consequent conquest or displacement of egalitarian societies over time. PMID:21957457

  7. Malnutrition: another health inequality?

    PubMed

    Stratton, Rebecca J

    2007-11-01

    Malnutrition (undernutrition) is one of the many health inequalities facing governments in the 21st century. Malnutrition is a common condition affecting millions of individuals in the UK, particularly older adults, the sick and those cared for within the healthcare system. It costs the National Health Service > pound sterling 7.3 x 109 annually. New data highlight marked geographical differences in the prevalence of malnutrition across England and an inter-relationship between deprivation, malnutrition and poor outcome. As malnutrition is a largely treatable condition, prompt identification and effective prevention and treatment of this costly condition is imperative. Routine screening for malnutrition in high-risk groups (e.g. the elderly and those in areas with high deprivation) and within the healthcare system should be a priority, with screening linked to appropriate plans for the management of malnutrition. Use should be made of specialised interventions, including oral nutritional supplements and artificial nutrition, to aid recovery and improve outcome, with skilled health professionals, including dietitians, involved where possible. Equity of access to nutritional services and treatments for malnutrition needs to occur across the UK and, although complex and multi-factorial, the effects of deprivation and other relevant socio-economic and geographical factors should be addressed. Ultimately, as malnutrition is a public health problem, its identification and treatment must become a priority for governments, healthcare planners and professionals. PMID:17961273

  8. Inequality in paleorecords.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Franco; Qeadan, Fares

    2008-04-01

    Paleorecords provide information on past environmental variability, and help define ecological reference conditions by means of changes in their characteristics (accumulation rate, geochemical composition, density, etc.). A measure of temporal dissimilarity, which has traditionally been used in dendrochronology and is called "mean sensitivity," only focuses on first-order time-series lags. In this paper mean sensitivity was extended to all possible lags to derive a mean sensitivity function (MSF). The MSF is equivalent to a one-dimensional form of the paired relative madogram, a tool used in geostatistics to quantify spatial dependence. We then showed that the sum of madograms for all possible time-series lags is encapsulated by a single parameter, the Gini coefficient. This parameter has long been used by econometricians, social scientists, and ecologists as a synthetic, quantitative measure of inequality and diversity. Considering the connection between the MSF and the madogram, and the convenience of summarizing data heterogeneity with a single number, the Gini coefficient is therefore particularly appropriate for succinctly evaluating the diversity of paleorecords. An example of this application is provided by focusing on public domain dendrochronological data for the western conterminous United States. PMID:18481530

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Dual Bell Nozzle Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braman, Kalen; Garcia, Christian; Ruf, Joseph; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) are working together to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the dual bell nozzle concept. Dual bell nozzles are a form of altitude compensating nozzle that consists of two connecting bell contours. At low altitude the nozzle flows fully in the first, relatively lower area ratio, nozzle. The nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point which joins the two bell contours. This relatively low expansion results in higher nozzle efficiency during the low altitude portion of the launch. As ambient pressure decreases with increasing altitude, the nozzle flow will expand to fill the relatively large area ratio second nozzle. The larger area ratio of the second bell enables higher Isp during the high altitude and vacuum portions of the launch. Despite a long history of theoretical consideration and promise towards improving rocket performance, dual bell nozzles have yet to be developed for practical use and have seen only limited testing. One barrier to use of dual bell nozzles is the lack of control over the nozzle flow transition from the first bell to the second bell during operation. A method that this team is pursuing to enhance the controllability of the nozzle flow transition is manipulation of the film coolant that is injected near the inflection between the two bell contours. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is being run to assess the degree of control over nozzle flow transition generated via manipulation of the film injection. A cold flow dual bell nozzle, without film coolant, was tested over a range of simulated altitudes in 2004 in MSFC's nozzle test facility. Both NASA centers have performed a series of simulations of that dual bell to validate their computational models. Those CFD results are compared to the experimental results within this paper. MSFC then proceeded to add film injection to the CFD grid of the dual bell nozzle. A series of

  10. Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2010-09-15

    It is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell states in polarization, resorting to linear optical elements only. Recently, the hyperentangled Bell state, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, has been used to assist in the complete Bell-state analysis of the four Bell states. However, if the additional degree of freedom is qubitlike, one can only distinguish 7 from the group of 16 states. Here we present a way to distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states completely with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Also, we discuss its application in the quantum teleportation of a particle in an unknown state in two different degrees of freedom and in the entanglement swapping of hyperentangled states. These applications will increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication.

  11. Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Laba, K.; Kincaid, R.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an optimization algorithm that falls in the category of genetic, or evolutionary algorithms. While the bit exchange is the basis of most of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) in research and applications in America, some alternatives, also in the category of evolutionary algorithms, but use a direct, geometrical approach have gained popularity in Europe and Asia. The Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Algorithm (BCB) is in this alternative category and is distinguished by the use of a combination of n-dimensional geometry and the normal distribution, the bell-curve, in the generation of the offspring. The tool for creating a child is a geometrical construct comprising a line connecting two parents and a weighted point on that line. The point that defines the child deviates from the weighted point in two directions: parallel and orthogonal to the connecting line, the deviation in each direction obeying a probabilistic distribution. Tests showed satisfactory performance of BCB. The principal advantage of BCB is its controllability via the normal distribution parameters and the geometrical construct variables.

  12. On my association with Bell Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhi, M. Mohan

    2001-05-01

    I joined the Acoustics Research department at Bell Labs in 1962, just eight days before AT&T launched the first communications satellite, Telstar. During the 39 years between 1962 and my retirement in 2001, I worked on several problems related in one way or another to the processing of speech signals. Schroeder and Flanagan are presenting talks from a broad perspective in this session, so I will confine this talk to just my own contributions and collaborations for some of the topics on which I worked, e.g., echo cancellation, inverse problems in acoustics, speech analysis, synthesis, and recognition. I will tell you about one of these contributions that fortunately turned out to yield considerable profits to AT&T. To give you a flavor of the spirit of free inquiry at Bell Labs during that period, I will tell you about the contribution that I am most proud of (which was supported for several years even though it had no monetary value). And I will also mention the contribution that is most often cited of all my papers (which was in collaboration with two mathematicians, and had nothing at all to do with acoustics).

  13. Bell's theorem, inference, and quantum transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, A. J. M.

    1990-04-01

    Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian inference. Assuming the result of a spin measurement on a particle is governed by a causal variable internal (hidden, “local”) to the particle, one learns about it by making a spin measurement; thence about the internal variable of a second particle correlated with the first; and from there predicts the probabilistic result of spin measurements on the second particle. Such predictions are violated by experiment: locality/causality fails. The statistical nature of the observations rules out signalling; acausal, superluminal, or otherwise. Quantum mechanics is irrelevant to this reasoning, although its correct predictions of experiment imply that it has a nonlocal/acausal interpretation. Cramer's new transactional interpretation, which incorporates this feature by adapting the Wheeler-Feynman idea of advanced and retarded processes to the quantum laws, is advocated. It leads to an invaluable way of envisaging quantum processes. The usual paradoxes melt before this, and one, the “delayed choice” experiment, is chosen for detailed inspection. Nonlocality implies practical difficulties in influencing hidden variables, which provides a very plausible explanation for why they have not yet been found; from this standpoint, Bell's theorem reinforces arguments in favor of hidden variables.

  14. Protocols of quantum key agreement solely using Bell states and Bell measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Alam, Nasir; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-07-01

    Two protocols of quantum key agreement (QKA) that solely use Bell state and Bell measurement are proposed. The first protocol of QKA proposed here is designed for two-party QKA, whereas the second protocol is designed for multi-party QKA. The proposed protocols are also generalized to implement QKA using a set of multi-partite entangled states (e.g., 4-qubit cluster state and Ω state). Security of these protocols arises from the monogamy of entanglement. This is in contrast to the existing protocols of QKA where security arises from the use of non-orthogonal state (non-commutativity principle). Further, it is shown that all the quantum systems that are useful for implementation of quantum dialogue and most of the protocols of secure direct quantum communication can be modified to implement protocols of QKA.

  15. 78 FR 24368 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...We propose to supersede an existing revised airworthiness directive (AD) for all Bell Model 204B and certain serial-numbered Model 205A-1 helicopters with a certain tail rotor pitch control chain (chain) installed. The existing AD requires visually inspecting the chain to detect a crack in the link segments and, for affected Model 205A-1 helicopters, replacing the tail rotor chain and cable......

  16. STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities. PMID:25632292

  17. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices-the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we shift from the notion of Lorenz curves to the notion of Lorenz sets, define inequality indices in terms of Lorenz sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of Lorenz sets. In particular, three principle diameters of Lorenz sets are established as meaningful quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality-thus indeed providing a geometric quantification of socioeconomic inequality.

  18. Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Verma, Rohit; Ghosh, Dipak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell. PMID:26957817

  19. Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Verma, Rohit; Ghosh, Dipak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell. PMID:26957817

  20. Recent results on XYZ States at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengping

    2016-05-01

    Exotic hadronic states beyond the conventional quark model (called charmoniumlike/bottomoniumlike states or XYZ particles) have been sought and many candidates were proposed including glueballs, hybrids, multi-quark states, hadron molecules, etc. Dramatic progress has been made in the study of such exotic hadrons after the running of the B-factories. In this report, I present the most recent results on the XYZ states at Belle, including (1) X states: the first observation of B0 → X(3872)K+π- and evidence for B+ → X(3872)K0 π+; search for the Xb state; (2) Y states: the updated results for the Y(4360) and Y(4660) and cross section measurement of e+e- → K+ K- J/ψ; (3) Z states: the evidence for the Zc(4050)± → π±ψ(2S); search for the Zcs in e+e- → K+ K- J/ψ.

  1. BELL MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-occurrence studies of the Bell Mountain Wilderness study area, Missouri indicate little promise for the occurrence of major base-metal resources. Abandoned prospects on the west side of Shut-in Creek were opened on narrow sulfide-bearing quartz veins in Precambrian volcanic rocks. These veins contain lead, copper, and trace amounts of silver, but they do not constitute a resource at present, and evidence from this study suggests little promise for resources at depth. Unusually high amounts of trace metals in panned concentrates from several drainages on the west side of the area indicate areas of probable resource potential for low-grade lead-zinc deposits buried at depths of a few hundred feet.

  2. QCD inequalities for hadron interactions.

    PubMed

    Detmold, William

    2015-06-01

    We derive generalizations of the Weingarten-Witten QCD mass inequalities for particular multihadron systems. For systems of any number of identical pseudoscalar mesons of maximal isospin, these inequalities prove that near threshold interactions between the constituent mesons must be repulsive and that no bound states can form in these channels. Similar constraints in less symmetric systems are also extracted. These results are compatible with experimental results (where known) and recent lattice QCD calculations, and also lead to a more stringent bound on the nucleon mass than previously derived, m_{N}≥3/2m_{π}. PMID:26196617

  3. Baryon-Meson Mass Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, S.

    1983-12-01

    It is suggested that the inequality mB>32mM is a rigorous result in quantum chromodynamics. The analog for a (q1...qN) baryon in SU(N) is mB>(12N)mM. The inequality is proved for weak coupling and a version of the strong-coupling expansion where a separation Hq1q2q3=H12+H23+H31 of the problem can be achieved. Implications for quantum chromodynamics and composite models are briefly discussed.

  4. Experimental realization of a photonic Bell-state analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Walther, Philip; Zeilinger, Anton

    2005-07-15

    Efficient teleportation is a crucial step for quantum computation and quantum networking. In the case of qubits, four different entangled Bell states have to be distinguished. We have realized a probabilistic, but in principle deterministic, Bell-state analyzer for two photonic quantum bits by the use of a nondestructive controlled-NOT gate based on entirely linear optical elements. This gate was capable of distinguishing between all of the Bell states with higher than 75% fidelity without any noise substraction due to utilizing quantum interference effects.

  5. Improvement of AMGA Python Client Library for Belle II Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Jae-Hyuck; Park, Geunchul; Huh, Taesang; Hwang, Soonwook

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the recent improvement of the AMGA (ARDA Metadata Grid Application) python client library for the Belle II Experiment. We were drawn to the action items related to library improvement after in-depth discussions with the developer of the Belle II distributed computing system. The improvement includes client-side metadata federation support in python, DIRAC SSL library support as well as API refinement for synchronous operation. Some of the improvements have already been applied to the AMGA python client library as bundled with the Belle II distributed computing software. The recent mass Monte- Carlo (MC) production campaign shows that the AMGA python client library is reliably stable.

  6. Bell operator and Gaussian squeezed states in noncommutative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno

    2016-05-01

    We examine putative corrections to the Bell operator due to the noncommutativity in the phase space. Starting from a Gaussian squeezed envelope whose time evolution is driven by commutative (standard quantum mechanics) and noncommutative dynamics, respectively, we conclude that although the time-evolving covariance matrix in the noncommutative case is different from the standard case, the squeezing parameter dominates and there are no noticeable noncommutative corrections to the Bell operator. This indicates that, at least for squeezed states, the privileged states to test Bell correlations, noncommutativity versions of quantum mechanics remain as nonlocal as quantum mechanics itself.

  7. Remainder terms for some quantum entropy inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.

    2014-04-15

    We consider three von Neumann entropy inequalities: subadditivity; Pinsker's inequality for relative entropy; and the monotonicity of relative entropy. For these we state conditions for equality, and we prove some new error bounds away from equality, including an improved version of Pinsker's inequality.

  8. Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…

  9. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  10. Declaring Bankruptcy on Educational Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Lisa; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The authors consider Ladson-Billings' (2006) charge to reframe the way the "achievement gap" is viewed, and put forth the metaphor of "bankruptcy" as a way to acknowledge the educational debt and educational inequity and move towards debt forgiveness in public education. Specifically, the bankruptcy metaphor is used to examine the debt embedded in…

  11. Racial Inequity in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…

  12. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  13. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  14. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…

  15. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as... on the surface to the maximum design diving depth; (5) Be constructed and equipped as required...

  16. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as... on the surface to the maximum design diving depth; (5) Be constructed and equipped as required...

  17. 6. Bell tower and storage building, view northeast, west and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Bell tower and storage building, view northeast, west and south sides - Doubling Point Light Station, End of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  18. VIEW OF FOREDECK FROM ATOP PILOT HOUSE, SIGNAL BELL SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FOREDECK FROM ATOP PILOT HOUSE, SIGNAL BELL SEEN IN FOREGROUND WITH AUXILIARY MUSHROOM ANCHOR AND LIFTING TACKLE ON STARBOARD (RIGHT) SIDE. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Help Desk Answers: Do corticosteroids relieve Bell's palsy?

    PubMed

    Soch, Kathy; Purtle, David; Ara, Mary; Dabbs, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Yes, but not severe disease. Corticosteroids likely improve facial motor function in adults with mild to moderate Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids are probably ineffective in treating cosmetically disabling or severe disease. PMID:27158696

  20. The silicon strip vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    The Belle II upgrade of the Belle experiment will extend the search for physics beyond the standard model. The upgrade is currently under construction, and foreseen to complete in time for the physics run scheduled for 2016. The vertex detector of the Belle II comprises two types of silicon detectors: the pixel detector (PXD) and the strip detector (SVD) using double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). One of the most characteristic features of the SVD is a unique chip-on-sensor scheme which enabling good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio while reducing the material budget. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme, status and future prospects of the Belle II SVD.

  1. The Software Framework of the Belle II Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The future of CP-Violation experiments is to begin in 2014 with the launch of the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan. As a part of this process the BELLE experiment will undergo an upgrade, giving rise to the BELLE II experiment. The BELLE II detector will include improvements and redesigns of various subdetectors, as well as the addition of an entire new subdetector for precise vertexing. In order to reflect these changes in the existing BELLE software framework, major modifications of nearly all parts of the software would have been necessary. As a result the decision was made to completely rewrite the software framework. In this article the main concepts of the new framework and the applied technologies are presented.

  2. An Epistemological Criticism to the Bell-Kochen-Specker Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garola, Claudio

    2009-03-01

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem is criticized from an epistemological point of view, showing that its proofs rest on an implicit epistemological assumption which does not fit in with the operational and antimetaphysical attitude of orthodox quantum mechanics.

  3. 3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, northwest and southwest sides - Monhegan Island Light Station, Monhegan Island, ten miles south by ferry from Port Clyde, Monhegan, Lincoln County, ME

  4. 1. Detail of south bell tower and storefront on sixunit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Detail of south bell tower and storefront on six-unit building and east end of ten-unit building, facing northwest. - Mission Motel, Six & Ten-Unit Buildings, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ARRIVAL OF TRAINS), LOCATED IN TICKET OFFICE, SOUTHWEST WALL - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station, Laurel, 101 Lafayette Avenue, Laurel, Prince George's County, MD

  6. 8. Bell house, view southwest, southeast side and northeast front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Bell house, view southwest, southeast side and northeast front - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  7. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  8. Do oral steroids aid recovery in children with Bell's palsy?

    PubMed

    Ismail, Abdul Qader; Alake, Oluwaseyi; Kallappa, Chetana

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence that steroids are not beneficial for treatment of paediatric patients with Bell's palsy. To investigate, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal study examining notes of 100 children, over 12 years coded for facial nerve palsy. Of the 79 diagnosed with Bell's palsy, all recovered, and for 46 patients we had data on interval from onset of symptoms to resolution (median duration in treated group = 5 weeks, range = 39; median duration in untreated group = 6 weeks, range = 11; P = .86). From our results, we conclude that all children with Bell's palsy recovered, with or without steroid treatment, with no statistically significant difference in symptoms duration. Complications of unresolved Bell's palsy can have important long-term functional and psychosocial consequences. Therefore, we need further research on use of steroids in children with complete/severe cases; it would be a shame to omit treatment due to "absence of evidence" rather than "evidence of absence." PMID:24141272

  9. Recent Results from BaBar, Belle, BESIII and CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2011-05-23

    A brief report of some recent experimental developments concerning the X, Y and Z charmoniumlike mesons states and other puzzling states from the BaBar, Belle, BESIII and CDF experiments is presented.

  10. 46 CFR 197.334 - Open diving bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bell must— (a) Have an upper section that provides an envelope capable of maintaining a bubble of... the open bottom and his head in the bubble; (b) Have lifting equipment capable of returning...

  11. 46 CFR 197.334 - Open diving bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bell must— (a) Have an upper section that provides an envelope capable of maintaining a bubble of... the open bottom and his head in the bubble; (b) Have lifting equipment capable of returning...

  12. 46 CFR 197.334 - Open diving bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bell must— (a) Have an upper section that provides an envelope capable of maintaining a bubble of... the open bottom and his head in the bubble; (b) Have lifting equipment capable of returning...

  13. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, west and south sides - Bass Harbor Head Light Station, At southwest tip of Mount Desert Island off State Route 102, Bass Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  14. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  15. Extending Bell's Theorem: Ruling out Paramater Independent Hidden Variable Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leegwater, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    Bell's Theorem may well be the best known result in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here, it is presented as stating that for any hidden variable theory the combination of the conditions Parameter Independence, Outcome Independence, Source Independence and Compatibility with Quantum Theory leads to a contradiction. Based on work by Roger Colbeck and Renato Renner, an extension of Bell's Theorem is considered. In this extension the theorem is strengthened by replacing Outcome Independence by a strictly weaker condition.

  16. Prospects of charmonium studies in the Belle-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhlova, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    TheBelle-II experiment at the SuperKEKB super-B factorywill begin data acquisition in 2016, the expected integrated luminosity being 50 ab{sup -1}. A statistical data sample of record volume 50 times as large as that of the statistical data sample accumulated earlier at the Belle detector will make it possible to measure precisely the parameters of new exotic states discovered recently at B factories and to clarify the origin of these states.

  17. Experimental quantum teleportation with a three-Bell-state analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Houwelingen, J. A. W. van; Beveratos, A.; Brunner, N.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2006-08-15

    We present a Bell-state analyzer for time-bin qubits allowing the detection of three out of four Bell states with linear optics, two detectors, and no auxiliary photons. The theoretical success rate of this scheme is 50%. A teleportation experiment was performed to demonstrate its functionality. We also present a teleportation experiment with a fidelity larger than the cloning limit of F=(5/6)

  18. For whom bell toils: medical imaging by telephone.

    PubMed

    Kuhfeld, A W

    1991-01-01

    The use of the induction balance, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell to cancel out line interference on his telephone, to determine the location of bullets inside the human body is discussed. Experiments conducted to locate a bullet in the body of US President Garfield, who had been shot by an assassin in 1881, are described. The trials on Garfield were unsuccessful, but the approach was later perfected by Bell. PMID:18238364

  19. Fake violations of the quantum Bell-parameter bound

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.

    2011-03-15

    Shortcomings of experimental techniques are usually assumed to diminish nonclassical properties of quantum systems. Here it is demonstrated that this standard assumption is not true in general. It is theoretically shown that the inability to resolve different photon numbers with photodetection may pseudoincrease a measured Bell parameter. Under proper conditions one even pseudoviolates the quantum Cirel'son bound of the Bell parameter, and the corresponding density operator fails to be positive semidefinite. This paradox can be resolved by appropriate squash models.

  20. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

    2013-01-01

    The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

  1. Highly efficient Bell state purification and GHZ preparation and purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastanov, Stefan; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We investigate novel protocols for entanglement purification with Bell states. Employing genetic algorithms for the design of the purification circuit, we obtain shorter circuits giving higher success rates and better final fidelities than what is available in the literature. We generalize these circuits in order to prepare GHZ states from Bell pairs and to subsequently purify these GHZ states. We provide new threshold estimates for codes using these GHZ states for fault-tolerant stabilizer measurements.

  2. Characterization of the bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

    2013-01-01

    The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

  3. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  4. Two-step complete polarization logic Bell-state analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The Bell state plays a significant role in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, such as the nonlocality of the quantum world. The Bell-state analysis is of vice importance in quantum communication. Existing Bell-state analysis protocols usually focus on the Bell-state encoding in the physical qubit directly. In this paper, we will describe an alternative approach to realize the near complete logic Bell-state analysis for the polarized concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state with two logic qubits. We show that the logic Bell-state can be distinguished in two steps with the help of the parity-check measurement (PCM) constructed by the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. This approach can be also used to distinguish arbitrary C-GHZ state with N logic qubits. As both the recent theoretical and experiment work showed that the C-GHZ state has its robust feature in practical noisy environment, this protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communication based on the logic-qubit entanglement. PMID:26307327

  5. Two-step complete polarization logic Bell-state analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The Bell state plays a significant role in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, such as the nonlocality of the quantum world. The Bell-state analysis is of vice importance in quantum communication. Existing Bell-state analysis protocols usually focus on the Bell-state encoding in the physical qubit directly. In this paper, we will describe an alternative approach to realize the near complete logic Bell-state analysis for the polarized concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state with two logic qubits. We show that the logic Bell-state can be distinguished in two steps with the help of the parity-check measurement (PCM) constructed by the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. This approach can be also used to distinguish arbitrary C-GHZ state with N logic qubits. As both the recent theoretical and experiment work showed that the C-GHZ state has its robust feature in practical noisy environment, this protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communication based on the logic-qubit entanglement. PMID:26307327

  6. Charm CP violation and mixing at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rok Ko, Byeong; Belle Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present charm CP violation and mixing measurements at Belle. They are the first observation of D0 - bar D0 mixing in e+e- collisions from D0 → K+π- decays, the most precise mixing and indirect CP violation parameters from D0 → K0Sπ+π- decays, and the timeintegrated CP asymmetries in D0 → π0π0 and D0 → K0Sπ0 decays. Our mixing measurement in D0 → K+π- decays excludes the no-mixing hypothesis at the 5.1 standard deviation level. The mixing parameters x = (0.56 ± 0.19+0.03+0.06-0.09-0.09)%, y = (0.30 ± 0.15+0.04+0.03-0.05-0.06)% and indirect CP violation parameters |q/p| = (0.90+0.16+0.05+0.06-0.15-0.04-0.05)%, arg(q/p) = (-6 ± 11 ± 3+3-4)° measured from D0 → K0Sπ+π- decays, and the time-integrated CP asymmetries AD0→π0π0CP = (-0.03 ± 0.64 ± 0.10)% and AD0→K0Sπ0CP = (-0.21 ± 0.16 ± 0.07)% are the most precisemeasurements to date. Our measurements here are consistent with predictions of the standard model.

  7. Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.

    2016-04-01

    We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.

  8. Strong violations of locality by testing Bell’s inequality with improved entangled-photon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yao; Fan, Dai-He; Guo, Wei-Jie; Wei, Lian-Fu

    2015-08-01

    Bell’s theorem states that quantum mechanics cannot be accounted for by any local theory. One of the examples is the existence of quantum non-locality is essentially violated by the local Bell’s inequality. Therefore, the violation of Bell’s inequality (BI) has been regarded as one of the robust evidences of quantum mechanics. Until now, BI has been tested by many experiments, but the maximal violation (i.e., Cirel’son limit) has never been achieved. By improving the design of entangled sources and optimizing the measurement settings, in this work we report the stronger violations of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)-type Bell’s inequality. The biggest value of Bell’s function in our experiment reaches to a significant one: S = 2.772± 0.063, approaching to the so-called Cirel’son limit in which the Bell function value is . Further improvement is possible by optimizing the entangled-photon sources. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308008, 91321104, U1330201, and 11174373) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2682014CX081).

  9. Monogamy inequalities for the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Monogamy inequalities for the way bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering can be distributed among N systems are derived. One set of inequalities is based on witnesses with two measurement settings, and may be used to demonstrate correlation of outcomes between two parties, that cannot be shared with more parties. It is shown that the monogamy for steering is directional. Two parties cannot independently demonstrate steering of a third system, using the same two-setting steering witness, but it is possible for one party to steer two independent systems. This result explains the monogamy of two-setting Bell inequality violations and the sensitivity of the continuous variable (CV) EPR criterion to losses on the steering party. We generalize to m settings. A second type of monogamy relation gives the quantitative amount of sharing possible, when the number of parties is less than or equal to m, and takes a form similar to the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters relation for entanglement. The results enable characterization of the tripartite steering for CV Gaussian systems and qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states.

  10. INEQUITY IN THE FACE OF DEATH.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Schokkaert, Erik; Van Ourti, Tom; Bago d'Uva, Teresa

    2014-07-30

    We apply the theory of inequality of opportunity to the measurement of inequity in mortality. Using a rich data set linking records of mortality and health events to survey data on lifestyles for the Netherlands (1998-2007), we test the sensitivity of estimated inequity to different normative choices and conclude that the location of the responsibility cut is of vital importance. Traditional measures of inequity (such as socioeconomic and regional inequalities) only capture part of more comprehensive notions of unfairness. We show that distinguishing between different routes via which variables might be associated to mortality is essential to the application of different normative positions. Using the fairness gap (direct unfairness), measured inequity according to our implementation of the 'control' and 'preference' approaches ranges between 0.0229 and 0.0239 (0.0102-0.0218), while regional and socioeconomic inequalities are smaller than 0.0020 (0.0001). The usual practice of standardizing for age and gender has large effects on measured inequity. Finally, we use our model to measure inequity in simulated counterfactual situations. While it is a big challenge to identify all causal relationships involved in this empirical context, this does not affect our main conclusions regarding the importance of normative choices in the measurement of inequity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25073459

  11. On measuring inequalities in health.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, M.; Rowe, G.

    2001-01-01

    In a recent series of papers, Murray et al. have put forward a number of important ideas regarding the measurement of inequalities in health. In this paper we agree with some of these ideas but draw attention to one key aspect of their approach--measuring inequalities on the basis of small area data--which is flawed. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the problem. An alternative approach drawing on longitudinal data is outlined, which preserves and enhances the most desirable aspects of their proposal. These include the use of a life course perspective, and the consideration of non-fatal health outcomes as well as the more usual information on mortality patterns. PMID:11436478

  12. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    PubMed

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality. PMID:26433316

  13. Inequalities of Income and Inequalities of Longevity: A Cross-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Plümper, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of market income inequality (income inequality before taxes and transfers) and income redistribution via taxes and transfers on inequality in longevity. Methods. We used life tables to compute Gini coefficients of longevity inequality for all individuals and for individuals who survived to at least 10 years of age. We regressed longevity inequality on market income inequality and income redistribution, and we controlled for potential confounders, in a cross-sectional time-series sample of up to 28 predominantly Western developed countries and up to 37 years (1974–2011). Results. Income inequality before taxes and transfers was positively associated with inequality in the number of years lived; income redistribution (the difference between market income inequality and income inequality after taxes and transfers were accounted for) was negatively associated with longevity inequality. Conclusions. To the extent that our estimated effects derived from observational data are causal, governments can reduce longevity inequality not only via public health policies, but also via their influence on market income inequality and the redistribution of incomes from the relatively rich to the relatively poor. PMID:26562120

  14. Inequalities for the quantum privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.

  15. [Globalization, inequity and Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2007-01-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) bears a close relationship to multiple social and political aspects involving issues of globalization and inequity. Such relations concern the process of disease production and control in parallel with medical management. Despite the poverty in Latin America and various problems related to inequities and globalization, Chagas disease has been controlled in several areas, a fact that reinforces the countries' self-reliance. Several problems and challenges related to the disease can be expected in the future, mainly concerning medical care for already infected individuals and the sustainability of effective epidemiological surveillance. Both points depend heavily on improved performance by the national health systems, principally in terms of their efficiency and their capacity to overcome inequity. A particularly important role has been attributed to the Latin American scientific and academic community in the implementation and sustainability of efficient control policies. Control activities have now evolved towards internationally shared initiatives, a major new stride forward in the region's political context. PMID:17308713

  16. Climate policies under wealth inequality

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor V.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Levin, Simon A.

    2014-01-01

    Taming the planet’s climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one’s sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior. PMID:24469806

  17. Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Zachary S.

    1995-06-01

    Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

  18. Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Zachary S.

    1995-01-01

    Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

  19. Authentication of bell peppers using boron and strontium isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Vogl, Jochen; Voerkelius, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    The wrong declaration of food in terms of geographical origin and production method is a major problem for the individual consumer and public regulatory authorities. The authentication of food matrices using H-C-N-O-S isotopic compositions is already well established. However, specific questions require additional isotopic systems, which are more diagonstic for the source reservoires involved or production methods used. Here we present B and Sr isotopic compositions of bell peppers from Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Spain) and Israel to verfiy their origin. The bell peppers' B isotopic compositions between different locations are highly variable (d11BNISTSRM951 -8 to +35 ‰), whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are all close to modern seawater Sr isotopic composition of about 0.7092 (0.7078 to 0.7107), but still can reliably be distinguished. Distinct isotopically heavy and light B isotopic fingerprints are obtained for bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands. Samples from Germany, Austria, and Spain display overlapping d11B values between 0 and +12 ‰. Bell peppers from Israel show high d11B values (+28 to +35 ‰) combined with 87Sr/86Sr ratios slightly more unradiogenic than modern seawater (ca 0.7079). Bell peppers from the Netherlands, however, show low d11B values (-8 ‰) combinded with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern seawater (approx. 0.7085). Mainly based on diagnostic B isotopic compositions bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands can be related to a specific geographical growing environment (Israel) or production method (Netherlands). The isotope fingerprints of bell peppers from the Netherlands are consistent with growing conditions in greenhouses typical for the Netherlands vegetable farming. Using optimized production methods crops in greenhouses were supplied with nutritients by liquid fertilizers on artificial substrates. As most fertilizers derive from non-marine salt deposits, fertilization typically imprints invariant d11B values close

  20. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian

    2007-03-01

    Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989 The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5 10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent an

  1. A loophole-free Bell test and the route to larger quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiserer, Andreas; Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Kalb, Norbert; Blok, Machiel; Taminiau, Tim; Hanson, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond gives access to few-qubit nuclear-spin registers with exceptional coherence properties. Entanglement between remote registers can be established via a joint measurement of single photons that are each entangled with the electron spin of one NV center. The entanglement protocol is thus probabilistic but heralded, which has allowed us to perform the first loophole-free test of Bell's inequality using two NV centers at a distance of 1.3km. Extending the size of the network requires control over additional qubits at each node. To this end, we use nuclear spins that are controlled via the hyperfine interaction with the electronic spin. I will present our recent experimental results, where we keep a qubit locally in a single nuclear spin or in a decoherence-protected two-spin state while applying a sequence of optical pulses on the electronic spin that generates remote entanglement. Our results open perspectives toward the purification of remote entanglement and toward larger quantum networks.

  2. Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong

    2006-09-15

    In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.

  3. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  4. When does inequality freeze an economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio

    2016-07-01

    Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.

  5. Griffiths' inequalities for Ashkin-Teller model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The two Griffiths' (1967) inequalities for the correlation functions of Ising ferromagnets with two-body interactions, and two other inequalities obtained by Kelly and Sherman (1968) and by Sherman (1969) are shown to hold not only for the Ashkin-Teller (1943) model but also for a generalized Ashkin-Teller model (Kihara et al., 1954) with many-body interactions involving arbitrary clusters of particles. A cluster of particles is understood to mean a collection of pairs of particles rather than a group of particles. The four generalized inequalities under consideration are presented in the form of theorems, and a new inequality is obtained.

  6. Strong monogamy inequalities for four qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regula, Bartosz; Osterloh, Andreas; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-05-01

    We investigate possible generalizations of the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality to four qubits, accounting for multipartite entanglement in addition to the bipartite terms. We show that the most natural extension of the inequality does not hold in general, and we describe the violations of this inequality in detail. We investigate alternative ways to extend the monogamy inequality to express a constraint on entanglement sharing valid for all four-qubit states, and perform an extensive numerical analysis of randomly generated four-qubit states to explore the properties of such extensions.

  7. Beyond Bell's Theorem II: Scenarios with Arbitrary Causal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been found that Bell scenarios are only a small subclass of interesting setups for studying the non-classical features of quantum theory within spacetime. We find that it is possible to talk about classical correlations, quantum correlations and other kinds of correlations on any directed acyclic graph, and this captures various extensions of Bell scenarios that have been considered in the literature. From a conceptual point of view, the main feature of our approach is its high level of unification: while the notions of source, choice of setting and measurement all play seemingly different roles in a Bell scenario, our formalism shows that they are all instances of the same concept of "event". Our work can also be understood as a contribution to the subject of causal inference with latent variables. Among other things, we introduce hidden Bayesian networks as a generalization of hidden Markov models.

  8. The Adventures of the Diving-Bell Spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenin, Raphaele; Dupeux, Guillaume; Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David; Interfaces; Co. Team

    2012-11-01

    The Argyroneta Aquatica is a unique spider that has every features of a usual terrestrial spider, but constantly lives under water. To however still be able to breath oxygen, it builds an underwater bell of air (hence its other name ``the diving-bell spider''): using its superhydrophobic abdomen, it pulls an air bubble at the surface by leaving the latter very rapidly. It then enters the bell formed under aquatic plants or under its under-water web, and leaves it more slowly so as to entrain the least air possible. We study these dynamics that take place at the air/water interfaces. We reduce the spider to two beads, one for the hydrophobic abdomen, one for the hydrophilic head, and measure and model the air entrainment according to the size and surface properties of the abdomen and to the velocity of motion.

  9. Belle II SVD ladder assembly procedure and electrical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, Varghese; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric e+e- collider in Japan will operate at a luminosity approximately 50 times larger than its predecessor (Belle). At its heart lies a six-layer vertex detector comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detectors (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors (SVD). One of the key measurements for Belle II is time-dependent CP violation asymmetry, which hinges on a precise charged-track vertex determination. Towards this goal, a proper assembly of the SVD components with precise alignment ought to be performed and the geometrical tolerances should be checked to fall within the design limits. We present an overview of the assembly procedure that is being followed, which includes the precision gluing of the SVD module components, wire-bonding of the various electrical components, and precision three dimensional coordinate measurements of the jigs used in assembly as well as of the final SVD modules.

  10. Connection between Bell nonlocality and Bayesian game theory.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Nicolas; Linden, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In 1964, Bell discovered that quantum mechanics is a nonlocal theory. Three years later, in a seemingly unconnected development, Harsanyi introduced the concept of Bayesian games. Here we show that, in fact, there is a deep connection between Bell nonlocality and Bayesian games, and that the same concepts appear in both fields. This link offers interesting possibilities for Bayesian games, namely of allowing the players to receive advice in the form of nonlocal correlations, for instance using entangled quantum particles or more general no-signalling boxes. This will lead to novel joint strategies, impossible to achieve classically. We characterize games for which nonlocal resources offer a genuine advantage over classical ones. Moreover, some of these strategies represent equilibrium points, leading to the notion of quantum/no-signalling Nash equilibrium. Finally, we describe new types of question in the study of nonlocality, namely the consideration of nonlocal advantage given a set of Bell expressions. PMID:23820748

  11. Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208

  12. Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-02-01

    We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state.

  13. On the Debossing, Annealing and Mounting of Bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PERRIN, R.; SWALLOWE, G. M.; CHARNLEY, T.; MARSHALL, C.

    1999-10-01

    Changes in the frequencies of the musical partials of various types of bells following debossing dismounting/mounting and annealing/quench annealing are reported. Debossing, dismounting and quench annealing lead to frequency drops, while mounting gives rises. Annealing can lead to frequency increases or decreases depending upon the maximum temperature employed and the initial residual stress. Qualitative explanations of these phenomena are given in terms of changes in crown stiffness, internal stress and alloy phase structure. These are supported by the results of X-ray diffraction measurements. Although the effects are all small they can be large enough to be detected by a reasonably musical car. This, together with the fact that the effects cannot be controlled, gives a plausible explanation of why modern bellfounders use vertical lathes for tuning, even with small carillon bells, and do not anneal bells when trying to control warble.

  14. Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208

  15. Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bell! September 29, 2016 The 2016 Legacy of Innovation Gala Visit the new AG Bell Gala website ... deaf children can do! our community Legacy of Innovation Gala Registration Open! Your Letters Evan Mercer provided ...

  16. Patterns of Inequality. Unit 3, The Philosophy of Equality and Inequality. Unit 4, Personal Inequality as an Ideological Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hookham, Maurice; Holloway, Clive

    Open University course units are presented on the philosophy of equality and inequality (Unit 3) and on personal inequality as an ideological concept (Unit 4). The substance of Unit 3 consists of extracts from the writings of eight philosophers. The role of the philosopher in forming legitimatizing ideologies is also illustrated. The eight…

  17. Correlations between Income Inequality and Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study’s hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Data collection and analysis Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Results Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). Conclusion As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae

  18. Inequality, deprivation and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Marmot, M

    1997-03-01

    There are major social inequalities in health within societies. Alcohol and tobacco are major preventable causes of ill health. Using data from the United Kingdom, this paper examines the social distribution of tobacco and alcohol consumption; the role that tobacco and alcohol may play in mediating or modifying social inequalities in health; and the implications of social distribution for policies to reduce harm associated with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. In the United Kingdom, as in many other countries, there is clear inverse association between socio-economic position and consumption of cigarettes. Over the past three decades, the decline in smoking has been more rapid in men and women in higher socio-economic groups. United Kingdom suggest that among employed men and women, the prevalence of non-drinking shows an inverse association with occupational status; heavy drinking differs little; and moderate drinking is more common among those of higher socio-economic status. Smoking accounts for perhaps 25% of the social class difference in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, more for lung cancer, less for some other diseases. healthier patterns of drinking may contribute to the lower CHD rates of higher social classes. Although other factors are clearly important in generating social inequalities, it is important to take the social distribution of alcohol and tobacco into account when formulating policy. For cigarette consumption, there is evidence that in lower socio-economic groups demand is more sensitive to price; higher socio-economic groups are more responsive to health education. There has been less research of this nature for alcohol. Available analyses suggest that price responsiveness of heavy drinking may be greatest in young men and in those with lower incomes. A pricing strategy has important equity implications. PMID:9167283

  19. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.

  20. A Quantum Watermarking Protocol Based on Bell Dual Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jia; Ma, Zhaofeng; Yang, Yixian; Niu, Xinxin

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a Bell-dual-basis-based quantum watermarking protocol composed of three major algorithms: watermark embedding and extracting and the intercepting test. The first two are completed by using the entanglement swapping property of Bell dual basis and the test is accomplished through IBF protocol to guarantee its bottom security. The watermarking protocol is mainly designed for the protection of digital copyright in the existence of classical information. This design finds that the quality of digital contents is not damaged with its zero-watermark attributes when embedding watermarks.