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Sample records for bench-capon giovanni soda

  1. Federated Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Federated Giovanni is a NASA-funded ACCESS project to extend the scope of the GES DISC Giovanni online analysis tool to 4 other Distributed Active Archive Centers within EOSDIS: OBPG, LP-DAAC, MODAPS and PO.DAAC. As such, it represents a significant instance of sharing technology across the DAACs. We also touch on several sub-areas that are also sharable, such as Giovanni URLs, workflows and OGC-accessible services.

  2. Giovanni-4: The Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Da Silva, D.; Bryant, K.; Zhao, P.; Liu, Z.; Shen, S.; Savtchenko, A.; Teng, W.; Wei, J.; Acker, J.

    2014-01-01

    This talk discusses the new aspects of Giovanni-4. Covered in the talk are new features in Giovanni-4, including shape fileservices, seasonal analysis services, the Omnibus Portal, navigation among variables, and comparison services.

  3. Baking Soda Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  4. Introducing Giovanni Gentile, the "Philosopher of Fascism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to introduce Giovanni Gentile to scholars of Gramsci studies broadly and Gramsci-education studies more specifically. The largest part of the essay explores Gentile's academic life, his philosophical agenda, and his political career. Having established a basis for understanding the educational reform Gentile enacted as Mussolini's…

  5. Soda Bottle Boating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William

    1991-01-01

    Describes an activity that allows students to design and build a craft whose propulsion is derived entirely by the carbon dioxide produced in the chemical reaction between baking soda and vinegar. (ZWH)

  6. Exploiting the Capabilities of NASA's Giovanni System for Oceanographic Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Petrucio, Emil; Leptoukh, Gregory; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Giovanni system [GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure] has significant capabilities for oceanographic education and independent research utilizing ocean color radiometry data products. Giovanni allows Web-based data discovery and basic analyses, and can be used both for guided illustration of a variety of marine processes and phenomena, and for independent research investigations. Giovanni's capabilities are particularly suited for advanced secondary school science and undergraduate (college) education. This presentation will describe a variety of ways that Giovanni can be used for oceanographic education. Auxiliary information resources that can be utilized will also be described. Several testimonies of Giovanni usage for instruction will be provided, and a recent case history of Giovanni utilization for instruction and research at the undergraduate level is highlighted.

  7. The Ammonia-Soda Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1979-01-01

    This article is a condensed version of a commentary written to accompany a set of slides which describes the ammonia-soda process used by the ammonia-soda plant at Northwich of the United Kingdom. (HM)

  8. Remote Sensing Data Visualization, Fusion and Analysis via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.; Khayat, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe Giovanni, the NASA Goddard developed online visualization and analysis tool that allows users explore various phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using MODIS aerosol data as an example, we formulate an approach to the data fusion for Giovanni to further enrich online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  9. Giovanni: The Bridge between Data and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Lynnes, Christopher; Kempler, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a web-based remote sensing and model data visualization and analysis system developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). This web-based tool facilitates data discovery, exploration and analysis of large amount of global and regional data sets, covering atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, oceanographic, and land surface. Data analysis functions include Lat-Lon map, time series, scatter plot, correlation map, difference, cross-section, vertical profile, and animation etc. Visualization options enable comparisons of multiple variables and easier refinement. Recently, new features have been developed, such as interactive scatter plots and maps. The performance is also being improved, in some cases by an order of magnitude for certain analysis functions with optimized software. We are working toward merging current Giovanni portals into a single omnibus portal with all variables in one (virtual) location to help users find a variable easily and enhance the intercomparison capability

  10. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    PubMed

    Drake, D

    1996-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

  11. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    PubMed

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

  12. Federated Giovanni: multi-sensor data sharing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, M.; Lynnes, C.; Acker, J. G.; Kempler, S. J.; Seiler, E.; Davis, J.; Strub, R. F.; Bryant, K.; Smit, C.; Zhao, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Laidlaw, R.; Hausman, J.; Lossing, R.; Bailey, S. W.; Kalb, V.; Hendrix, C.

    2015-12-01

    Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface) has long been a popular tool among remote sensing data users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). It supports about two dozen visualization and analysis services that enable interactive exploration of the data, which is a key early step in data analysis. Giovanni brings usability, a low learning curve, and the ability to provide informative visualizations without downloading large volumes of data to the user's location. Federated Giovanni allows each data center to configure and deploy its own Giovanni and curated data catalog, while allowing various Giovanni instances to share data from each other for data intercomparisons. Providing Giovanni's capabilities to other data providers through federation will allow a dramatically larger number of distributed datasets to be made available for interactive data exploration and inter-comparison. This capability is particularly beneficial to science researchers studying data from multiple sensors and satellites. In this presentation, we will describe the architecture as well as the process of curating and sharing Giovanni data catalogs to enable inter-comparison of data from multiple sensors.

  13. Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

  14. Giovanni Berlinguer: socialist, sanitarian, and humanist!

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sonia

    2015-11-01

    This article highlights important aspects of the biography of Giovanni Berlinguer that led him to become a prominent scientist and political activist. His works were marked by a strong socialist conviction and deep humanism. His contribution to health in Brazil ranged from a vast academic output in the field of public health to an active involvement in the Brazilian Health Movement. His later publications addressing everyday bioethics reveal the common thread that runs through his entire works: the use of science to demonstrate the social determinants of health; the fight against unjust inequality; the defense of life against exploitation; and the struggle to prevent the commoditization of life, the human body, and health care. PMID:26602732

  15. New data and capabilities in the NASA Goddard Giovanni system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Farley, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    Giovanni, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure, is the underlying infrastructure for a growing family of Web interfaces that allows users to analyze gridded and swath data interactively online without having to download any data. Giovanni is a simple but powerful tool for researchers to explore and analyze data without having to deal with original data format, volume, and complexity. Since 2002, Giovanni has served many users worldwide with TRMM and MODIS data visualization and analysis. With increasing size and complexity of Earth and Space Science data holdings and growing demands for better, faster, and less costly tools for data exploration, visualization and analysis, Giovanni has been extended to serve CALIPSO, CloudSat, SeaWiFS, TOMS, AIRS, OMI, MLS-Aura, HIRDLS, and HALOE data to the Atmospheric Composition, Aerosol, Air Quality, and other research communities. To further improve Giovanni extendibility, accessibility, and performance, Giovanni version 3 (G3) has been developed and is currently in operation at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). In addition to the existing Giovanni instances, several new G3 instances have been released, including (1) A-Train Data Depot that is capable to allow access to, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmospheric measurements from A-Train instruments; (2) NEESPI, a multi-sensor multi-disciplinary instance dedicated to the studies of the environment of the Northern Eurasia; (3) Data Fusion, a prototype Giovanni instance that demonstrates the G3 capability for fusing Earth Science data from multiple sensors. Giovanni capabilities have also been extended to include direct access via WMS protocol, and to provide output in various popular formats, like KML for Google Earth. With much progress in data visualization, data analysis, and easy-to-use toolkits, G3 has simplified and strengthened its capabilities of providing closer links between

  16. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  17. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  18. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  19. Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  20. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. PMID:27625729

  1. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-02-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ˜20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

  2. Statistical Considerations of Data Processing in Giovanni Online Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Acker, J.; Berrick, S.

    2005-12-01

    The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) is a web-based interface for the rapid visualization and analysis of gridded data from a number of remote sensing instruments. The GES DISC currently employs several Giovanni instances to analyze various products, such as Ocean-Giovanni for ocean products from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua; TOMS & OMI Giovanni for atmospheric chemical trace gases from TOMS and OMI, and MOVAS for aerosols from MODIS, etc. (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) Foremost among the Giovanni statistical functions is data averaging. Two aspects of this function are addressed here. The first deals with the accuracy of averaging gridded mapped products vs. averaging from the ungridded Level 2 data. Some mapped products contain mean values only; others contain additional statistics, such as number of pixels (NP) for each grid, standard deviation, etc. Since NP varies spatially and temporally, averaging with or without weighting by NP will be different. In this paper, we address differences of various weighting algorithms for some datasets utilized in Giovanni. The second aspect is related to different averaging methods affecting data quality and interpretation for data with non-normal distribution. The present study demonstrates results of different spatial averaging methods using gridded SeaWiFS Level 3 mapped monthly chlorophyll a data. Spatial averages were calculated using three different methods: arithmetic mean (AVG), geometric mean (GEO), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Biogeochemical data, such as chlorophyll a, are usually considered to have a log-normal distribution. The study determined that differences between methods tend to increase with increasing size of a selected coastal area, with no significant differences in most open oceans. The GEO method consistently produces values lower than AVG and MLE. The AVG method produces values larger than MLE in some cases, but smaller in other cases. Further

  3. Statistical Considerations of Data Processing in Giovanni Online Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suhung, Shen; Leptoukh, G.; Acker, J.; Berrick, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) is a web-based interface for the rapid visualization and analysis of gridded data from a number of remote sensing instruments. The GES DISC currently employs several Giovanni instances to analyze various products, such as Ocean-Giovanni for ocean products from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua; TOMS & OM1 Giovanni for atmospheric chemical trace gases from TOMS and OMI, and MOVAS for aerosols from MODIS, etc. (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) Foremost among the Giovanni statistical functions is data averaging. Two aspects of this function are addressed here. The first deals with the accuracy of averaging gridded mapped products vs. averaging from the ungridded Level 2 data. Some mapped products contain mean values only; others contain additional statistics, such as number of pixels (NP) for each grid, standard deviation, etc. Since NP varies spatially and temporally, averaging with or without weighting by NP will be different. In this paper, we address differences of various weighting algorithms for some datasets utilized in Giovanni. The second aspect is related to different averaging methods affecting data quality and interpretation for data with non-normal distribution. The present study demonstrates results of different spatial averaging methods using gridded SeaWiFS Level 3 mapped monthly chlorophyll a data. Spatial averages were calculated using three different methods: arithmetic mean (AVG), geometric mean (GEO), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Biogeochemical data, such as chlorophyll a, are usually considered to have a log-normal distribution. The study determined that differences between methods tend to increase with increasing size of a selected coastal area, with no significant differences in most open oceans. The GEO method consistently produces values lower than AVG and MLE. The AVG method produces values larger than MLE in some cases, but smaller in other cases. Further

  4. Soda pop vending machine injuries.

    PubMed

    Cosio, M Q

    1988-11-11

    Fifteen male patients, 15 to 24 years of age, sustained injuries after rocking soda machines. The machines fell onto the victims, resulting in a variety of injuries. Three were killed. The remaining 12 required hospitalization for their injuries. Unless changes are made to safeguard these machines, people will continue to suffer severe and possibly fatal injuries from what are largely preventable accidents. PMID:3184337

  5. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  6. The shaken-soda syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David

    2001-05-01

    Two identical soda cans released at the same time on an incline will roll down at the same rate. However, if one of the cans is shaken, it will lose the race. Experimental evidence is presented that points to the presence of bubbles as the cause of the greater energy transfer to the fluid in the case of the shaken can.

  7. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  8. The Digitizing Project that Made SODA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rible, Jim

    2005-01-01

    What would a person do if they were suddenly given half a million dollars? The Southern Oregon University Library, after receiving a congressional grant of $470,000, decided to use the money to create the Southern Oregon Digital Archives (SODA). The primary goal for SODA was to have a full-text, completely searchable database of hundreds of…

  9. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    PubMed

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

  10. Explore GPM IMERG and Other Global Precipitation Products with GES DISC GIOVANNI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Macritchie, K.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    New features and capabilities in the newly released GIOVANNI allow exploring GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) Early, Late and Final Run global half-hourly and monthly precipitation products as well as other precipitation products distributed by the GES DISC such as TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation Systems), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc. GIOVANNI is a web-based tool developed by the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences and Data Information Services Center), to visualize and analyze Earth science data without having to download data and software. The new interface in GIOVANNI allows searching and filtering precipitation products from different NASA missions and projects and expands the capabilities to inter-compare different precipitation products in one interface. Knowing differences in precipitation products is important to identify issues in retrieval algorithms, biases, uncertainties, etc. Due to different formats, data structures, units and so on, it is not easy to inter-compare these precipitation products. The recently added new features and capabilities (unit conversion, regridding, etc.) in GIOVANNI make inter-comparison possible. In this presentation, we will describe these new feature and capabilities along with examples. (Related URLs: GIOVANNI URL: http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/; GES DISC: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/)

  11. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  12. Franz Xaver von Zach and Giovanni Battista Amici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschiari, Alberto

    The address explores the five-year relationship between Franz Xaver von Zach and the Italian instrument maker Giovanni Battista Amici (Modena 1786 - Florence 1863) from the time of their first meeting at Amici's workshop in Modena on 8 September 1820. Zach was particularly impressed by Amici's prismatic reflecting sector and helped him to obtain the optical glass required for its construction from Fraunhofer in Munich. With his "Correspondance astronomique", Zach was one of Amici's main publishers. In the space of four years he published seven of his scientific letters, discussing and commenting on them with extensive notes. The correspondence between Amici and Zach, kept at the Estense Library in Modena and covering a period of just under three years from July 1822 to May 1825, has been published by A. Meschiari in Nuncius, 1-2002.

  13. Use of Giovanni System in Public Health Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina; Kiang, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    The role of environment and climate in propagating infectious disease has long been recognized since the 5th century. The effect is particularly evident in vector-borne diseases such as malaria where temperature, precipitation and humidity influence the lifecycle of the pathogens and mosquitoes. Likewise, the transmission of respiratory diseases is also often associated with climatic factors. For example, a recent study showed that low humidity and temperature provides efficient condition for seasonal influenza transmission. Understanding of how environment and climate affect infectious diseases would essentially provide guides to prevent and control the spread of disease. Toward this end, our group has developed models for infectious disease risk such as for malaria, dengue and influenza that are driven by climatic and environmental inputs. Results will be presented, especially those that used TRMM data from GIOVANNI.

  14. [The method of "rational medicine" of Giovanni Battista Morgagni].

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Giovanni Battista Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. His contribution can be contextualized within the sphere of the extraordinary development of anatomy between the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the period in which this discipline became the "queen" of the natural sciences. A new pathology based upon anatomy became possible thanks to the mechanistic perspective that had characterized this science in the seventeenth century, in particular with the work of Marcello Malpighi, whom Morgagni regarded as his master. The approach of Malpighi and of the other "iatromechanists" was the subject of an ample debate in which the advocates of mechanicism and empiricism were opposed to, and intertwined with, the supporters of the "ancient," that is to say, Galenic medicine, with respect to those of the "modern," i.e., "neoteric" one. The anatomic-clinical method of Morgagni can be fully understood only when contextualized within this debate. PMID:26915233

  15. Federated Giovanni: A Distributed Web Service for Analysis and Visualization of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Acker, J. G.; Mattmann, C. A.; D'Sa, E. J.; Thompson, C. K.; Kalb, V.; Ramirez, P.; Franz, B. A.; Lossing, R.; Fang, F.; Torbert, C.; Hendrix, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) is a popular tool for users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and has been in use for over a decade. It provides a wide variety of algorithms and visualizations to explore large remote sensing datasets without having to download the data and without having to write readers and visualizers for it. Giovanni is now being extended to enable its capabilities at other data centers within the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). This "Federated Giovanni" will allow four other data centers to add and maintain their data within Giovanni on behalf of their user community. Those data centers are the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). Three tiers are supported: Tier 1 (GES DISC-hosted) gives the remote data center a data management interface to add and maintain data, which are provided through the Giovanni instance at the GES DISC. Tier 2 packages Giovanni up as a virtual machine for distribution to and deployment by the other data centers. Data variables are shared among data centers by sharing documents from the Solr database that underpins Giovanni's data management capabilities. However, each data center maintains their own instance of Giovanni, exposing the variables of most interest to their user community. Tier 3 is a Shared Source model, in which the data centers cooperate to extend the infrastructure by contributing source code.

  16. Federated Giovanni: A Distributed Web Service for Analysis and Visualization of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) is a popular tool for users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and has been in use for over a decade. It provides a wide variety of algorithms and visualizations to explore large remote sensing datasets without having to download the data and without having to write readers and visualizers for it. Giovanni is now being extended to enable its capabilities at other data centers within the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). This Federated Giovanni will allow four other data centers to add and maintain their data within Giovanni on behalf of their user community. Those data centers are the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). Three tiers are supported: Tier 1 (GES DISC-hosted) gives the remote data center a data management interface to add and maintain data, which are provided through the Giovanni instance at the GES DISC. Tier 2 packages Giovanni up as a virtual machine for distribution to and deployment by the other data centers. Data variables are shared among data centers by sharing documents from the Solr database that underpins Giovanni's data management capabilities. However, each data center maintains their own instance of Giovanni, exposing the variables of most interest to their user community. Tier 3 is a Shared Source model, in which the data centers cooperate to extend the infrastructure by contributing source code.

  17. Visualization and Analysis of Multi-scale Land Surface Products via Giovanni Portals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.; Gerasimov, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data.Customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI andGiovanni-MAIRS) have been created to integrate land, atmospheric,cryospheric, and societal products, enabling researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes, and their relationships to climate, at global and regional scales. This presentation shows a sample Giovanni portal page, lists selected data products in the system, and illustrates potential analyses with imagesand time-series at global and regional scales, focusing on climatology and anomaly analysis. More information is available at the GES DISCMAIRS data support project portal: http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govmairs.

  18. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily: CDC These beverages linked to greater risk ... drink at least one sugar-laden soda or juice every day, federal health officials report. Sugary drinks ...

  20. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    PubMed

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic. PMID:25330566

  1. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

  2. Giovanni Battista Morgagni and his contribution to pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Zani, Augusto; Cozzi, Denis A

    2008-04-01

    Pediatric surgery is a less than a century old surgical specialty. However, early knowledge of human malformations and pediatric surgical conditions dates back to centuries before. One of the main contributors to progress in these fields was Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), who also had a substantial weight in the development of future pediatric surgery. With his masterpiece De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (On the Seats and Causes of Diseases Investigated by Anatomy) (1761), he set the basis for modern pathology. In this textbook, Morgagni was the first to describe anatomical elements like the trigonum sternocostale dextrum (the Morgagni's foramen), the appendix testis (the Morgagni's hydatid), and the vertical folds of distal rectum (the Morgagni's columns). He was also the first to describe pediatric pathological conditions like epispadia, meconium peritonitis, Crohn's disease, and coarctation of the aorta. Finally, he substantially contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of conditions like the vesico-ureteral reflux, the anterior wall defects (gastroschisis/omphalocele), and the spina bifida. For this, it was said of him: "If all the anatomical findings made by Morgagni should bear his name, probably one third of human body would be called Morgagni's." PMID:18405723

  3. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  4. Soda pop vending machine injuries: an update.

    PubMed

    Cosio, M Q; Taylor, G W

    1992-01-01

    Soda pop vending machine tipping continues to be a dangerous behavior that can result in lethal or crippling injuries. This study analyzes 64 cases of injuries secondary to crushing by a soda machine. All were male victims except one. The average age was 19.8 years with a range of 5-39 years. Thirteen victims sustained multiple trauma. Fifteen victims were killed. Increased public awareness coupled with support by the government and private industry has contributed to a sharp reduction in incidence of accidents and improved public safety. PMID:1602339

  5. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section...

  6. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  7. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  8. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  9. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490... prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4Fe(CN... dendritic crystals of salt in an amount needed to produce its intended effect but not in excess of 13...

  10. SODA ASH TREATMENT OF NEUTRALIZED MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of acid mine drainage (AMD) streams as a source of potable and industrial water has become a major goal of several proposed AMD treatment schemes. From among the various schemes available, the lime neutralization/soda ash softening process was selected for use at Alto...

  11. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically. PMID:16740412

  12. Properties Of Soda/Yttria/Silica Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of glass-formation compositional region of soda/ yttria/silicate system and of selected physical properties of glasses within compositional region part of continuing effort to identify glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion and high softening temperatures, for use as coatings on superalloys and as glass-to-metal seals.

  13. Volume, Variety and Veracity of Big Data Analytics in NASA's Giovanni Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Pan, J.; Bryant, K.; Chidambaram, C.; Zhao, P.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Observation data have posed challenges to NASA users ever since the launch of several satellites around the turn of the century, generating volumes now measured in petabytes, a volume growth further increased by models assimilating the satellite data. One important approach to bringing Big Data Analytic capabilities to bear on the Volume of data has been the provision of server-side analysis capabilities. For instance, the Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis (Giovanni) tool provides a web interface to large volumes of gridded data from several EOSDIS data centers. Giovanni's main objective is to allow the user to explore its data holdings using various forms of visualization and data summarization or aggregation algorithms, thus allowing the user to examine statistics and pictures for the overall data, while eventually acquiring only the most useful data. Thus much of the preprocessing and data reduction aspects can take place on the server, delivering manageable information quantities to the user. In addition to Volume, Giovanni uses open standards to tackle the Variety aspect of Big Data, incorporating data stored in several formats, from several data centers, and making them available in a uniform data format and structure to both the Giovanni algorithms and the end user. The Veracity aspect of Big Data, perhaps the stickiest of wickets, is enhanced through features that enable reproducibility (provenance and URL-driven workflows), and by a Help Desk staffed by scientists with expertise in the science data.

  14. Explore GPM IMERG and Other Global Precipitation Products with GES DISC GIOVANNI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Vollmer, Bruce; MacRitchie, Kyle; Kempler, Steven

    2015-01-01

    New features and capabilities in the newly released GIOVANNI allow exploring GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) Early, Late and Final Run global half-hourly and monthly precipitation products as well as other precipitation products distributed by the GES DISC such as TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation Systems), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc. GIOVANNI is a web-based tool developed by the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences and Data Information Services Center) to visualize and analyze Earth science data without having to download data and software. The new interface in GIOVANNI allows searching and filtering precipitation products from different NASA missions and projects and expands the capabilities to inter-compare different precipitation products in one interface. Knowing differences in precipitation products is important to identify issues in retrieval algorithms, biases, uncertainties, etc. Due to different formats, data structures, units and so on, it is not easy to inter-compare precipitation products. Newly added features and capabilities (unit conversion, regridding, etc.) in GIOVANNI make inter-comparisons possible. In this presentation, we will describe these new features and capabilities along with examples.

  15. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O contains a minimum of 99 percent by weight...

  16. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O contains a minimum of 99 percent by weight...

  17. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O contains a minimum of 99 percent by weight...

  18. Towards Infusing Giovanni with a Semantic and Provenance Aware Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio, N.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by GES DISC that provides simple and intuitive ways to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensed data. Currently, the Giovanni visualization module is only aware of the physical links (i.e., hard-coded) between data and services and consequently cannot be easily adapted to new visualization scenarios. VisKo, a semantically enabled visualization framework, can be leveraged by Giovanni as a semantic bridge between data and visualization. VisKo relates data and visualization services at conceptual (i.e., ontological) levels and relies on reasoning systems to leverage the conceptual relationships to automatically infer physical links, facilitating an adaptable environment for new visualization scenarios. This is particularly useful for Giovanni, which has been constantly retrofitted with new visualization software packages to keep up with advancement in visualization capabilities. During our prototype integration of Giovanni with VisKo, a number of future steps were identified that if implemented could cement the integration and promote our prototype to operational status. A number of integration issues arose including the mediation of different languages used by each system to characterize datasets; VisKo relies on semantic data characterization to "match-up" data with visualization processes. It was necessary to identify mappings between Giovanni XML provenance and Proof Markup Language, which is understood by VisKo. Although a translator was implemented based on identified mappings, a more elegant solution is to develop a domain data ontology specific to Giovanni and to "align" this ontology with PML, enabling VisKo to directly ingest the semantic descriptions of Giovanni data. Additionally, the relationship between dataset components (e.g., variables and attributes) and visualization plot components (e.g., geometries, axes, titles) should also be modeled. In Giovanni, meta

  19. [Hygienic assessment of waste of soda production].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Vaisman, Y I; Rudakova, L V; Kalinina, E V; Glushankova, I S; Batrakova, G M

    2013-01-01

    The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively. PMID:24003694

  20. Orbital Models Made of Plastic Soda Bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoshin, Vyacheslav V.

    1998-08-01

    The models for demonstration of shape and direction of atomic and molecular orbitals, their overlaps, interactions, and hybridizations may be easily constructed from plastic soda bottles. For such models one may attach the screw caps to the faces of wooden or plastic tetrahedrons, trigonal prisms, or cubes (by screws, glue, wire). When the bottles are screwed into the lids, the models of sp3, sp2, or sp hybridized atoms are obtained. The orbital overlap leading to s bond formation is imitated by insertion of a smaller bottle into a larger one with the bottom cut off. Rubber or plastic rings put on pairs of "p orbitals" mimic pi bond formations.

  1. A Case Study of Convective Transport of Trace Gases and Air Pollutants into the Lower Stratosphere Examined in Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Johnson, J. E.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Kempler, S. J.

    2006-12-01

    Giovanni is the Web-based on-line data exploration and visualization tool that provides an easy access to the long-term datasets of atmospheric measurements from the past and current satellite missions (e.g. Aura OMI, MLS and HIRDLS, Aqua AIRS and MODIS, TOMS, UARS HALOE, TRMM) and data from assimilation models that are archived at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC). Giovanni ( http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/ ) has many built-in data analysis capabilities. Users donot need to learn data formats or retrieve large datasets and process it. One can examine and assess various geophysical phenomena interactively. In this presentation we demonstrate Giovanni data exploration capabilities by examining the convective transport of trace gases and air pollutants (water vapor, ozone, CO, NO2, etc) into the lower stratosphere, and seasonal variability of aerosols, cloud and precipitation, over the Tibetan Plateau and South Asian region.

  2. Giovanni: A System for Rapid Access, Visualization and Analysis of Earth Science Data Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, S.; Rui, H.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, T.; Lu, L.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Teng, W.; Acker, J.; Johnson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting data and understanding data structures traditionally are the first steps that a user must take, before the core investigation can begin. This is a time-consuming and challenging task, especially when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data that are usually in different formats and internal structures. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has created the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, Giovanni, to enable Web-based visualization and analysis of satellite remotely sensed meteorological, oceanographic, and hydrologic data sets, without users having to download data. The current operational Giovanni interfaces provide the capability to process a number of important satellite measurements, such as (1) ozone and other trace gases from TOMS, OMI, HALOE, and MLS; (2) air temperature, water vapor, and geopotential height from AIRS; (3) aerosols from MODIS TerrdAqua, and GOCART model; (4) precipitation from TRMM and ground measurements; (5) chlorophyll and other ocean color products from SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua; and (6) sea surface temperature from MODIS Aqua. Depending on the input data structure, the system provides simple statistical analysis and creates time-averaged area plot, area-averaged time series, animations, Hovmoller latitude vs. time and longitude vs. time plots, as well as vertical profiles. The inter-comparison interfaces allow a user to compare observations from different instruments, to conduct anomaly analysis, and to study basic relationships between physical parameters. Giovanni handles data with different temporal and spatial resolutions and, thus, enables both regional and global long-term climate research and short-term special events investigation, as well as data validations and assessments. Because of its simplicity of usage, Giovanni is powerful and versatile, able to assist a wide range of users, from the discipline scientists

  3. Aerosol Intercomparison Scenarios for the Giovanni Multi-sensor Data Synergy “Advisor”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Prados, A. I.; Shen, S.; Pan, J.; Rui, H.; Lynnes, C.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.

    2009-12-01

    The combination of remotely sensed aerosols datasets can result in synergistic products that are more useful than the sum of the individual datasets. Multi-sensor composite datasets can be constructed by data merging (taking very closely related parameters to create a single merged dataset to increase spatial and/or temporal coverage), cross-calibration (creating long-term climate data records from two very similar parameters), validation (using a parameter from one dataset to validate a closely related parameter in another), cross-comparison (comparing two datasets with different parameters), and data fusion (using two or more parameters to estimate a third parameter). However, care must be taken to note the differences in data provenance and quality when combining heterogeneous datasets. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is currently in its first year of funding for our project Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA or Giovanni Advisor) under the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems and Technology (AIST) program. The Giovanni Advisor will allow researchers to combine and compare aerosol data from multiple sensors using Giovanni, such that scientifically and statistically valid conclusions can be drawn. The Giovanni Advisor will assist the user in determining how to match up two (or more) sets of data that are related, yet significantly different in some way: in the exact phenomenon being measured, the measurement technique, or the location in space-time and/or the quality of the measurements. Failing to account for these differences in merging, validation, cross calibration, comparison or fusion is likely to yield scientifically dubious results. The Giovanni Advisor captures details of each parameter’s attributes, metadata, retrieval heritage, provenance and data quality and flags relevant differences so that the user can make appropriate “apples to apples” comparisons of

  4. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Caustic soda, liquid. 21.102 Section 21.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.102 Caustic soda, liquid. (a) The...

  5. INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE DRYERS WHICH REMOVED TRACES OF LIQUID FROM STD FILTRATE. HEAT CONVERTED SODIUM BICARBONATE TO SODIUM CARBONATE OR SODA ASH, THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCT OF THE WORKS. - Solvay Process Company, SHT Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  6. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption. PMID:20360173

  7. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    PubMed

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone. PMID:19209070

  8. [Rudolf Krauss, Giovanni Noe and a flash of infectious diseases in Chile, 1930].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2015-06-01

    When there were giants on the earth, two of them, Rudolf Kraus and Giovanni Noe, met at the ancient Bacteriological Institute of Chile, and founded together a journal representing the principles of the institution. A nostalgic glance over the papers published therein for these so named giants lets us know a little about the study of infectious diseases in the thirties, when tuberculosis and malaria were two of the biggest problems for the world's public health... then and now. PMID:26230441

  9. Il sistema multiplo di Spica osservato dal Padre Giovanni Battista Audiffredi nel 1753

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2005-06-01

    The multiplicity of Spica's system has been first observed in 1753 by the dominican father Giovanni Battista Audiffredi through a lunar occultation. Audiffredi noted that the emersion's duration from the bright lunar limb was not instantaneous. Nowadays Spica has five known components, four of them have been discovered by occultation. This observation is presented along with a general introduction of lunar occultations, Watts' profiles, Cassini regions and grazes.

  10. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  11. Performance, Agility and Cost of Cloud Computing Services for NASA GES DISC Giovanni Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Chen, A.; Wharton, S.; Winter, E. L.; Lynnes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is investigating the performance, agility and cost of Cloud computing for GES DISC applications. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure), one of the core applications at the GES DISC for online climate-related Earth science data access, subsetting, analysis, visualization, and downloading, was used to evaluate the feasibility and effort of porting an application to the Amazon Cloud Services platform. The performance and the cost of running Giovanni on the Amazon Cloud were compared to similar parameters for the GES DISC local operational system. A Giovanni Time-Series analysis of aerosol absorption optical depth (388nm) from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)/Aura was selected for these comparisons. All required data were pre-cached in both the Cloud and local system to avoid data transfer delays. The 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month data were used for analysis on the Cloud and local system respectively, and the processing times for the analysis were used to evaluate system performance. To investigate application agility, Giovanni was installed and tested on multiple Cloud platforms. The cost of using a Cloud computing platform mainly consists of: computing, storage, data requests, and data transfer in/out. The Cloud computing cost is calculated based on the hourly rate, and the storage cost is calculated based on the rate of Gigabytes per month. Cost for incoming data transfer is free, and for data transfer out, the cost is based on the rate in Gigabytes. The costs for a local server system consist of buying hardware/software, system maintenance/updating, and operating cost. The results showed that the Cloud platform had a 38% better performance and cost 36% less than the local system. This investigation shows the potential of cloud computing to increase system performance and lower the overall cost of system management.

  12. Data Visualization and Analysis for Climate Studies using NASA Giovanni Online System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Leptoukh, Gregory; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    With many global earth observation systems and missions focused on climate systems and the associated large volumes of observational data available for exploring and explaining how climate is changing and why, there is an urgent need for climate services. Giovanni, the NASA GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd ANalysis Infrastructure, is a simple to use yet powerful tool for analysing these data for research on global warming and climate change, as well as for applications to weather. air quality, agriculture, and water resources,

  13. NASA Giovanni: A Tool for Visualizing, Analyzing, and Inter-comparing Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; deJeu, Richard; Fang, Fan; Lei, Guang-Dih; Parinussa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There are many existing satellite soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products, but there is no simple way for a user to inter-compare the products or analyze them together with other related data. An environment that facilitates such inter-comparison and analysis would be useful for validation of satellite soil moisture retrievals against in situ data and for determining the relationships between different soil moisture products. As part of the NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) family of portals, which has provided users worldwide with a simple but powerful way to explore NASA data, a beta prototype Giovanni Inter-comparison of Soil Moisture Products portal has been developed. A number of soil moisture data products are currently included in the prototype portal. More will be added, based on user requirements and feedback and as resources become available. Two application examples for the portal are provided. The NASA Giovanni Soil Moisture portal is versatile and extensible, with many possible uses, for research and applications, as well as for the education community.

  14. Giovanni Data Portals and Resources Support Student Problem-Based Learning for Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, J. G.; Zalles, D. R.; Krumhansl, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Data-Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE) project, funded by NASA, is providing dedicated climate data portals in the NASA Giovanni data system for the use of teachers and students. The central content of the DICCE-Giovanni data portals is a reduced set of climate-relevant data parameters drawn from the available Giovanni data sets, with accessible meanings, such as surface temperature, precipitation amount, snow cover, phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration, vegetation indices, and aerosol optical depth. Information resources explain the significance of the data to climate research, how to interpret climate data trends, and address uncertainties in both data visualizations and the interpretation of data plotting output. "How-to" videos and plotting tips facilitate the utilization of the data portals, so that teachers can create problem-based projects based on actual satellite observational data. The use of satellite data in a problem-based framework enhances the relevance and immediacy of the project content to the student, improves their understanding of Earth climate system interrelationships, and also improves pattern recognition, math skills, and interpretation of data representations.;

  15. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  16. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  18. Using NASA's Giovanni Web Portal to Access and Visualize Satellite-Based Earth Science Data in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.; Acker, J. G.; Prados, A. I.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2008-12-01

    One of the biggest obstacles for the average Earth science student today is locating and obtaining satellite- based remote sensing datasets in a format that is accessible and optimal for their data analysis needs. At the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) alone, on the order of hundreds of Terabytes of data are available for distribution to scientists, students and the general public. The single biggest and time-consuming hurdle for most students when they begin their study of the various datasets is how to slog through this mountain of data to arrive at a properly sub-setted and manageable dataset to answer their science question(s). The GES DISC provides a number of tools for data access and visualization, including the Google-like Mirador search engine and the powerful GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) web interface. Giovanni provides a simple way to visualize, analyze and access vast amounts of satellite-based Earth science data. Giovanni's features and practical examples of its use will be demonstrated, with an emphasis on how satellite remote sensing can help students understand recent events in the atmosphere and biosphere. Giovanni is actually a series of sixteen similar web-based data interfaces, each of which covers a single satellite dataset (such as TRMM, TOMS, OMI, AIRS, MLS, HALOE, etc.) or a group of related datasets (such as MODIS and MISR for aerosols, SeaWIFS and MODIS for ocean color, and the suite of A-Train observations co-located along the CloudSat orbital path). Recently, ground-based datasets have been included in Giovanni, including the Northern Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and EPA fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for air quality. Model data such as the Goddard GOCART model and MERRA meteorological reanalyses (in process) are being increasingly incorporated into Giovanni to facilitate model- data intercomparison. A full suite of data

  19. A learner centered Student Observation Driven Astronomy (SODA)course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottorff, Mark; Doty, S.; Heaton, J.

    2011-01-01

    The non-science major astronomy course, Exploring the Universe, at Southwestern University is now a Student Observation Driven Astronomy (SODA) course. This minimal lecture course emphasizes using student collected observations to infer basic astronomical information about the universe. Observational data is obtained using small telescopes, inexpensive imaging cameras, and reticule eyepieces. The data are collectively analyzed by students in the classroom. In this poster we present the SODA activities that have been successfully carried out in this learner centered course.

  20. Micromachining soda-lime glass by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wei; Yu, Jian; Chai, Lu; Wang, Ching-Yue

    2015-08-01

    The physical process of forming a modified region in soda-lime glass was investigated using 1 kHz intense femtosecond laser pulses from a Ti: sapphire laser at 775 nm. Through the modifications induced by the femtosecond laser radiation using selective chemical etching techniques, we fabricated reproducible and defined microstructures and further studied their morphologies and etching properties. Moreover, a possible physical mechanism for the femtosecond laser modification in soda-lime glass was proposed.

  1. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    PubMed Central

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  2. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat. PMID:25497767

  3. NASA Giovanni Portals for NLDAS/GLDAS Online Visualization, Analysis, and Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David M.; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) are generating a series of land surface forcing (e.g., precipitation, surface meteorology, and radiation), state (e.g., soil moisture and temperature, and snow), and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by several land surface models. To date, NLDAS and GLDAS have generated more than 30 (1979 - present) and 60 (1948 - present) years of data, respectively. To further facilitate data accessibility and utilization, three new portals in the NASA Giovanni system have been made available for NLDAS and GLDAS online visualization, analysis, and intercomparison.

  4. The Renaissance and the universal surgeon: Giovanni Andrea Della Croce, a master of traumatology.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Anna; Tomba, Patrizia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2013-12-01

    All the medical knowledge of all time in one book, the universal and perfect manual for the Renaissance surgeon, and the man who wrote it. This paper depicts the life and works of Giovanni Andrea della Croce, a 16th Century physician and surgeon, who, endowed with true spirit of Renaissance humanism, wanted to teach and share all his medical knowledge through his opus magnum, titled "Universal Surgery Complete with All the Relevant Parts for the Optimum Surgeon". An extraordinary book which truly represents a defining moment and a founding stone for traumatology, written by a lesser known historical personality, but nonetheless the Renaissance Master of Traumatology. PMID:24173678

  5. NASA Giovanni Portals for NLDAS/GLDAS Online Visualization, Analysis, and Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B. E.; Mocko, D. M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.

    2011-12-01

    North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) are generating a series of land surface forcing (e.g., precipitation, surface meteorology, and radiation), state (e.g., soil moisture and temperature, and snow), and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by several land surface models. To date, NLDAS and GLDAS have generated more than 30 and 60 years of data, respectively. These quality-controlled, and spatially and temporally consistent, terrestrial hydrological data could play an important role in characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles and, thereby, improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. All NLDAS and GLDAS data are accessible from the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC) at the NASA GES DISC (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology). To further facilitate access and use of these data, three new and improved portals of NASA Giovanni have been made available for NLDAS and GLDAS online visualization, analysis, and intercomparison. The new and improved portals include the following: 1. Giovanni portal, http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=NLDAS0125_H, for NLDAS 0.125°x0.125° hourly data from NLDAS Phase 1 (NLDAS-1) forcing product (Aug. 1996 - Dec. 2007) and NLDAS Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) primary forcing, secondary forcing, and Mosaic model products (Jan. 1979 - present). 2. Giovanni portal, http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=GLDAS10_3H, for 1.0°x1.0° 3-hourly data from GLDAS Version 2 (GLDAS-2) NOAH model product (Jan. 1948 - Dec. 2008) and GLDAS Version 1 (GLDAS-1) CLM, Mosaic, NOAH, and VIC model products (Jan. 1979 - present). 3. Giovanni portal, http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=GLDAS10_M, for 1.0°x1.0° monthly data from GLDAS-2 NOAH model product

  6. Some remarks on preparations for Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli's journey to Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    The present paper deals with the outline of some circumstances of the visit of Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli to the Nicolai Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russia. There are some scan-copies of official letters displayed which belong to the collection from the diplomatic correspondence between the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Russia, and the Diplomatic Service of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The correspondence had been triggered by the application of Schiaparelli for his trip to the Pulkovo Observatory with the aim of perfection in Astronomy and Geodesy. The corresponding facsimile as well as its English translation is given

  7. Real Data and Rapid Results: Ocean Color Data Analysis with Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, J. G.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Gregg, W.; Berrick, S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step addressing the challenge of using archived Earth Observing System (EOS) data for regional or global studies by developing an infrastructure with a World Wide Web interface which allows online, interactive, data analysis: the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides a data analysis environment that is largely independent of underlying data file format. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project has created an initial implementation of Giovanni using monthly Standard Mapped Image (SMI) data products from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission. Giovanni users select geophysical parameters, and the geographical region and time period of interest. The system rapidly generates a graphical or ASCII numerical data output. Currently available output options are: Area plot (averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area); Time plot (time series averaged over any rectangular area); Hovmeller plots (image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections); ASCII output for all plot types; and area plot animations. Future plans include correlation plots, output formats compatible with Geographical Information Systems (GIs), and higher temporal resolution data. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project will produce sensor-independent ocean color data beginning with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) mission and extending through SeaWiFS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data sets, and will enable incorporation of Visible/lnfrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data, which will be added to Giovanni. The first phase of Giovanni will also include tutorials demonstrating the use of Giovanni and collaborative assistance in the development of research projects using the SeaWiFS and Ocean Color Time-Series Project data in the online Laboratory

  8. Microbial and biogeochernical processes Soda Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Cloern, J.E.; Sofer, Z.; Smith, R.L.; Culbertson, C.W.; Zehr, J.; Miller, L.; Cole, B.; Harvey, R.; Iversen, N.; Klug, M.; Des Marais, D J; Rau, G.

    1988-01-01

    Meromictic, alkaline lakes represent modern-day analogues of lacustrine source rock depositional environments. In order to further our understanding of how these lakes function in terms of limnological and biogeochemical processes, we have conducted an interdisciplinary study of Big Soda Lake. Annual mixolimnion productivity (ca. 500 g m-2) is dominated by a winter diatom bloom (60% of annual) caused by upward transport of ammonia to the epilimnion. The remainder of productivity is attributable to chemoautotrophs (30%) and photosynthetic bacteria (10%) present at the oxic -anoxic interface from May to November. Studies of bacterial heterotrophy and particulate fluxes in the water column indicate that about 90% of annual productivity is remineralized in the mixolimnion, primarily by fermentative bacteria. However, high rates of sulphate reduction (9-29 mmol m-2 yr-1) occur in the monimolimnion waters, which could remineralize most (if not all) of the primary productivity. This discrepancy has not as yet been fully explained. Low rates of methanogenesis also occur in the monimolimnion waters and sediments. Most of the methane is consumed by anaerobic methane oxidation occurring in the monimolimnion water column. Other bacterial processes occurring in the lake are also discussed. Preliminary studies have been made on the organic geochemistry of the monimolimnion sediments. Carbon-14-dating indicates a lower depositional rate prior to meromixis and a downcore enrichment in 13C of organic carbon and chlorophyll derivatives. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments indicate that the sediment organic matter is almost entirely derived from the water column with little or no contribution from terrestrial sources. The significance of the organics released by hydrous pyrolysis is discussed.

  9. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material. PMID:20430614

  10. Shock response of soda lime glass at 6 GPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, Dattatraya

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the results of a variety of shock wave experiments performed on soda lime glass to understand the modifying influence of so called "Failure wave" on its compression, under single shock, release, and tension. These experiments were done to a peak shock induced stress of around 6-7 GPa. Shock induced response was recorded by means of VISAR. The results of these experiments performed on soda lime glass at 6-7 GPa indicate that: (i) The effect of failure wave propagation is to lower the impedances of failed glass under both shocked compressed and released states and the effect is not initiated instantaneously at the impact surface. (ii) Failure wave velocity is determined to be 1.42 km/s. (iii) The spall strength of soda lime glass in the region transversed by failure wave is not negligible i.e., the pull-back velocity is around 50 m/s.

  11. Use of the NASA Giovanni Data System for Geospatial Public Health Research: Example of Weather-Influenza Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Soebiyanto, Radina; Kiang, Richard; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Giovanni data analysis system has been recognized as a useful tool to access and analyze many different types of remote sensing data. The variety of environmental data types has allowed the use of Giovanni for different application areas, such as agriculture, hydrology, and air quality research. The use of Giovanni for researching connections between public health issues and Earths environment and climate, potentially exacerbated by anthropogenic influence, has been increasingly demonstrated. In this communication, the pertinence of several different data parameters to public health will be described. This communication also provides a case study of the use of remote sensing data from Giovanni in assessing the associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters. In this study, logistic regression was employed with precipitation, temperature and specific humidity as predictors. Specific humidity was found to be associated (p 0.05) with influenza activity in both temperate and tropical climate. In the two temperate locations studied, specific humidity was negatively correlated with influenza; conversely, in the three tropical locations, specific humidity was positively correlated with influenza. Influenza prediction using the regression models showed good agreement with the observed data (correlation coefficient of 0.50.83).

  12. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  13. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  14. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  15. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  16. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  17. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  18. Striking presence of Egyptian blue identified in a painting by Giovanni Battista Benvenuto from 1524.

    PubMed

    Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Sanyova, Jana; Rask, Vibeke; Sargent, Maria Louise; Therkildsen, Rikke Hoberg

    2011-09-01

    Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613-2494 BC) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 A.D., it disappeared from the historical record and was only reinvented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The discovery of Egyptian blue in Ortolano Ferrarese's painting from 1524 shows that Egyptian blue was in fact available in the period from which it is normally considered not to exist. The identification of Egyptian blue is based on optical microscopy supported by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and visual light photon-induced spectroscopy, and finally confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy. PMID:21678119

  19. Drawings for an exacting author: illustrations from Giovanni Antonio Scopoli's "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae".

    PubMed

    Siviero, Monica; Violani, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723-1788) was one of the most versatile naturalists in eighteenth-century Italy. In 1785, Scopoli conceived the ambitious publication, "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae". Appearing in installments, this included descriptions and illustrations of plants, animals and minerals found in northern Italy. Unfortunately, Scopoli's sudden death halted publication of the "Deliciae" after its third installment. Recently, a corpus of 98 paintings, in the gouache style, were discovered in the Biblioteca Universitaria of Pavia. These gouaches appear to be the basis for plates planned in future installments of the "Deliciae". Marginal notes in Scopoli's handwriting are included. Because Scopoli's plant and animal specimens have been destroyed or dispersed, these drawings are crucial for reconstructing his scientific opus. Combined with other documents, Scopoli's marginal notes also reveal his exacting standards. He criticized the way his artists had poorly rendered the scientific details of the paintings. PMID:19842293

  20. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym

  1. Explosive volcanism lessons learned from Mentos and soda eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, H. M.; Rust, A. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    When hard Mentos candies are dropped into a bottle of carbonated beverage, the resultant rapid CO2 exsolution and gas expansion causes an impressive soda `eruption'. We explore the ways in which this simple example can be used to demonstrate explosive volcanic processes. Through hands-on experiments, students can vary the type of candy, the type of beverage, and the shape of the vent (by making a hole in the cap of the soda bottle) to understand the processes that are influencing the height and duration of the eruption column. The activity can be tailored to demonstrate basic principles of gas exsolution and expansion for young students, but can also be extended to more complex principles of heterogeneous bubble nucleation and decreasing surface tension for college students. We present results from Mentos and soda experiments by a group of college freshman in the elementary education program (with no real science background). We compare students' resultant understanding of the similarities and differences between volcanic eruptions and the experiments with the results from a similar activity performed by a group of graduate geology students. The Mentos and soda reaction is dramatic. Video clips of people, young and old, trying this experiment across the world can be found on the world wide web. We suggest that the popularity of this demonstration be used to help teach fundamental concepts in both volcanology and scientific experimentation.

  2. A Computer Model for Soda Bottle Oscillations: "The Bottelator".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltzberg, Leonard J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents a model to explain the behavior of oscillatory phenomena found in the soda bottle oscillator. Describes recording the oscillations, and the design of the model based on the qualitative explanation of the oscillations. Illustrates a variety of physiochemical concepts including far-from-equilibrium oscillations, feedback, solubility and…

  3. Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

  4. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  5. Shock-wave properties of soda-lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-11-01

    Planar impact experiments and wave profile measurements provided single and double shock equation of state data to 30 GPa. Both compression wave wave profile structure and release wave data were used to infer time-dependent strength and equation of state properties for soda-lime glass.

  6. 21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.490...

  7. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  8. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  9. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  10. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 50 ml of distilled water. Titrate with 0.25 N hydrochloric acid to the disappearance of the pink color. Not less than 25 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required to neutralize the sample of diluted 50 percent caustic soda, and not less than 36.5 ml of the hydrochloric acid shall be required...

  11. 25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. WATER TOWER WITH SODA ASH STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT AND PUMP HOUSE No. 1 ON THE LEFT. THE HOT METAL BRIDGE IS IN THE FAR BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Using the NASA Giovanni DICCE Portal to Investigate Land-Ocean Linkages with Satellite and Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Zalles, Daniel; Krumhansl, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE), a NASA climate change education project, employs the NASA Giovanni data system to enable teachers to create climate-related classroom projects using selected satellite and assimilated model data. The easy-to-use DICCE Giovanni portal (DICCE-G) provides data parameters relevant to oceanic, terrestrial, and atmospheric processes. Participants will explore land-ocean linkages using the available data in the DICCE-G portal, in particular focusing on temperature, ocean biology, and precipitation variability related to El Ni?o and La Ni?a events. The demonstration includes the enhanced information for educators developed for the DICCE-G portal. The prototype DICCE Learning Environment (DICCE-LE) for classroom project development will also be demonstrated.

  13. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  14. 65 Years of Reprocessed GLDAS Version 2.0 Data and Their Exploration Using the NASA GES DISC Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.; Silberstein, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) has two components: (1) GLDAS-2.0, entirely forced with the Princeton meteorological forcing data and (2) GLDAS-2.1, forced with a combination of model and observation-based data sets. GLDAS-2.0 data from the Noah model have been reprocessed in July 2015 with updated Princeton forcing data and upgraded Land Information System (LIS) software. The temporal coverage of GLDAS 2.0 is extended to 1948 ~ 2012. The reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), in self-describing and machine-independent NetCDF format, and can be accessed via HTTP for direct download, OPeNDAP for parameter and spatial subsetting, time aggregation, and format conversion, and Giovanni - Interactive Visualization and Analysis System. The OPeNDAP subsetting is also integrated into Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) for better User Interface and better downloading capability. This presentation describes the main characteristics of GLDAS data, the major improvements of the reprocessed data, and the access to the data. To further facilitate their use, reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are integrated into Giovanni, where the data can be easily explored with 17 visualization types, such as Lat-Lon Map and Animation, Time Series, Scatter Plot, and Histogram. This presentation also showcases the main climatology characteristics of 65 years of GLDAS, derived with Giovanni's new capabilities in computing climatology for user-defined time range and visualizing in Lat-Lon Map and Time Series. GLDAS-2.1 is analogous to and will soon replace GLDAS Version 1 (GLDAS-1), covering the time period from 2001 (or 2000 for the 0.25 degree data) to the present, with about a one-month latency. The data are also in NetCDF format and can be accessed via HTTP, OPeNDAP, and Giovanni.

  15. Association of soda consumption with subclinical cardiac remodeling in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte; Sullivan, Lisa; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Aragam, Jayashri; Jacques, Paul; Cheng, Susan; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diet soda consumption increases cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relations between self-reported soda consumption and subclinical cardiac remodeling. Methods We assessed the relations between self-reported soda consumption and left ventricular mass (LVM) and left atrial dimension (LAD) (both standardized within sex) in a sample of middle-aged attendees from the Framingham Heart Offspring cohort examination 5 and 6. Results The overall mean age was 55 years and 59% of the participants were women. Compared to non-consumers (n=1010), soda consumers (n=3192) had greater body weight (mean 86 vs. 82 kg among men, and 70 vs. 67 kg among women). Compared with non-consumers, age- and height-adjusted LAD was increased (standard deviation units) among soda consumers by 0.15 standard error 0.042, p<0.001) for those drinking >0–7 diet soda (n=1023), −0.010 (0.043, p=0.82) for people drinking >0–7 regular soda (n=907), 0.22 (0.057, p<0.0001) for individuals consuming >7 diet soda (n=372), and 0.20 (0.092, p=0.034) for participants drinking >7 regular soda (n=116) per week. LVM was increased among participants consuming diet soda (p<0.05), but not in regular soda consumers (p>0.05). Upon adjustment for weight, however, all aforementioned associations were attenuated. Conclusion The observed associations between soda consumption and LAD or LVM were likely related to the greater body weight of soda drinkers relative to non-drinkers. PMID:25456096

  16. Using NASA DICCE GIOVANNI to Prepare Pre-service STEM Teachers to Teach Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Horizon oil spill incident on April 20, 2010 potentially compromised the Gulf Coast's ecosystem and human health through the marine food chain. One of the mitigation strategies to impede oil migration to the Gulf Coast's shorelines was to burn off crude oil, which resulted in the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions such as, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene compounds. Noticeable high deaths of marine animals and a decline in phytoplankton productivity have been linked to PAH- and dispersant-toxicity. Phytoplankton plays a pivotal role in natural food chains, production of O2, and capture of CO2. Grambling State University's Water Quality Management students used the University of New Hampshire's Student Climate Data website and the NASA DICCE data portal in learning activities to understand impacts of spill mitigation on chlorophyll a concentrations. Students used NASA Giovanni data and spectral satellite images to examine phytoplankton productivity around coastal shorelines, including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida pan-handle. Area-averaged time series from Giovanni indicated that June was the peak month for chlorophyll a from 2007 to 2012. Spectral images showed that chlorophyll a concentrations between 2.5-30mg/m3 were widely distributed around the shorelines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and the Florida pan-handle from June 2007 to June 2008. Students then examined chlorophyll a concentrations in April 2010 and May 2010. Data obtained from spectral images by students showed phytoplankton blooms with a 2.5mg/m3 concentration dramatically decreased from that of April 2010. Next students examined phytoplankton productivity from 0.08-30mg/m3 in the month of June for 2010, 2011, and 2012. In June 2010, a pattern of movement in phytoplankton blooms was observed toward southwest Louisiana and Texas shorelines. Comparative data from June 2011 and June 2012 demonstrated a low

  17. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.

  18. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. PMID:18164162

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of silver in soda-lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsella, E.; Gonella, F.; Mazzoldi, P.; Quaranta, A.; Battaglin, G.; Polloni, R.

    1998-03-01

    Spectral and time-resolved luminescence of silver in ion-exchanged soda-lime glass are investigated for samples with different Ag concentrations. The evolution of the observed spectroscopic features are correlated with structural changes in the silver environment from a marked ionic position with a weak influence of the surroundings to a configuration characterized by stronger silver-lattice coupling and Ag +-Ag + correlation effects.

  20. A Computer Model for Soda Bottle Oscillations: "The Bottelator"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltzberg, Leonard J.; Bowers, Peter G.; Hofstetter, Christine

    1997-06-01

    Oscillatory release of gas sometimes occurs when a small pinhole is made in a bottle of commercial soda water. We present experimental documentation of these oscillations, and have modeled them using the Stella II modeling package. The oscillations arise because the headspace above the liquid in the bottle is repressurized by escaping bubbles, thereby temporarily shutting off further bubble nucleation. The system makes an extremely simple demonstration of far-from-equilibrium oscillations.

  1. Ecomorphological variability of Arthrospira fusiformis (Cyanoprokaryota) in African soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Kaggwa, Mary Nakabungo; Burian, Alfred; Oduor, Steve Omondi; Schagerl, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The filamentous spirally coiled cyanoprokaryote Arthrospira fusiformis is found in extremely high densities in tropical soda lakes acting as driving force of the food web. We studied pronounced temporal morphological changes of Arthrospira in Kenyan soda lakes, Nakuru and Bogoria, and identified underlying key factors. Cell (diameter and height) and filament (height of coil, coil diameter, and number) dimensions were measured from weekly samples collected over a period of 16 months. In both lakes, medium-sized cells and large, widely coiled filaments prevailed most. Percentage of large, widely coiled filaments was promoted by elevated levels of soluble reactive phosphorus, wind speed, temperature and conductivity and the opposite for small filaments. Large, narrow-coiled filaments were associated with an increase in mainly Arthrospira-grazing zooplankton and cyanophage infections. Widely coiled spirals were promoted by increased turbulences. Based on fluorescence measurements, we found widely coiled filaments representing high vitality. From this study we were able to demonstrate for the first time morphological patterns of Arthrospira in nature. Arthrospira morphotypes are suitable for indicating the biological status in soda lakes as they are subjective and therefore reflective of what is happening in its habitat. Additionally, this outcome might be also of interest for commercial 'Spirulina' farms in enhancing high-quality production. PMID:24000144

  2. NASA Giovanni: A Tool for Visualizing, Analyzing, and Inter-Comparing Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; deJeu, Richard; Fang, Fan; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    There are many existing satellite soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products, but there is no simple way for a user to inter-compare the products or analyze them together with other related data (e.g., precipitation). An environment that facilitates such inter-comparison and analysis would be useful for validation of satellite soil moisture retrievals against in situ data and for determining the relationships between different soil moisture products. The latter relationships are particularly important for applications users, for whom the continuity of soil moisture data, from whatever source, is critical. A recent example was provided by the sudden demise of EOS Aqua AMSR-E and the end of its soil moisture data production, as well as the end of other soil moisture products that had used the AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The purpose of the current effort is to create an environment, as part of the NASA Giovanni family of portals, that facilitates inter-comparisons of soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products.

  3. "Some curious drawings". Mars through Giovanni Schiaparelli's eyes: between science and fiction.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2009-01-01

    From the second half of the 19th century up to the first part of the 20th century the drawings of Mars by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli became the centre of an international controversy concerning the existence of canals and the hypothetical habitability of the red planet. These images also generated a full impact on the popular culture of the time. This essays follows the scientific representations of Mars by Schiaparelli (drawings of discs and maps) from their birth in the hands of the astronomy community up to their growing old in the hands of scientific popularizers such as Camille Flammarion and science fiction writers such as Herbert George Wells. With its seas and canyons Mars turned into the ideal background for scientific and exotic romanticism, offering a suitable setting for novels and tales. The core question crossed paths with the contemporary early 20th century debate raging on about the evolutionary theory. The study of Mars moved from astronomy to extraterrestrial physiology, biology, meteorology and geography: astronomical images then became imaginary portraits of Martians and artificial Martian landscapes. PMID:20506896

  4. Bound soda incorporation during hydrate precipitation -- Effects of caustic, temperature and organics

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, L.; Hunter, J.; McCormick, K.; Warren, H.

    1996-10-01

    Soda is incorporated into aluminum tri-hydroxide (hydrate) during the precipitation stage of the Bayer Process. A review of literature shows the predominant effect is alumina supersaturation. This research extends the literature by quantifying the secondary effects of temperature, caustic and organics on soda incorporation beyond the primary effect through alumina supersaturation. This work advances industry knowledge towards better control of soda incorporation in the refinery in the pursuit of higher and more consistent product quality for smelter grade alumina.

  5. Metadata and Buckets in the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.; Robbins, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs), and discuss the role of metadata in SODA. The premise of the SODA model is to "push down" many of the functionalities generally associated with archives into the data objects themselves. Thus the data objects become "smarter", and the archives "dumber". In the SODA model, archives become primarily set managers, and the objects themselves negotiate and handle presentation, enforce terms and conditions, and perform data content management. Buckets are our implementation of smart objects, and da is our reference implementation for dumb archives. We also present our approach to metadata translation for buckets.

  6. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers.

    PubMed

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity. PMID:22583859

  7. The European accreditation of Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II of Bari.

    PubMed

    Lacalamita, Rosanna; Quaranta, Antonio; Trisorio Liuzzi, Maria Pia; Nigro, Aldo; Simonetti, Umberto; Schirone, Massimiliano; Aloè, Ferruccio; Capochiani, Gianluca; De Francesco, Genoveffa; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Galetta, Domenico; Grammatica, Luciano; Guarini, Attilio; Mattioli, Vittorio; Milella, Piero; Moschetta, Antonio; Nardulli, Patrizia; Nigro, Vincenza; Silvestris, Nico; Paradiso, Angelo

    2015-12-31

    The National Cancer Institute of Bari (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, IRCCS) has been involved since the conception of the project of the Italian Ministry for Health aimed to validate the applicability of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) accreditation and designation (A&D) model to the Network of Italian Cancer Centers, IRCCS, of Alleanza Contro il Cancro. The self-assessment phase of the Institute started in September 2013 and ended in June 2014. All documents and tools were transferred to the OECI A&D Board in June 2014 and a 2-day peer review visit was conducted in October 2014 by an international qualified audit team. The Institute received its final designation and certification in June 2015. The OECI A&D Board, in its final report, came to the conclusion that Istituto Tumori "Giovanni Paolo II" of Bari has a strong research component with some essential elements of comprehensive cancer care still under development; the lack of a system for using outcome data for the strategic management approach to decision-making and missing a regular internal audit system eventually helping further quality improvement were reported as examples of areas with opportunities for improvement. The OECI A&D process represented a great opportunity for the cancer center to benchmark the quality of its performance according to standard parameters in comparison with other international centers and to further develop a participatory group identity. The common goal of accreditation was real and participatory with long-lasting positive effects. We agree with the OECI comments about the next areas of work in which the Institute could produce future further efforts: the use of its powerful IT system as a means for outcome analysis and empowerment projects for its cancer patients. PMID:27096266

  8. Exploring Climatology and Long-Term Variations of Aerosols from NASA Reanalysis MERRA-2 with Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana; Vollmer, Bruce; Li, Zhanqing

    2016-01-01

    Dust plays important roles in energy cycle and climate variations. The dust deposition is the major source of iron in the open ocean, which is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton growth and therefore may influence the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. Mineral dust can also act as fertilizer for forests over long time periods. Over 35 years of simulated global aerosol products from NASA atmospheric reanalysis, second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) are available from NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The MERRA-2 covers the period 1980-present, continuing as an ongoing climate analysis. Aerosol assimilation is included throughout the period, using MODIS, MISR, AERONET, and AVHRR (in the pre-EOS period). The aerosols are assimilated by using MERRA-2 aerosol model, which interact directly with the radiation parameterization, and radiatively coupled with atmospheric model dynamics in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5). Dust deposition data along with other major aerosol compositions (e.g. black carbon, sea salt, and sulfate, etc.) are simulated as dry and wet deposition, respectively. The hourly and monthly data are available at spatial resolution of 0.5ox0.625o (latitude x longitude). Quick data exploration of climatology and interannual variations of MERRA-2 aerosol can be done through the online visualization and analysis tool, Giovanni. This presentation, using dust deposition as an example, demonstrates a number of MERRA-2 data services at GES DISC. Global distributions of dust depositions, and their seasonal and inter-annual variations are investigated from MERRA-2 monthly aerosol products.

  9. Bacterial diversity of lonar soda lake of India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Kshipra B; Pathak, Anupama P; Karuppayil, Mohan S

    2011-01-01

    Total seventy four bacteria were isolated from Lonar soda lake of Maharashtra state, India. Eleven isolates were identified using morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis. The bacteria isolated belonged to phylum firmicutes and proteobacteria. Majorities (eight) were firmicutes and three were proteobacteria. For the first time we are reporting Alcanivorax spp. which is a genus well known for its oil degradation capacity, indicate the probable existence of oil reservoir in vicinity of Lonar lake. In addition all the eleven bacteria are potential producers of industrially important enzymes, pigments, antibiotics as well. PMID:22282637

  10. Snowpack ground truth Donner Pass site, Soda Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground truth data taken near Soda Springs, California, on January 18, 1977, in support of the NASA Airborne Instrumentation Research Program are presented. Ground truth data taken in support of this mission were as follows: (1) snow depths were taken every 400 feet; (2) snow densities were taken every 1,200 feet; (3) two snowpits were dug, and limited density, vertical layer classifications, and soil observations were taken; and (4) temperatures of the upper 6 inches of the snowpack were taken at one location.

  11. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K.

    2012-06-05

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s{sup -1}. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  12. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis. PMID:25984015

  13. Issues in Data Fusion for Satellite Aerosol Measurements for Applications with GIOVANNI System at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalan, Arun; Zubko, Viktor; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    We look at issues, barriers and approaches for Data Fusion of satellite aerosol data as available from the GES DISC GIOVANNI Web Service. Daily Global Maps of AOT from a single satellite sensor alone contain gaps that arise due to various sources (sun glint regions, clouds, orbital swath gaps at low latitudes, bright underlying surfaces etc.). The goal is to develop a fast, accurate and efficient method to improve the spatial coverage of the Daily AOT data to facilitate comparisons with Global Models. Data Fusion may be supplemented by Optimal Interpolation (OI) as needed.

  14. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV) was first identified in tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), a noxious weed, in Florida in 2002. This report provides the first full genome sequence of TSAMV. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional spec...

  15. What Contributes to Excessive Diet Soda Intake in Eating Disorders: Appetitive Drive, Weight Concerns, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n=240) and non-eating disorder controls (n=157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in BN. PMID:23600556

  16. What contributes to excessive diet soda intake in eating disorders: appetitive drive, weight concerns, or both?

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n = 240) and non-eating disorder controls (n = 157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in bulimia nervosa. PMID:23600556

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Monsanto Chemical Co. (Soda Springs), Soda Springs, ID, April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Monsanto Chemical Company Superfund Site is located in Caribou County, Idaho, approximately one mile north of the City of Soda Springs. After screening using conservative human health and ecological screening values, the contaminants of potential concern in soils and on-Plant source piles include, radionuclides (radium-226, lead-210, and uranium-238) and chemicals (arsenic, beryllium, selenium and zinc). The groundwater contaminants of potential concern include those substances detected at concentrations above primary MCLs, i.e., cadmium, fluoride, nitrate, and selenium, and manganese, which is present above a secondary MCL.

  18. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  19. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  20. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  1. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  2. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  3. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    PubMed

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales? PMID:27092368

  4. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1996-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:11524864

  5. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1997-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:12017931

  6. Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women123

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Lawrence; Flint, Alan J; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Consumption of sugar-sweetened soda has been associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. The relation with cerebrovascular disease has not yet been closely examined. Objective: Our objective was to examine patterns of soda consumption and substitution of alternative beverages for soda in relation to stroke risk. Design: The Nurses’ Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 84,085 women followed for 28 y (1980–2008), and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study of 43,371 men followed for 22 y (1986–2008), provided data on soda consumption and incident stroke. Results: We documented 1416 strokes in men during 841,770 person-years of follow-up and 2938 strokes in women during 2,188,230 person-years of follow-up. The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.34). The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥1 serving of low-calorie soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.28). Compared with 1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, 1 serving of decaffeinated coffee/d was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 1%, 19%) lower risk of stroke and 1 serving of caffeinated coffee/d with a 9% (95% CI: 0%, 17%) lower risk. Similar estimated reductions in risk were seen for substitution of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee for low-calorie soda. Conclusions: Greater consumption of sugar-sweetened and low-calorie sodas was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke. This risk may be reduced by substituting alternative beverages for soda. PMID:22492378

  7. Using NASA's Giovanni System to Simulate Time-Series Stations in the Outflow Region of California's Eel River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Lee, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Oceanographic time-series stations provide vital data for the monitoring of oceanic processes, particularly those associated with trends over time and interannual variability. There are likely numerous locations where the establishment of a time-series station would be desirable, but for reasons of funding or logistics, such establishment may not be feasible. An alternative to an operational time-series station is monitoring of sites via remote sensing. In this study, the NASA Giovanni data system is employed to simulate the establishment of two time-series stations near the outflow region of California s Eel River, which carries a high sediment load. Previous time-series analysis of this location (Acker et al. 2009) indicated that remotely-sensed chl a exhibits a statistically significant increasing trend during summer (low flow) months, but no apparent trend during winter (high flow) months. Examination of several newly-available ocean data parameters in Giovanni, including 8-day resolution data, demonstrates the differences in ocean parameter trends at the two locations compared to regionally-averaged time-series. The hypothesis that the increased summer chl a values are related to increasing SST is evaluated, and the signature of the Eel River plume is defined with ocean optical parameters.

  8. Effect of shear on failure waves in soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, R. J.; Mello, M.; Brar, N. S.

    1998-07-10

    By means of in-material stress gauges, failure waves in shock-compressed soda lime glass have been shown to be distinguished by a marked reduction in shear stress. To explore further the relation between failure waves and shearing resistance, a series of pressure-shear impact experiments have been performed involving the impact of a glass plate by a steel flyer plate and vice versa. The latter configuration is designed to allow direct measurements of the shearing resistance of the failed material. In both configurations, the normal and transverse motion of the free surface of the target is monitored using laser interferometry. The transverse velocity-time profiles show a pronounced loss in shearing resistance of the glass at impact velocities above the threshold for failure waves to occur.

  9. INDEX OF REFRACTION OF SHOCK LOADED SODA-LIME GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C. S.

    2009-12-28

    Soda-lime glass (SLG) is a potential low-cost VISAR window for use at moderate shock pressures (up to 2430 GPa) where the material remains transparent. In order for SLG to be practical as a VISAR window, the correction factor, which describes the frequency correction related to the strain dependence of the refractive index, and hence the index of refraction itself, must be characterized as a function of pressure. Characterization data are reported in this paper and compared to previous results. The present data show good agreement with those of Dandekar [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6614 (1998)] and separate study results by Gibbons and Ahrens [J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5489 (1971)] up to 7 GPa. However, at stresses over 7 GPa, marked discrepancies are evident between the present data and that of Gibbons and Ahrens. Differences in test methods may explain these discrepancies.

  10. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Fox, Ethan E; Morrissey, Timothy G; Vuono, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  11. Big Soda Lake (Nevada). 2. Pelagic sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    The epilimnion of hypersaline, alkaline, meromictic Big Soda Lake contains an average 58 mmol sulfate liter−1 and 0.4 µmol dissolved iron liter−1. The monimolimnion, which is permanently anoxic, has a sulfide concentration ranging seasonally from 4 to 7 mmol liter−1. Depth profiles of sulfate reduction in the monimolimnion, assayed with a 35S tracer technique and in situ incubations, demonstrated that sulfate reduction occurs within the water column of this extreme environment. The average rate of reduction in the monimolimnion was 3 µmol sulfate liter−1 d−1in May compared to 0.9 in October. These values are comparable to rates of sulfate reduction reported for anoxic waters of more moderate environments. Sulfate reduction also occurred in the anoxic zone of the mixolimnion, though at significantly lower rates (0.025–0.090 µmol liter−1 d−1 at 25 m). Additions of FeS (1.0 mmol liter−1) doubled the endogenous rate of sulfate reduction in the monimolimnion, while MnS and kaolinite had no effect. These results suggest that sulfate reduction in Big Soda Lake is iron limited and controlled by seasonal variables other than temperature. Estimates of the organic carbon mineralized by sulfate reduction exceed measured fluxes of particulate organic carbon sinking from the mixolimnion. Thus, additional sources of electron donors (other than those derived from the sinking of pelagic autotrophs) may also fuel monimolimnetic sulfate reduction in the lake.

  12. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes. PMID:24934070

  13. [Overcrowding in emergency departments: the case of the San Giovanni Battista (Molinette) university hospital in Turin (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Fornero, Giulio; Arione, Roberto; Fiandra, Umberto; Rapellino, Marco; Bono, Alessia; Moiraghi, Corrado; Gianino, Maria Michela

    2011-01-01

    Overcrowding in Emergency Departments (ED) is a common phenomenon worldwide, especially in metropolitan areas. The main reason for overcrowding is not inappropriate emergency department use by patients but rather a shortage of available hospital beds which results in extended ED stays for patients who need emergency admission. The aims of this study, conducted at the San Giovanni Battista (Molinette) University hospital in Turin (Italy), were a) to verify the existence of overcrowding in the hospital ED and b) to test whether, as stated in the literature, overcrowding is due to restricted access to hospital beds for patients needing emergency admission, and to identify contributing factors. Results show the existence of overcrowding and confirm the hypothesized cause. PMID:22508607

  14. Giovanni Battista Morgagni in the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo R

    2014-07-01

    The Italian physician Giovanni Battista Morgagni was the founder of the clinico-anatomical method. His masterpiece De sedibus, et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis represented a major breakthrough in the history of medicine. In the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology, Morgagni appears at the center of the fresco. With his left index finger points to the chest of a dying patient with a bulging pulsating aortic aneurysm below the left clavicle, and with his right hand, that holds a scalpel, shows the aneurysm found at the autopsy table. With this striking image the clinico-anatomical method is succinctly depicted. Professor Ignacio Chávez, the founder of the National Institute of Cardiology, gave the artist the elements to draw Morgagni, but the disposition and the importance of Morgagni in the fresco were due to the talent of Rivera. PMID:23493179

  15. Using NASA's Giovanni Web Portal to Access and Visualize Satellite-based Earth Science Data in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven; Acker, James G.; Prados, Ana I.; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles for the average Earth science student today is locating and obtaining satellite-based remote sensing data sets in a format that is accessible and optimal for their data analysis needs. At the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) alone, on the order of hundreds of Terabytes of data are available for distribution to scientists, students and the general public. The single biggest and time-consuming hurdle for most students when they begin their study of the various datasets is how to slog through this mountain of data to arrive at a properly sub-setted and manageable data set to answer their science question(s). The GES DISC provides a number of tools for data access and visualization, including the Google-like Mirador search engine and the powerful GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) web interface.

  16. Hydrology Research with the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) Datasets at the NASA GES DISC Using Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Rui, Hualan; Acker, James G.

    2013-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaboration project between NASA/GSFC, NOAA, Princeton Univ., and the Univ. of Washington. NLDAS has created a surface meteorology dataset using the best-available observations and reanalyses the backbone of this dataset is a gridded precipitation analysis from rain gauges. This dataset is used to drive four separate land-surface models (LSMs) to produce datasets of soil moisture, snow, runoff, and surface fluxes. NLDAS datasets are available hourly and extend from Jan 1979 to near real-time with a typical 4-day lag. The datasets are available at 1/8th-degree over CONUS and portions of Canada and Mexico from 25-53 North. The datasets have been extensively evaluated against observations, and are also used as part of a drought monitor. NLDAS datasets are available from the NASA GES DISC and can be accessed via ftp, GDS, Mirador, and Giovanni. GES DISC news articles were published showing figures from the heat wave of 2011, Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and the low-snow winter of 2011-2012. For this presentation, Giovanni-generated figures using NLDAS data from the derecho across the U.S. Midwest and Mid-Atlantic will be presented. Also, similar figures will be presented from the landfall of Hurricane Isaac and the before-and-after drought conditions of the path of the tropical moisture into the central states of the U.S. Updates on future products and datasets from the NLDAS project will also be introduced.

  17. Regular-Soda Intake Independent of Weight Status Is Associated with Asthma among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio = 1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio = 1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination. PMID:23260727

  18. More Chemistry in a Soda Bottle: A Conservation of Mass Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Shaw, Stephanie A.; Bare, William O.; Goldsby, Kenneth A.

    1995-08-01

    A simple activity designed to illustrate conservation of mass is reported. The activity uses a two-liter soda bottle to contain the products of a gas-evolving reaction. While any number of gas-evolving reactions could be used in this activity, a specific procedure for vinegar and baking soda is given since these materials present nominal hazards and are readily available to K-12 teachers.

  19. Holocene climatic and hydrological changes in Big Soda Lake, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, M. R.; Reidy, L. M.; Starratt, S.; Byrne, R.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to separate the role of hydrology from climate change when assessing the Holocene history of lake sediments. Big Soda Lake is a Holocene maar lake in the Great Basin of Nevada with a 9 m sediment record that covers the Holocene. The mm-scale laminations, diatoms, and δ18O and δ13C from bulk calcite in the core are consistent with a saline, closed-basin lake down to approximately 4.3 m below the sediment water interface. The top 7 cm of the core show the influence of human hydrologic modifications to the area. Below that, stable isotope data shows variable groundwater input that is mostly consistent with climate variation from other records in the western USA. Below 4.3 m depth, the laminations abruptly end and are replaced by unlaminated massive mud, sand, and gravel to the bottom. The isotopic composition of the calcite abruptly changes from covarying, to inversely varying compositions below this break. This break occurred at about 5,600 cal yr BP. In addition, the diatom assemblage below 4.3 m is similar to that found in modern Walker Lake; whereas the diatom assemblage above 4.3 m is similar to modern Mono Lake. The δ18O isotopic composition of the calcite is on average 6 ‰ more negative below 4.3 m than above the change, indicating that the lake contained fresher water before 5,600 cal yr BP ago. The cause for the abrupt change cannot be explained through climate shifts because climate in the Great Basin has been shown to be more arid between 8,000 and 5,000 cal yr BP. It has been hypothesized that the Walker River flowed to the Carson River Basin between about 14,000 and 5,000 cal yr BP, and this added water may have raised the groundwater table sufficiently in the Carson Basin to freshen Big Soda Lake. Once the Walker River diverted back to the Walker Basin, more saline conditions prevailed reflecting changes in climate and human influence at the top of the core.

  20. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women1234

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Costenbader, Karen H; Gao, Xiang; Al-Daabil, May; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Solomon, Daniel H; Hu, Frank B; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Lu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened soda consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk of several chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it plays a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune inflammatory disease, remains unclear. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of RA in US women. Design: We prospectively followed 79,570 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1980–2008) and 107,330 women from the NHS II (1991–2009). Information on sugar-sweetened soda consumption (including regular cola, caffeine-free cola, and other sugar-sweetened carbonated soda) was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and approximately every 4 y during follow-up. Incident RA cases were validated by medical record review. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs after adjustment for confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance–weighted, fixed-effects model. Results: During 3,381,268 person-years of follow-up, 857 incident cases of RA were documented in the 2 cohorts. In the multivariable pooled analyses, we found that women who consumed ≥1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d had a 63% (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.004) increased risk of developing seropositive RA compared with those who consumed no sugar-sweetened soda or who consumed <1 serving/mo. When we restricted analyses to those with later RA onset (after age 55 y) in the NHS, the association appeared to be stronger (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.46; P-trend < 0.0001). No significant association was found for sugar-sweetened soda and seronegative RA. Diet soda consumption was not significantly associated with risk of RA in the 2 cohorts. Conclusion: Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda, but not diet soda, is associated with increased risk of seropositive

  1. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  2. Big Soda Lake (Nevada). 1. Pelagic bacterial heterotrophy and biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, Jon P.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Cloern, James E.; George, Leah H.; Lane, Judith L.

    1987-01-01

    Bacterial activities and abundance were measured seasonally in the water column of meromictic Big Soda Lake which is divided into three chemically distinct zones: aerobic mixolimnion, anaerobic mixolimnion, and anaerobic monimolimnion. Bacterial abundance ranged between 5 and 52 x 106 cells ml−1, with highest biomass at the interfaces between these zones: 2–4 mg C liter−1 in the photosynthetic bacterial layer (oxycline) and 0.8–2.0 mg C liter−1 in the chemocline. Bacterial cell size and morphology also varied with depth: small coccoid cells were dominant in the aerobic mixolimnion, whereas the monimolimnion had a more diverse population that included cocci, rods, and large filaments. Heterotrophic activity was measured by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation and [14C]glutamate uptake. Highest uptake rates were at or just below the photosynthetic bacterial layer and were attributable to small (<1 µm) heterotrophs rather than the larger photosynthetic bacteria. These high rates of heterotrophic uptake were apparently linked with fermentation; rates of other mineralization processes (e.g. sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, denitrification) in the anoxic mixolimnion were insignificant. Heterotrophic activity in the highly reduced monimolimnion was generally much lower than elsewhere in the water column. Therefore, although the monimolimnion contained most of the bacterial abundance and biomass (∼60%), most of the cells there were inactive.

  3. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  4. Internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Reinsch, S; Müller, R; Deubener, J; Behrens, H

    2013-11-01

    The internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silica glasses with total water content (C(W)) up to 1.9 wt. % was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) using temperature-frequency sweeps from 723 K to 273 K and from 1 s(-1) to 50 s(-1). Total water content and concentrations of H2O molecules (C(H2O)) and OH groups (C(OH)) in the DMA specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. For low water contents (C(W) ≈ C(OH) < 0.25 wt. %) two discrete internal friction peaks below the glass transition (α relaxation) were assigned to the low-temperature motion of alkali ions (γ relaxation) and cooperative movements of dissimilar mobile species under participation of OH at higher temperature (β(OH) relaxation). For large water contents (C(W) > 1 wt. %), where significant amounts of molecular water are evident (C(H2O) > 0.15 wt. %), however, internal friction spectra change unexpectedly: the β(OH) peak heights saturate and a low temperature shoulder appears on the β-relaxation peak. This emerging relaxation mode (β(H2O) relaxation) was assigned to the motions of H2O molecules. β(H2O) relaxation was found to be faster than β(OH) but slower than γ relaxation. Activation energy of the different relaxation modes increased in the order γ < β(H2O) < β(OH) < α. PMID:24206315

  5. Soda-lime glass behavior under laser shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loison, Didier; Guin, Jean Pierre; Sangleboeuf, Jean Christophe; Nivard, Mariette; Lescoute, Emilien; Sollier, Arnaud; Berthe, Laurent; Boustie, Michel

    2015-06-01

    Understanding and modeling the glass behavior is an issue for certain aeronautical, military and civil applications. For example, parts of satellites and shuttles are made of glass. During their lifetime, they are subjected to high velocity impacts, which in the end may damage them. To determine the behavior of these structures during and after impact we used instrumented laser driven shock loading performed on high power intensity Laser facilities: Transverse shadowgraphs of the front wave propagating inside the transparent material were taken at different times. They provide information regarding the position of the shock wave front and of the first damage. PDV or VISAR measurements provide time-resolved free surface velocity to determine mater velocity when shock wave breakout and spall strength for the most powerful laser shots. Under High pressure conditions glass permanently densify, traces of such a plastic deformation are looked for on the path of the shock wave. Those experimental data are necessary to characterize the material behavior under such conditions and to model the mechanical behavior of glass structures. In this presentation we will present experimental results obtained for soda-lime silica glass samples loaded by laser induced shock.

  6. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA since...

  7. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA sinc...

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S.; Jacques, Paul F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ~30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Methods Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to <1 serving/-day, and ⩾1 serving/day) of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. Results After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend = 0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend = 0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. Conclusion In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. PMID:26055949

  9. Effects of Diet Soda on Gut Hormones in Youths With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca J.; Walter, Mary; Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In patients with type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, abnormal secretion of incretins in response to oral nutrients has been described. In healthy youths, we recently reported accentuated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in response to a diet soda sweetened with sucralose and acesulfame-K. In this study, we examined the effect of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects aged 12–25 years with type 1 diabetes (n = 9) or type 2 diabetes (n = 10), or healthy control participants (n = 25) drank 240 mL cola-flavored caffeine-free diet soda or carbonated water, followed by a 75-g glucose load, in a randomized, cross-over design. Glucose, C-peptide, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and peptide Tyr-Tyr (PYY) were measured for 180 min. Glucose and GLP-1 have previously been reported for the healthy control subjects. RESULTS GLP-1 area under the curve (AUC) was 43% higher after ingestion of diet soda versus carbonated water in individuals with type 1 diabetes (P = 0.020), similar to control subjects (34% higher, P = 0.029), but was unaffected by diet soda in patients with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.92). Glucose, C-peptide, GIP, and PYY AUC were not statistically different between the two conditions in any group. CONCLUSIONS Ingestion of diet soda before a glucose load augmented GLP-1 secretion in type 1 diabetic and control subjects but not type 2 diabetic subjects. GIP and PYY secretion were not affected by diet soda. The clinical significance of this increased GLP-1 secretion, and its absence in youths with type 2 diabetes, needs to be determined. PMID:22410815

  10. Spatial and Temporal Coherence of SeaWiFS Chlorophyll Concentration Anomalies in the North Atlantic Bloom (1998-2005) Examined with Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of climatological chlorophyll-a concentration data products from the SeaWiFS mission spanning the eight-year mission period allowed the creation of a climatological anomaly analysis function in Giovanni, the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure. This study utilizes the Giovanni anomaly analysis function to examine mesoscale anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean during the springtime North Atlantic Bloom. This examination indicates that areas exhibiting positive anomalies and areas exhibiting negative anomalies are coherent over significant spatial scales, with relatively abrupt boundaries between areas with positive and negative anomalies. Year-to-year variability in anomaly "intensity" can be caused by either variability in the temporal occurrence of the bloom peak or by variability in the peak chlorophyll concentration in a particular area. The study will also discuss the feasibility of combining chlorophyll anomaly analysis with other data types.

  11. Lithographic fabrication of soda-lime glass based microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, L.; Norarat, R.; Napari, M.; Kivistö, H.; Chienthavorn, O.; Whitlow, H. J.

    2013-07-01

    Glass is an important material for chemical processing and analysis because of its relatively low cost, mechanical strength, chemical inertness, optical transparency, and electrical insulation and temperature resistance far beyond that of most polymeric materials. We have investigated techniques for direct writing with MeV ions on soda-lime glass as well as capping procedures to form closed buried channels suitable for high-pressure driven flow. Exposure and development of open-channel structures was studied using a combination of programmable proximity aperture lithography and different developers. Unlike our previous work on MeV ion beam lithography of natural silica where an 8% w/v HF in aqueous solution was used as a developer, it was found that 6% w/v HF + 0.5% w/v HCl was an effective developer. Addition of HCl to the developer was necessary, presumably to dissolve oxide residues that were insoluble in HF solution. Different capping and bonding procedures to create closed channels that are strong enough to withstand high hydrostatic pressure have also been tested. It was found that capping to create a closed channel could be achieved after thorough cleaning. This was followed by activation in ∼32% w/v NH4OH or ∼30% w/v H2O2 solution, drying on a hot plate and bonded under uniaxial pressure in a furnace ramped up and down at 1 °C/min to 575 °C. Activation in H2O2 was found to give better bonding. Other methods using HF lead to poor bonding due to oxide precipitation.

  12. Diversity, evolution, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in soda lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkart, Holly C.; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.

    2007-09-01

    Soap Lake is a hypersaline, alkaline lake in Central Washington State (USA). For the past five years the lake has been the site of an NSF Microbial Observatory project devoted to identifying critical geochemical and microbial characteristics of the monimolimnion sediment and water column, and has demonstrated rich multispecies communities occupy all areas of the lake. Soap Lake and similar soda lakes are subject to repeated transient periods of extreme evaporation characterized by significant repetitive alterations in salinity, pH, and total water volume, yet maintain high genetic and metabolic diversity. It has been argued that this repetitive cycle for salinity, alkalinity, and sulfur concentration has been a major driver for prokaryote evolution and diversity. The rapidity of wet-dry cycling places special demands on genome evolution, requirements that are beyond the relatively conservative eukaryotic evolutionary strategy of serial alteration of existing gene sequences in a relatively stable genome. Although HGT is most likely responsible for adding a significant amount of noise to the genetic record, analysis of HGT activity can also provide us with a much-needed probe for exploration of prokaryotic genome evolution and the origin of diversity. Packaging of genetic information within the protective protein capsid of a bacteriophage would seem preferable to exposing naked DNA to the highly alkaline conditions in the lake. In this study, we present preliminary data demonstrating the presence of a diverse group of phage integrases in Soap Lake. Integrase is the viral enzyme responsible for the insertion of phage DNA into the bacterial host's chromosome. The presence of the integrase sequence in bacterial chromosomes is evidence of lysogeny, and the diversity of integrase sequences reported here suggests a wide variety of temperate phage exist in this system, and are especially active in transition zones.

  13. [For a socio-medical iconography of Ramazzini's De Morbis: the manuscript of Giovanni Grevembroch (1731-1807)].

    PubMed

    Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; Zampieri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, a group of historians of medicine in Padua has been working on the creation of a iconographic database related to the professions described by Ramazzini, founder of occupational medicine, in his 1700's De morbis artificum diatriba. A specific example of iconography relevant to De morbis can be found in a 17th century manuscript written and illustrated by Giovanni Grevembroch (1731-1807), Venetian painter probably from a family of Flemish origins. This manuscript describes typical Venetian dress and costumes, accompanied by commentaries made by the artist himself. Here we can find costumes related to some of the very same professions described by Ramazzini and a comparative analysis reveals interesting elements. First of all, in his commentary Grevembroch frequently invokes concepts very similar to those of Ramazzini, related both to the dangers of the environment characteristic of a given profession and to the illnesses typical to each profession. Moreover, analysis of Grevenbroch's images and text often provides supplemental insights into to the context of and risks associated with selected occupations. Finally, the Grevembroch manuscript also supplies supplemental material pertinent to the social and cultural life of the epoch that, even if not strictly linked to questions of occupational medicine. PMID:22214103

  14. [The Barrés test and Mingazzini test -Importance of the original paper by Giovanni Mingazzini].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to find a subtle hemiparesis of the arms and legs, so called "Barré's test" has been routinely used in clinical practice. This eponym has been questioned by several neurologists. To clarify this, I searched and found the original paper by Giovanni Mingazzini, reported in Revue Neurologique in 1913. He showed arm drift test with his original photo, as asking the patient to stretch his arms in front, hands in the same horizontal plane with the manner of swearing and the fingers spread. The eyes are closed. The examiner observes downward drift of the hand after one half to a minute. He described a similar test for the legs in this article. The patient in supine position raises the legs in a 45 degree angle from the bed. If the leg drops downward too early, an organic hemiparesis could be present. Barré described a new leg drift test in 1919 with a patient lying on the abdomen. He also presented the Mingazzini's arm and leg tests with photos as carried by his patient-models in his article of 1937. He did not quote the original article of Mingazzini as a reference. These brought us incorrect information to consider the presence of Barré's arm test. PMID:25986413

  15. Distribution and diversity of microbial communities in meromictic soda Lake Doroninskoe (Transbaikalia, Russia) during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyugina, Evgeniya; Belkova, Natalia

    2015-11-01

    Meromictic soda and saline lakes are unique ecosystems characterized by the stability of physical, chemical and biological parameters, and they are distributed all over the world. Lakes located in regions with average annual negative air temperature are of particular interest because of the presence of two periods with intensive and dynamic processes: the so-called biological summer and the long ice season with the biological spring. Soda Lake Doroninskoe is located in Eastern Transbaikalia (51°14'N, 112°14'E) in the permafrost zone in an extreme continental climate, and is covered by ice for seven months per year. The structure and diversity of the microbial communities throughout the water column of the lake was studied by 16S rRNA gene amplicon metasequencing. Different species with specific functions were found to dominate at different depths. Metabolically flexible bacteria with a capacity to switch between anoxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic chemotrophic metabolism dominate in soda Lake Doroninskoe.

  16. Adaptive strategies in the double-extremophilic prokaryotes inhabiting soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Banciu, Horia Leonard; Muntyan, Maria S

    2015-06-01

    Haloalkaliphiles are double extremophilic organisms thriving both at high salinity and alkaline pH. Although numerous haloalkaliphilic representatives have been identified among Archaea and Bacteria over the past 15 years, the adaptations underlying their prosperity at haloalkaline conditions are scarcely known. A multi-level adaptive strategy was proposed to occur in haloalkaliphilic organisms isolated from saline alkaline and soda environments including adjustments in the cell wall structure, plasma membrane lipid composition, membrane transport systems, bioenergetics, and osmoregulation. Isolation of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing γ-Proteobacteria from soda lakes allowed the elucidation of the structural and physiological differences between haloalkaliphilic (prefer NaCl) and natronophilic (prefer NaHCO3/Na2CO3, i.e. soda) microbes. PMID:26025020

  17. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA). Version 2.0: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.; Zsoldos, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 2.0, is discussed. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system that consists of six program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an Evans and Sutherland PS300 graphics workstation. In the current version, three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. Circular and rectangular, off nadir, fixed and scanning sensors are supported. One module produces an interactive three dimensional animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently, Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  18. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    PubMed

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories. PMID:15531392

  19. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    PubMed

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%). PMID:18226892

  20. Effect of liquid products of semicoking on the absorption properties of arsenic-soda liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonov, V.S.; Anipko, S.N.; Buryak, V.I.; Fomin, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    The process gas obtained in the gasification of semicoke contains organic substances which, entering the arsenic-soda liquor in the process of removal of the sulfur from the gas, impairs its absorption properties. Thus, it is necessary to pretreat the gas to remove organic impurities, one of the methods being absorption. The absorbents may be organic liquids dissolving the gas impurities and having no effect on the absorption properties of the arsenic-soda liquor. The constant nature of the concentration of sulfide sulfur in the absorption liquor permits one to assume that the substances in semicoking middle oil still bottoms improve its redistribution in the hydroxythioarsenic salts with the formation of arsenates which react very slowly with the hydrogen sulfide, and thio-arsenates which do not react at all. A decrease in the sulfur content of the arsenic-soda solution was experienced.

  1. Modeling and Characterization of Dynamic Failure of Soda-lime Glass Under High Speed Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Chen, Weinong W.; Templeton, Douglas W.

    2012-05-27

    In this paper, the impact-induced dynamic failure of a soda-lime glass block is studied using an integrated experimental/analytical approach. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) technique is used to conduct dynamic failure test of soda-lime glass first. The damage growth patterns and stress histories are reported for various glass specimen designs. Making use of a continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based constitutive model, the initial failure and subsequent stiffness reduction of glass are simulated and investigated. Explicit finite element analyses are used to simulate the glass specimen impact event. A maximum shear stress-based damage evolution law is used in describing the glass damage process under combined compression/shear loading. The impact test results are used to quantify the critical shear stress for the soda-lime glass under examination.

  2. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  3. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas...

  4. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  5. Planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+/K+-Na+ ion exchange in soda lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Gregorius, Seran Daton; Widhianingsih, Ika; Lestari, Siti; Suryawan, Joko

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optical properties of the optical planar waveguides in a soda lime glass fabricated by ion exchange. Planar waveguide fabrication was carried out by immersing the soda lime glass in molten 100 % AgNO3 bath for different duration (ranging from 15 minutes to 735 minutes) and at temperature of 280°C. The results show that the surface refractive index values of the ion exchanged glasses are independent of both the ion exchange duration and temperature. The number of modes and the effective diffusion depth, however, increase with increasing the duration of ion exchange process.

  6. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    PubMed

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors. PMID:21830348

  7. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. PMID:11913306

  8. Nanosecond (ns) laser transfer of silver nanoparticles from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to transparent soda-lime glass and shock waves formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sow, Mohamed Chérif; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Sagot, Nadine; Ollier, Nadège; Tite, Teddy

    2015-05-01

    In this contribution, we showed for the first time in our knowledge a single-step process for silver clusters and nanoparticles growth and transfer from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to un-exchanged soda-lime glass (transparent glass in visible and NIR domain) by nanosecond (ns) laser irradiation. The transferred silver nanoparticles in transparent glass are strongly linked to the glass surface. In addition, we point out the formation of shock waves, with selective silver clustering on the top wave. This technique provides an alternative and simple way to obtain metallic nanoparticles in different media which can be traversed by laser wavelength used. Moreover, this experiment is made at room temperature and air environment. It is worth noting that our technique requires a glass previously doped with the corresponding silver ions.

  9. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  10. Imploding Soda Cans: From Demonstration to Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Jack F.

    2009-01-01

    A guided-inquiry exercise conducted in both the lecture and laboratory components of a college introductory chemistry course for non-science majors is described. The exercise gave students the opportunity to independently determine the relationship between the temperature of water in an aluminum soda can and the intensity of implosion upon placing…

  11. Biology, Reproductive Potential, and Winter Survival of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and greenhouse studies were conducted from 1996 to 2000 to determine tropical soda apple fruit size required for mature seed, overwintering survival potential of seeds, growth and fruit production, and a combination of late summer clipping followed by herbicides on overwintering potential of m...

  12. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  13. The Soda Can Optimization Problem: Getting Close to the Real Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul; Sprecher, Bryce; Yang, Lai; Dodge, Noah-Helen

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the dimensions of a soda can is a classic problem that is frequently posed to freshman calculus students. However, if we only minimize the surface area subject to a fixed volume, the result is a can with a square edge-on profile, and this differs significantly from actual cans. By considering a more realistic model for the can that…

  14. SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD OF SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARDS. THESE STANDARDS ARE ISSUED IN RECOGNITION OF THE LONG FELT NEED FOR A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF SANITATION INVOLVING INDUSTRIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH OFFICIALS WHOSE OBLIGATION IT IS TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS.…

  15. Soda-anthraquinone pulping of palm oil empty fruit bunches and beating of the resulting pulp.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, L; Serrano, L; Rodríguez, A; Sánchez, R

    2009-02-01

    The influence of soda-anthraquinone pulping variables (temperature, time and soda concentration) and beating (number of PFI beating revolution) of palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) on the resulting paper sheets was studied, with a view to identifying the optimum operating conditions. Equations were derived that reproduced the properties of the paper sheets with errors less than 10-12% in 90-95% of cases. An optimum compromise was found as regards operating conditions (15% soda, 170 degrees C, 70 min and 2400 number of PFI beating revolutions) that provided paper properties departing by less than 12% from their optimum values (59.63 Nm/g tensile index, 4.48% stretch, 4.17 kN/g burst index and 7.20 m Nm(2)/g tear index), and a beating grade of 47.5 degrees SR, acceptable to obtain paper sheets. Because these conditions involve a lower soda, temperature, time and beating than those required to maximize the studied paper properties, they can save chemical reagents, energy and immobilized capital for industrial facilities. On the other hand, the stretch properties of these pulp beaten are higher than those of others non-wood pulps, as wheat straw and olive wood. PMID:18815028

  16. TCF bleaching of soda-anthraquinone and diethanolamine pulp from oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, L; Serrano, L; Rodríguez, A; Ferrer, A

    2009-02-01

    The AOpAZRP bleaching sequence (A is an acid treatment, Op an oxygen and peroxide stage, Z an ozone stage, R a reductive treatment and P a peroxide stage) have been applied to oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) soda-anthraquinone and diethanolamine pulp. On similar Kappa numbers for the two types of pulp (14.2 and 17.3), paper from unbleached soda-anthraquinone pulp exhibited increased tensile index (25.8 Nm/g), stretch (2.35%), burst index (1.69 kN/g), tear index (0.50 mN m(2)/g) and brightness (60.6%) relative to paper for unbleached diethanolamine pulp; but the latter type of pulp exhibited higher viscosity (659 mL/g) than the former. Upon bleaching with the AOpAZRP sequence, diethanolamine pulp exhibited higher viscosity (783 mL/g), and the properties of the paper sheets were close to or even better to those from soda-anthraquinone pulp, namely: 22.2 vs 20.4 Nm/g tensile index, 1.30 vs 1.42 kN/g burst index, 0.71 vs 0.70 mN m(2)/g tear index and 71.3% vs 77.5% brightness. Therefore, the properties of paper from diethanolamine pulp evolved more favourably during bleaching than did those of paper from soda-anthraquinone pulp. PMID:18809321

  17. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams.

  18. Tropical soda apple mosaic virus Identified in Solanum capsicoides in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red soda apple (Solanum capsicoides All.), a member of the Solanaceae, is a weed originally from Brazil. It is a perennial in southern Florida and is characterized by abundant prickles on stems, petioles and leaves. Prickles on stems are more dense than on its larger noxious weed relative, tropica...

  19. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE BY THE ALUMINA-LIME-SODA PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alumina-lime-soda process is a chemical desalination process for waters in which the principal sources of salinity are sulfate salts and has been field tested at the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Acid Mine Drainage Research Facility, Hollywood, Pennsylvania, as a method to r...

  20. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:12017933

  1. Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

    The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

  2. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:11524866

  3. Use of the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal constituents in Soda Creek, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.; Simpson, J.; Kovats, Z.; Geddes, B.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from Soda Creek were evaluated using the Sediment Quality Triad as part of investigations being conducted at the Monsanto Company plant in Soda Springs, Idaho. Information collected by an ecological assessment included metal concentrations (arsenic, cadmium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, and vanadium), benthic fauna community structure, and sediment toxicity. The collected sediments were composed of sandy-silt sized particles, with 2.4% to 9.1% organic carbon. Metal concentrations at sample stations were elevated relative to sediments collected from reference stations. For example, average cadmium concentrations ranged from 13 to 48 mg/kg at sample stations and 0.72 to 3.2 mg/kg at reference stations; selenium concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 91 mg/kg at sample stations and 0.82 to 2.7 mg/kg at reference stations. Soda Creek has a relatively low flow gradient and the benthic fauna at both reference and sample stations was dominated by oligochaete worms and chironomid midge larvae. Taxonomic richness at individual sites ranged from 4.3 to 6.7 and 6 to 10.3 at reference and sample sites, respectively. There was no significant evidence of toxicity at any location sampled. Cluster analysis showed that the benthic community structure of many of the sample stations could not be distinguished from the reference stations. Canonical correlation analysis showed there was a significant relationship between benthic fauna and metal concentration, but there was not a consistent difference between sample and reference stations. For Soda Creek, local phenomena were more significant to benthic community structure than large-scale patterns of metal accumulation. Using the Triad approach, the authors concluded there has been no adverse effect of metal concentrations on the benthic community of Soda Creek.

  4. Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla (1728-1800) and the Imperial Infantry Regiment #22 ("Lacy"). On occasion of the bicentennial of his death.

    PubMed

    Holubar, K; Fatović-Ferencić, S

    2000-09-15

    Giovanni Alessandro Brambilia (1728-1800) was the Chief Surgeon of the Imperial Austrian Army and the first director of the newly founded medico-surgical academy in Vienna (1785). He died in Padua in late July 1800 (29th?), en route from his estate in Lombardy to Vienna, and the chiostro della magnolia in the Santo displays a memorial plaque commemorating his demise. On account of his merits for the education of (military) surgeons and the development of surgery in Austria, this short article shall serve to briefly recall his life and related facts. PMID:11042908

  5. Consumption of artificial sweetener– and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women1234

    PubMed Central

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite safety reports of the artificial sweetener aspartame, health-related concerns remain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether the consumption of aspartame- and sugar-containing soda is associated with risk of hematopoetic cancers. Design: We repeatedly assessed diet in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Over 22 y, we identified 1324 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), 285 multiple myelomas, and 339 leukemias. We calculated incidence RRs and 95% CIs by using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: When the 2 cohorts were combined, there was no significant association between soda intake and risks of NHL and multiple myeloma. However, in men, ≥1 daily serving of diet soda increased risks of NHL (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.72) and multiple myeloma (RR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.40) in comparison with men who did not consume diet soda. We observed no increased risks of NHL and multiple myeloma in women. We also observed an unexpected elevated risk of NHL (RR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.51) with a higher consumption of regular, sugar-sweetened soda in men but not in women. In contrast, when sexes were analyzed separately with limited power, neither regular nor diet soda increased risk of leukemia but were associated with increased leukemia risk when data for men and women were combined (RR for consumption of ≥1 serving of diet soda/d when the 2 cohorts were pooled: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.02). Conclusion: Although our findings preserve the possibility of a detrimental effect of a constituent of diet soda, such as aspartame, on select cancers, the inconsistent sex effects and occurrence of an apparent cancer risk in individuals who consume regular soda do not permit the ruling out of chance as an explanation. PMID:23097267

  6. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, F.H.; Yim, M.S.

    1998-09-01

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition.

  7. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    PubMed

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. PMID:25445259

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara; D'Elia, Tom

    2016-08-01

    We report the first complete genome sequence of tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV), a tobamovirus originally isolated from tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) collected in Okeechobee, Florida. The complete genome of TSAMV is 6,350 nucleotides long and contains four open reading frames encoding the following proteins: i) 126-kDa methyltransferase/helicase (3354 nt), ii) 183-kDa polymerase (4839 nt), iii) movement protein (771 nt) and iv) coat protein (483 nt). The complete genome sequence of TSAMV shares 80.4 % nucleotide sequence identity with pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and 71.2-74.2 % identity with other tobamoviruses naturally infecting members of the Solanaceae plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the 126-kDa and 183-kDa proteins and the complete genome sequence place TSAMV in a subcluster with PMMoV within the Solanaceae-infecting subgroup of tobamoviruses. PMID:27169599

  9. Fall in inspired oxygen and anaesthetic agent concentrations during change of soda lime absorber.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Byrappa; Gopalakrishna, Kadarapura Nanjundaiah; Umamaheswara Rao, Ganne S

    2015-06-01

    Following an episode of reduction in inspired oxygen concentration (FiO(2)) and inhalational agent concentration (Fi agent) during the changing of a soda lime absorber, We conducted an in vitro experiment to understand the impact of disconnection of the absorber on inspired gas dilution at different fresh gas flows. We found that both in Dräger Fabius GS and Primus anaesthesia work stations, disconnection of the absorber caused progressive reduction in FiO(2) and Fi agent as the FGF was decreased. The operating principle of fresh gas decoupling (FGD) valve is a potential source of this complication, which must be kept in mind while changing the soda lime during the course of surgery where an anaesthetic work stations utilizing FGD valves are used. PMID:25260538

  10. Plasmonic resonance of Ag nanoclusters diffused in soda-lime glasses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Promod; Mathpal, Mohan Chandra; Tripathi, Anand Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Agarwal, Arvind; Ahmad, M M; Swart, H C

    2015-04-14

    Silver nanoclusters were prepared in a soda-lime glass matrix through the ion-exchange (Ag(+)↔ Na(+)) method followed by thermal annealing in an air atmosphere. The nanoscale patterning of Ag nanoclusters embedded in a soda lime glass matrix in an air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures has been investigated. During annealing, Ag(+) is reduced to Ag(0) and subsequently forms silver nanoparticles inside the glass matrix. A blue shift of 20 nm has been observed as a function of the post annealing temperature. The photoluminescence intensity is highest for an annealing temperature of 500 °C for 1 h and continuously decreases as annealing temperature increases up to 600 °C. The presence of spherical nanoparticles with a maximum particle size of 7.2 nm has been observed after annealing at 600 °C for 1 hour, which is consistent with Mie theory based results. PMID:25738191

  11. Fluence ablation threshold dependence on tin impurities in commercial soda-lime glass.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Daniel; Arines, Justo; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we study the reduction in the fluence ablation threshold induced by tin impurities incorporated in float soda-lime glass during the fabrication process. The laser system used in the experiments was a Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1064 nm with a pulse duration of 20 ns. The fluence ablation thresholds found were 112  J/cm2 for the tin side and 920  J/cm2 for the tin-free side, which means a reduction of nearly 1 order of magnitude. The fluence ablation threshold reduction permits the manufacturing of narrower grooves with small level of roughness, obtaining quality elements in low-cost soda-lime substrates. PMID:25321113

  12. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  13. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    PubMed

    Schibille, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor. PMID:21526144

  14. Late Byzantine Mineral Soda High Alumina Glasses from Asia Minor: A New Primary Glass Production Group

    PubMed Central

    Schibille, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor. PMID:21526144

  15. Velocity of a freely rising gas bubble in a soda-lime silicate glass melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornyak, E. J.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison is conducted between measured velocities for the buoyant rise of single bubbles of varying size and composition, in a soda-lime silicate glass melt, with the steady state velocities predicted by the Stokes and Hadamard-Rybczynski formulas. In all cases, the data are noted to fit the Hadamard-Rybczynski expression for steady state rise speed considerably better than the Stokes formula.

  16. Molecular-Level Simulations of Shock Generation and Propagation in Soda-Lime Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Fountzoulas, C.; Patel, P.

    2012-08-01

    A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method is employed to study the mechanical response of soda-lime glass (a material commonly used in transparent armor applications) when subjected to the loading conditions associated with the generation and propagation of planar shock waves. Specific attention is given to the identification and characterization of various (inelastic-deformation and energy-dissipation) molecular-level phenomena and processes taking place at, or in the vicinity of, the shock front. The results obtained revealed that the shock loading causes a 2-4% (shock strength-dependent) density increase. In addition, an increase in the average coordination number of the silicon atoms is observed along with the creation of smaller Si-O rings. These processes are associated with substantial energy absorption and dissipation and are believed to greatly influence the blast/ballistic impact mitigation potential of soda-lime glass. The present work was also aimed at the determination of the shock Hugoniot (i.e., a set of axial stress vs. density/specific-volume vs. internal energy vs. particle velocity vs. temperature) material states obtained in soda-lime glass after the passage of a shock wave of a given strength (as quantified by the shock speed). The availability of a shock Hugoniot is critical for construction of a high deformation-rate, large-strain, high pressure material model which can be used within a continuum-level computational analysis to capture the response of a soda-lime glass based laminated transparent armor structure (e.g., a military vehicle windshield, door window, etc.) to blast/ballistic impact loading.

  17. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

  18. Effect of OH content on phase separation behavior of soda-silica glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, G. F.; Weinberg, M. C.; Smith, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of phase separation in a gel and ordinary soda-silica glass are followed by use of small angle X-ray scattering. Also, the influence of OH on the phase separation behavior is studied. It is found that OH accelerates the growth of the secondary phase, and that gel and ordinary glasses of similar composition and OH concentration exhibit similar phase separation characteristics.

  19. Failure Wave in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass during Rod Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Orphal, D. L.; Behner, Th.; Hohler, V.; Anderson, C. E. Jr.; Templeton, D. W.

    2006-07-28

    Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor impact experiments reveal that failure wave velocity vF depends on impact velocity, geometry, and type of glass. vF typically increases with impact velocity vP to between cS and cL or to {radical}2cS (shear and longitudinal wave velocity). This paper reports initial results of an investigation of failure waves associated with gold rod impact on high-density (DEDF) glass and soda-lime glass. Data are obtained by visualizing simultaneously the failure propagation in the glass with a high-speed camera and the rod penetration velocity u with flash radiography. Results for DEDF glass are reported for vP between 1.2 and 2.0 km/s, those for soda-lime glass with vP {approx_equal}1.3 km/s. It is shown that vF > u, and that in the case of DEDF glass vF/u decreases from ; 1.38 to 1.13 with increasing vp. In addition, several Taylor tests were performed. For both DEDF and soda-lime glass the vF-values, found here as well as vF- data reported in the literature, reveal that--for equal pressures--the failure wave velocities determined from Taylor tests or planar-impact tests are distinctly greater than those observed during steady-state rod penetration.

  20. Application of a computational glass model to the shock response of soda-lime glass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gorfain, Joshua E.; Key, Christopher T.; Alexander, C. Scott

    2016-04-20

    This article details the implementation and application of the glass-specific computational constitutive model by Holmquist and Johnson [1] to simulate the dynamic response of soda-lime glass under high rate and high pressure shock conditions. The predictive capabilities of this model are assessed through comparison of experimental data with numerical results from computations using the CTH shock physics code. The formulation of this glass model is reviewed in the context of its implementation within CTH. Using a variety of experimental data compiled from the open literature, a complete parameterization of the model describing the observed behavior of soda-lime glass is developed.more » Simulation results using the calibrated soda-lime glass model are compared to flyer plate and Taylor rod impact experimental data covering a range of impact and failure conditions spanning an order of magnitude in velocity and pressure. In conclusion, the complex behavior observed in the experimental testing is captured well in the computations, demonstrating the capability of the glass model within CTH.« less

  1. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N. Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  2. The utilization of natural soda resource of Ordos in the cultivation of Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanfei; Yang, Haibo; Meng, Yingying; Liu, Jiao; Shen, Peili; Wu, Peichun; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    Nannochloropsis oceanica is famous for its strong environmental adaptability and oil-richness, especially high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content. In this report, the possibility and cultivation parameters for N. oceanica using natural crude soda were testified and compared with seawater culture. To keep a suitable salinity range, different ratio of sea salt addition into soda lake water were used and the growth, lipid content, Fv/Fm and fatty acids profiling were inspected with nitrogen repletion or depletion. The results showed the best performance were achieved while 18g/L (salinity 25‰) sea salt was added into crude soda solution. The μmax and EPA content in fatty acids were 0.72/0.42 and 36%/23% in 500mL/100L bioreactor cultivations respectively, which maintained a relative high productivity to other reports. By comparing the growth and operations with Spirulina production, the feasibility of N. Oceanica in Ordos was proved on both technical and economical point of view. PMID:26528905

  3. Mechanism of mechanical strength increase of soda-lime glass by aging

    SciTech Connect

    Han, W.T.; Tomozawa, M. . Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports on two models proposed to explain the mechanical strength increase of abraded or indented soda-lime glasses upon aging, namely, crack tip blunting and the release of residual tensile stress near the crack tip. To clarify the mechanism, the time dependence of the strengthening of an abraded soda-lime glass was investigated. Effects of aging media, such as moist air, distilled water, 1N HCl and 1N NaOH solutions, as well as the abrasion flaw depth, were determined. The strength increase rate in water of abraded soda-lime glass was compared with those of borosilicate and high-silica glasses. The effect of stressing during aging was also investigated. It was found that the rate of strength increase was faster with decreasing abrasion flaw depth and with decreasing chemical durability. For a given flaw depth, an acidic solution produced the fastest strengthening. The strengthening rate was found to accelerate because of the coaxing effect of stressing during aging. From these observations, it was concluded that the strengthening rates relate to the diffusion process and chemical reactions, especially the alkali-hydrogen (or hydronium) ion-exchange reaction, near the crack tip.

  4. Diversity of extremophilic purple phototrophic bacteria in Soap Lake, a Central Washington (USA) Soda Lake.

    PubMed

    Asao, Marie; Pinkart, Holly C; Madigan, Michael T

    2011-08-01

    Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to explore the diversity of phototrophic purple bacteria in Soap Lake, a small meromictic soda lake in the western USA. Among soda lakes, Soap Lake is unusual because it consists of distinct upper and lower water bodies of vastly different salinities, and its deep waters contain up to 175 mM sulfide. From Soap Lake water new alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacteria of the families Chromatiaceae and Ectothiorhodospiraceae were cultured, and one purple non-sulfur bacterium was isolated. Comparative sequence analysis of pufM, a gene that encodes a key photosynthetic reaction centre protein universally found in purple bacteria, was used to measure the diversity of purple bacteria in Soap Lake. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent phylogenetic analyses of pufMs amplified from Soap Lake water revealed that a significant diversity of purple bacteria inhabit this soda lake. Although close relatives of several of the pufM phylotypes obtained from cultured species could also be detected in Soap Lake water, several other more divergent pufM phylotypes were also detected. It is possible that Soap Lake purple bacteria are major contributors of organic matter into the ecosystem of this lake, especially in its extensive anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. PMID:21410624

  5. An unconventional method for the recovery of caustic soda from spent Al-rich pickling solutions.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Paolo; de Gennaro, Bruno; Colella, Carmine

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an unconventional procedure for the recovery of spent Al-rich caustic soda solutions from the pickling of dies for the production of aluminium extrusions. Caustic soda was regenerated at roughly 70%, by precipitating aluminate, after addition of a silica source, in the form of zeolite A, a microporous material that is widely used in many technological sectors. It was shown that the process is reliable and can be repeated for several cycles, provided the concentration of the caustic soda solution is suitably restored. The by-product obtained, zeolite A, proved to be a high-grade material with performance as a cation exchanger and physical sorbent that is certainly comparable to that reported in literature (e.g., cation exchange capacity equal to 5.14 meq g(-1) vs. 5.48 meq g(-1) and water vapour adsorption capacity of 26.5% vs. 27.6% at 16 torr and 298 K). The economics of the process, although not examined yet, would appear generally favourable, considering that zeolite A is a valuable by-product which widely covers the costs for the recovery of the spent solutions. There are, therefore, significant prospects for the use of zeolite A, particularly as a builder in detergent formulation. PMID:21458911

  6. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

  7. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D.; Smith, Trever C.; Small, Christina M.; Thomas, Derek P.; Seshu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348) exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560), and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15) were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC), Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), fibronectin binding protein (BBK32), RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox−⁄− and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of the sodA

  8. Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping <8 hours (OR=1.18), watching television >2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on <5 days during the 7 days before the survey (OR=1.19), and current cigarette use (OR=2.01). The significant associations with poor self-reported academic grades, inadequate sleep, sedentary behaviors, and cigarette smoking suggest research should examine why soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions. PMID:22709642

  9. The island of Elba (Tuscany, Italy) at the crossroads of ancient trade routes: an archaeometric investigation of dolia defossa from the archaeological site of San Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manca, Rosarosa; Pagliantini, Laura; Pecchioni, Elena; Santo, Alba P.; Cambi, Franco; Chiarantini, Laura; Corretti, Alessandro; Costagliola, Pilario; Orlando, Andrea; Benvenuti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Dolia are large pottery containers used in Roman times for the storage and fermentation of wine. They were produced in specialized pottery workshops (figlinae) and were typically marked with specific epigraphical stamps, which represent a major tool to unravel their provenance and trade. In this work we present the preliminary results of a study of two dolia defossa, recently found at San Giovanni (Portoferraio, island of Elba, Italy) during 2012-2014 archaeological excavations in a Roman farm (late 2nd cent. BC-1st cent. AD), devoted to wine production and probably constituting the antecedent archaeological phase of the adjacent "Villa delle Grotte". Based on archaeological (epigraphic) evidence, five different production areas have been hypothesized: 1) Elba island, where the dolia have been found; 2) the municipal figlinae in the Pisa territory; 3) the middle catchment of the Tiber river (central Latium) where "urban" figlinae occurred; 4) the figlinae of Minturno (southern Latium), a locality known both for wine production and exportation and for the presence of ancient figlinae; 5) the municipal figlinae in the Volterra territory. Archaeometric analysis of tempering agents intentionally added to the clay for the manufacturing of the dolia, particularly magmatic lithic fragments and clinopyroxene crystals, allowed us to suggest that the watershed of the central Tiber Valley - including different volcanic centres belonging to both Tuscany Magmatic Province (Monti Cimini) and Roman Magmatic Province (Monti Vulsini and Vico volcano) - could have been the most likely sites of production of the dolia found at San Giovanni. Alternatively, the site of Minturno (southern Latium) could be proposed.

  10. Influence of oxalic acid on the agglomeration process and total soda content in precipitated Al(OH) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, I.; Blec̆ić, D.; Blagojević, N.; Radmilović, V.; Kovac̆ević, K.

    2003-05-01

    Decomposition of caustic soda solutions is an important part of Bayer process for alumina production. The physico-chemical properties of precipitated Al(OH) 3 are dependent on several processes that take place simultaneously during the decomposition process and they are: nucleation, agglomeration and Al(OH) 3 crystals. An important industrial requirement is increase of Al(OH) 3 crystal grain size, and hence agglomeration and growth of Al(OH) 3 crystals become important processes and they enable increase of particle size. The influence of oxalic acid concentration on the agglomeration process and total soda content in precipitated Al(OH) 3 at different temperatures and caustic soda concentrations has been investigated. The results have shown that the agglomeration process is increased with increase of temperature and decrease of caustic soda concentration. Total soda content in precipitated Al(OH) 3 is changed in the same way. Besides, agglomeration process of Al(OH) 3 particles is favored in the presence of oxalic acid.

  11. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges. PMID:26313128

  12. Low-alumina portland cement from lime-soda sinter residue

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A byproduct for the Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process for recovering alumina from power plant fly ash was investigated as a cement raw material. This investigation dealt with a determination of the best method to utilize the process residue from both a clinker quality and an economic perspective. The experimental work was divided into 4 major areas; characterization of the sinter residue, laboratory burnability tests, physical testing of produced residue-cements, and a kinetic study of C{sub 3}S formation. Other important topics were considered such as the effect use of the sinter residue has on the energy requirements of a commercial cement kiln and on the economics of a combined lime-soda sinter, cement plant. It was found that a low-alumina, C{sub 3}S-bearing cement could be readily produced from a raw mix containing significant amounts of sinter residue, which was found to consist of {beta}-C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A, CaCO{sub 3}, MgO, and C{sub 4}AF. Based on an energy balance using a typical cement feed containing around 75%{sub w} limestone as a reference, use of the residue in a cement feed allows for a 50% reduction in required energy for the kiln and a 32%{sub w} increased throughput. A laboratory produced residue-cement was found to meet all of the specifications for a Type 5 portland cement. The rate of return found for a combined lime-soda sinter and cement facility processing 43,800 tons per year (TPY) of alumina and 530,400 TPY of portland cement was 4.7%.

  13. Ectothiorhodospira variabilis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic and halophilic purple sulfur bacterium from soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Bryantseva, Irina A; Rabold, Sandra; Tourova, Tatjana P; Rubtsova, Dariya; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Thiel, Vera; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2009-04-01

    During studies of moderately halophilic strains of Ectothiorhodospira from steppe soda lakes, we found a novel group of bacteria related to Ectothiorhodospira haloalkaliphila with salt optima at 50-80 g NaCl l(-1). Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from soda lakes in Mongolia, Egypt and Siberia revealed separation of the group of new isolates from other Ectothiorhodospira species, including the closely related Ect. haloalkaliphila. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the new isolates form a homogeneous group at the species level, but at the same time are distinct from related species such as Ect. haloalkaliphila, Ect. vacuolata, Ect. shaposhnikovii and Ect. marina. The new isolates are considered to be strains of a novel species, for which the name Ectothiorhodospira variabilis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WN22(T) (=VKM B-2479(T) =DSM 21381(T)). Photosynthetic pigments of the novel species are bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin series with spirilloxanthin and derivatives thereof, together with small amounts of lycopene and rhodopin. Gas vesicles are formed by most of the strains, particularly in media containing yeast extract (0.5 g l(-1)) and acetate (0.5-2.0 g l(-1)). Sequence analysis of nifH (nitrogenase) and cbbL (RuBisCO) confirmed the assignment of the strains to the genus Ectothiorhodospira and in particular the close relationship to Ect. haloalkaliphila. The novel species Ect. variabilis is found in soda lakes separated by great geographical distances and is an alkaliphilic and halophilic bacterium that tolerates salt concentrations up to 150-200 g NaCl l(-1). PMID:19329583

  14. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  15. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as

  16. Effect of fictive temperature on dynamic fatigue behavior of silica and soda-lime glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Agarwal, A.; Tomozawa, Minoru

    1995-05-01

    The dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica glasses with fictive temperatures of 1,000, 1,100, and 1,300 C and soda-lime glasses with fictive temperatures of 470 and 530 C were measured in air. For both glasses, samples with higher fictive temperatures had a greater fatigue resistance. Inert strength of silica glasses with fictive temperatures of 1,000 and 1,300 C was also measured at liquid nitrogen temperature. Glass with higher fictive temperature had a greater inert strength.

  17. An undergraduate experiment demonstrating the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, James T.; Whitehouse, Christopher B.; Oulton, Rupert F.; Gennaro, Sylvain D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel undergraduate research project that highlights the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans. We confirm the Helmholtz resonance nature of a single can by measuring its amplitude and phase response to a sound wave. Arranging multiple cans in arrays smaller than the wavelength, we then design an antenna that redirects sound into a preferred direction. The antenna can be thought of as a new resonator, composed of artificially engineered meta-atoms, similar to a metamaterial. These experiments are illustrative, tactile, and open ended so as to enable students to explore the physics of matter/wave interaction.

  18. Severe pediatric ocular injury due to explosion of a firecracker inside a soda bottle

    PubMed Central

    Shazly, Tarek A

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a penetrating ocular injury, followed by endophthalmitis, in a four-year-old girl, resulting from explosion of a small K0201 match-cracker inside a soda bottle. The patient presented with two corneal lacerations, ruptured crystalline lens, multiple intraocular foreign bodies, and hyphema of the right eye, for which immediate surgical exploration and repair was performed. The patient developed aggressive endophthalmitis that led to atrophy of the eye within a few weeks. Severe ocular injuries can result from small, relatively “safe” firecrackers. Therefore, this type of firework should not be used, especially by minors. PMID:27147842

  19. Partial genome sequence of the haloalkaliphilic soda lake bacterium Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans ARh 2T

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berben, Tom; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Kyrpides, Nikos; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-10-26

    Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans strain ARh 2T is a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from haloalkaline soda lakes. It is a motile, Gram-negative member of the Gammaproteobacteria. Remarkable properties include the ability to grow on thiocyanate as the sole energy, sulfur and nitrogen source, and the capability of growth at salinities of up to 4.3 M total Na+. This draft genome sequence consists of 61 scaffolds comprising 2,765,337 bp, and contains 2616 protein-coding and 61 RNA-coding genes. In conclusion, this organism was sequenced as part of the Community Science Program of the DOE Joint Genome Institute.

  20. Cloning and mapping of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Touati, D

    1983-01-01

    An Escherichia coli gene bank composed of large DNA fragments (about 40 kilobases) was constructed by using the small cosmid pHC79. From it, a clone was isolated for its ability to overproduce superoxide dismutase. The enzyme overproduced was manganese superoxide dismutase, as determined by electrophoresis and antibody precipitation. Maxicell analysis and two-dimensional O'Farrell polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the structural gene, sodA, of manganese superoxide dismutase was cloned. Subcloning fragments from the original cosmid located the sodA gene within a 4.8-kilobase EcoRI-BamHI fragment. This fragment was inserted into a lambda phage which was deleted for the att region and consequently could only lysogenize by recombination between the cloned bacterial DNA insertion and the bacterial chromosome. Genetic mapping of the prophage in such lysogens indicated that the chromosomal sodA locus lies near 87 min on the E. coli map. Images PMID:6309739

  1. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  2. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity. PMID:27178357

  3. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Methods Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Results Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. Conclusion State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional

  4. Characterization of Low Firing Temperature Ceramic Glaze Using Phuket MSW and Soda Lime Cullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketboonruang, P.; Jinawat, S.; Kashima, D. P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Sujaridworakun, P.; Buggakuptav, W.; Traipol, N.; Jiemsirilers, S.

    2011-10-01

    The normal firing temperature of ceramic products is around 1200 °C. In order to reduce firing temperature, industrial wastes were utilized in ceramic glaze. Phuket municipal solid waste (MSW), soda lime cullet, and borax were used as raw materials for low firing temperature glazes. The glaze compositions were designed using a triaxial diagram. Stoneware ceramic body was glazed then fired at 1000 and 1150 °C for 15 minutes. Morphology and phase composition of glazes were analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal expansion compatibility of Stoneware body and glazes were investigated using a dilatometer. Melting behaviour of selected glaze was analyzed by heating stage microscopy. Phuket MSW and Soda lime glass cullet can be used in high percentage as major raw materials for low firing temperature ceramic glaze that show good texture and vitrified at lower firing temperature without using any commercial ceramic frits. The firing temperature can be reduced up to 150 °C in this study.

  5. Growth and properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions on soda lime glass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dhere, R.G.; Ramanathan, K.; Keyes, B.M.; Moutinho, H.R. )

    1994-06-30

    Polycrystalline thin films of CdTe grown on glass/SnO[sub 2]/CdS substrates are studied using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and time resolved photoluminescence decay techniques. CdS films were deposited by chemical solution. CdTe films were grown by close-spaced sublimation at substrate temperatures between 475--625 [degree]C. CdTe thin films deposited at temperatures higher than 525 [degree]C show preferential orientation in the [l angle]111[r angle] direction. The Grain size of the films increases with substrate temperature and the films are faceted for all the temperatures. The PL decay constant increases with substrate temperature up to 575 [degree]C for as-deposited films on soda-lime substrates. Films on borosilicate substrates show an increase up to the highest temperature used (625 [degree]C). There is systematic increase in the PL decay constant after CdCl[sub 2] heat treatment, and the range of values is 1--1.5 nsec for soda-lime samples and 1--2 nsec for borosilicate samples.

  6. Surprising Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Diversity, Community Structure and Biogeography of Ethiopian Soda Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Lanzén, Anders; Simachew, Addis; Gessesse, Amare; Chmolowska, Dominika; Jonassen, Inge; Øvreås, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems for studying the connection between community structure and abiotic parameters such as pH and salinity. For the first time, we apply high-throughput sequencing to accurately estimate phylogenetic richness and composition in five soda lakes, located in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The lakes were selected for their contrasting pH, salinities and stratification and several depths or spatial positions were covered in each lake. DNA was extracted and analyzed from all lakes at various depths and RNA extracted from two of the lakes, analyzed using both amplicon- and shotgun sequencing. We reveal a surprisingly high biodiversity in all of the studied lakes, similar to that of freshwater lakes. Interestingly, diversity appeared uncorrelated or positively correlated to pH and salinity, with the most “extreme” lakes showing the highest richness. Together, pH, dissolved oxygen, sodium- and potassium concentration explained approximately 30% of the compositional variation between samples. A diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic taxa could be identified, including several putatively involved in carbon-, sulfur- or nitrogen cycling. Key processes like methane oxidation, ammonia oxidation and ‘nitrifier denitrification’ were also confirmed by mRNA transcript analyses. PMID:24023625

  7. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). PMID:24667693

  8. Influence of Copolyester Composition on Adhesion to Soda-Lime Glass via Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ben; Hofmann, John; Pasquinelli, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    Copolyesters are a subset of polymers that have the desirable properties of strength and clarity while retaining chemical resistance, and are thus potential candidates for enhancing the impact resistance of soda-lime glass. Adhesion between the polymer and the glass relates to the impact performance of the system, as well as the longevity of the bond between the polymer and the glass under various conditions. Modifying the types of diols and diacids present in the copolyester provides a method for fine-tuning the physical properties of the polymer. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the influence of the chemical composition of the polymers on adhesion of polymer film laminates to two soda-lime glass surfaces, one tin-rich and one oxygen-rich. By calculating properties such as adhesion energies and contact angles, these results provide insights into how the polymer-glass interaction is impacted by the polymer composition, temperature, and other factors such as the presence of free volume or pi stacking. These results can be used to optimize the adhesion of copolyester films to glass surfaces. PMID:27206103

  9. Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

  10. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…