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Sample records for bench-scale filtration testing

  1. Bench-Scale Filtration Testing in Support of the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP testing program specifies that bench-scale testing is to be performed in support of specific operations, including filtration, caustic leaching, and oxidative leaching.

  2. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-12-06

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  3. Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemicals compared to conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at IGT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select preferred operating conditions for chemicals production from high-sulfur Illinois coals.

  4. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics.

  5. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing media and amendments in larger pilot- or full-scale rain garden installations. The bench-scale study conclude...

  6. Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process

    SciTech Connect

    Edward R. Torak; Peter J. Suardini

    1997-11-01

    A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated with coal fines. In 1992, three cost-shared contracts were awarded to industry, under the first High-Efficiency Preparation (HEP I) solicitation. All three projects involved bench-scale testing of various emerging technologies, at the Federal Energy Technology Center*s (FETC*s), Process Research Facility (PRF). The first HEP I project, completed in mid-1993, was conducted by Process Technology, Inc., with the objective of developing a computerized, on-line system for monitoring and controlling the operation of a column flotation circuit. The second HEP I project, completed in mid-1994, was conducted by a team led by Virginia Polytechnic Institute to test the Mozely Multi-Gravity Separator in combination with the Microcel Flotation Column, for improved removal of mineral matter and pyritic sulfur from fine coal. The last HEP I project, of which the findings are contained in this report, was conducted by Custom Coals Corporation to evaluate and advance a micronized-magnetite-based, fine-coal cycloning technology. The micronized-magnetite coal cleaning technology, also know as the Micro-Mag process, is based on widely used conventional dense-medium cyclone applications, in that it utilizes a finely ground magnetite/water suspension as a separating medium for cleaning fine coal, by density, in a cyclone. However, the micronized-magnetite cleaning technology differs from conventional systems in several ways: ! It utilizes significantly finer magnetite (about 5 to 10 micron mean particle size), as compared to normal mean particle sizes of 20 microns. ! It can effectively beneficiate coal particles down to 500M in size, as compared to the most advanced, existing conventional systems that are limited to a particle bottom size of about 28M - 100 M. ! Smaller diameter cyclones, 4 to 10 inches, are used to provide the higher G-force required to separate the finer feed coal. ! Cyclone feed pressures up to 10 times greater than those used in conventional cleaning systems are employed to enhance the separating forces.

  7. Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0°C.

  8. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oral presentation will be at the EWRI International LID Conference in San Francisco, on April 11-14, 2010. The slides discuss the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing...

  9. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  10. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

  11. Bench-scale testing of a heat-pipe receiver for solar thermal electric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Dudley, Vernon

    Electric power generating systems that couple parabolic-dish solar-concentrators with Stirling engines and generators are currently being developed under the Department of Energy's solar thermal electric program. These systems will use liquid metal heat pipes to transfer energy from the focal point of a solar concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. The heat-pipe solar-receivers are required to operate in adverse orientations and accept flux levels on the order of 100 W/sq. cm. To explore the operating limits of heat-pipe solar-receivers, a series of bench-scale heat pipe receivers are being designed and tested. Results from the bench-scale tests and their implications on a full-scale heat-pipe solar receiver are presented in this paper.

  12. Bench-scale testing of a heat-pipe receiver for solar thermal electric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R. ); Dudley, V. )

    1990-01-01

    Electric power generating systems that couple parabolic-dish solar-concentrators with Stirling engines and generators are currently being developed under the Department of Energy's solar thermal electric program. These systems will use liquid metal heat pipes to transfer energy from the focal point of a solar concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. The heat-pipe solar-receivers are required to operate in adverse orientations and accept flux levels on the order of 100 W/cm{sup 2}. To explore the operating limits of heat-pipe solar-receivers, a series of bench-scale heat pipe receivers are being designed and tested. Results from the bench-scale tests and their implications on a full-scale heat-pipe solar receiver are presented in this paper. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Bench scale manufacture of multilamellar liposomes using a newly developed multistage pressure filtration device.

    PubMed

    Endruschat, J; Henschke, K

    2000-03-10

    Liposomes are belonging to the modern kinds of drugs. They are facilitating the secure and well-targeted transport of substances inside the organism, and are gaining increasing importance in the pharmacological treatment of tumors and in gene-therapeutic strategies. Multilamellar liposomes have advantages to one-layer liposomes: the multiplicity of coats increases the effect of a reservoir and makes extremely prolonged releases of drugs possible. This study describes the aseptical manufacturing of different kinds of multilamellar liposomes. It has been shown that it is possible to produce liposome-suspensions with different shares of multilamellar liposomes in the scale of litres under aseptical circumstances using a newly constructed multi-stage-pressure-filtration-device. PMID:10699707

  14. Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Oxide Fuel Bench-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li; M. F. Simpson

    2005-10-01

    A series of tests were performed to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent light water reactor fuel at bench-scale in a hot cell at the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex (formerly Argonne National Laboratory - West). The process involves the conversion of oxide fuel to metal by electrolytic means, which would then enable subsequent separation and recovery of actinides via existing electrometallurgical technologies, i.e., electrorefining. Four electrolytic reduction runs were performed at bench scale using ~500 ml of molten LiCl -- 1 wt% Li2O electrolyte at 650 C. In each run, ~50 g of crushed spent oxide fuel was loaded into a permeable stainless steel basket and immersed into the electrolyte as the cathode. A spiral wound platinum wire was immersed into the electrolyte as the anode. When a controlled electric current was conducted through the anode and cathode, the oxide fuel was reduced to metal in the basket and oxygen gas was evolved at the anode. Salt samples were extracted before and after each electrolytic reduction run and analyzed for fuel and fission product constituents. The fuel baskets following each run were sectioned and sampled, revealing an extent of uranium oxide reduction in excess of 98%.

  15. Optimization of limestone sizing for CFB combustors: Results of pilot plant and bench-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.; Edvardsson, C.; Wu, S.; Probst, S.

    1994-12-31

    A grant to study the performance of limestones in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor was obtained in 1991 from the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority (PEDA) by Tampella Power Corporation (TPC). The overall objective of this PEDA project was to carry out a systematic pilot plant tests at TPC`s pilot plant in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, in systematic order to identify ways of improving sulfur capture and limestone utilization through better control of the size distribution and residence time of the limestone particles in the furnace. It was also an objective to determine if bench scale testing could be of value in predicting CFB sorbent behavior. The pilot plant and bench test results were incorporated into an empirical Correlation which accounts for the size distribution and residence time of solids in CFB boiler.

  16. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  17. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot press sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric discharge machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical, dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  18. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. PMID:25349371

  19. Bench-Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both cabin and space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of bench-scale SA9T testing that was performed under a variety of test conditions and with several different trace contaminants. Tests were conducted to determine if the capacity of the SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O is compromised after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Tests also were conducted to evaluate the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream. In addition, testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures (29.6 KPa/4.3 psia) during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load.

  20. Synthetic lightweight aggregate from cool water slag: Bench-scale confirmation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S.R. )

    1990-05-01

    This report analyzes the potential for production of synthetic lightweight aggregate (SLA) from a Texaco coal gasification solid residue. The objective of the project was to develop a replacement for conventional lightweight aggregates typically derived from expanded clays and shales or natural lightweight aggregates. The sequence of tests performed to develop SLA from slag began with the crushing of samples of slag, followed by either extrusion or pelletization. The level of clay binder required for sufficient aggregate strength was evaluated. Using a tube furnace, expansion characteristics were studied as a function of temperature and residence time. Next, a large batch of SLA was produced in a muffle furnace and used to form concrete test cylinders. The unit weight of the resultant concrete was 105 lb/ft{sup 3}, with a compressive strength of 3100 psi, which meets the requirements specified in ASTM C 330 for lightweight aggregate of a comparable density. When the same sequence of tests was performed using a slag from which the bulk of the char had been removed, the concrete test cylinders showed an improved relationship between strength and density. Based on the results of bench-scale tests and the similarity to conventional LWA production, the conceptual design of an SLA processing plant was formulated. A comparative estimate of operating costs was prepared by analyzing data from plants using clays and shales to produce lightweight aggregates. 24 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Bench-scale testing of selected remediation alternatives for contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, D L; Garbaciak, S

    1995-01-01

    The Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Program within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) contained a component for demonstrating and evaluating sediment remediation technologies. Toward this end, bench-scale tests of solvent extraction, thermal desorption, and wet air oxidation technologies were conducted. Contaminated sediments were tested from the Grand Calumet River, Indiana; Buffalo River, New York; Saginaw River, Michigan; and Ashtabula River, Ohio. The primary contaminants of concern in these sediments were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The solvent extraction tests were conducted with sediments from the Grand Calumet, Buffalo, and Saginaw rivers. The thermal desorption studies were conducted with sediments from the Grand Calumet, Buffalo, and Ashtabula rivers. The wet air oxidation testing was performed with the Grand Calumet River sediment. Raw sediment contaminant concentrations ranged from 0.32-21.9 mg/kg dry mass for PCBs and 2.70-266 mg/kg dry mass for PAHs. PCB removal or destruction efficiencies ranged from approximately 6-99%. PAH removal or destruction efficiencies ranged from 65-99%. Mass balance closures ranged from 40-99% for solids; 59-139% for water; 29-3500% for oil; 16-129% for PCBs; and 69-3170% for PAHs. PMID:15658167

  2. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  3. Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with microcel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-03-01

    It was the purpose of this investigation to test a new fine coal cleaning system, in which a coal is cleaned first by column flotation to remove primarily ash-forming minerals and then by an enhanced gravity separation technique to remove the pyrite remaining in the flotation product. Of the various column flotation technologies developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, the Microcel{sup TM} flotation column was chosen because it is being used commercially in the US coal industry, particularly by low-sulfur coal producers. Of the various enhanced gravity separation technologies used in minerals industry, Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS) was chosen because it shows promise for pyrite rejection from fine coal streams containing a wide range of particle sizes. The bench-scale tests were conducted using three different circuit configurations, i.e.; Microcel{sup TM} column alone; MGS alone; and Microcel{sup Tm} and MGS in series. In general, high ash-rejections were achieved using Microcel{sup TM} column and an MGS unit in series, both the ash and pyritic sulfur rejections exceeded what can be achieved using either the Microcel{sup TM} column or the MGS unit alone, demonstrating a synergistic effect.

  4. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Bench-scale reactor tests of low temperature, catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, D.C.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr. )

    1993-02-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES[reg sign]), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2 percent para-cresol or 5 percent and 10 percent lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to [gt] 99 percent reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence lime is less than 5 min at 360C and 3,000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40 percent to 55 percent methane, 35 percent to 50 percent carbon dioxide, and 5 percent to 10 percent hydrogen with as much as 2 percent ethane, but less than 0.1 percent ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD.

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF PHOTOLYSIS, CHEMICAL OXIDATION AND BIODEGRADATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS AND PHOTOLYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of bench-scale testing on degradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD using W photolysis, and PCB degradation using UV photolysis, chemical oxidation and biological treatment. Bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of a two-phase detoxifi...

  7. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form.

  8. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    SciTech Connect

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  9. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2010-08-19

    This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford tank farms contain approximately 57 million gallons of wastes, most of which originated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to produce plutonium for defense purposes. DOE intends to pre-treat the tank waste to separate the waste into a high level fraction, that will be vitrified and disposed of in a national repository as high-level waste (HLW), and a low-activity waste (LAW) fraction that will be immobilized for on-site disposal at Hanford. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the focal point for the treatment of Hanford tank waste. However, the WTP lacks the capacity to process all of the LAW within the regulatory required timeframe. Consequently, a supplemental LAW immobilization process will be required to immobilize the remainder of the LAW. One promising supplemental technology is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) to produce a sodium-alumino-silicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is primarily composed of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Nas[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Semivolatile anions such as pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and volatiles such as iodine as iodide (I{sup -}) are expected to be entrapped within the mineral structures, thereby immobilizing them (Janzen 2008). Results from preliminary performance tests using surrogates, suggests that the release of semivolatile radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and volatile {sup 129}I from granular NAS waste form is limited by Nosean solubility. The predicted release of {sup 99}Tc from the NAS waste form at a 100 meters down gradient well from the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) was found to be comparable to immobilized low-activity waste glass waste form in the initial supplemental LAW treatment technology risk assessment (Mann 2003). To confirm this hypothesis, DOE is funding a treatability study where three actual Hanford tank waste samples (containing both {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}I) will be processed in Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) to form the mineral product, similar to the granular NAS waste form, that will then be subject to a number of waste form qualification tests. In previous tests, SRNL have demonstrated that the BSR product is chemically and physically equivalent to the FBSR product (Janzen 2005). The objective of this paper is to describe the sample selection, sample preparation, and environmental and regulatory considerations for treatability studies of the FBSR process using Hanford tank waste samples at the SNRL. The SNRL will process samples in its BSR. These samples will be decontaminated in the 222-S Laboratory to remove undissolved solids and selected radioisotopes to comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping regulations and to ensure worker safety by limiting radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). These decontamination levels will also meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) definition of low activity waste (LAW). After the SNRL has processed the tank samples to a granular mineral form, SRNL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will conduct waste form testing on both the granular material and monoliths prepared from the granular material. The tests being performed are outlined in Appendix A.

  10. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 4, October--December, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, K.

    1994-01-25

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  11. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 3, July--September, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, K.

    1993-10-29

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  12. Bench-scale testing and evaluation of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The present work seeks to (1) demonstrate the DSRP in an integrated two-stage bench-scale unit scaled up by a factor of up to 40, for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur, (2) explain the high sulfur yield and mechanism of DSRP reactions by conducting kinetic experiments and advanced thermodynamic calculations, and (3) continue technology transfer to the point where industry is willing to support further DSRP development. The DSRP Bench-Scale Unit hardware has been described in detail previously (Gangwal and McMichael, 1990; Gangwal and McMichael, 1991). The unit consists of a simulated off-gas and coal-gas delivery system connected to two high-pressure reactors and condensers in the configuration shown conceptually in Figure 1. The system is rated to 400 psig and the reactors, capable of operation at up to 400 psig at 750{degree}C, hold up to 1 L of catalyst each. The inlet and outlet gases are analyzed using two gas chromatographs (GCs) and a continuous SO{sub 2} analyzer. One major change recently made to the unit consists of installing advanced condensers suggested by experts in the field to facilitate more efficient separation of the sulfur after each reactor. A schematic diagram of the advanced condenser is shown in Figure 2. The sulfur-laden gas is cooled by surrounding steam at 250{degree}F in a coil and then flashed into the sulfur collection pot for separation of gas and sulfur. A sulfur drain is included so that it is not necessary to dismantle the condenser after every run. The ability to drain the sulfur during a run allows extended runs to be carried out. Also fittings are provided in strategic locations to allow dismantling when cleanup becomes necessary.

  13. Bench-scale testing and evaluation of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The present work seeks to (1) demonstrate the DSRP in an integrated two-stage bench-scale unit scaled up by a factor of up to 40, for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur, (2) explain the high sulfur yield and mechanism of DSRP reactions by conducting kinetic experiments and advanced thermodynamic calculations, and (3) continue technology transfer to the point where industry is willing to support further DSRP development. The DSRP Bench-Scale Unit hardware has been described in detail previously (Gangwal and McMichael, 1990; Gangwal and McMichael, 1991). The unit consists of a simulated off-gas and coal-gas delivery system connected to two high-pressure reactors and condensers in the configuration shown conceptually in Figure 1. The system is rated to 400 psig and the reactors, capable of operation at up to 400 psig at 750[degree]C, hold up to 1 L of catalyst each. The inlet and outlet gases are analyzed using two gas chromatographs (GCs) and a continuous SO[sub 2] analyzer. One major change recently made to the unit consists of installing advanced condensers suggested by experts in the field to facilitate more efficient separation of the sulfur after each reactor. A schematic diagram of the advanced condenser is shown in Figure 2. The sulfur-laden gas is cooled by surrounding steam at 250[degree]F in a coil and then flashed into the sulfur collection pot for separation of gas and sulfur. A sulfur drain is included so that it is not necessary to dismantle the condenser after every run. The ability to drain the sulfur during a run allows extended runs to be carried out. Also fittings are provided in strategic locations to allow dismantling when cleanup becomes necessary.

  14. Manganese removal during bench-scale biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Burger, Mark S; Mercer, Stephen S; Shupe, Gordon D; Gagnon, Graham A

    2008-12-01

    As biological manganese (Mn) removal becomes a more popular water treatment technology, there is still a large gap in understanding the key mechanisms and range of operational characteristics. This research aimed to expand on previous bench-scale experiments by directly comparing small filtration columns inoculated with indigenous biofilms from a Mn filtration plant and filtration columns inoculated with a liquid suspension of Leptothrix discophora SP-6. Batch tests found that in the absence of manganese oxidizing bacteria Mn was not removed by air alone, whereas a mixed population and Leptothrix strain achieved greater than 90% removal of Mn. The bench-scale biofiltration experiments found that biological filters can be inoculated with a pure culture of L. discophora SP-6 and achieve a similar removal of indigenous biofilm. While Mn oxidizing bacteria (MOB) seem to be necessary for the auto-catalytic nature of these biological filters, Mn removal is achieved with a combination of adsorption to Mn oxides and biological oxidation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that biological Mn removal is possible over a broader "field of activity" (e.g., Mn removal occurred at a pH level as low as 6.5) than has previously been reported. The ability of this treatment technology to work over a broader range of influent conditions allows for more communities to consider biological treatment as an option to remove Mn from their drinking water. PMID:18809196

  15. The stability of aerobic granular sludge treating municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in a bench scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Shi, Ya-fei; Wang, Jing; Bai, Jun; Zhou, Xuan-yue; Jiang, Guo-sheng; Li, Chun-yang; Liu, Fu-biao

    2014-10-01

    Inoculated with mature aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor, gradually increasing the proportion of municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in influent, aerobic granular sludge was domesticated after 84 days and maintained its structure during the operation. The domesticated AGS was yellowish-brown, dense and irregular spherical shape, average size was 1.49 mm, water content and specific density were 98.13% and 1.0114, the SVI and settling velocity were 40 ml/g and 46.5m/h. After 38 days, NO3(-)-N accumulated obviously in the reactor as lack of carbon sources. When adding 1-3g solid CH3COONa at 4.5 and 5.5h of each cycle from the 57th day, the removal rate of TN rose to above 90% after 20 days, where effective COD removal and denitrification were realized in a single bioreactor. Finally, the removal rates of COD, TP, TN and NH4(+)-N were higher than 95%, 88%, 96% and 99%. PMID:25058300

  16. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

  17. Crucible melts and bench-scale ISV (in situ vitrification) tests on simulated wastes in INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) soils

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of eight crucible melt tests and three bench-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test that were performed on simulated metals/soils mixtures containing actual site soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The crucible melt and bench-scale ISV tests are a part of efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist the INEL in conducting a treatability study on ISV for application to the mixed waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area (SDA). The crucible melt tests were performed to evaluate the effect of various chemical additives and metal oxidation techniques on soil melting temperatures, melt viscosities, metals versus electrode oxidation potentials, and metals incorporation in the glass. The bench-scale ISV tests were performed to supplement the existing ISV data base with information on certain hazardous materials that have not been adequately evaluated in previous ISV tests. These materials included five EP toxicity metals, various volatile organic materials fixed in a cementitious matrix (including carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE)), and asbestos. In addition, the bench-scale test were used to evaluated the effect of the proposed chemical additive on ISV processing performance and product quality. 8 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-10-01

    Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce higher yields of liquids and valuable chemicals than conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been reported to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at ICT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under GH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select operating conditions for maximum production of PCX (phenol, cresols, and xylenols) from high-sulfur Illinois coals. During the third quarter, data from IGT and SIUC have been analyzed and compared, and these data suggest that increased coal conversion to liquids and to PCX requires a longer residence time of volatile precursors in contact with hot char than can be obtained in the fluidized bed. Consequently, we have decided to operate future tests in a moving-bed reactor.

  19. Pilot- and bench-scale testing of faecal indicator bacteria survival in marine beach sand near point sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mika, K.B.; Imamura, G.; Chang, C.; Conway, V.; Fernandez, G.; Griffith, J.F.; Kampalath, R.A.; Lee, C.M.; Lin, C.-C.; Moreno, R.; Thompson, S.; Whitman, R.L.; Jay, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Factors affecting faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogen survival/persistence in sand remain largely unstudied. This work elucidates how biological and physical factors affect die-off in beach sand following sewage spills. Methods and Results: Solar disinfection with mechanical mixing was pilot-tested as a disinfection procedure after a large sewage spill in Los Angeles. Effects of solar exposure, mechanical mixing, predation and/or competition, season, and moisture were tested at bench scale. First-order decay constants for Escherichia coli ranged between -0??23 and -1??02 per day, and for enterococci between -0??5 and -1??0 per day. Desiccation was a dominant factor for E. coli but not enterococci inactivation. Effects of season were investigated through a comparison of experimental results from winter, spring, and fall. Conclusions: Moisture was the dominant factor controlling E. coli inactivation kinetics. Initial microbial community and sand temperature were also important factors. Mechanical mixing, common in beach grooming, did not consistently reduce bacterial levels. Significance and Impact of the Study: Inactivation rates are mainly dependent on moisture and high sand temperature. Chlorination was an effective disinfection treatment in sand microcosms inoculated with raw influent. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Pilot- and bench-scale testing of faecal indicator bacteria survival in marine beach sand near point sources

    PubMed Central

    Mika, K.B.; Imamura, G.; Chang, C.; Conway, V.; Fernandez, G.; Griffith, J.F.; Kampalath, R.A.; Lee, C.M.; Lin, C.-C.; Moreno, R.; Thompson, S.; Whitman, R.L.; Jay, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Factors affecting faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogen survival/persistence in sand remain largely unstudied. This work elucidates how biological and physical factors affect die-off in beach sand following sewage spills. Methods and Results Solar disinfection with mechanical mixing was pilot-tested as a disinfection procedure after a large sewage spill in Los Angeles. Effects of solar exposure, mechanical mixing, predation and/or competition, season, and moisture were tested at bench scale. First-order decay constants for Escherichia coli ranged between −0·23 and −·102 per day, and for enterococci between −0·5 and −1·0 per day. Desiccation was a dominant factor for E. coli but not enterococci inactivation. Effects of season were investigated through a comparison of experimental results from winter, spring, and fall. Conclusions Moisture was the dominant factor controlling E. coli inactivation kinetics. Initial microbial community and sand temperature were also important factors. Mechanical mixing, common in beach grooming, did not consistently reduce bacterial levels. Significance and Impact of the Study Inactivation rates are mainly dependent on moisture and high sand temperature. Chlorination was an effective disinfection treatment in sand microcosms inoculated with raw influent. PMID:19302327

  1. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for coal fueled turbines Phase III bench-scale testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1995-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of coal-fired turbine technologies such as Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), coal Gasification Combined Cycles (GCC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbines (DCFT). A major technical development challenge remaining for coal-fired turbine systems is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental emissions standards, as well as to ensure acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, has evaluated an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept that has been configured to meet this technical challenge. This ceramic hot gas filter (HGF), ILEC concept controls particulate emissions, while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur and alkali vapor contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure, fuel gases or combustion gases. This document reports on the results of Phase III of the ILEC evaluation program, the final phase of the program. In Phase III, a bench-scale ILEC facility has been tested to (1) confirm the feasibility of the ILEC concept, and (2) to resolve some major filter cake behavior issues identified in PFBC, HGF applications.

  2. Bench-scale testing and evaluation of the direct sulfur recovery process. Final report, February 1990--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Chen, D.H.

    1994-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently recovering up to 99% or higher amounts of elemental sulfur from SO{sub 2}-containing regeneration tail-gas produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems by reacting the tail-gas with a small slipstream of coal gas. In this project, the DSRP was demonstrated with simulated gases at bench-scale with 3-in. diameter, 1-L size catalytic reactors. Fundamental kinetic and modeling studies were conducted to explain the significantly higher than thermodynamically expected sulfur recoveries in DSRP and to enable prediction of sulfur recovery in larger reactors. Technology transfer activities to promote the DSRP consisted of publications and discussions with architectural engineering firms and industrial parties especially IGCC system developers. Toward the end of the project, an agreement was signed with an IGCC system developer to scale up the DSRP and test it with actual gases in their 10-MW (thermal) coal gasification pilot-plant under a cooperative R&D agreement with the US Department of Energy.

  3. Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-12-31

    Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} in a 97:3 mole ratio (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemical feedstocks, particularly phenols, cresols, and xylenols (PCX). The addition of magnesia, coal ash, or clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion to these chemicals. The goal of this two-year project was to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at IGT. Tests were conducted with IBC-101 and IBC-105 coals under N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends, with and without mineral additives, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degree}F and 200 psig. These tests have provided data valuable to further development efforts on the process. In the first year, fluidized-bed tests were conducted using inert bed diluents (coke and sand) to retard agglomeration. PCX yields of 0.99 wt% maf coal were achieved in CH{sub 4} atmosphere, tripling the yield in N, atmosphere, while overall liquid yields were 18--20 wt% maf in either atmosphere. However, control of caking was difficult in spite of a very high bed dilution ratio of 4.5:1. During the second year, agglomeration was controlled by slurry impregnation of the coal with coal ash, magnesia, or montmorillonite at levels as low as 10 wt%. Thirteen continuous tests were conducted in 2-inch fluidized-bed and moving-bed reactors at test conditions of 900{degree}--1000{degree}F and 120 psig.

  4. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  5. Baseline and optional bench-scale testing of a chemical candle filter safeguard device

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Swanson, M.L.

    2000-11-01

    This project was undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and test the feasibility of a hot-gas filter safeguard device (SGD) to prevent the release of dust in the event of candle filter failure under both pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) (oxidizing) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (reducing) operating conditions. The SGD must use existing filter system seals, gaskets, fixtures, and assemblies as much as possible. It must also activate quickly when a candle filter has failed, preferably preventing dust concentrations downstream of the SGD from exceeding 1 ppmw. In addition, the SGD must be able to operate in an inactive mode with minimal pressure drop, and its operation cannot be affected by repeated backpulse cleaning events of up to 3 psia and 1/2 second in duration.

  6. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-16

    This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

  7. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

    2008-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater through formation of permeable reactive biobarriers (PRBB).

  8. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  9. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  10. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit. Task 5: Evaluation of bench-scale test results and equipment selection for in-plant pilot tests

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort is to improve the efficiency of fine coal flotation in preparation plants above that of currently used conventional cells. In addition to evaluating single-stage operation of four selected advanced flotation devices, the project will also evaluate them in two-stage configurations. The project is being implemented in two phases. Phase 1 comprises bench-scale testing of the flotation units, and Phase 2 comprises in-plant, proof-of-concept (POC), pilot-scale testing of selected configurations at the Cyprus Emerald preparation plant. The Task 5 report presents the findings of the Phase 1 bench-scale test results and provides the basis for equipment selection for Phase 2. Four advanced flotation technologies selected for bench-scale testing are: Jameson cell; Outokumpu HG tank cell; packed column; and open column. In addition to testing all four of the cells in single-stage operation, the Jameson and Outokumpu cells were tested as candidate first-stage cells because of their propensity for rapid attachment of coal particles with air bubbles and low capital and operating costs. The column cells were selected as candidate second-stage cells because of their high-efficiency separation of low-ash products from high-ash feed coals. 32 figs., 72 tabs.

  11. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

  12. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

  13. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

  14. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  15. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  16. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-10

    The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: continued purchase of small equipment and supplies for the circuit; completed the circuit commissioning task; procured one lot of PennMag Grade-K and one lot Grade-L magnetite; completed work on analytical investigations; completed Classifying Circuit Component Testing on Pittsburgh No. 8 coal; completed the final Heavy-Media cyclone component testing on the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam using Grade-K and Grade-L magnetites; continued QA/QC tests on wet screening, wet splitting, Marcy Balance, and reproducibility checks on component tests and component test samples; and completed the magnetite recovery circuit component testing with and without screens using the Grade-K magnetite and the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal seam. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  17. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  18. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-11

    The major focus of the project, which is scheduled to occur through January 1996, will be to install and test a 500{number_sign}/hr. fine coal-cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: continued purchasing small equipment and supplies for the circuit; procured a 46-ton sample of Lower Kittanning ``B`` Seam coal; completed eight primary integrated tests (PIT {number_sign}1--{number_sign}8) using the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam and the Grade-K and Grade-L magnetites; completed classifying cyclone tests using the Pittsburgh No. 8 and Lower Kittanning seams using a larger (0.5 inch) apex; completed data analysis on the four Grade-K magnetite ``closed-loop`` heavy-media cyclone tests; obtained a finer third grade of magnetite (Grade-M) with a MVD of approximately 3 microns; presented paper on the Micro- Mag project at the Coal Preparation, Utilization and Environmental Control Contractors Conference and a Poster Board Paper on the Micro- Mag Project at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference; and developed a method to modify all 5 Micro-Mag magnetic separators to approximately one third of their present size to better approximate commercial operation.

  19. High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

    1981-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup reactor.

  20. TEST OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes pilot scale and laboratory tests of U.S. and Polish woven baghouse fabrics. Cotton, polyester, aramid, and glass fabrics were tested using cement, flyash, coal, and talc dusts at loadings of about 10 g/cu m, filtration velocities of 60 and 80 cu m/sq m, and a...

  1. Development of a bench-scale immersed ultrafiltration apparatus for coagulation pretreatment experiments.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Margaret E; Zhao, Na; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a project that focused on developing a standardized bench-scale apparatus and operating procedures for immersed ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems to assess integrated process designs (e.g., coagulation-UF) under controlled laboratory conditions. The integrated test apparatus, termed Immersed Ultrafiltration Enhanced Coagulation (IUEC), was designed using a hollow-fiber, outside-in UF module immersed in a single compartment water preparation and filtration tank equipped with aeration mixing capabilities for coagulation and flocculation process evaluations. Bench-scale experiments were conducted with alum on a low turbidity surface water source to evaluate system performance of the integrated IUEC apparatus compared to a standard jar test unit. The experiments were evaluated by measuring the removal of natural organic matter and zeta-potential analysis from water collected from a conventional mechanically-mixed process with a manual transfer to a UF membrane system and comparing these results to the IUEC system. The results of this study demonstrated that using the single-compartment IUEC apparatus can provide water quality data that is congruent with those obtained through conventional methods that rely on use of standard jar tests. PMID:21547820

  2. Bench-Scale Co-Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1993-11-08

    This topical report is the first for the UOP Bench-Scale Co-processing contract. The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize the UOP single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. UOP co-processing uses a single-stage, slurry-catalyzed scheme in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active, well-dispersed catalyst permits operations at moderate- and high-severity reaction conditions with minimum detrimental thermal reactions. In this process, finely ground coal, petroleum resid, and catalyst are mixed, combined with hydrogen, and then directed to a single-stage reactor, where the simultaneous upgrading of the petroleum resid and coal occurs. The reactor effluent is directed to a series of separators, where a hydrogen-rich gas is recovered and recycled back to the reactor inlet. The balance of the material is sent to a series of separators, where the light gasses, light oil, vacuum gas on (VGO), catalyst, unconverted coal, ash, and residues are recovered. The catalyst is recycled back to the reactor. The UOP co-processing scheme is designed to be integrated into a conventional petroleum refinery. the hydrocarbon products from the co-processing unit will be sent to the refinery for final upgrading to finished products. A major focus of this contract is to investigate ways to reduce the catalyst and catalyst recovery costs and improve the overall economics of the process. This report documents the work completed under Task 2.0, Laboratory Support. The overall objective of Task 2.0 was to obtain and characterize the feedstocks for the contract and to provide a screening mechanism to test new catalyst systems prior to testing in the continuous pilot plant. The main elements of the experimental program for task 2.0 include: Feedstock procurement and analysis; catalyst improvements; and catalyst recycle screening.

  3. COMPARING RBF WITH BENCH-SCALE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT FOR PRECURSOR REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors upon riverbank filtration (RBF) at three drinking water utilities in the mid-Western United States was compared with that obtained using a bench-scale conventional treatment train on the corresponding river waters. The riv...

  4. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOX{sup SM} catalyzed wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX{sup SM} catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals` fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes.

  5. BENCH-SCALE RECOVERY OF LEAD USING AND ELECTRO- MEMBRANE/CHELATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a bench-scale treatability test to investigate key process parameters influencing an innovative chelation electrodeposition process for recovery of lead from contaminated sons. thylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta...

  6. BENCH-SCALE RECOVERY OF LEAD USING AN ELECTROMEMBRANE/CHELATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a bench-scale treatability test to investigate key process parameters influencing an innovative chelation electrodeposition process for recovery of lead from contaminated sons. thylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta...

  7. EVALUATION OF A BENCH-SCALE DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM FOR SCREENING POTENTIAL REAGENTS AND OPERATING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses two series of bench-scale dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) laboratory tests, the primary objective of which was to evaluate the ability of a bench-scale dry FGD system to screen potential reagents and operating conditions in support of testing at larger pilo...

  8. Bench-scale co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Nafis, D.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Lea, C.; Miller, M.A.

    1990-03-27

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. Particular emphasis is given to defining and improving catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery techniques. The work during this quarter involved a series of temperature studies with different concentrations of Mo slurry catalyst. The results of bench-scale Runs 26 and 27 are discussed in the following report. 25 figs.

  9. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing relatively high concentrations of zirconium and aluminum, representative of the cladding material of the reprocessed fuel that generated the calcine. A separate study to define the CCIM testing needs of these other calcine classifications in currently being prepared under a separate work package (WP-0) and will be provided as a milestone report at the end of this fiscal year.

  10. Bench-scale feasibility testing of pulsed-air technology for in-tank mixing of dry cementitious solids with tank liquids and settled solids

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the results of testing performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulsed-air mixing technology (equipment developed by Pulsair Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA) to mix cementitious dry solids with supernatant and settled solids within a horizontal tank. The mixing technology is being considered to provide in situ stabilization of the {open_quotes}V{close_quotes} tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The testing was performed in a vessel roughly 1/6 the scale of the INEEL tanks. The tests used a fine soil to simulate settled solids and water to simulate tank supernatants. The cementitious dry materials consisted of Portland cement and Aquaset-2H (a product of Fluid Tech Inc. consisting of clay and Portland cement). Two scoping tests were conducted to allow suitable mixing parameters to be selected. The scoping tests used only visual observations during grout disassembly to assess mixing performance. After the scoping tests indicated the approach may be feasible, an additional two mixing tests were conducted. In addition to visual observations during disassembly of the solidified grout, these tests included addition of chemical tracers and chemical analysis of samples to determine the degree of mixing uniformity achieved. The final two mixing tests demonstrated that the pulsed-air mixing technique is capable of producing slurries containing substantially more cementitious dry solids than indicated by the formulations suggested by INEEL staff. Including additional cement in the formulation may have benefits in terms of increasing mobilization of solids, reducing water separation during curing, and increasing the strength of the solidified product. During addition to the tank, the cementitious solids had a tendency to form clumps which broke down with continued mixing.

  11. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

    1995-11-21

    Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

  12. Groundwater remediation by an in situ biobarrier: a bench scale feasibility test for methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline compounds.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Sabrina; Negri, Marco; Sezenna, Elena; Bonomo, Luca; Sorlini, Claudia

    2009-08-15

    Most gasoline contains high percentages of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an additive. The physico-chemical properties of this substance (high water solubility, low sorption in soil) result in high mobility and dissolved concentrations in soil. In situ permeable biological barriers (biobarriers, BBs) can remediate MTBE polluted groundwater by allowing pure cultures or microbial consortia to degrade MTBE when aerobic conditions are present, either by direct metabolism or cometabolism. Lab-scale batch and column tests were carried out to assess a selected microbial consortium in biodegrading MTBE and other gasoline compounds (benzene B, toluene T, ethylbenzene E, xylenes X) and to measure the parameters affecting the efficacy of a BB treatment of polluted groundwater. During the aerobic phase of the batch tests, the simultaneous biodegradation of MTBE, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), B, T, E and o-X was observed. The rapid biodegradation of BTEXs resulted in decreased oxygen availability, but MTBE degradation was nevertheless measured in the presence of BTEXs. Stationary concentrations of MTBE and TBA were measured when anoxic conditions occurred in the systems. Values for a first order kinetic removal process were obtained for MTBE (0.031+/-0.001 d(-1)), B (0.045+/-0.002 d(-1)) and T (0.080+/-0.004 d(-1)) in the inoculated column tests. The estimate of the BB design parameters suggested that inoculation could significantly modify (double) the longitudinal dispersivity value of the biomass support medium. No effect was observed in the retardation factors for MTBE, B and T. PMID:19200654

  13. Bench-scale testing of the Multi-Gravity separator in combination with Microcel. Third quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install, and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining the Microcel and Multi-Gravity-Separator (MGS) technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column effectively removes ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS efficiently removes coal-pyrite composites. By combining both unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential to improve coal quality beyond that achieved using the individual technologies. Work this quarter primarily focused on procurement and fabrication of the required process equipment. All fabrication work is underway and is expected to be completed prior to the installation deadline. Delays in the existing project within the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s Coal Preparations Process Research Facility have resulted in a shift in the original project schedule. A new installation date (June 28, 1993) has been established by DOE/PETC. The overall project schedule has been adjusted accordingly. Revisions to ESH subject plans were also completed during this quarter. Based on these plans, the ESH permitting procedure has been initiated by the contracting officer`s representative. The subject plans and circuit will be modified, if necessary, to reflect any changes suggested by DOE. It is anticipated that the ESH permit will be issued in the early part of the third quarter. Preliminary characterization studies continued this quarter. Modifications were made to the centrifugal washability procedure to minimize time material requirements. Using the modified procedure, tests were conducted on both the Pittsburgh No. 8 and Illinois No. 6 seam coals as a function of particle size.

  14. Bench-scale co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  15. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing.

  16. Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

    2011-04-04

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

  17. Bench-scale co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Nafis, D.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Lea, C.; Miller, M.A.

    1990-07-09

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. Particular emphasis is given to defining and improving Mo catalyst utilization and cost, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery techniques. During the previous quarter, a catalyst concentration study was completed. The study showed that the highest nondistillable conversions and liquid yields were achieved using liquid recycle at temperatures in the range of 450--460{degree}C. At these high severity conditions, the liquid product yield and light ends yield were nearly independent of catalyst concentration. During the current quarter a follow-up study was conducted without catalyst. The objective of this study was to determine whether the improved high temperature operability was due to improved hydrodynamics resulting from the use of liquid recycle or whether catalyst, also plays a role, even at small concentrations. The results of bench-scale Run 28 are discussed in this report. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  18. Bench-scale study of direct calcination of raffinate waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Alderfer, R.B.

    1987-09-30

    Bench-scale tests of the direct calcination process for Portsmouth were conducted using batch pot calcination of simulated and actual raffinate wastes. These studies included investigation of the evaporation step needed to concentrate the raffinate before calcination. Tests were conducted at calcination temperatures of 600, 700, 1000, and 1200/sup 0/F with two levels of evaporative concentration before calcination at 1000/sup 0/F. Evaporation only tests were also made. Performance of the bench-scale system was excellent. A calcination temperature of 715/sup 0/F indicated that 80 to 100% of the Tc was retained in the calcined solids, while all of the nitrates were decomposed to oxides. With calcination temperatures of greater than or equal to 1000/sup 0/F, part of the Tc escaped from the calcination pot to the scrubber. Below 700/sup 0/F, not all of the nitrates were decomposed to oxides. Most of the U remained in the calcined solids for calcination temperatures of less than or equal to 1000/sup 0/F. The mass of solids remaining after calcination was 4 to 5% of the original raffinate for calcination temperatures from 700 to 1000/sup 0/F. Flow rate through the off-gas treatment system was variable. The water scrubber had a good removal efficiency for nitrate and most metals, but not for uranium. The trapping efficiency of the limestone trap for nitrate was low. Flowsheet studies indicate that enough U would pass through the scrubber and chemical traps to cause an unacceptably high release of radioactivity if the assay of the uranium exceeded 33%. A small HEPA filter after the limestone chemical traps is recommended to reduce U emissions. A flowsheet was developed for a full-scale process for the direct calcination of raffinate waste.

  19. Bench-Scale Evaluation Of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Technology To Stabilize Mercury Waste Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization of mercury (Hg) and mercuric chloride-containing surrogate test materials by the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics technology. This study was performed as part of a U.S. EPA program to evaluate treatment and d...

  20. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  1. MULTICOMPONENT AEROSOL DYNAMICS OF THE PB-O2 SYSTEM IN A BENCH SCALE FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was carried out to understand the formation and growth of lead particles in a flame incinerator. A bench scale flame incinerator was used to perform controlled experiments with lead acetate as a test compound. A dilution probe in conjunction with real-time aerosol instrum...

  2. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

  3. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1992-12-30

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: (1) the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, (2) the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh [number sign]8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and (3) the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  4. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1992-12-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  5. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1992-01-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  6. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  7. TESTS OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of filter fabrics. Tests were made on flat specimens and on bags. Fifteen styles of fabrics (made from cotton, polyester, aramid, or glass) were tested, using cement, coal, or talc dusts. Collection efficiencies and pressure...

  8. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO{sub 2}) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO{sub 2} produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility.

  9. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-01-15

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois No. 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350[degrees]C, and pressures of 1800 psig, (2) analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run, and (3) correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  10. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  11. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING DL

    2011-02-11

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  12. A bench-scale bioreactor to bioremediate dredged sludge and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Carpels, M.; Kinnaer, L.; Vanhoutven, D.; Elslander, H.; VanRoy, S.; Hooybergs, L.

    1995-12-31

    Detecting the microbiological degradation of pollutants on a laboratory scale requires vast amounts of agar and petri dishes. Translating results into a working industrial process is still a matter of trial and error. The bench-scale test system described here meets the need for a larger scale, completely closed and fully controlled instrument that can be used to design full-scale bioreactor installations.

  13. Bench-scale studies of in-duct mercury capture using cupric chloride-impregnated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sang-Sup Lee; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener

    2009-04-15

    A brominated activated carbon (Darco Hg-LH) and cupric chloride-impregnated activated carbon (CuCl{sub 2}-ACs) sorbent have been tested in a bench-scale entrained-flow reactor system which was developed for simulating in-flight mercury capture in ducts upstream of particulate matter control devices. The bench-scale experimental system has been operated with the conditions of a residence time of 0.75 s and a gas temperature of 140{sup o}C to simulate typical conditions in the duct of coal-fired exhaust gas. In addition, sorbent deposition on walls which can occur in a laboratory-scale system more than in a full-scale system was significantly reduced so that additional mercury capture by the deposited sorbent was minimized. In the entrained-flow system, CuCl{sub 2}-ACs demonstrated similar performance in Hg adsorption and better performance in Hg{sup 0} oxidation than Darco Hg-LH. In addition, the carbon content of those sorbents was found to determine their Hg adsorption capability in the entrained-flow system. The bench-scale entrained-flow system was able to demonstrate the important Hg adsorption and oxidation characteristics of the tested sorbents. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts: Bench-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

    1991-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operations procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale. The organic material that remained after retorting was most effectively removed from the retort by the use of reverse combustion. The removal of the organic material in this manner cracked the oil on the unretorted shale and removed heat from the bottom of the retort. Both were then transported toward the top of the retort. Unretorted kerogen was coked as it emerged from the shale near the reverse-combustion front. The reverse-combustion technique had an additional benefit in that the carbon deposited on the spent shale in the combusted zone appeared to provide a barrier to rehydration of the shale on introduction of water into the retorts. A hot quench immediately following retorting was also relatively effective in removing organic material from the retort. However, the quench did leave some organic material on the unretorted shale. This material was not readily removed by water leaching during laboratory testing. A deluge of water on a cool retort did not efficiently remove the organic material from the unretorted shale nor did the addition of a biodegradable detergent.

  15. Filtration test of sunflower oil for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.C.; Backer, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    A filtration system was developed to test for particulate matter in 1.6 liter samples of fuel. Four micron, absolute, filter paper was used. Four alkali refined sunflower oils, two of which were also dewaxed, were tested along with 50:50% and 25:75% blends with No. 2-D diesel fuel. The two sunflower oils that were not dewaxed were darker and cloudier than the dewaxed oils and clogged the test filter in less than 10 minutes. Clogging also occurred for the 50:50% and 25:75% blends of these oils at all temperatures and pressures tested. The two dewaxed sunflower oils did not clog the filter in the ten minute tests. The flow rates of the latter two oils and their blends decreased only slightly with time.

  16. Bench scale development of the TRW process for cleaning coal (gravimelt process): Quarterly technical progress report for the period February 1986-April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-23

    The objective of this phase of the project is to shakedown and operate a modular bench scale plant for testing the Gravimelt Process for desulfurization and demineralization of coal and to evaluate the processing of three coals, Pittsburgh No. 8, Kentucky No. 11, and Middle Kittanning. The plant consists of four modules, each operated sequentially and independently. These are: (1) the reaction section with a 14 inch diameter by 12 foot heated section rotary kiln as the major equipment, (2) the coal filtration module which includes a dissolver and wash tanks as well as a one square foot Bird rotary drum vacuum filter and associated tankage and pumps, (3) the spent caustic liquor and spent sulfuric acid regeneration module consisting of reaction tanks, feed tanks, a Bird solid bowl centrifuge for separation of mineral products and a polishing filter as the main equipment, and (4) the caustic evaporator system for conversion of the regenerated caustic liquor to anhydrous caustic for recycle to the kiln. Each module is designed for separate operation, where the product from one module becomes the feed to the next. The reaction, filtration, and regeneration modules have been constructed and the evaporator module major equipment, instrumentation, and piping has been installed. Kiln product from each of the three coals was then washed in the filtration module at several caustic levels, beginning with 50%, as well as acid and water washes to provide filtration data for specifying a complete Gravimelt washing process train. 5 tabs.

  17. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

    2012-02-01

    A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare. PMID:22442931

  18. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Drira, Anis; Reed, Frederick K.

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  19. Environmental Technology Verification--Baghouse Filtration Products: GE Energy QG061 Filtration Media (Tested September 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews the filtration and pressure drop performance of GE Energy's QG061 filtration media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests in September 2008. The objective of the ETV Program is to ...

  20. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF NON-U.S. COALS FOR NOX FORMATION UNDER EXCESS AIR AND STAGED COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results of bench-scale fuel screening experiments. Twenty non-U.S. coals (including lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous) were tested in a 21 kWt refractory-lined tunnel furnace. NOx emissions were measured as a function of coal composition and initial fuel...

  1. Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moss, T. A.

    During 1989-90, a 75-kW(sub t) sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include the following: (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium, and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750 C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/sq cm. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. Results of these studies are presented.

  2. Task 3 -- Bench-scale char upgrading and utilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.

    1989-08-02

    This report describes the results of the bench-scale char upgrading study conducted as Task 3 of Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts. A process where the char is gasified to produce methane in a first stage reactor was investigated. This methane is then decomposed to produce carbon and hydrogen for recycle in a second stage. The results indicate that both reaction steps are feasible using mild gasification char as the starting feedstock. Conditions for methanation are 700 to 800 C and 200 to 400 psig. Carbon formation conditions are 1,200 to 1,400 C at atmospheric pressure. The carbon produced has properties similar to those of carbons which are commercially marketed as carbon black.

  3. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

  4. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  5. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  6. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  7. Bench-scale testing of DOE/PETC`s GranuFlow Process for fine coal dewatering and handling. 1: Results using a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Lowman, R.H.; Elstrodt, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most advanced fine-coal cleaning processes involve the use of water. Utility companies are concerned not only with the lower Btu content of the resulting wet, cleaned coal, but more importantly with its handleability problems. Solutions to these problems would enhance the utilization of fine-coal cleaning processes in the utility industry. This paper describes testing of the GranuFlow Process, developed and patented by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy, using a high-gravity solid bowl centrifuge for dewatering and reconstitution of fine-cleaned-coal slurry at 300 lb per hour in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Fine-cleaned-coal slurry was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge. The treated products appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, lumpy, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the moisture content, handleability, and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product improved as the addition of emulsion increased from 2% to 8%. The improvement in handleability was most visible for the 200 mesh (75 micron) x 0 coal, when compared with 150 mesh (106 micron) x 0, 65 mesh (212 micron) x 0 or 28 mesh (600 micron) x 0 coals. Test results also showed that the moisture content was dramatically reduced (26--37% reduction) for the four different sizes of coals at 6 or 8% emulsion addition. Because of the moisture reduction and the granular form of the product, the freezing problem was also alleviated.

  8. SAES ST909 Bench Scale Methane Cracking Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    2000-12-15

    Tritium extracted from Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) targets will be primarily hydrogen isotopes (tritium and protium), water, helium-4, and helium-3. Relatively low levels of impurities such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane are also expected in the extraction gas stream. Some methane is expected to have tritium substitution for some of the protium atoms. Tritiated ammonia is expected to form in some part of the extraction process due to the large size of the vacuum extraction furnace and the inevitable in-leakage of nitrogen from the secondary containment modules. These tritiated carbon and nitrogen species need to be processed to reduce tritium emissions from tritium processing facilities.

  9. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

  10. C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

    1994-08-26

    The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system`s ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF.

  11. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  12. Oxygen-controlled biosurfactant production in a bench scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Santa Anna, Lidia Maria Melo; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos de; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimares

    2008-03-01

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process. PMID:18401751

  13. Precursory Acoustic Emissions from Bench-Scale Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Michlmayr, G.; Or, D.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid and shallow hydrologically-triggered landslides may result from initiation of local slip failures and deformations that eventually coalesce to global failure along a shear surface. These local small failure processes reflect complex interactions of shear, tensile, and compression forces resulting from dynamic formation of force chains, collapse of grain cementing, load redistribution by root failure, and pore-water pressure due to water infiltration. We study how local failures and deformations may be used as precursory warning signals to landslides by monitoring acoustic emissions and imaging formation of tension-cracks during small bench-scale landslides of sand using an inclined sand box. Sands of various sizes and water contents failed as slope-angle was increased or during simulated rain infiltration. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors placed either directly in the sand or on metallic waveguides recorded the high-frequency pressure waves produced by granular friction and rolling. A high-speed camera synchronized to the AE system captured the initial formation of tension cracks in the upper portion of the slide. A laser profiler measured the initial and final states of the slope to estimate the position of the slip surface and the volume of the slide. Precursory acoustic signals were analyzed using statistics of acoustic emissions to determine criteria for incipient failure. Results from these experiments could potentially provide the basis for monitoring activities in support of an early warning system.

  14. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract.

  15. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lohnes, Brent C.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Clark, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: a) a module retaining filter elements; b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to sealing engage a filter element therebetween; c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member.

  16. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lohnes, B.C.; Turner, T.D.; Klingler, K.M.; Clark, M.L.

    1996-01-09

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: (a) a module retaining filter elements; (b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to engage a filter element there between; (c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and (f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: (a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and (b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member. 8 figs.

  17. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  18. ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

  19. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1992--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1994-03-31

    The present work effort relates to an investigation of surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in overall coal conversions and the product quality. Based on the results of a Phase 1 preliminary study on the effect of several surfactants on coal liquefaction, sodium lignosulfonate was chosen as the surfactant for a detailed parametric study to be conducted at JPL using a batch autoclave reactor. These tests primarily related to thermal liquefaction of coal. The results of JPL autoclave test runs showed an increase in overall conversions from 5 to 15% due to surfactant addition over the base case of coal alone. A continuous-flow bench scale coal liquefaction process run was conducted over a 5-day period at Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated (HRI). This test showed that the surfactant is suitable for an industrial continuous recycle process, and does not interfere with the supported catalyst. After the bench scale test, a series of autoclave runs were conducted with coprocessing the surfactant and the Ni-Mo catalyst. These experiments showed that high conversions and product quality can be maintained at milder processing conditions. Based on results of the autoclave test runs, the overall product values were obtained for two stage reactors at 400{degrees}C. The best product value was realized for the two-stage case (e) which showed an 8% improvement over the base case.

  20. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  1. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark; Stauber, Christine E; DiGiano, Francis A; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006-2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets. PMID:26308036

  2. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Mark; Stauber, Christine E.; DiGiano, Francis A.; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006–2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets. PMID:26308036

  3. Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in bench scale aerobic biobarriers for gasoline contaminated groundwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Daghio, Matteo; Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Papacchini, Maddalena; Careghini, Alessandro; Sezenna, Elena; Saponaro, Sabrina; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2015-07-01

    BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are some of the main constituents of gasoline and can be accidentally released in the environment. In this work the effect of bioaugmentation on the microbial communities in a bench scale aerobic biobarrier for gasoline contaminated water treatment was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Catabolic genes (tmoA and xylM) were quantified by qPCR, in order to estimate the biodegradation potential, and the abundance of total bacteria was estimated by the quantification of the number of copies of the 16S rRNA gene. Hydrocarbon concentration was monitored over time and no difference in the removal efficiency for the tested conditions was observed, either with or without the microbial inoculum. In the column without the inoculum the most abundant genera were Acidovorax, Bdellovibrio, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudoxanthomonas and Serpens at the beginning of the column, while at the end of the column Thauera became dominant. In the inoculated test the microbial inoculum, composed by Rhodococcus sp. CE461, Rhodococcus sp. CT451 and Methylibium petroleiphilum LMG 22953, was outcompeted. Quantitative PCR results showed an increasing in xylM copy number, indicating that hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were selected during the treatment, although only a low increase of the total biomass was observed. However, the bioaugmentation did not lead to an increase in the degradative potential of the microbial communities. PMID:25747304

  4. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization; [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    This goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650{degree}--760{degree}C and 7-15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt % sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt % sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. During the first quarter, 180 lb (82 kg) of IBC-105 coal was obtained and subjected to crushing, and sizing to prepare 49 lb (22 kg) of material for test operation.

  5. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

  6. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  7. BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

  8. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  9. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  10. BENCH SCALE EVALUATION OF RESINS AND ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR WATER PURIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms and bench scale column studies were used to compare the performance of five types of commercially available activated carbon and four types of resin for the removal of humic acids, fulvic acids, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and chloroform from water. For the ads...

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  12. Catalytic Products from a Bench-Scale, Simulated Fluidized-Bed Pyrolyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass (e.g. lignocellulosics and lipids) were catalytically converted under thermochemical conditions to bio-based, fungible industrial chemicals and products. The focus was on high temperature catalytic conversions of feedstocks in a bench-scale reactor designed to replicate a packed- or fluidiz...

  13. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, K.P; Myers, R.L; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of {sup 137}Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including {sup 90}Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in {sup 90}Sr.

  14. Filtration principles and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides theoretical and practical data on filtration of gases and liquids. Topics covered include the following: gas filtration theory; liquid filtration theory; filter media; industrial gas filtration; filtration pretreatment; filtration in the chemical process industry; ultrafiltration; filtration in the mineral industry; filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; cartridge filtration; high-efficiency air filtration; analytical applications of filtration; and filter evaluation and testing.

  15. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a one- or two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98 percent or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of coal gas to effect the desired reduction. In this project the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal gas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous studies) in a 75-mm, 1-L size fixed-bed reactor. Integrated with this testing, a US Department of Energy/Research Triangle Institute (DOE/RTI) patented zinc titanate-based fluidizable sorbent formulation was tested in a 75-mm (3-in.) diameter fluidized-bed reactor, and the regeneration offgas from that test was treated with the bench-unit DSRP. The testing was conducted at the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown in conjunction with test campaigns of the pilot-scale gasifier there. The test apparatus was housed in a mobile laboratory built in a specially equipped office trailer that facilitated moving the equipment from RTI in North Carolina to the West Virginia test site. A long duration test of the DSRP using actual coal gas and simulated regeneration offgas showed no degradation in efficiency of conversion to elemental sulfur after 160 h of catalyst exposure. An additional exposure (200 h) of that same catalyst charge at the General Electric pilot gasifier showed only a small decline in performance. That problem is believed to have been caused by tar and soot deposits on the catalyst, which were caused by the high tar content of the atypical fixed-bed gasifier gas. A six-fold larger, single-stage skid-mounted DSRP apparatus was fabricated for additional, larger-scale slipstream testing.

  16. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  17. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  18. Degradation and detoxification of 4-nitrophenol by advanced oxidation technologies and bench-scale constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Melián, J A; Martín-Rodríguez, A J; Ortega-Méndez, A; Araña, J; Doña-Rodríguez, J M; Pérez-Peña, J

    2012-08-30

    The degradation and detoxification towards the duckweed Lemna minor of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) was studied by means of bench-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), TiO(2)-photocatalysis and Fenton + photoFenton reactions. The main goal of this work was to compare the three treatment techniques to evaluate their possible combination for the efficient, low cost treatment of 4NP effluents. In CWs, adsorption on the substrate of 4NP was found to achieve 34-45%. Low concentrations (up to 100 ppm) of 4NP were successfully treated by CWs in 8-12 h. The microbial degradation of 4NP started after a lag phase which was longer with higher initial concentrations of the pollutant. The greatest degradation rate was found to occur at initial concentrations of 4NP between 60 and 90 ppm. Solar TiO(2)-photocatalysis was faster than the CWs. The greatest removals in terms of mass of 4NP removed after 6 h of irradiation were found to occur at 4NP concentrations of about 200 ppm. Fenton reaction provided complete 4NP degradation up to 500 ppm in only 30 min but TOC was removed by only about 40%. The resulting toxicities were below 20% for initial 4NP concentrations below 300 ppm. It was the Fenton + photoFenton combination (180 min in total) that provided TOC reductions up to 80% and negative L. minor growth inhibition for almost all the 4NP concentrations tested. The combination of solar TiO(2)-photocatalysis (6 h) with CWs (16 h) was able to completely treat and detoxify 4NP effluents with concentrations as high as 200 ppm of the organic. PMID:22525833

  19. POHC selection and method validation using a bench-scale stack gas simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Klamm, S.; Hinshaw, G.; Alburty, D.; Garrity, P.

    1996-12-31

    In December 1994, the Occidental Chemical Corporation and Midwest Research Institute (MRI) were preparing to conduct a combined RCRA and TSCA trial burn of the Niagara Plant incineration facility. Two of the Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) selected for the trial burn were parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB). PCBTF is a commonly available chemical. 1,2-DCB was selected for its low incinerability rating on the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) thermal stability ranking system. PCBTF and 1,2-DCB were approved for use by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), tentatively to be sampled and analyzed by semivolatile organic techniques (i.e., MM5) since their boiling points exceeded EPA`s recommended range for the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) sampling. A method evaluation study performed by MRI indicated that both PCBTF and 1,2-DCB had low recoveries by the semivolatile methods. With the trial burn deadline rapidly approaching, the VOST-based (i.e., volatile) methods were reconsidered. However, no historical data were available for either POHC related to their retention on Tenax{reg_sign}, so that their capture and recovery by a VOST train was not assured. In order to demonstrate capture and recovery of the target POHCs by Tenax, MRI also performed a VOST retention and recovery study using a bench-scale stack gas simulator. Both PCBTF and 1,2-DCB were spiked onto Tenax traps, simulated stack gas was drawn through the traps, and POHC retention was measured. Based on positive results from these tests, the trial burn was completed on schedule using VOST methods for these two POHCs. In addition, 1,2-DCB levels were also measured by the originally proposed semivolatile methods, allowing a direct comparison of the volatile and semivolatile sampling and analysis techniques using actual field data.

  20. Bench-scale solid phase biotreatment: Benfield Industries Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Marlowe, M.W.; Harper, T.R.; Semenak, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund site located in Hazelwood, North Carolina has been found to have approximately 15,000 cubic yards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Risk based clean up goals were specified at the site for eight target PAH compounds including benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, and pentachlorophenol. Treatability studies were performed to evaluate solid phase bioremediation, which includes ex-situ and in-situ land treatment processes, for treatment of the site soil. All treatments were conducted using only indigenous microorganisms maintained under aerobic conditions. Two soil samples with different levels of PAH contamination were collected from the site for use in the treatability evaluations. The two soil samples were contaminated with total PAHs at concentrations of approximately 30 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 6,000 mg/kg, respectively. Three solid phase bioremediation studies were conducted over a one and one half year period using starting concentrations of total PAHs of approximately 30; 600; and 6,000 mg/kg. The objectives of the studies included determining (1) if clean up goals could be achieved, (2) the approximate biodegradation rate of PAHs in the site soils, and (3) the optimum environmental conditions for biodegradation of the PAHs. Some of the environmental parameters which were varied during the testing included moisture levels, soil conditioners, nutrients and pH. The results of the testing indicated that total and target PAHs can be reduced by up to 90 percent in less than 50 days, depending on environmental conditions maintained in the reactors. Clean up goals for all of the target compounds were achieved at some point during the study.

  1. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-07-23

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant- assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the fourth quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) Completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs and related analysis with Illinois {number_sign}6 coal with time as a variable at 375{degree}C, and pressures of 1800 psig; (2) an investigation into the mechanism of the effect that the lignosulfonate surfactant has in enhancing liquefaction yields; and (3) completion of a bench-scale test with the surfactant in the continuous flow Catalytic Two Stage Liquefaction Process (CTSL) reactor at HRI.

  2. Bench-scale co-oxidative production of propylene oxide by methanotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.H.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.; Akin, C.A. ); Hayes, T.D.; Frank, J.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of the co-oxidative production of value-added chemicals using methanotrophs has been investigated by the authors. Several of these co-oxidative products have been evaluated for stereo- or regiospecific properties. Propylene oxide (1,2-epoxypropane) is one of the products that has been selected for further evaluation. This paper describes the first steps toward bench-scale production of propylene oxide. Propylene oxide has been produced stereospecifically (60% R-form, 40% S-form) in gram quantities in bench-scale liquid culture reactors. Several operational parameters and conditions have been determined for both a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and a packed-bed bubble-column reactor (PBR). The production phase of the propylene oxide has been significantly extended by intermittent addition of propylene and regeneration with methane. The paper also describes the performance of the CSTR and PBR for propylene oxide production.

  3. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-11-01

    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9C, pH 6.87, and 0.96vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production. PMID:24861313

  4. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  5. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7-15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt % sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt % sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. During the second quarter, the authors completed the acid pretreatment of 25 lb (11 kg) of the 40 x 80-mesh IBC-105 coal and 7 lb (3 kg) of carbonizer char. Modifications of the bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor were completed, permitting extended-duration char-producing runs with caking coal. Char-producing runs were initiated at 1100 F and 20 psig in nitrogen, and will continue into the third quarter.

  6. Restoration of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with ferric chloride: Cd extraction mechanism and bench-scale verification.

    PubMed

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki; Inahara, Makoto; Sakurai, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    The ability of FeCl3 to extract Cd from three paddy soils was compared with that of various irons, manganese, and zinc salts to elucidate the extraction mechanism. Manganese, zinc and iron salts (including FeCl3) extracted 4-41%, 8-44% and 24-66% of total Cd, respectively. This difference reflected the pH of the extraction solution, indicating that the primary mechanism of Cd extraction by FeCl3 is proton release coupled with hydroxide generation, as iron hydroxides are insoluble. Washing with FeCl3 led to the formation of Cd-chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. FeCl3 effectively extracted Cd from all of the three soils compared to HCl that is a conventional washing chemical, when the concentrations of the two washing chemicals were between 15 and 60mM(c) (at above extraction pH 2.4), while the corresponding extraction pH of FeCl3 was slightly higher than HCl. As HCl is the strong acid of complete dissociation, if excess amount of HCl was added to soil, it is possible to give the dissolution of clay minerals in soils. In contrast, proton release from FeCl3 is controlled by the chemical equilibrium of hydroxide formation. While soil fertility properties were affected by a bench-scale soil washing with 45mM(c) FeCl3, adverse effects were not crucial and could be corrected. The bench-scale test confirmed the effectiveness of FeCl3 for removal of soil Cd. The washing had no negative effect on rice yield and lowered the Cd concentration of rice grain and rice straw in a pot experiment. PMID:17919681

  7. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  8. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Paul; Bhandari, Dhaval; Narang, Kristi; McCloskey, Pat; Singh, Surinder; Ananthasayanam, Balajee; Howson, Paul; Lee, Julia; Wroczynski, Ron; Stewart, Frederick; Orme, Christopher; Klaehn, John; McNally, Joshua; Rownaghi, Ali; Lu, Liu; Koros, William; Goizueta, Roberto; Sethi, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was more dynamic than initially hypothesized. These phenomena are believed to be associated with the physical and mechanical properties of the separation material, rather than chemical degradation by flue gas or one of its constituents. Strategies to improve the composite systems via alternate chemistries and processing techniques were only partially successful in creating a more robust system, but the research provided critical insight into the barriers to engineering sophisticated composite systems for gas separation. Promising concepts, including a re-engineering of the separation material with interpenetrating polymer networks were identified which may prove useful to future efforts in this field.

  9. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  10. Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. ); Parker, R.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

  11. Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A.; Parker, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

  12. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

  13. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to dissolve solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct steam injection to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  14. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  15. A bench-scale assessment for phosphorus release control of sediment by an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Feng K; Yang, Lei; Hua, Dan Y

    2015-01-01

    The effects of oxygen-releasing compound (ORC) on the control of phosphorus (P) release as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of P fractions in sediment were studied through a bench-scale test. An ORC with an extended oxygen-releasing capacity was prepared. The results of the oxygen-releasing test showed that the ORC provided a prolonged period of oxygen release with a highly effective oxygen content of 60.6% when compared with powdery CaO2. In the bench-scale test, an ORC dose of 180 g·m(-2) provided a higher inhibition efficiency for P release within 50 days. With the application of the ORC, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and redox potential (ORP) of the overlying water were notably improved, and the dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) was maintained below 0.689 mg·L(-1) compared to 2.906 mg·L(-1) without the ORC treatment. According to the P fractions distribution, the summation of all detectable P fractions in each sediment layer exhibited an enhanced accumulation tendency with the application of ORC. Higher phosphorus retention efficiencies were observed in the second and third layers of sediment from days 10 to 20 with the ORC. Phosphorus was trapped mainly in the form of iron bound P (Fe-P) and organically bound P (O-P) in sediment with the ORC, whereas the effects of the ORC on exchangeable P (EX-P), apatite-associated P (A-P) and detrital P (De-P) in the sediment sample were not significant. The microbial activities of the sediment samples demonstrated that both the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in the upper sediment layer increased with the ORC treatment, which indicated that the mineralization of P was accelerated and the microbial biomass was increased. As the accumulation of P suppressed the release of P, the sediment exhibited an increased P retention efficiency with the application of the ORC. PMID:25438131

  16. Design of Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Benjamin

    2012-06-30

    The major goal of the project is to design and optimize a bench-scale process for novel silicone CO{sub 2}-capture solvents and establish scalability and potential for commercialization of post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. This system should be capable of 90% capture efficiency and demonstrate that less than 35% increase in the cost of energy services can be achieved upon scale-up. Experiments were conducted to obtain data required for design of the major unit operations. The bench-scale system design has been completed, including sizing of major unit operations and the development of a detailed Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID). The system has been designed to be able to operate over a wide range of process conditions so that the effect of various process variables on performance can be determined. To facilitate flexibility in operation, the absorption column has been designed in a modular manner, so that the height of the column can be varied. The desorber has also been designed to allow for a range of residence times, temperatures, and pressures. The system will be fabricated at Techniserv Inc.

  17. Mercury emissions control in coal combustion systems using potassium iodide: bench-scale and pilot-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas

    2009-01-15

    Bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-scale tests than in the bench-scale tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Development of an S-Saltcake Simulant Using Crossflow Filtration as a Validation Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Billing, Justin M.; Rapko, Brian M.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-11-02

    In the past several years, cross-flow filtration has been studied extensively in a bench-scale system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using both actual tank waste from the Hanford site and waste simulants. One challenge when creating a waste simulant is duplicating the filtration behaviour of real waste, in particular when the waste composition is not known with certainty. Using a systematic approach to filtration testing, it has been found that the solid components that dominate the filtration behaviour can be identified. This approach was used to develop a waste simulant for S-Saltcake tank waste. The analysis of filtration data assists in screening solid components when the chemical composition and structure of a metal is not known. This is well-illustrated in this study during the search for the appropriate chromium phase. After the likely components were identified, the solids were combined with a supernate that is representative of the real waste and the filtration performance was verified against real waste data. A secondary benefit of this approach is the construction of a database of filtration performance for various solid species that can be used to quickly develop waste simulants in the future.

  19. Bench-scale bioethanol production from eucalyptus by high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose fermentation method.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Murakami, Katsuji; Endo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Minowa, Tomoaki; Matsushika, Akinori; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    In the bioethanol production process, high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation are important technologies for obtaining increased ethanol concentrations; however, bench-scale studies using combinations of these methods are limited. In this study, we hydrolyzed high solid concentration of milled eucalyptus using commercial enzymes and obtained 138.4g/L total monomeric sugar concentration. These sugars were fermented to 53.5g/L of ethanol by a xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, MA-R4. These experiments were performed in bench scale (using 50L scale solid mixer and 70L scale fermenter). The results obtained in this study were comparable to our previous results in laboratory scale, indicating that we successfully achieved an efficient high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation system in bench scale. PMID:23917411

  20. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-10-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh.

  1. Advanced combustion systems for stationary gas turbine engines. Volume II. Bench scale evaluation. Final report September 1976-January 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.M.; Mosier, S.A.; Smith, C.E.; Hinton, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    The reports describe an exploratory development program to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate dry techniques for significantly reducing NOx emissions from stationary gas turbine combustors. (Volume 1 documents the research activities leading to selection of 26 combustor design concepts which could potentially meet the program goals.) Volume 2 documents the Phase II bench-scale evaluation of those concepts to experimentally evaluate their emission reduction potential. Results from the testing program identified two design approaches capable of significant emission reduction. A staged centertube design, relying on burner operation near the lean blowout limit, gave low NOx and CO emissions on clean No. 2 fuel oil, but was ineffective for fuels containing bound nitrogen. A rich-burn/quick-quench (RB/QQ) design, producing a fuel-rich primary zone and quickly quenching the effluent from that region to the high overall excess air conditions required by the gas turbine cycle, successfully controls NOx from both thermal and fuel-bound sources while maintaining low CO emissions for high thermal efficiency. The RB/QQ concept was selected for scaleup to full size hardware in Phases III and IV.

  2. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 9, March 1, 1990--June 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Liu, L.L.; Lea, C.L.; Miller, M.A.

    1990-10-08

    This is the ninth quarterly report. Objective is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. Emphasis is given to defining and improving catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery. During this quarter, a temperature survey was completed with the reference V catalyst and liquid recycle. Objective of this study was to determine whether the improved high-severity performance observed for the Mo catalyst with liquid recycle was also possible with the reference V catalyst. In Run 5, a temperature-space velocity study was performed with the V catalyst but without liquid recycle. In that run, plant operability dropped dramatically above 425 C. Recycle was added in Run 21, but the temperature was kept constant at the reference 426 C. This report covers results of bench-scale Run 29, which examined combined effects of liquid recycle and increased temperature.

  3. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  4. Mild gasification technology development process: Task 3, Bench-scale char upgrading study, February 1988--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Knight, R.A.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop mild gasification technology and co-product utilization. The objective of Task 3 was to investigate the necessary steps for upgrading the mild gasification char into potential high-market-value solid products. Recommendations of the Task 1 market survey section formed the basis for selecting three value-added solid products from mild gasification char: form coke, smokeless fuel, and activated adsorbent char. The formation and testing for the form coke co-product involved an evaluation of its briquette strength and reactivity. The measured tensile strength and reactivity of the form coke sample briquettes were in the range of commercial coke, and development tests on a larger scale are recommended. The reaction rate of the form coke carbon with carbon dioxide at 1825{degree}F was measured using a standard procedure. A smokeless fuel briquette with limestone added to control sulfur can be made from mild gasification char in a simple manner. Test results have shown that briquettes with limestone have a heating value comparable to other solid fuels and the limestone can retain up to 88% of the sulfur during combustion in a simple bench-scale combustion test, almost all of it as a stable calcium sulfate. Adsorbent chars were prepared with a standard steam activation procedure and tested for a variety of pertinent property and performance values. Such adsorbents may be better suited for use in some areas, such as the adsorption of low-molecular-weight substances, because of the smaller pore sizes measured in the char. 5 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

  6. BENCH-SCALE STUDIES ON THE SIMULTANEOUS FORMATION OF PCBS AND PCDDS/FS FROM COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a bench-scale experimental study to characterize a newly built reactor system that was built to: produce levels and distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) production similar to those achieved by previous re...

  7. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

  8. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1280, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water- Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method for design, inspection, and testing of normal atmosphere cleanup......

  9. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  10. Bench-scale co-processing. Technical progress reports No. 17--20, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.

    1993-12-31

    UOP`s second co-processing contract, DE-AC22-87PC79818, began in April 1988. The major objective of this contract is to establish a database for the optimization of the co-processing concept by improving the effectiveness of the co-processing catalyst system. Two major mechanisms for improving the catalyst system are to be investigated: employment of more effective catalysts and utilization of improved catalytic environments. These two mechanisms are defined in the contract Statement of Work under Task 3.2 as Subtask 3.2.1 and 3.2.2, respectively. This report covers a span of four quarters, starting from July 1, 1992 to June 30, 1993. During this period the project was in a hold. As explained below, a request was made to add more funds to the contract to investigate catalytic environment improvements. Most of the time during this four quarters was spent in preparation of the proposal, review of the proposal by PETC, and getting additional funding approved for the contract. No experimental work was carried out on any of the tasks of the contract during these four quarters. Prior to the period covered by this report, UOP had successfully completed Subtask 3.2.1 and identified a molybdenum-based catalyst that is highly active and effective in achieving improved co-processing performance at significantly lower metal concentrations (0.05 % -- 0.1 % by weight of Mo) in the catalyst. The new catalyst was developed in slurry autoclave tests demonstrated in the continuous bench-scale pilot plant.

  11. Probabilistic inversion of electrical resistivity data from bench-scale experiments: On model parameterization for CO2 sequestration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, S. J.; Lochbuehler, T.; Detwiler, R. L.; Linde, N.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a well-established method for geophysical characterization and has shown potential for monitoring geologic CO2 sequestration, due to its sensitivity to electrical resistivity contrasts generated by liquid/gas saturation variability. In contrast to deterministic ERT inversion approaches, probabilistic inversion provides not only a single saturation model but a full posterior probability density function for each model parameter. Furthermore, the uncertainty inherent in the underlying petrophysics (e.g., Archie's Law) can be incorporated in a straightforward manner. In this study, the data are from bench-scale ERT experiments conducted during gas injection into a quasi-2D (1 cm thick), translucent, brine-saturated sand chamber with a packing that mimics a simple anticlinal geological reservoir. We estimate saturation fields by Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling with the MT-DREAM(ZS) algorithm and compare them quantitatively to independent saturation measurements from a light transmission technique, as well as results from deterministic inversions. Different model parameterizations are evaluated in terms of the recovered saturation fields and petrophysical parameters. The saturation field is parameterized (1) in cartesian coordinates, (2) by means of its discrete cosine transform coefficients, and (3) by fixed saturation values and gradients in structural elements defined by a gaussian bell of arbitrary shape and location. Synthetic tests reveal that a priori knowledge about the expected geologic structures (as in parameterization (3)) markedly improves the parameter estimates. The number of degrees of freedom thus strongly affects the inversion results. In an additional step, we explore the effects of assuming that the total volume of injected gas is known a priori and that no gas has migrated away from the monitored region.

  12. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part I: effect of operational conditions on product gas characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of R&D activities on the development of gasification and reforming technologies for energy and chemical recovery from biomass resources. Gasification of the Japanese cedar wood has been investigated under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Parametric tests by varying the residence times, gasification temperatures, equivalence ratios (ERs) and steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios were performed to determine their effects on the product gas characteristics. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were preformed to predict the equilibrium gas composition and compared with the experimental value. We found that the product gas characteristics in terms of the H(2)/CO ratio, CO(2)/CO ratio, and CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons concentrations are significantly affected by the operating conditions used. Increasing the residence time decreased the CO(2)/CO ratio; however, a nominal effect was noticed on H(2) concentration as a function of the residence time. At sufficient residence time, increasing the temperature led to higher H(2) yields, CO efficiency and higher heating value (HHV) of the product gas. The presence of steam during gasification effectively enhanced the proportion of H(2) in the product gas. However, higher S/C ratio reduced the HHV of the product gas. Increasing the ER from 0 to 0.3 increased the H(2) yields and CO efficiency and decreased the HHV of the product gas. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at low gasification temperatures was relatively higher than that at high temperature gasification. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at high gasification temperatures hardly varied over the investigated operating conditions. PMID:22980961

  13. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  14. Bench-Scale Electrochemical System for Generation of CO and Syn-Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

    2011-06-01

    A bench-scale system for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 has been developed which produces CO and H2 (syn-gas) mixtures. The system is equipped with a gas-diffusion electrode which partially alleviates some of the mass-transport issues associated with CO2 delivery to the cathode. The positive effect of temperature was discovered where at 70C a reduction in cell voltage of 1.57 V (compared to ambient) was observed at 70 mA cm-2. Controlling the flow of CO2 made it possible to maintain set H2:CO ratios with CO accounting for 25-90% of the product and H2 accounting for 10-75%. The cell, after an initial stabilization period of 40 min, displays reproducible, stable behavior. The current cell design brings the current densities for CO2 reduction closer to what is currently achieved in industrial alkaline electrolysis cells. This report discusses the electrolyte, electrode materials and variables which have been found to be significant in the production of CO and syn-gas mixtures.

  15. Continuous alkaline pretreatment of Miscanthus sacchariflorus using a bench-scale single screw reactor.

    PubMed

    Cha, Young-Lok; Yang, Jungwoo; Park, Yuri; An, Gi Hong; Ahn, Jong-Woong; Moon, Youn-Ho; Yoon, Young-Mi; Yu, Gyeong-Dan; Choi, In-Hu

    2015-04-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus 'Goedae-Uksae 1' (GU) was developed as an energy crop of high productivity in Korea. For the practical use of GU for bioethanol production, a bench-scale continuous pretreatment system was developed. The reactor performed screw extrusion, soaking and thermochemical pretreatment at the following operating conditions: 3 mm particle size, 22% moisture content, 140 C reaction temperature, 8 min residence time, 15 g/min biomass feeding and 120 mL/min NaOH input. As a result of minimizing NaOH concentration and enzyme dosage, 90.80.49% glucose yield was obtained from 0.5 M NaOH-pretreated GU containing 3% glucan with 10 FPU cellulase/g cellulose at 50 C for 72 h. The separate hydrolysis and fermentation of 0.5 M NaOH-pretreated GU containing 10% glucan with 10-30 FPU for 102 h produced 43.0-49.6 g/L bioethanol (theoretical yield, 75.8-87.6%). Thus, this study demonstrated that continuous pretreatment using a single screw reactor is effective for bioethanol production from Miscanthus biomass. PMID:25681689

  16. Bench-scale operation of the DETOX wet oxidation process for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-03-01

    Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. A means of destroying hazardous organic components while safely containing and concentrating metals would be extremely useful in mixed waste volume reduction or conversion to a radioactive-only form. Previous studies have found the DETOX, a patented process utilizing a novel catalytic wet oxidation by iron(III) oxidant, cold have successful application to mixed wastes, and to many other waste types. This paper describes the results of bench scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for the design of a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders, and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on the contact area, were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. It was found that reaction rate was proportional to contact area above about 2.% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4 liter. volume, mixed bench top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999+% for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixedbench top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10. to 100.+ grams of organic per liter-hour,depending on the nature and concentration of the organic.

  17. Bench-scale operation of the DETOX wet oxidation process for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. A means of destroying hazardous organic components while safely containing and concentrating metals would be extremely useful in mixed waste volume reduction or conversion to a radioactive-only form. Previous studies have found the DETOX, a patented process utilizing a novel catalytic wet oxidation by iron(III) oxidant, cold have successful application to mixed wastes, and to many other waste types. This paper describes the results of bench scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for the design of a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders, and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on the contact area, were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. It was found that reaction rate was proportional to contact area above about 2.% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4 liter. volume, mixed bench top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999+% for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixedbench top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10. to 100.+ grams of organic per liter-hour,depending on the nature and concentration of the organic.

  18. Dissolved gas exsolution to enhance gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

    2015-05-01

    Condensation of volatile organic compounds in colder zones can be detrimental to the performance of an in situ thermal treatment application for the remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones. A novel method to increase gas production and limit convective heat loss in more permeable, potentially colder, zones involves the injection and liberation of dissolved gas from solution during heating. Bench-scale electrical resistance heating experiments were performed with a dissolved carbon dioxide and sodium chloride solution to investigate exsolved gas saturations and transport regimes at elevated, but sub-boiling, temperatures. At sub-boiling temperatures, maximum exsolved gas saturations of Sg = 0.12 were attained, and could be sustained when the carbon dioxide solution was injected during heating rather than emplaced prior to heating. This gas saturation was estimated to decrease groundwater relative permeability to krw = 0.64. Discontinuous gas transport was observed above saturations of Sg = 0.07, demonstrating the potential of exsolved CO2 to bridge vertical gas transport through colder zones.

  19. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

  20. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  1. PILOT-SCALE FIELD TESTS OF HIGH-GRADIENT MAGNETIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of using a 5100 cu m/hr mobile pilot plant to evaluate the effectiveness and economics of applying high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to particulate emission control. A 4-1/2 month test program was conducted at a Pennsylvania sintering plant to char...

  2. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner.

  3. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius. PMID:26144866

  4. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene.

    PubMed

    Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.2330.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development. PMID:25084057

  5. Bench-scale biofilter for removing ammonia from poultry house exhaust.

    PubMed

    Shah, S B; Basden, T J; Bhumbla, D K

    2003-01-01

    A bench-scale biofilter was evaluated for removing ammonia (NH3) from poultry house exhaust. The biofilter system was equipped with a compost filter to remove NH3 and calcium oxide (CaO) filter to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Removal of NH3 and CO2 from poultry house exhaust could allow treated air with residual heat to be recirculated back into the poultry house to conserve energy during winter months. Apart from its use as a plant nutrient, NH3 removal from poultry house exhaust could lessen the adverse environmental impacts of NH3 emissions. Ammonia and CO2 were measured daily with gas detector tubes while temperatures in the poultry pen and compost filter were monitored to evaluate the thermal impact of the biofilter on treated air. During the first 37 days of the 54-day study, exhaust air from 33 birds housed in a pen was treated in the biofilter; for the final 17 days, NH3-laden exhaust, obtained by applying urea to the empty pen was treated in the biofilter. The biofilter system provided near-complete attenuation of a maximum short-term NH3 concentration of 73 ppm. During the last 17 days, with a mean influent NH3 concentration of 26 ppm, the biofilter provided 97% attenuation. The CaO filter was effective in attenuating CO2. Compared with a biofilter sized only for NH3 removal, an oversized biofilter would be required to provide supplemental heat to the treated air through exothermic biochemical reactions in the compost. The biofilter could conserve energy in poultry production and capture NH3 for use as plant nutrient. Based on this study, a house for 27,000 broilers would require a compost filter with a volume of approximately 34 m3. PMID:12602826

  6. Test methods for evaluating the filtration and particulate emission characteristics of vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Willeke, K; Trakumas, S; Grinshpun, S A; Reponen, T; Trunov, M; Friedman, W

    2001-01-01

    The overall filtration efficiency of a vacuum cleaner traditionally has been tested by placing the vacuum cleaner in a test chamber and measuring aerosol concentrations at the chamber inlet and outlet. The chamber test method was refined and validated in this study. However, this chamber test method shows an overall filtration efficiency of close to 100% for most of the industrial vacuum cleaners and for most of the newly developed household vacuum cleaners of midprice range or higher because all these vacuum cleaners have a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or other highly efficient filter installed at the exhaust. A new test method was therefore developed through which the vacuum cleaner was probed in various internal locations so that the collection efficiency of the individual components could be determined. For example, the aerosol concentration upstream of the final HEPA filter can thus be measured, which permits one to estimate the life expectancy of this expensive component. The probed testing method is particularly suitable for field evaluations of vacuum cleaners because it uses compact, battery-operated optical particle size spectrometers with internal data storage. Both chamber and probed tests gave the same results for the aerosol filtration efficiency. The probed testing method, however, also gives information on the performance of the individual components in a vacuum cleaner. It also can be used to determine the dust pickup efficiency and the degree of reaerosolization of particles collected in the vacuum cleaner. PMID:11434437

  7. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily demonstrated. In addition to the experimental studies, the technical challenges pertinent to fouling of slurry-handling equipment and the design of the crystallizer and stripper were addressed through consultation with vendors and engineering analyses. A process flow diagram of the Hot-CAP was then developed and a TEA was performed to compare the energy use and cost performance of a nominal 550-MWe subcritical pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plant without CO{sub 2} capture (DOE/NETL Case 9) with the benchmark MEA-based post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC; DOE/NETL Case 10) and the Hot-CAP-based PCC. The results revealed that the net power produced in the PC + Hot-CAP is 609 MWe, greater than the PC + MEA (550 MWe). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the PC + Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} transportation and storage, is 120.3 mills/kWh, a 60% increase over the base PC plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The LCOE increase for the Hot-CAP is 29% lower than that for MEA. TEA results demonstrated that the Hot-CAP is energy-efficient and cost-effective compared with the benchmark MEA process.

  8. Bench scale testing - Phase I, Task 4. Topical progress report, September 1994--January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment.

  9. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  10. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  11. BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF SORBENT ADDITIVES FOR TRACE METAL CAPTURE AND RETENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The suitability of six minerals; silica, diatomaceous earth, kaolin, bauxite, alumina and attapulgite clay, as potential sorbents for the capture and immobilization of trace metals was evaluated. he behavior of five trace metals; arsenic, cadmium, chromium,, lead and nickel was t...

  12. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain garden design manuals and guidelines typically recommend using native soils or engineered media that meet specifications for low content of clay, silt, fine and very fine sands, and organic matter. These characteristics promote stormwater infiltration and sorption of heavy ...

  13. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ROBBINS RA

    2011-02-11

    This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  14. Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.

    PubMed

    Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

    2005-01-01

    Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s. Overspray and direct-spray results indicated that most of the change in aerosol size distribution occurred between the time the paint aerosol impacted the painted surface and the time the overspray became 2.8 s old. The overall mean MMAD of overspray in the study was 6.4 mum and may have been underestimated due to sampling efficiency biases. If inhaled by a worker, the overspray aerosols evaluated in this study would mostly deposit in the head airways region of the respiratory tract. Paint overspray aerosols contained Cr primarily in the Cr(VI) state. PMID:15596421

  15. Bench-scale evaluation of drinking water treatment parameters on iron particles and water quality.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Safiur; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Discoloration of water resulting from suspended iron particles is one of the main customer complaints received by water suppliers. However, understanding of the mechanisms of discoloration as well as role of materials involved in the process is limited. In this study, an array of bench scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the most common variables (pH, PO4, Cl2 and DOM) on the properties of iron particles and suspensions derived from the oxygenation of Fe(II) ions in NaHCO3 buffered synthetic water systems. The most important factors as well as their rank influencing iron suspension color and turbidity formation were identified for a range of water quality parameters. This was accomplished using a 2(4) full factorial design approach at a 95% confidence level. The statistical analysis revealed that phosphate was found to be the most significant factor to alter color (contribution: 37.9%) and turbidity (contribution: 45.5%) in an iron-water system. A comprehensive study revealed that phosphate and chlorine produced iron suspension with reduced color and turbidity, made ?-potential more negative, reduced the average particle size, and increased iron suspension stability. In the presence of DOM, color was observed to increase but a reverse trend was observed to decrease the turbidity and to alter particle size distribution. HPSEC results suggest that higher molecular weight fractions of DOM tend to adsorb onto the surfaces of iron particles at early stages, resulting in alteration of the surface charge of iron particles. This in turn limits particles aggregation and makes iron colloids highly stable. In the presence of a phosphate based corrosion inhibitor, this study demonstrated that color and turbidity resulting from suspended iron were lower at a pH value of 6.5 (compared to pH of 8.5). The same trend was observed in presence of DOM. This study also suggested that iron colloid suspension color and turbidity in chlorinated drinking water systems could be lower than non-chlorinated systems. PMID:24075475

  16. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCP- AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: SOLID-PHASE BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. urface s...

  17. In-situ Subaqueous Capping of Mercury-Contaminated Sediments in a Fresh-Water Aquatic System, Part I-Bench-Scale Microcosm Study to Assess Methylmercury Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absenc...

  18. Bench scale development of the TRW process for cleaning coal (Gravimelt process). Quarterly technical progress report, May 1985-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The major sections of the 20 lb/h modular test plant were designed and the necessary equipment specifications were prepared. A competitive procurement was initiated for the reaction section, a rotary kiln with coal and caustic feed capability. Two kiln tests were performed at a vendor test facility to provide design data, demonstrate continuous around the clock operation and to provide coal and spent caustic feed for regeneration and filtration equipment tests. The first two objectives were successful and accomplishment of the second objective will be assessed next month. Experimentation for scale-up and verification testing of the regeneration section was performed. A description of the modular test plant and the detailed engineering and test results are presented in five sections entitled: Modular Test Plant; Rotary Kiln Tests; Rotary Kiln Specifications; Regeneration Verification Tests and Regeneration Section Design. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Bench scale development of the TRW process for cleaning coal (Gravimelt process). Quarterly technical progress report, August-October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    Construction of the 20 lb per hour modular test plant has been initiated and all major equipment has been received with the exception of the caustic-water evaporator and the rotary kiln, which are scheduled for December and January, respectively. Construction, checkout and shakedown is on schedule with the three sections of the modular test plant planned for completion together with checkout and shakedown by March. A topical report containing the detailed plant design, shakedown plans and a preliminary test plan was submitted to the DOE. A third kiln test was successfully performed at the kiln vendor test facility to provide information on long-term operation of the kiln as well as a supply of coal-caustic products sufficient for shakedown of both the filtration and regeneration sections of the modular test plant. Regeneration verification and intermediate scale up testing, initiated last quarter, was completed resulting in a confirmation and refining of the data previously obtained for regeneration. Considerable information was also generated on the filtration of spent caustic solution. It was determined that mineral matter reject contains only $1 worth of caustic per ton of coal processed. This study will be presented in detail in a topical report to be issued this month. Filtration testing of separation of concentrated caustic-coal slurries was conducted both at laboratory scale utilizing an 0.1 square foot leaf filter and in a commercial one square foot rotary drum vacuum filter. The observed laboratory cake moisture level of 2.6 to 1 w/w decreased to 2.2 when performed in the one square foot rotary vacuum drum filter. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Detection of pathogenic Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis using water filtration, animal and bait testing.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Feldman, Sanford H; Heffron, Meghan; Hammond, Meagan; Ruehling, Margaret P Roth; Grayson, Kristine L; Mitchell, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can be challenging to detect at endangered amphibian reintroduction sites. Pre-release Bd detection can be confounded by imperfect animal sampling and the absence of animals. In Study 1, we used historical Bd-positive sites, to concurrently evaluate water filtrates and mouth bar (tadpoles) or skin swab (caudates) samples for Bd using molecular beacon realtime PCR. In Study 2, during a natural outbreak, we used PCR to detect Bd from zoospore-attracting keratin baits (three avian, three snake species). In Study 1, no captured animals (n=116) exhibited clinical signs, although 10.6% were positive, representing three of seven species sampled. In contrast, 5.4% of water filters (n=56) were Bd-positive. In Study 2, after short incubation times, a single duck down feather tested Bd-positive. In conclusion, Bd was detected in asymptomatic amphibians and water filtrate at two sites, and from water only, at two other sites. With continued refinement, semi-quantitative Bd water filtrate screening could better define zoospore-specific disease risk, allowing better characterization of the free-living phase of the organism's life cycle. Finally, these results suggest wild aquatic birds (e.g., waterfowl) should be systematically explored as a means of Bd spread. Since large numbers of aquatic birds migrate, even low Bd transfer rates could be a significant means for disease dissemination. PMID:25231013

  1. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  2. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  3. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  4. Assessing the fate of organic micropollutants during riverbank filtration utilizing field studies and laboratory test systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. K.; Lange, F. T.; Sacher, F.; Baus, C.; Brauch, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Germany and other highly populated countries, several waterworks use riverbank filtration as a first step in the treatment of river water for water supplies. Unfortunately, industrial and municipal discharges and the influence of agriculture lead to the pollution of rivers and lakes by a number of organic chemicals. In order to assess the impact of those organic micropollutants on the quality of drinking water, it is necessary to clarify their fate during infiltration and underground passage. The fate of organic micropollutants in a river water-groundwater infiltration system is mainly determined by adsorption mechanisms and biological transformations. One possibility to simulate the microbial degradation of single compounds during riverbank filtration is the use of laboratory test filter systems, that are operated as biological fixed-bed reactors under aerobic conditions. The benefit and meaningfulness of those test filters was evaluated on the basis of selected target compounds by comparing the results derived from test filter experiments with field studies under environmental conditions at the River Rhine. Samples from the river and from groundwater of a well characterized aerobic infiltration pathway were analyzed over a time period of several years for a spectrum of organic micropollutants. Target compounds comprised several contaminants relevant for the aquatic environment, such as complexing agents, aromatic sulfonates, pharmaceuticals (including iodinated X ray contrast media), and MTBE. Furthermore, the behaviour of some target compounds during aerobic riverbank filtration was compared to their fate along a section of an anaerobic (oxygen-depleted) aquifer at the River Ruhr that is characterized by a transition state between sulfate reduction and methane production. While some organic micropollutants showed no major differences, the elimination of others turned out to be clearly dependent on the underlying redox processes in the groundwater. The observations demonstrate, that levels of many organic micropollutants present in natural river waters can be reduced or even eliminated during aerobic and anaerobic bankfiltration. As such, the water quality is improved and subsequent treatment steps, such as granular activated carbon filtration, may be supported and simplified leading to decreased water treatment costs. Test filter experiments are a suitable tool to predict the extent of elimination of emerging organic contaminants during aerobic bankfiltration.

  5. Influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances on colour removal by coagulation and filtration.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to verify the influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances (AHSs) on the effectiveness of coagulation with aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. Coagulation-filtration tests using the jar test and bench-scale sand filters were carried out with water samples having a true colour of approximately 100 Hazen units and prepared with AHSs of different molecular sizes. Stability diagrams are presented showing regions of > or = 90% and > or = 95% apparent colour removal delineated for each water sample using plots of total metal ion concentration (Al3+ and Fe3+) versus coagulation pH. To achieve the same degree of colour removal, the water samples with smaller apparent molecular sizes and a higher percentage of fulvic acids required higher dosages of both aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. PMID:22439564

  6. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films. PMID:26572370

  7. Development of a standard bench-scale cell for electrochemical studies on inert anodes. Inert Anode/Cathode Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Boget, D.I.

    1986-07-01

    Objective of this work was to develop a standard bench-scale cell for performing short-term ac and dc polarization studies on inert anode candidate materials in molten cryolite. Two designs for electrochemical cells were developed and successfully evaluated in short-term experiments. Both cells consisted on the inert anode as a small cylindrical specimen partially sheathed in alumina, an Al/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ reference electrode, and a cryolite bath saturated in alumina. The difference between the two cells was in the design of the cathode. One cell used a bare solid metal cathode; the other used an aluminum pad similar to the Hall-Heroult configuration.

  8. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report: July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to present results from culture isolation and selection studies, bench-scale fermentation experiments, and ethanol recovery experiments. Several promising isolates have been obtained in addition to Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC, and are being used in batch and continuous culture comparison studies. C. ljungdahlii is being utilized in two-stage bench-scale reactor studies, aimed at producing ethanol in high concentrations from a stable culture system. Finally, solvent comparison studies have been performed for the economical recovery of ethanol from the fermentation broth.

  9. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otaño, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater.

  10. Urban water reuse: microbial pathogens control by direct filtration and ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    de Lima Isaac, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Tosetto, Mariana S; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimares, Jos Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical treatment efficiency for unrestricted urban water reuse was evaluated at a conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pilot plant set-up consisted of an alum coagulation step, granular media upflow flocculation and direct downflow dual-media filtration followed by ultraviolet disinfection (dose of 95 mJ cm?). Optimum aluminum sulfate dosage of 10 mg L? and coagulation pH 7.0 were preset based on bench scale tests. Under WWTP stable operation, water quality met United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggested guidelines for unrestricted urban reuse regarding turbidity (mean value 1.3 NTU) and suspended solids (mean value 2.1 mg L?). When WWTP overall plant performance dropped from 90 to 80% (although BOD value stayed below 6 mg O? L?, suggesting unrestricted reuse), solids breakthrough in filtrate was observed. Microorganism removal rates were: total coliforms 60.0%, Escherichia coli 63.0%, Giardia spp. 81.0%, and helminth eggs 62.5%; thus organisms still remained in filtrate. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency was 4.1- and 3.8-log for total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. Considering low UV efficiency obtained for helminths and the survival of protozoa and helminths in the environment, effluent quality presents risk to public health if destined for unrestricted urban reuse. PMID:25252350

  11. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  12. Laboratory tests for simulating attenuation processes of aromatic amines in riverbank filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worch, Eckhard; Grischek, Thomas; Brnick, Hilmar; Eppinger, Petra

    2002-09-01

    Based on a two-step laboratory test including biodegradation and adsorption, it is possible to derive a prognosis of the behaviour of organic compounds during riverbank filtration and to prioritise the substances with regard to drinking water quality. It is shown for aromatic amines, used as an example of organics found in River Elbe water, Germany, how the simulation methods provide basic information about rate constants of biological degradation and adsorption equilibrium constants under conditions that are as realistic as possible. Biodegradation of nitroanilines and higher chlorinated anilines is relatively slow and adsorption onto the sandy aquifer material is weak. Accordingly, occurrence of these compounds in the production wells of the waterworks cannot be excluded.

  13. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCP- AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: SLURRY-PHASE BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. queous slurries, containing 0.05% Triton X-100 to facilitate the soil washing process and to help stabilize the...

  14. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

  15. In situ encapsulation bench-scale demonstration report FY-94 (for TTP-ID 142012)

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the test objectives, procedures, and results of the laboratory-scale tests of in situ waste encapsulation of buried waste using a synthetic analogue of natural cement. The products of the reaction FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O + Ca(OH){sub 2} = gypsum and iron oxide/hydroxide were examined as a possible waste encapsulation material for application at the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This technique for transuranic waste encapsulation is being pursued by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration as a possible candidate containment and stabilization method for geologic time. The data indicate that the iron waste encapsulation materials tested are appropriate choices for the intended purpose. Based on these observations and conclusions, full-scale tests are recommended to determine the performance of the iron waste isolation materials under field conditions and for extended time periods. The viscosity of the reagents indicates that jet grouting is probably an appropriate application method.

  16. SCREENING/FLOTATION TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. VOLUME I. BENCH SCALE AND PILOT PLANT INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four-layer sinusoidal sandwich plate structure, reinforced with micro concrete grout next to the skin faces and hydrostatically pressurized with hydraulic fluid internally is subjected to transverse load tests. The plate is simply supported on all four sides, and its stiffness ...

  17. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 16, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, J.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1993-11-15

    The high-severity co-processing long-term operability test and the detailed product analyses from the operability test have been completed. Operational data and detailed product analyses have been used to characterize the high-severity co-processing operation. Using the process characterizations, yield estimate for a commercial-sized high-severity co-processing unit has been performed using operational data and detailed product analysis from the long-term operability study. The estimate is based on a co-processing unit processing the vacuum resid from 50,000 barrels per day (BPD) of Lloydminster crude and also processing 2,400 metric tons per day (MT/day) of Illinois No. 6 coal. The feedstock characteristics for the yield estimate are summarized in Table 1.

  18. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for measurements. All of the cured grouts were measured for bleed and set. All of the cured grouts satisfied the bleed and set requirements, where no bleed water was observed on any of the grout samples after one day and all had set within 3 days of curing. This data indicates, for a well mixed product, bleed and set requirement are satisfied for the range of acidic feeds tested in this task. The yield stress measurements provide both an indication on the mixability of the salt solution with dry materials and an indication of how quickly the grout is starting to form structure. The inability to properly mix these two streams into a well mixed grout product will lead to a non-homogeneous mixture that will impact product quality. Product quality issues could be unmixed regions of dry material and hot spots having high concentrations of americium 241. Mixes that were more difficult to incorporate typically resulted in grouts with higher yield stresses. The mixability from these tests will provide Waste Solidification Building (WSB) an indication of which grouts will be more challenging to mix. The first yield stress measurements were statistically compared to a list of variables, specifically the batched chemicals used to make the acidic solutions. The first yield stress was also compared to the physical properties of the acidic solutions, physical and pH properties of the neutralized/pH adjusted solutions, and chemical and physical properties of the grout.

  19. Relating feedstock composition to product slate and composition in catalytic cracking: 1. Bench scale experiments with liquid chromatographic fractions from Wilmington, CA, >650{degree}F resid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B.; Zagula, E.J.; Reynolds, J.W.; Wandke, H.H.; Young, L.L.; Chew, H.

    1993-09-01

    The catalytic cracking behavior of compound types in the >650{degree}F resid from a Wilmington, CA, 14.2{degree} API crude was investigated. Liquid Chromatography (LC) was used to separate the resid into eight fractions. These fractions were used as feedstocks for a bench scale fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. Gasoline was produced almost exclusively from neutral (65 % of whole resid) components. Acidic and basic types were partially converted to coke plus small amounts of C{sub l} and C{sub 2} gases, with the balance primarily carrying over as heavy liquid products. Gasoline composition depended on the type and quantity of polar compounds present in the feed because both acidic and basic compounds inhibited cracking reactions ({beta}-scission, hydrogen transfer, etc.) to varying degrees. In accordance with prior work, basic nitrogen compounds exhibited the largest inhibitory effect on cracking. Their effect is dependent on concentrations up to a limiting value which may correspond to saturation of susceptible catalyst sites. On an equal weight basis, the effect of high boiling (high molecular weight) bases was less than those occurring in the 650--1000{degree}F distillate range. Partitioning of nitrogen present in acidic (e.g. carbazole) forms in the feed into liquid products was greater than for basic nitrogen. Thiophenic forms of sulfur partitioned more into liquid and less into gaseous (H{sub 2}S) products than sulfide-type sulfur. Coke yield was approximately proportional to microcarbon residue test results for all feeds. Ongoing work with additional feedstocks has indicated behavior similar to that of Wilmington. Selected Wilmington liquid products are undergoing detailed analysis in order to determine relationships between feed versus product composition, particularly with respect to acidic and basic types.

  20. Membrane Filtration Test for Rapid Presumptive Differentiation of Four Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, T. G.; Peleman, R.; Moerman, M.; Vermeersch, H.; de Looze, D.; Noens, L.; Nelis, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rapid enzymatic two-step test for the presumptive differentiation of four Candida species commonly occurring in various clinical samples is described. The technique involves membrane filtration of a liquid sample, followed by preincubation of the membrane filter on Sabouraud glucose agar supplemented with ticarcillin-clavulanic acid to yield microcolonies. In a separate assay step, parts of the filter are placed on absorbent pads impregnated with fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU) enzyme substrates (4-MU-N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminide, 4-MU-phosphate, 4-MU-pyrophosphate, and 4-MU-?-d-galactoside) in combination with 0.1% digitonin acting as a membrane permeabilizer. The membrane filter in contact with the assay medium is incubated to allow cleavage of the enzyme substrate, resulting in fluorescent microcolonies under long-wavelength UV light. This approach, tested on 301 clinical samples, is able to presumptively differentiate C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and to distinguish them from other Candida spp. in about 9 to 11 h. Overall agreement with the conventional methods of 94.4% (one Candida species present in the sample) to 83.8% (multiple Candida spp. present) was obtained. The false-negative rates with reference to identification by traditional methods were 1.3% (single species) and 3.8% (multiple species). PMID:10203512

  1. Alternative biological-treatment processes for remediation of creosote- and PCP-contaminated materials: Bench-scale treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattman, B.O.; Middaugh, D.P.; Chapman, P.J.

    1991-03-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: solid-phase bioremediation or slurry-phase bioremediation. When indigenous microorganisms were employed as biocatalysts, solid-phase bioremediation was slow and ineffective (8-12 weeks required to biodegrade >50% of resident organics). Biodegradation was limited to lower-molecular-weight constituents rather than the more hazardous, higher-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds; PCP and HMW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing 4 or more fused rings resisted biological attach. Moreover, supplementation with aqueous solution of inorganic nutrients had little effect on the overall effectiveness of the treatment strategy. Alternatively, slurry-phase bioremediation was much more effective: >50% of targeted organics were biodegraded in 14 days. Again, however, more persistent contaminants, such as PCP and HMW PAHs, were not extensively degraded when subjected to the action of indigenous microorganisms.

  2. Bench-scale co-processing. Technical progress report No. 22, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Duttlinger, M.L.M.; Commisaris, S.E.; Davis, L.A.; Yurek, R.W.; Gatsis, J.G.; Roemisch, R.; Kojima, M.

    1993-12-31

    The major objective of this contract is to establish a database for the optimization of the co-processing concept by improving the effectiveness of the co-processing catalyst system. Two major mechanisms for improving the catalyst system are to be investigated: employment of more effective catalysts and utilization of improved catalytic environments. This report covers the period of October 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. During this period work on Subtask 3.2.2, Improvement in Catalytic Environment, was carried out and the bench-scale co-processing pilot plant was operated in the co-current mode with product recycle and increased catalyst concentration. The project objective was to achieve 90+ % conversion of the 510{degrees}C+ non-distillables at 2800 psig. Currently work is on-going in a stirred autoclave at the same catalyst concentration as that in the runs reported here, and the results of these autoclave runs will be summarized in Technical Progress Report No. 23.

  3. Bench-scale co-processing, Technical progress report No. 21, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Duttlinger, M.L.M.; Commissaris, S.E.; Davis, L.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Roemisch, R.; Yurek, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to establish a database for optimizing the co-processing concept by improving the effectiveness of the co-processing catalyst system. Two major mechanisms for improving the catalyst system are to be investigated: more effective catalysts (subtask 3.2.1) and improved catalytic environments (3.2.2). During this period, work on 3.2.2 was carried out and the bench-scale co-processing pilot plant was operated in the counter-current mode. The counter-current process in presence and absence of a packing material under different operating conditions was evaluated. Project objective of achieving 90+% conversion of the 510 C nondistillate at 2000 psig was not met due to plant limitations. Because of reactor size and throughput, flow regime within the reactor is laminar. It is believed that without turbulent flow, there was insufficient mixing to keep the catalyst in solution; it probably attaches to the reactor walls, forming a restriction which causes all material entering the reactor to immediately exit through the reactor outlet. No additional counter- current co-processing experiments are planned, and the pilot plant will be reconfigured to operate in the co-current mode.

  4. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  5. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. PMID:26751253

  6. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  7. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ``blank`` monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  8. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  9. Comparison of two online flocculation monitoring techniques for predicting turbidity removal by granular media filtration.

    PubMed

    Ball, T; Carrière, A; Barbeau, B

    2011-07-01

    Particulate matter removal in drinking water treatment via direct granular filtration requires specific flocculation conditions (a process typically termed 'high energy flocculation'). Predicting filtered water turbidity based on flocculated water characteristics remains difficult. This study has sought to establish a relationship between filtered water turbidity and the flocculated water characteristics. Flocculation oflow-turbidity raw water was evaluated online using a Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA) and a Dynamic Particle Analyser in a modified jar test followed by a bench-scale anthracite filter. Coagulants used were alum, PASS100 and ferric sulphate, in addition to a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) cationic polymer. They were dosed in warm and cold waters, and flocculated with intensities (G) from 0 to 100 s(-1). Of the two instruments selected to analyse flocculation performance, the Dynamic Particle Analyser was shown to be the most sensitive, detecting small changes in floc growth kinetics and even floc growth under low flocculation conditions which remained undetected by the PDA. Floc size was shown to be insufficient in predicting particulate matter removal by direct granular filtration as measured by turbidity, although a threshold d(v) value (50 microm) could be identified for the test conditions evaluated in this project, above which turbidity was systematically lower than 0.2 NTU. PMID:21882562

  10. BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS VERIFICATION TESTING, HOW IT BENEFITS THE BOILER BAGHOUSE OPERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for baghouse filtration products developed by the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center, one of six Centers under the ETV Program, and discusses how it benefits boiler baghouse operators. A...

  11. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Meyer, J.H.; Vidt, E.J.

    1989-09-01

    The ceramic cross-flow filter (CXF) system is a promising method to be used in advanced coal based power systems for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) particle removal. Using a subpilot scale pressurized fluid-bed combustor (PFBC) at Argonne National Laboratory and various PFBC simulators, prior projects have indicated that CXF systems can be used in oxidizing environments at PFBC conditions. To extend the use of CXF systems, this project completed an economic analysis comparing the cost of various oxygen and air blown gasification systems with the CXF system incorporated, initiated the scaleup of the CXF element from development to commercial size, predicted the characteristics of gasifier dust cake, evaluated cleaning pulse characteristics in a large multielement simulation, upgraded pulse cleaning mathematical model, and completed additional testing of the CXF elements under gasification (reducing) and PFBC conditions. Coors Ceramic Company and GTE Products Corporation were integrally involved in this program through the development and fabrication of the CXF elements. 39 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Bench scale development of the TRW process for cleaning coal. Gravimelt process. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-18

    Construction, checkout and shakedown of the 20 lbs per hour Gravimelt modular test plant was initiated with completion scheduled for March of this year. In addition, a topical report was prepared summarizing the results of reagent regeneration verification and intermediate scale-up. The plant consists of four modules, each operated sequentially and independently. These are (1) the reaction section with a 14 inch diameter by 12 foot heated section rotary kiln as the major equipments, (2) the coal filtration module which includes a dissolver and wash tanks as well as a one square foot Bird rotary drum vacuum filter and associated tankage and pumps, (3) the spent caustic liquor and spent sulfuric acid regeneration module consisting of reaction tanks, feed tanks, a Bird solid bowl centrifuge for separation of mineral products and a polishing filter as the main equipment, and (4) the caustic evaporator system for conversion of the regenerated caustic liquor to anhydrous caustic for recycle to the kiln. The objective of operation of the modular test plant will be to demonstrate the operability of the major unit operations and to obtain equipment performance data sufficient for specification of additional pieces of equipment for a potential future project to upgrade the plant to a complete continuous unit. The more extensive plant will be capable of achieving steady state for all major process streams. 10 figs.

  13. Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation and Crossflow Filtration of 241-AN-102 Large C

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.

    2001-05-21

    This work provides an important confirmation of the new strontium/permanganate precipitation process to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C (Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107) wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. As a bench-scale demonstration, a series of seven precipitation batches and crossflow filtration campaigns were performed to remove strontium-90 and transuranics from 16.5 liters of Tank 241-AN-102 ''Large C'' supernatant liquid containing entrained solids.

  14. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature. PMID:22980959

  15. Electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for monitoring CO2 injection: Demonstration of leakage detection during bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, S. J.; Carrigan, C. R.; LaBrecque, D. J.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring infiltration events in the near subsurface. ERT also shows potential for monitoring CO2 injections, despite deployment challenges in the deep subsurface. We present results from analog bench-scale experiments aimed at evaluating the ability of ERT to quantify the volume and spatial distribution of a gas injected into a brine-saturated porous medium. We injected measured volumes of gas into translucent chambers filled with quartz sand, lined with electrodes, and saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. Between injections, a CCD camera captured high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scanned the chamber. Using the CCD images, quantitative visualization techniques resulted in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution and saturation of the injected gas. Direct comparison to inverted resistivity fields then provided a quantitative measure of the ability of ERT to estimate the total volume of injected gas and its spatial distribution within the chamber. We present results from two experiments designed to represent different injection scenarios: (A) low injection rate and strong capillary barrier, and (B) high injection rate and weaker capillary barrier. Results show that ERT provides good estimates of the shape, size and location of the primary gas plume, but underestimates gas content and does not detect thin pathways of gas from the injection port or within the overlying capillary barrier. However, ERT measurements did detect a change in saturation within the primary plume caused by leakage through the capillary barrier in (B), demonstrating the potential utility of ERT as a leakage-monitoring tool. Repeated ERT scans during our experiments led to degradation in data quality that corresponded with an increase in measured contact resistance. Decreased data quality over time is clearly a concern for ERT implementation as a long-term monitoring strategy and deserves further study to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the loss of data quality.

  16. Study on bio-filtration system for livestock wastewater and the water quality testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Haiyan; Bao, Yidan; He, Yong; Wang, Kaiying

    2006-09-01

    This paper introduced the processing of the domestic and international livestock wastewater. The actuality of environmental problems caused by livestock husbandry was discussed and the relationship between husbandry and sustainable development was remarked on. From the point of ecosystem, dealing with livestock wastewater harmlessly with bio-filtration system is advised. A bio-filtration system is set up based on the analysis of a typical and simple water treatment system. The system mainly consists of a solid removal basin and a planting filter. We elect ryegrass as the planting-filter, because it gets best sod, mechanic filtration and bio-filtration. Effects of static bio-filtration were studied in ryegrass. Under this system, to achieve preferable purification efficiency, the wastewater concentration and the area of planting which suited for pasture growth will be provided. Near infrared spectra was used to analyze the water quality, about chemical oxygen demand (CODcr). A set of 20 samples of livestock wastewater with different concentrations was taken from the Animal Institution of Zhejiang Agricultural Science Organization, and the partial least square (PLS) was used to develop predictive models. To validate these models, some samples were used. SEP were 22, 32 and r2 values using the validation set of data were 0.9895, 0.9985 for COD of wastewater.

  17. Inoculation effect of thermophilic microorganisms on protease production through solid-state fermentation under non-sterile conditions at lab and bench scale (SSF).

    PubMed

    El-Bakry, Mamdouh; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    The production of protease enzyme was evaluated through the solid state fermentation (SSF) of soy fibre, a waste product that acted as a sole substrate for the fermentation, at a laboratory and bench scale using a 500-mL (batch size 115 g) and 10-L (batch size 2300 g) bioreactors. The objective was to assess the effect of the inoculation of the thermophilic bacteria Thermus sp. on the production of the enzyme when working at laboratory and bench scale under non-sterile conditions, since scaling-up and the need of sterilization are the main challenges of SSF, preventing its industrial development. Results revealed that the inoculation led to a substantial increase in the protease obtained on both scales when compared to non-inoculated fermentation. The maximum protease activities increased as a result of the inoculation from 500 to 800 and from 350 to 670 U/g dry matter of soy fibre in the lab and bench scale bioreactors, respectively. Finally, a very good correlation was found between the protease activities obtained and the fermentation most relevant parameters: oxygen uptake rate (R (2) = 0.81) and temperature (R (2) = 0.82). In this work, we have demonstrated that inoculation is effective even under non-sterile conditions at the kg scale and that this strain is able to compete with autochthonous microbiota and increase the protease production to levels higher than those previously reported in literature. PMID:26809715

  18. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blek, Petr; idlof, Petr; Hr?za, Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

  19. Filtration Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ken; Hunsaker, Scot

    1997-01-01

    Examines how choice of commercial swimming-pool filtration systems is driven by the project-specific needs of the pools. Also highlighted are definitions of specific terms used when discussing filtration systems. Questions that pool designers can answer to make filtration-system purchasing decisions are listed. (GR)

  20. Enhanced removal of VOCs from aquifers during air sparging using thickeners and surfactants: Bench-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heonki; Ahn, Dayoung; Annable, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled air flow paths during air sparging on the removal of volatile organic compounds were examined in this study using a two-dimensional bench-scale physical model. An aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which is a thickener, was used to increase the resistance of water to displacement by injected air in a region around the targeted zone. At the same time, an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), which is a surfactant, was used to reduce the air entry pressure to enhance the air flow through the targeted region. Trichloroethene (TCE), dissolved in water, was used to represent an aqueous phase volatile organic compound (VOC). A binary mixture of perchloroethene (PCE) and n-hexane was also used as a nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL). Controlled air flow through the source zone, achieved by emplacing a high viscosity aqueous solution into a region surrounding the TCE-impacted zone, resulted in increased TCE removal from 23.0% (control) to 38.2% during a 2.5h period. When the air flow was focused on the targeted source zone of aqueous phase TCE (by decreasing the surface tension within the source zone and its vicinity by 28dyn/cm, no SCMC applied), the mass removal of TCE was enhanced to 41.3% during the same time period. With SCMC and SDBS applied simultaneously around and beneath a NAPL source zone, respectively, the NAPL components were found to be removed more effectively over a period of 8.2h than the sparging experiment with no additives applied; 84.6% of PCE and 94.0% of n-hexane were removed for the controlled air flow path experiments (with both SCMC and SDBS applied) compared to 52.7% (PCE) and 74.0% (n-hexane) removal for the control experiment (no additives applied). Based on the experimental observations made in this study, applying a viscous aqueous solution around the source zone and a surfactant solution in and near the source zone, the air flow was focused through the targeted contaminant zone, enhancing the removal of VOCs from either an aqueous phase or a NAPL phase. PMID:26697745

  1. Numerical simulation of competitive aerobic / anaerobic hydrocarbon plume biodegradation in two-dimensional bench scale lab-experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.

    2011-12-01

    The biodegradation of oxidizable hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface requires the presence of compatible microbial communities as well as sufficient amounts of electron acceptors and nutrients. In this context, transverse mixing, driven by dispersion and diffusion, is one of the main mechanisms governing the availability of dissolved electron acceptors at a hydrocarbon plume fringe. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons limited by transverse mixing has been studied experimentally in 2D bench-scale flow-through tanks, filled with a saturated porous medium. Flow of groundwater through the tanks was induced by pumping water at one side through injection ports, and simultaneously extracting water at the other side of the tank. An ethylbenzene plume was established by injection through the central inlet port. A mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopomers was used in order to investigate the spatial distribution of degradation processes via monitoring of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation. In the first phase of the experiment, aerobic biodegradation was studied. For this purpose, the tank was recharged with water containing oxygen as a dissolved electron acceptor and the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 was inoculated. Later, nitrate was added to the recharge water as an additional electron acceptor and the denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was amended to study competitive aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation. A numerical reactive transport model of the experiment was set up for a model based interpretation of the observed degradation patterns. In a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the relevant hydrodynamic parameters on the observable distributions of ethylbenzene isotopomers, oxygen and nitrate was studied. Subsequent model calibration allowed for a good agreement with ethylbenzene concentrations measured at the tank outlet ports as well as oxygen concentrations, which were measured at several profiles perpendicular to the flow direction along the plume. Simulated microbial growth was strongest near the central tank inlet, where both, oxygen and ethylbenzene were available at high concentrations, and along the transverse mixing zone at the fringe of the developed ethylbenzene plume. Model based interpretation of the aerobic/anaerobic phase with competitive biodegradation proved to be ambiguous due to uncertainties regarding the actual stoichiometry of the specific denitrification reaction. Also, the simulated isotopic patterns were very sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the A. aromaticum EbN1 biomass. Ethylbenzene concentrations and isotopic patterns predicted by the numerical model match the measurements quite well for the first half of the aerobic/anaerobic phase. A distinct increase in biodegradation dynamics later on hints at a change in biodegradation dynamics during the course of the experiment.

  2. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-02-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation. The oxidant, or mediator, is a multivalent transition metal ion which is cleanly recycled in a number of charge transfer steps in an electrochemical cell. The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70{degrees}C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques. Although the oxidation of organics and the dissolution of transuranics by higher valency metal ions has been known for some time, applying the MEO technology to waste treatment is a relatively recent development. Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results from several other mediator/acid combinations will be included. Data obtained on the chemical, electrochemical, and engineering aspects will be presented. The topics of organics destruction, transuranic recovery, and some of the ancillary systems will be addressed, and areas requiring further study will be mentioned.

  3. Enhanced removal of VOCs from aquifers during air sparging using thickeners and surfactants: Bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heonki; Ahn, Dayoung; Annable, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled air flow paths during air sparging on the removal of volatile organic compounds were examined in this study using a two-dimensional bench-scale physical model. An aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which is a thickener, was used to increase the resistance of water to displacement by injected air in a region around the targeted zone. At the same time, an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), which is a surfactant, was used to reduce the air entry pressure to enhance the air flow through the targeted region. Trichloroethene (TCE), dissolved in water, was used to represent an aqueous phase volatile organic compound (VOC). A binary mixture of perchloroethene (PCE) and n-hexane was also used as a nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL). Controlled air flow through the source zone, achieved by emplacing a high viscosity aqueous solution into a region surrounding the TCE-impacted zone, resulted in increased TCE removal from 23.0% (control) to 38.2% during a 2.5 h period. When the air flow was focused on the targeted source zone of aqueous phase TCE (by decreasing the surface tension within the source zone and its vicinity by 28 dyn/cm, no SCMC applied), the mass removal of TCE was enhanced to 41.3% during the same time period. With SCMC and SDBS applied simultaneously around and beneath a NAPL source zone, respectively, the NAPL components were found to be removed more effectively over a period of 8.2 h than the sparging experiment with no additives applied; 84.6% of PCE and 94.0% of n-hexane were removed for the controlled air flow path experiments (with both SCMC and SDBS applied) compared to 52.7% (PCE) and 74.0% (n-hexane) removal for the control experiment (no additives applied). Based on the experimental observations made in this study, applying a viscous aqueous solution around the source zone and a surfactant solution in and near the source zone, the air flow was focused through the targeted contaminant zone, enhancing the removal of VOCs from either an aqueous phase or a NAPL phase.

  4. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer ({mu}m) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg{sup -1}). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 {mu}m (sand) or less than 53 {mu}m (silt and clay) soil fraction.

  5. Bench-scale biodegradation tests to assess natural attenuation potential of 1,4-dioxane at three sites in California.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengyan; Van Orden, E Tess; DeVries, David J; Xiong, Zhong; Hinchee, Rob; Alvarez, Pedro J

    2015-02-01

    1,4-Dioxane (dioxane) is relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation, and its physicochemical properties preclude effective removal from contaminated groundwater by volatilization or adsorption. Through this microcosm study, we assessed the biodegradation potential of dioxane for three sites in California. Groundwater and sediment samples were collected at various locations at each site, including the presumed source zone, middle and leading edge of the plume. A total of 16 monitoring wells were sampled to prepare the microcosms. Biodegradation of dioxane was observed in 12 of 16 microcosms mimicking natural attenuation within 28 weeks. Rates varied from as high as 3,449 ± 459 µg/L/week in source-zone microcosms to a low of 0.3 ± 0.1 µg/L/week in microcosms with trace level of dioxane (<10 µg/L as initial concentration). The microcosms were spiked with (14)C-labeled dioxane to assess the fate of dioxane. Biological oxidizer-liquid scintillation analysis of bound residue infers that 14C-dioxane was assimilated into cell material only in microcosms exhibiting significant dioxane biodegradation. Mineralization was also observed per (14)CO2 recovery (up to 44% of the amount degraded in 28 weeks of incubation). Degradation and mineralization activity significantly decreased with increasing distance from the contaminant source area (p < 0.05), possibly due to less acclimation. Furthermore, both respiked and repeated microcosms prepared with source-zone samples from Site 1 confirmed relatively rapid dioxane degradation (i.e., 100 % removal by 20 weeks). These results show that indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading dioxane are present at these three sites, and suggest that monitored natural attenuation should be considered as a remedial response. PMID:25280838

  6. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Summary of bench-scale tests for FY 1986 and FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.

    1987-09-01

    Processes to reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acid are being demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids such as HF-HNO/sub 3/, etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and HNO/sub 3/ strip solution containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup -/ to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup -2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in a downstream precipitation step. 10 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media to Support Exposure Assessment: Bench-Scale Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling efficiency is essential in exposure assessments of contaminants in air, as well as other matrices. In the measurement of airborne contaminants, it is critical to collect a sample of air containing representative contaminants in the air of concern, that is, contaminant c...

  8. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  9. Filtration: Principles and practices. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

    1998-12-31

    This new book is the most authoritative and comprehensive guide to essential, state-of-the-art data. It provides the very latest theoretical and practical data on filtration for gas and liquids. The 2nd edition has been revised and updated to include several new chapters which detail filtration in the mineral industry, high-efficiency air filtration, cartridge filters, and ultrafiltration. The contents include: Gas filtration theory; Liquid-filtration theory; Filter media; Industrial gas filtration; Filtration pretreatment; Filtration in the chemical process industry; Ultrafiltration; Filtration in the mineral industry; Filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; Cartridge filtration; High-efficiency air filtration; Analytical applications of filtration; and Filter evaluation and testing.

  10. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6000 DISEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is on testing of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and closed crankcase filtration system for diesel trucks. It verified the emissions for these systems using low sufur and ultra low sulfur fuel.

  11. Experimental studies on steam pressure filtration of coal concentrate filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gerl, S.; Stahl, W.

    1995-12-31

    Steam pressure filtration combines mechanical and thermal processes in one filtration device. Steam condensation at the cold layers of the filter cake, build a condensation front, which even removes the capillary water from the porous filter cake. Depending on the choice of parameters it is possible to achieve a very low residual moisture content. The influence of the parameters on the dewatering results was systematically examined on a bench-scale apparatus. This paper explains the physical fundamentals, the influence of the cake dewatering parameters, and one possible method of applying the process to a disk filter device as well.

  12. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, 1 July-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1992-12-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  13. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. First quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1992-12-30

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: (1) the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, (2) the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and (3) the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  14. Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Solid-phase bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattmann, B.O.; Chapman, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. Surface soil and sediment were contaminated with approximately 1 and 7% (weight basis) organic pollutants, respectively, but the more recalcitrant creosote constituents (i.e., high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were proportionately higher in the surface soil indicative of creosote weathering. Data suggest that full-scale site remediation employing solid-phase bioremediation strategies may not effectively meet acceptable treatment standards in the time defining these studies.

  15. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents results from the solvent selection, fermentation, and product recovery studies performed thus far in the development of a bench scale unit for the production of ethanol from coal-derived synthesis gas. Several additional solvents have been compared for their ability to extract ethanol from aqueous solutions of ethanol in water and fermentation permeate. The solvent 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanol still appears to be the solvent of choice. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data have been collected for ethanol and 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanol.

  16. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  17. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a manner that is not otherwise accomplished through conventional processes of drinking water treatment (e.g. coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation). 3. Evaluate changes in the character of NOM upon ground passage from the river to the wells. The experimental approach entailed monitoring the performance of three different RBF systems along the Ohio, Wabash, and Missouri Rivers in the Midwestern United States and involved a cooperative effort between the American Water Works Company, Inc. and Johns Hopkins University. Samples of the river source waters and the bank-filtered well waters were analyzed for a range of water quality parameters including TOC, DOC, UV-absorbance at 254-nm (UV-254), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), biologically assimilable organic carbon (AOC), inorganic species, DBP formation potential, and microorganisms. In the second year of the project, river waters were subjected to a bench-scale conventional treatment train consisting of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, glass-fiber filtration, and ozonation. The treated river waters were compared with the bank-filtered waters in terms of TOC, DOC, UV-254, and DBP formation potential. In the third and fourth years of the project, NOM from the river and well waters was characterized using the XAD-8 resin adsorption fractionation method (Leenheer, 1981; Thurman &Malcolm, 1981). XAD-8 adsorbing (hydrophobic) and non-adsorbing (hydrophilic) fractions of the river and well waters were compared with respect to DOC, UV-254, and DBP formation potential to determine whether RBF alters the character of the source water NOM upon ground passage and if so, which fractions are preferentially removed. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of RBF at removing the organic precursors to potentially carcinogenic DBPs. When compared to a bench-scale conventional treatment train optimized for turbidity removal, RBF performed as well as the treatment at one of the sites and significantly better than the treatment at the other two sites in terms of removal of organic carbon and DBP precursor material. Removals of TOC and DOC upon RBF at the three sites generally ranged from 30 to 70% compared to 20 to 50% removals upon bench-scale treatment of the river waters. Reductions in precursor material for a variety of DBP precursors for trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin upon RBF ranged from 50 to 100% using both the formation potential (FP) and the uniform formation conditions (UFC) tests (Standard Methods, 1998; Summers et al., 1996), while reductions upon bench-scale treatment were generally in the range of 40 to 80%. The significantly higher reductions of the DBP precursors relative to those of TOC and DOC indicate a preferential reduction upon ground passage in the NOM that reacts with chlorine to form DBPs. Upon both bench-scale conventional treatment and RBF, a shift was observed in DBP formation from the chlorinated to the more brominated species due to the removal of DOC relative to bromide upon treatment or RBF. As DOC is removed, the bromide:DOC ratio increases, leading to the formation of more brominated DBPs. The shift was more pronounced upon RBF due to the generally higher reductions in DOC. UFC testing with a constant chlorine:DOC:bromide ratio ruled out the possibility of any significant preferential removal of the NOM precursor material for the more chlorinated DBPs. These results highlight the importance of the bromide ion in the formation of DBPs in drinking water, especially in light of the higher theoretical cancer risk associated with the brominated DBPs. Risk calculations demonstrated the ability of RBF to reduce the theoretical excess cancer risk due to THMs formed upon chlorination, in all cases, and with substantially better performance than the bench-scale treatment train. The characterization studies were carried out to evaluate whether the observed removals of DBP precursor material upon RBF reflected a preferential removal of NOM of particular character. The results of this study indicate that RBF appears to be equally capable of removing material of different character. The different removal mechanisms in the subsurface (e.g. sorption, biodegradation, filtration) combine to provide similar removal of the operationally defined hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of organic material upon ground passage. Thus, the reductions in DBP formation upon RBF observed during the first two phases of this research are largely the result of a decrease in the NOM concentration rather than a major shift in the NOM character. Preliminary monitoring of a number of microorganisms indicates that RBF may also serve as a significant barrier for the removal of microbial contaminants, including human pathogens. The monitoring data demonstrated >3 log removal of Clostridium spores and >2 log removal of bacteriophage. Assuming that these indicator organisms can be used as surrogates for Giardia cysts and human enteric viruses, RBF at the three study sites surpassed the performance requirements in the United States for conventional coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration (e.g., 2.5 log removal for Giardia cysts and 2.0 log removal of viruses). References Cosovic, D.; Hrsak, V.; Vojvodic, V.; &Krznaric, D., 1996. Transformation of organic matter and bank filtration from a polluted stream. Wat. Res., 30:12:2921. Doussan, C.; Poitevin, G.; Ledoux, E.; &Detay, M., 1997. River bank filtration: Modeling of the changes in water chemistry with emphasis on nitrogen species, J. Contam. Hydrol., 25:129. Hiscock, K.M. &Grischek, T., 2002. Attenuation of Groundwater Pollution by Bank Filtration. Jour. Hydrol., 266:139. Juttner, F., 1995. Elimination of Terpenoid Odorous Compounds by Slow Sand and River Bank Filtration of the Ruhr River, Germany. Wat. Sci. Tech., 31:11:211. Kivimaki, A-L.; Lahti, K.; Hatva, T.; Tuominen, S.M.; &Miettinen, I.T., 1998. Removal of organic matter during bank filtration. Artificial Recharge of Groundwater (J.H. Peters, editor). A.A. Balkema. Rotterdam, Netherlands; Brookfield, VT. Kuehn, W. &Mueller, U., 2000. Riverbank filtration: an overview. Jour. AWWA, 92:12:60. Leenheer, J.A., 1981. Comprehensive Approach to Preparative Isolation and Fractionation of Dissolved Organic Carbon from Natural Waters and Wastewaters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 15:5:578. Miettinen, I.T.; Martikainen, P.J.; &Vartiainen, T., 1994. Humus Transformation at the Bank Filtration Water Plant. Wat. Sci. Tech., 30:10:179. Ray, C.; Grischek, T.; Schubert, J.; Wang, J.Z.; &Speth, T.F., 2002. A perspective of riverbank filtration. Jour. AWWA, 94:4:149. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1998 (20th ed.). APHA, AWWA, and WEF, Washington. Stuyfzand, P.J., 1998. Fate of pollutants during artificial recharge and bank filtration in the Netherlands. Artificial Recharge of Groundwater (J.H. Peters, editor). A.A. Balkema. Rotterdam, Netherlands; Brookfield, Vermont. Summers, R.S.; Hooper, S.M.; Shukairy, H.M.; Solarik, G.; &Owen, D., 1996. Assessing DBP Yield: Uniform Formation Conditions. Jour. AWWA, 88:6:80. Thurman, E.M. &Malcolm, R.L., 1981. Preparative Isolation of Aquatic Humic Substances. Environ. Sci. Technol., 15:4:463. Tufenkji, N.; Ryan, J.N.; &Elimelech, M., 2002. The Promise of Bank Filtration. Envir. Sci. &Technol., 36:21:423A.

  18. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic-oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-05-15

    A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic-oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500m(3)h(-1)) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD5/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4mgL(-1) for bench scale reactor and 60.9mgL(-1) for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480mgL(-1) on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24mgL(-1). There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment. PMID:26894292

  19. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment. PMID:26056780

  20. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, 1 October-31 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-03-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  1. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Second quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-01-15

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois No. 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350{degrees}C, and pressures of 1800 psig, (2) analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run, and (3) correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  2. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to NTP Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Brief History of NTP: Project Rover Began in 1950s by Los Alamos Scientific Labs (now Los Alamos National Labs) and ran until 1970s Tested a series of nuclear reactor engines of varying size at Nevada Test Site (now Nevada National Security Site) Ranged in scale from 111 kN (25 klbf) to 1.1 MN (250 klbf) Included Nuclear Furnace-1 tests Demonstrated the viability and capability of a nuclear rocket engine test program One of Kennedys 4 goals during famous moon speech to Congress Nuclear Engines for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) Atomic Energy Commission and NASA joint venture started in 1964 Parallel effort to Project Rover was focused on technology demonstration Tested XE engine, a 245-kN (55-klbf) engine to demonstrate startup shutdown sequencing. Hot-hydrogen stream is passed directly through fuel elements potential for radioactive material to be eroded into gaseous fuel flow as identified in previous programs NERVA and Project Rover (1950s-70s) were able to test in open atmosphere similar to conventional rocket engine test stands today Nuclear Furance-1 tests employed a full scrubber system Increased government and environmental regulations prohibit the modern testing in open atmosphere. Since the 1960s, there has been an increasing cessation on open air testing of nuclear material Political and national security concerns further compound the regulatory environment

  3. Filtration by eyelashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  4. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  5. Experimental investigation of the formaldehyde removal mechanisms in a dynamic botanical filtration system for indoor air purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Jingjing; Zhang, Jensen S

    2014-09-15

    Botanical filtration has been proved to be effective for indoor gas pollutant removal. To understand the roles of different transport, storage and removal mechanism by a dynamic botanical air filter, a series of experimental investigations were designed and conducted in this paper. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) plants was selected for test, and its original soil or activated/pebbles root bed was used in different test cases. It was found that flowing air through the root bed with microbes dynamically was essential to obtain meaningful formaldehyde removal efficiency. For static potted plant as normally place in rooms, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), which is often used to quantify the air cleaning ability of portable air cleaners, was only ? 5.1m(3)/h per m(2) bed, while when dynamically with air flow through the bed, the CADR increased to ? 233 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. The calculated CADR due to microbial activity is ? 108 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. Moisture in the root bed also played an important role, both for maintaining a favorable living condition for microbes and for absorbing water-soluble compounds such as formaldehyde. The role of the plant was to introduce and maintain a favorable microbe community which effectively degraded the volatile organic compounds adsorbed or absorbed by the root bed. The presence of the plant increased the removal efficiency by a factor of two based on the results from the bench-scale root bed experiments. PMID:25164387

  6. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

    1999-10-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

  7. Waste water filtration enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

  8. Degradation of polar organic micropollutants during riverbank filtration: complementary results from spatiotemporal sampling and push-pull tests.

    PubMed

    Huntscha, Sebastian; Rodriguez Velosa, Diana M; Schroth, Martin H; Hollender, Juliane

    2013-10-15

    The fate of polar organic micropollutants (logDOW (pH 7) between -4.2 and +3.5) during riverbank filtration (RBF) at the river Thur was studied using both spatiotemporally resolved sampling and single-well push-pull tests (PPT), followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The Thur is a dynamic prealpine river with an alluvial sandy-gravel aquifer, which is characterized by short groundwater travel times (a few days) from surface water infiltration to groundwater extraction. The spatiotemporal sampling allowed tracing concentration dynamics in the river and the groundwater and revealed persistence for the drug carbamazepine, while the herbicide MCPA (2-methyl-4-chloro-phenoxyacetic acid) and the drug 4-acetamidoantipyrine were very quickly degraded under the prevalent aerobic conditions. The corrosion inhibitor 1H-benzotriazole was degraded slightly, particularly in a transect influenced by river restoration measures. For the first time in situ first-order degradation rate constants for three pesticides and two pharmaceuticals were determined by PPTs, which confirmed the results of the spatiotemporal sampling. Atenolol was transformed almost completely to atenolol acid. Rate constants of 0.1-1.3 h(-1) for MCPA, 2,4-D, mecoprop, atenolol, and diclofenac, corresponding to half-lives of 0.6-6.3 h, demonstrated the great potential of RBF systems to degrade organic micropollutants and simultaneously the applicability of PPTs for micropollutants in such dynamic systems. PMID:24033151

  9. Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2009-11-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

  10. Chemical-enhanced filtration of copper/nickel concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haijun

    Filtration performance of mineral concentrate is mainly controlled by solid particle size and surface hydrophobicity. Filtration of coarser particles with more hydrophobic surfaces produces better filtration performance characterized by higher filtration rate (U) and lower final moisture content (FMC) in the final cake. Some filtration aids could improve filtration performance by flocculating solid particles and enhancing surface hydrophobicity. For the mineral concentrate used in this study, many filtration aids tested could only improve either U or FMC: one type was effective in improving U, and another type was effective in improving FMC. The combination of the two types of filtration aids at certain dosages could achieve better filtration performance than the optimum performance achieved by each individual filtration aid. Based on the experimental results, the working mechanism of filtration aids behind the filtration behavior was explored to deepen the understanding of the chemical-enhanced filtration of Cu/Ni concentrate.

  11. Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Slurry-phase bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E. ); Blattmann, B.O. ); Chapman, P.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol- (PCP-) and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. Aqueous slurries were prepared from sediment and surface soil freshly obtained from the American Creosote Works Superfund site at Pensacola, FL. Slurries (1.1 L) were incubated for 30 days in separate, 1.5-L bioreactors operated in the batch mode at 28.5C with continuous mixing (300 rpm), DO = 90% and pH = 7.0. Samples removed with time from each reactor were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography for PCP and 42 monitored creosote constituents to delineate the activity of indigenous microorganisms. Changes in microbial biomass were also recorded. Excluding PCP, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, slurry-phase bioremediation of highly contaminated sediment (pH adjusted) resulted in rapid and extensive biodegradation (3-5 days to biodegrade > 50% of targeted compounds) of monitored constituents. Conversely, microbial activity in surface soil slurries was slower and generally confined to the more readily biodegradable, lower molecular weight compounds. These data suggest that slurry-phase bioremediation strategies can be effectively employed to remediate creosote-contaminated materials.

  12. Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Solid-phase bioremediation. [Pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E. ); Blattmann, B.O. ); Chapman, P.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate the potential for using a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol-(PCP-) and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, FL. The effects of tilling and fertilization on the rate and extent of biodegradation of PCP and 42 targeted creosote constituents by indigenous microflora were monitored by gas chromatographic analysis of organic extracts of soil and sediment; changes in microbial populations were also recorded. Specially designed landfarming chambers allowed for the quantitative analysis of targeted pollutants lost through abiotic processes. In general, solid-phase bioremediation resulted in slow and predictable losses of targeted pollutants (i.e., low molecular weight creosote constituents were more readily biodegraded than higher molecular weight contaminants), and the more recalcitrant pollutants (e.g., PCP) tended to persist. Performance data from these studies suggest that full-scale site remediation employing solid-phase bioremediation strategies in the time defining these studies. (90 days).

  13. Computational fluid dynamics assessment: Volume 2, Isothermal simulations of the METC bench-scale coal-water slurry combustor: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

    1988-09-01

    The isothermal turbulent, swirling flow inside the METC pressurized bench-scale combustor has been simulated using ISOPCGC-2. The effects of the swirl numbers, the momentum ratio of the primary to secondary streams, the annular wall thickness, and the quarl angle on the flow and mixing patterns have been investigated. The results that with the present configuration of the combustor, an annular recirculation zone is present up to secondary swirl number of four. A central (on axis) recirculation zone can be obtained by increasing the momentum of the secondary stream by decreasing the annular area at the reactor inlet. The mixing of the primary (fuel carrier) air with the secondary air improves only slightly due to swirl unless a central recirculation zone is present. Good mixing is achieved in the quarl region when a central recirculation zone is present. A preliminary investigation of the influence of placing flow regulators inside the the combustor shows that they influence the flow field significantly and that there is a potential of obtaining optimum flow conditions using these flow regulators. 58 refs., 47 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Three bacteria, Clostridium ljungdahlii and isolates ERI-8 and 0-52, have been utilized in CSTR studies in order to directly compare the performance of the bacteria in continuous culture in converting synthesis gas components to ethanol. C. ljungdahlii is able to produce higher concentrations of ethanol than the other bacteria, largely because medium development with this bacterium has been ongoing for 2--3 years. However, both of the ERI isolates are quite promising for ethanol production and, therefore, will be studied further in the CSTR. A comparison of the energy costs for various ethanol recovery techniques has been made for use in the bench scale system. The techniques considered include direct distillation, extraction with various solvents followed by distillation, air stripping followed by distillation, pervaporation followed by distillation, reverse osmosis and temperature swing extraction. Extraction with a solvent possessing a relatively high distribution coefficient for ethanol and a high separation factor (relative ability to extract ethanol in favor of water), followed by distillation, is the most desirable technology.

  15. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-04-20

    A phase 11 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of, quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the third quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs and related analysis with Illinois {number_sign}6 coal at a processing temperature of 375{degree}C, and pressures of 1800 and 1500 psig, (2) completion and analysis of two autoclave reactor runs to observe the synergistic effect of the surfactant and an iron catalyst, and (3) setting up a subcontract with HRI Inc. to test the surfactant enhanced liquefaction process in a continuous flow reactor.

  16. Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

  17. Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester.

    PubMed

    Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A

    2013-06-01

    Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-? Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-?, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-? models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). PMID:23624047

  18. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The programs focus on hot-gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match or nearly match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents which can reduce the sulfur in coal gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. This report summarizes the highlights and accomplishments of the October slipstream test run of the Zinc Titanate Fluid Bed Desulfurization/Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (ZTFBD/DSRP) Mobile Laboratory at the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Although the run had to be shortened due to mechanical problems with METC`s gasifier, there was sufficient on-stream time to demonstrate highly successful operation of both the zinc titanate fluid bed desulfurization and the DSRP with actual coal gas.

  19. Test plan for Simulated Saltcake Retrieval Test

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2000-07-19

    This document describes the plan for a bench-scale laboratory test to evaluate physical and chemical parameters associated with dissolution of a simulated saltcake waste. Parameters to be measured during the test include water addition rate, liquid drainage rate, visual observations of flow patterns, physical appearance and volume of dissolving saltcake, chemical composition of drained liquid, and polarized light microscopy analysis of solids.

  20. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier. Third quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-12-31

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner.

  1. Implications of a Multi-well Tracer Test in the Transport of Pathogens at a Riverbank Filtration Experiment Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, R. P.; Pillai, S.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Widmer, K.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Lerhner, T.

    2003-12-01

    This study tracks the transport of bromide and microspheres mimicking pathogens in an arid environment. The study site uses the Rio Grande that experiences significant annual fluctuations in both water quantity and quality. The pumping well is 17 m from the stream bank and the water table was 2 m below the stream surface. The aquifer is medium and fine-grained sand comprising two flow units. Observation wells are screened over 1 or 1.5 m intervals. The average hydraulic conductivity was about 2 x 10-3 m/s based on a test analysis, however, the responses indicated that sediment heterogeneities affected the hydraulic behavior. A 427 hour tracer test using bromide and fluorescent microspheres provides initial results that are relevant to the transport of pathogens through the subsurface under riverbank filtration conditions. Bromide was injected into an observation well at the channel margin. Differently colored fluorescent microspheres (0.25nm, 1?m, 6?m and 10?m) were injected into the stream bottom and into two observation wells. Conclusions from the tracer test are: 1) Both bromide and microspheres continued to be observed throughout the 18 days of the experiment. 2) The bromide recovery in the pumping well and in the deeper observation wells showed early and late peaks with a long tails indicating that the geological medium at the field site behaves like a double-porosity medium allowing the tracer to move relatively quickly through the higher conductivity units while being significantly retarded in the low hydraulic conductivity units. 3) Some wells showed consistently higher concentrations of bromide. 4) The 1? micospheres were abundant in the observation wells and allowed tracing of flowpaths. These showed multiple peaks similar to the bromide results. This indicates highly preferential transport paths in the sediment. 5) Microspheres from the three injection sites had distinctly different transport paths and rates. 6) Both bromide and microspheres appeared in the stream soon after injection, moving apparently against an 2-m head difference. 7) The 6 ? and 10 ? microspheres were observed in low concentrations and were episodically detected in the stream and in two widely spaced observation wells. The significance of these results is that: 1) Inorganic microspheres may mimic the episodic occurrence of microorganisms in wells. 2) Even in this relatively homogeneous aquifer, preferential transport within the aquifer results in highly divergent transport paths and rates. Microspheres from one of the injection sites traveled essentially perpendicular to the expected transport direction. 3) Even small variations in the sand grain size can effectively compartmentalize the aquifer. The next steps of this project will include field studies to observe the migration and persistence of selected organisms (E.coli, enterococci, coliphages, cysts, oocysts and enteroviruses) in the pumping well and observation wells under different pumping rates. Continued combined chemical sampling along with the microbial sampling will document the whether changes in water chemistry alter the behavior of the organisms.

  2. Novel procedures accurately measure drilling mud dynamic filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevert, M.E.; Al-Abri, S. ); Jin, L. )

    1994-04-25

    New equipment and test procedures can determine dynamic mud cake properties such as equilibrium cake thickness, porosity, permeability, compressibility, and erosion resistance. The following were developed to study dynamic filtration: a dynamic filtration cell; a recommended filtration medium; a mud cake thickness device; mud cake porosity determination method; calculation methods for shear rate determination beneath a rotating cone; determination of equilibrium cake thickness, erosion resistance, and compressibility; and preferred filtration display techniques. The article describes the equipment, test procedures, and typical filtration results.

  3. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, Paul M.; Fimmen, Ryan; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, MeHg levels decreased on the time scale of days to weeks. • Capping materials should sequester MeHg produced and not contribute to the production of MeHg.

  4. Split renal function testing using Tc-99m DTPA. A rapid technique for determining differential glomerular filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, G.F.

    1983-09-01

    The fractional renal uptake of intravenously administered Tc-99m DTPA, within 2 to 3 minutes following radiotracer arrival in the kidneys, is proportional to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Thus it is possible to determine total, as well as individual kidney, GFR by a radionuclide technique which needs only six minutes of patient time and requires neither blood nor urine samples. The radionuclide computed GFR correlates extremely well with 24-hour creatinine clearance determinations, and is highly reproducible. This method has been used in nearly 500 split renal function determinations and has provided valuable, accurate information.

  5. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  6. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K

    2006-03-31

    Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) management has the goal of returning Tank 48H to routine service by January 2010 or as soon as practical. Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains {approx}240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with about 2 wt % potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). The main radioactive component in Tank 48H is {sup 137}Cs. The waste also contains {approx}0.15 wt % Monosodium Titanate (MST) which has adsorbed {sup 90}Sr, U, and Pu isotopes. A System Engineering Evaluation of technologies/ideas for the treatment of TPB identified Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a leading alternative technology to the baseline aggregation approach. Over 75 technologies/ideas were evaluated overall. Forty-one technologies/ideas passed the initial screening evaluation. The 41 technologies/ideas were then combined to 16 complete solutions for the disposition of TPB and evaluated in detail. Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is an aqueous phase process in which soluble or suspended waste components are oxidized using molecular oxygen contained in air. The process operates at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 to 320 C and 7 to 210 atmospheres, respectively. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). The basic flow scheme for a typical WAO system is as follows. The waste solution or slurry is pumped through a high-pressure feed pump. An air stream containing sufficient oxygen to meet the oxygen requirements of the waste stream is injected into the pressurized waste stream, and the air/liquid mixture is preheated to the required reactor inlet temperature. The reactor provides sufficient retention time to allow the oxidation to approach the desired level of organic decomposition. Typical reaction time is about 30-120 minutes. Heat exchangers are routinely employed to recover energy contained in the reactor effluent to preheat the waste feed/air entering the reactor. Auxiliary energy, usually steam, is necessary for startup and can provide trim heat if required. Since the oxidation reactions are exothermic, sufficient energy may be released in the reactor to allow the WAO system to operate without any additional heat input. After cooling, the oxidized reactor effluent passes through a pressure control valve where the pressure is reduced. A separator downstream of the pressure control valve allows the depressurized and cooled vapor to separate from the liquid. Typical industrial WAO applications have a feed flow rate of 1 to 220 gallons per minute (gpm) per train, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 10,000 to 150,000 mg/L (higher CODs with dilution). Note that catalysts, such as homogeneous copper and iron, their heterogeneous counterparts, or precious metals can be used to enhance the effectiveness (i.e., to lower temperature, pressure, and residence time as well as increase oxidation efficiencies) of the WAO reaction if deemed necessary.

  7. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Revised final report, [October 1992--October 1993]: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-27

    The main advantage of the project is that it allowed PTI to gain knowledge and experience about the proper approach, methods and hardware required to properly optimize and control column flotation performance. Many operational problems were incurred during the project, some of that PTI was able to solve during the project and other that must be overcome as the technology is further developed and commercialized. The key operating problems experienced with the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column that must be further researched and overcome include: (1)The low concentrate solids content which limited the throughput capacity of the column, due to high froth washing requirements. The low concentrate solids content also lead to difficulty obtaining accurate On-Line Monitor measurements, due to the poor measurement sensitivity obtained with low solids content samples (particularly less than 5.0 wt %). (2) The higher-than-anticipated reagent dosages that undoubtedly contributed to the low solids content listed above, and also caused foaming problems within PTI`s On-Line Monitor. A defoaming reagent addition (Nalco 7810) was required to provide consistent sample size and reproducible On-Line Monitor counts for the concentrate samples collected within the circuit. PTI and UK`s CAER staff will continue to research alternative column design, particularly alternative air bubble generation and air distribution systems, to try to maximize column concentrate solids content while reducing reagent dosage requirements. In addition to the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column operation there were also a number of hardware problems with PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor that must be remedied for future commercial installations.

  8. Analysis of a Multi-Well Tracer Test at a Bank Filtration Site in an Arid Environment of El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. N.; Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Sheng, Z.

    2005-12-01

    River bank filtered water is an important component of the drinking water production in many areas of the world. In riverbank filtration, the removal of pathogens is an important task for the production of good quality drinking water. The hydrogeological factors and spatial changes in the water's microbiology during the transport from the river to the aquifer have important implications on the quality of the produced water. The goal of this study was to investigate riverbank infiltration effectiveness in arid environments such as that of El Paso, Texas. The hydrostratigraphic units and hydrogeologic conditions were characterized with lithologic samples obtained from all boreholes collected during the construction of twelve observation wells and one production well in the site, which were constructed near the artificial stream to provide geologic and hydrologic information. The shallow aquifer is composed of three unites: high hydraulic conductivity layers on the top and bottom, and low conductivity layer in the middle. In this study advective transport of microspheres was compared with a conservative tracer such as bromide. Bromide was injected into an observation well at the channel margin. Simultaneously, 1, 6 and 10 micron-diameter fluorescent microspheres equivalent to Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and bacteria sizes were injected into the stream bottom and two observation wells to assess the suitability of microspheres as abiotic analogs in future investigations involving the physical aspects of bacteria and protozoa transport behavior. The 17.8 day-tracer test provided valuable results that are relevant to the transport of pathogens through the subsurface under riverbank filtration conditions. The 1 micron-size microspheres were abundant in the pumping and observation wells and showed multiple peaks similar to the bromide results. Microspheres from the three injection sites had distinctly different transport paths and rates. The 6 and 10 micron-size microspheres were observed in low to almost zero concentrations. The very low detection of larger sized microspheres indicates a potential attenuation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia-size microspheres under riverbank filtration conditions.

  9. RIVERBANK FILTRATION EFFECTIVENESS IN AN ARID ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This experiment is a field test of bank filtration at a site where water level and salinity vary on an annual basis, as they do in many arid and semi-arid streams. No other studies of bank filtration have been performed in this kind of setting. Along the border with Mexico, shall...

  10. Rotary filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Herman, David T. (Aiken, SC); Maxwell, David N. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  11. Mechanisms of pressure filtration of liquid aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.

    2006-12-01

    The Prefil Footprinter, a portable pressure filtration instrument, is usually used to detect the quality of liquid aluminum alloys. However, no investigations have ever been done to calculate the cake resistance to date. Based on the identification and classification of flow behavior using the first derivative method for filtrate mass vs filtration time curves, conventional filtration equations are successfully employed to understand the filtration behaviors. From the analyses of the variations of cake resistance with filtration time, the filtration mechanisms are discussed in detail over the different filtration stages. During the steady stage, either incompressible or compressible cake mode is the main mechanism. At the initial and terminal transient stages, however, deep-bed filtration, complete straining, and solidification clogging may appear. Solid inclusions in liquid metal have significant influence on the cake structures and properties. Some important issues related to the heterogeneity of filter media and test methodology are highlighted in this work.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  14. Filtration properties of nonwovens.

    PubMed

    Gador, W; Jankowska, E

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions from experimental investigations concerning filtration properties of nonwovens. The needled nonwovens were made from polyester fibres (PTE) with average fibre diameter 12 micrometres and polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 32 micrometres. Nonwovens were produced out of each of those fibres or out of a mixture of polyester and polypropylene fibres. This paper also presents investigations of nonwoven fabric made of polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 2.6 micrometres, which was formed according to melt-blown technology. Oil mist, as challenge aerosol, was used to evaluate the performance of filter media at various aerosol velocities. The average oil mist test aerosol particle diameter was 0.3 micrometre. Filter penetration was measured at oil mist concentration 0.24 g/m(3). PMID:10602654

  15. EFFECT OF PARAMETERS OF FILTRATION ON DUST CLEANING FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes 4 years of laboratory and large-scale tests on the dust filtration process and the basic filtration parameters that determine performance. Physical parameters describing fabric and dust cake structure were defined and three basic dust filtration mechanisms w...

  16. Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon ovarian fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Chase, D.; McKibben, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the MF-FAT, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of R. salmoninarum cells. Among the positive fish, the R. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 cells/ml to 4.3 3 109 cells/ml. A soluble antigenic fraction of R. salmoninarum was detected in 39% of the fish (40/103) by the ELISA. The ELISA is considered one of the most sensitive detection methods for bacterial kidney disease in tissues, yet it did not detect R. salmoninarum antigen consistently at bacterial cell concentrations below about 1.3 3 104 cells/ml according to the MF-FAT counts. When total DNA was extracted and tested in a nested PCR designed to amplify a 320-base-pair region of the gene encoding a soluble 57-kD protein of R. salmoninarum, 100% of the 100 samples tested were positive. The results provided strong evidence that R. salmoninarum may be present in ovarian fluids thought to be free of the bacterium on the basis of standard diagnostic methods.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A CROSSFLOW FILTER TO REMOVE SOLIDS FROM RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE: COMPARISON OF TEST DATA WITH OPERATING EXPERIENCE - 9119

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S; Julius Lacerna, J

    2009-03-01

    In 2008, the Savannah River Site (SRS) began treatment of liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farms. To treat waste streams containing {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts the waste with monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and select actinides. After MST contact, the process filters the resulting slurry to remove the MST (with sorbed strontium and actinides) and any entrained sludge. The filtrate is transported to the MCU to remove cesium. The solid particle removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the concentration of dissolved sodium, and transported to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. The authors conducted tests with 0.5 {micro} and 0.1 {micro} Mott sintered stainless steel crossflow filter at bench-scale (0.19 ft{sup 2} surface area) and pilot-scale (11.2 ft{sup 2}). The collected data supported design of the filter for the process and identified preferred operating conditions for the full-scale process (230 ft{sup 2}). The testing investigated the influence of operating parameters, such as filter pore size, axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, and solids loading, on filter flux, and validated the simulant used for pilot-scale testing. The conclusions from this work follow: (1) The 0.1 {micro} Mott sintered stainless steel filter produced higher flux than the 0.5 {micro} filter. (2) The filtrate samples collected showed no visible solids. (3) The filter flux with actual waste is comparable to the filter flux with simulated waste, with the simulated waste being conservative. This result shows the simulated sludge is representative of the actual sludge. (4) When the data is adjusted for differences in transmembrane pressure, the filter flux in the Actinide Removal Process is comparable to the filter flux in the bench-scale and pilot-scale testing. (5) Filter flux increased with transmembrane pressure, increased with axial velocity, and decreased with concentration in agreement with classical crossflow filtration theories.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and testing of carbon nanofibers for coalescence filtration of oil from compressed air and adsorption of chloroform from air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemmara, Harihara Narayanan Venkatasubramaniam

    Carbon nanofibers typically have diameters ranging from 100 nanometers to a few microns. Because of their smaller diameter, nanofibers provide a larger surface area for the same mass as larger diameter fibers. The primary purpose of this research is two-fold. The first is to test the effectiveness of carbon nanofibers for coalescence filtration of oil from compressed air streams. Theory predicts the particle capture efficiency to improve by using small diameter fibers. It was however observed that the effectiveness of capture depends on the surface properties of the nanofibers added to the glass fiber media. An attractive force between the small (0.3 to 0.8 micron sized) particles and nanofibers is required to overcome the suspected aerodynamic slip effects that cause particles to slip past the nanofibers and penetrate the media. The other purpose of the work is to activate the carbon nanofibers to increase their internal surface area and test their adsorption capacities of chloroform from air, in comparison with a larger diameter activated carbon fiber (ACF). By making maximum use of the available surface area, the economics of the process could be considerably reduced. This work supports theory that the effectiveness factor for molecular access to the surface area is higher in case of nanofibers. This has not been experimentally proved earlier as nanofibers are a relatively novel material. The carbon nanofibers activated to 1100C have good adsorption capacities under certain conditions.

  19. 7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING MEZZANINE WITH FILTER TANKS AT REAR - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. WATER FILTRATION AT DULUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    After partial completion of the Lakewood Filtration Plant at Duluth, studies were begun with funding provided by the demonstration grant. Research covered a variety of topics and was done with a 10 gpm pilot plant located at the filtration plant, with the full scale plant operati...

  2. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF R3f GARNET BEAD FILTRATION AND MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION SYSTEMS; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of tests conducted to date at the EPA T&E Facility on the R3f filtration system utilizing fine beads (such as garnet beads or glass beads) and a conventional multimedia filtration system. Both systems have been designed and built by Enprotec, a...

  3. Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford DSSF supernatant liquor from tank 241-AW-101 in a bench-scale column. Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate.

  4. Large-bore viscometry tests on a shale slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report covers work undertaken on behalf of the National Coal Board. Full-scale tests were carried out using a 4-inch-diameter tube viscometer to measure pipeline losses over a range of slurry throughputs. Bench-scale rotational viscometry tests were also performed to corroborate the full-scale test results.

  5. Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

  6. Basic study on anaerobic biological filtration using a floating filter media.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weimin; Wang, Qunhui; Liu, Huiling; Kondo, Masao; Ohsumi, Yukihide; Ogawa, Hiroaki

    2004-01-01

    An experiment of anaerobic filtration using a floating media was carried out in this study. In the present system, a bench-scale column of 50 mm in diameter and of 1500 mm in height and a floating media consisting of S-shaped polystyrene pieces were employed. The purpose of this study was to collect the basic data of anaerobic biological filtration using a floating media. Under the laboratory conditions, it was found that the start-up of an anaerobic biological filter took about half month at 20 degrees C and a lower BOD loading was favorable for this start-up. The BOD removal efficiency over 60% could be achieved at a BOD volumetric loading of the filter bed under 6 kg/m3/d. An effluent BOD concentration became high when the flow rate was high, especially with circulation of treated water, which afforded a large effect on an effluent BOD concentration. As for the mechanism of BOD removal by anaerobic filtration, it was evident that long retention time worked in favor for organic acid generation, and the circulation of treated water promoted decomposition of organic acids. PMID:15030143

  7. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Overview of membrane filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, Z.

    1986-03-01

    An overview of the process of membrane filtration and its uses is presented. Typical applications include: water treatment and chemical filtration in the printed circuit industry; gas separation and purification, primarily removal of CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and water from fuel gas produced by anaerobic digestion of sewage, or flared gas from landfills, oil fields and coal mines; microfiltration of corrosive fluids; removal of bacteria; separation of oil/water mixtures; filtration of injection fluids used in secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced recovery of oil from wells.

  9. Coagulation-membrane filtration of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Liao, Guan-Yu; Chang, Yin-Ru; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-03-01

    Filtration-based separation of Chlorella vulgaris, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was investigated using a surface-modified hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) attained maximum turbidity removal at 200 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3). The membrane filtration flux at 1 bar increased as the PACl dose increased, regardless of overdosing in the coagulation stage. The filtered cake at the end of filtration tests peaked in solid content at 10 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3), reaching 34% w/w, roughly two times that of the original suspension. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests demonstrate that the cake with minimum water-solid binding strength produced the driest filter cake. Coagulation using 10 mg L(-1) PACl as Al(2)O(3), followed by PTFE membrane filtration at 1 bar, is an effective process for harvesting C. vulgaris from algal froth. PMID:22261659

  10. Water Filtration Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  11. Water sample filtration unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skougstad, M.W.; Scarbro, G.F., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A readily portable, all plastic, pressure filtration unit is described which greatly facilitates rapid micropore membrane field filtration of up to several liters of water with a minimum risk of inorganic chemical alteration or contamination of the sample. The unit accommodates standard 10.2-cm. (4-inch) diameter filters. The storage and carrying case serves as a convenient filter stand for both field and laboratory use.

  12. HOW DO I RUN A PROPER JAR TEST PROCEDURE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The jar test has been and is ah important drinking water treatment plant design, process control, and research tool. n the drinking water field, the jar test is described as a "bench-scale" simulation of full-scale coagulation/flocculation/ sedimentation water treatment processes...

  13. 40 CFR 265.225 - Waste analysis and trial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the different process: (i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waste analysis and trial tests. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  14. 40 CFR 265.225 - Waste analysis and trial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the different process: (i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste analysis and trial tests. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  15. 40 CFR 265.225 - Waste analysis and trial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the different process: (i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste analysis and trial tests. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  16. 40 CFR 265.225 - Waste analysis and trial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the different process: (i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste analysis and trial tests. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  17. Monosodium Titanate Sludge Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    2000-11-07

    Good filterability of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurry is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of crystalline organic TPB that forms a firm but porous filter cake, allowing salt solution to pass through without unduly compressing the cake. Addition of inorganic sludge or monosodium titanate (MST) has an adverse effect on filtration, but the overall filtration rate with TPB is satisfactory. Poor cross-flow filtration performance for the Salt Disposition Alternatives requiring MST filtration is attributed primarily to the difficulty in filtering the residual inorganic sludge rich in iron and aluminum precipitates. Ferric hydrolysis products and colloids form a bulky and sticky filter cake significantly reducing filtration rate. Similarly poor filtration rates were observed in the BNFL ferric/ferrous precipitation process, necessitating a change to permanganate precipitation. This report, based on a few sludge settling observations, does not resolve the MST/Sludge filterability issue. However, it does identify the need for a change in emphasis from cross-flow optimization to understanding and controlling the chemistry and physics of alkaline inorganic particle suspensions and filterability. Promising potential exists to identify or develop surfactants or flocculants to enhance filterability of SRS sludge and monosodium titanate. Additional work is needed to provide a basic understanding of the nature of caustic sludge filter cake formation.

  18. TOXICITY BIOASSAY AND ELUATE HEAVY METALS ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE BENCH SCALE STABILIZATION STUDY OF SOILS FROM THE UNITED CHROME SUPERFUND NFL SITE CORVALLIS, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of Environmental Protection Agency Region 10 and their United Chrome studies the staff at Environmental Research Laboratory-Corvallis performed toxicity bioassays and selected chemical analyses. Direct toxicity tests (i.e. using soil as the medium) and indirect toxicit...

  19. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  20. Improved intake air filtration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, C.C. , North Wildwood, NJ )

    1991-09-01

    This report comprises the results of a project sponsored by the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association (Improved Intake Air Filtration Systems). The quality of the inlet air consumed by pipeline gas turbines plays a significant role in the performance, maintenance, and economy of turbine operations. The airborne contaminants may cause degradation of compressor blades and hot gas path components, primarily by erosion, corrosion, and fouling. Machines in the pipeline fleet have a typical average loss of 3.5% in output, chiefly caused by fouling of the gas turbine compressor. It also showed that: Air contamination could be significantly reduced by the use of more efficient air filtration systems, especially through the reduction of the quantity of smaller particles ingested.'' Filters which incorporated electrostatically charged fibers (achieved through the use of triboelectric [TE] effects) offered the most promising means for developing an improvement over paper media. The purpose of this program was to validate the use of new technology for self-cleaning air inlet filtration on gas turbine pumping applications. An approach utilizing triboelectrification of fabric filters was examined by testing to determine the penetration (efficiency), cleanability, pressure drop vs flow, and dust-holding capacity of seven pairs of filter cartridges: six fabric and one paper.

  1. Investigation of in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus giganteus using a PyGC-MS microsystem and comparison with a bench-scale spouted-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Gamliel, David P; Du, Shoucheng; Bollas, George M; Valla, Julia A

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present work is to explore the particularities of a micro-scale experimental apparatus with regards to the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass. In situ and ex situ CFP of miscanthus giganteus were performed with ZSM-5 catalyst. Higher permanent gas yields and higher selectivity to aromatics in the bio-oil were observed from ex situ CFP, but higher bio-oil yields were recorded during in situ CFP. Solid yields were comparable across both configurations. The results from in situ and ex situ PyGC were also compared with the product yields and selectivities obtained using a bench-scale, spouted-bed reactor. The bio-oil composition and overall product distribution for the PyGC ex situ configuration more closely resembled that of the spouted-bed reactor. The coke/char from in situ CFP in the PyGC was very similar in nature to that obtained from the spouted-bed reactor. PMID:25997007

  2. Filtration of A Hanford AN-104 Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, MichaelR

    2004-03-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter.Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

  3. Filtration of a Hanford AN-104 Sample

    SciTech Connect

    POIRIER, MICHAEL

    2004-04-19

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's 241-AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter. Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

  4. Microfluidic colloid filtration.

    PubMed

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today's water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a "cake layer" - often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level. PMID:26927706

  5. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    PubMed Central

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” – often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level. PMID:26927706

  6. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” – often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level.

  7. Development of BEACON technology. Topical report: tandem reactor testing of hydrogen catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. Both the methane production and hydrogen production processes from low Btu gases have been developed successfully through bench-scale under a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy and TRW, Inc. Bench-scale development of the methane process was completed during the second quarter of 1983. Also catalyst selection testing (screening tests) for hydrogen manufacturing was completed at the same time and the results reported in a Topical Report dated October 1983. This document summarizes the data generated at bench-scale on the production of hydrogen from low Btu gas. Bench-scale development of the BEACON hydrogen process was concluded with the completion of Task 3. The objective of Task 3 was to qualify through bench-scale a BEACON-type catalyst for the production of hydrogen from low Btu gases. Catalyst No. 11, a modified SNG BEACON catalyst which proved highly selective to hydrogen production during laboratory scale screening tests was subjected to a total of 265 hours of steady state operation at three pressures (50, 75 and 100 psig) in the fluidized bed Tandem Reactor apparatus (bench-scale). The catalyst met all the requirements of stability and selectivity cited above. Carbon deposition and carbon steaming to hydrogen took place at near equilibrium yields, methane suppression was greater than 80% at all pressures, and there was no significant build-up of inactive carbon residue on the catalyst. 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. FILTRATION PARAMETERS FOR DUST CLEANING FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of bag filter fabrics. Filtration performance data and mathematical modeling parameters are given for four Polish fabrics tested with cement dust, coal dust, flyash, and talc. Conclusions include: (1) The process of clean ai...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation

  11. Removal of aqueous nC60 fullerene from water by low pressure membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Floris, R; Nijmeijer, K; Cornelissen, E R

    2016-03-15

    The potential environmental and health risks of engineered nanoparticles such as buckminsterfullerene C60 in water require their removal during the production of drinking water. We present a study focusing on (i) the removal mechanism and (ii) the elucidation of the role of the membrane pore size during removal of nC60 fullerene nanoparticle suspensions in dead-end microfiltration and ultrafiltration mimicking separation in real industrial water treatment plants. Membranes were selected with pore sizes ranging from 18 nm to 500 nm to determine the significance of the nC60 to membrane pore size ratio and the adsorption affinity between nC60 and membrane material during filtration. Experiments were carried out with a dead-end bench-scale system operated at constant flux conditions including a hydraulic backwash cleaning procedure. nC60 nanoparticles can be efficiently removed by low pressure membrane technology with smaller and, unexpectedly, also by mostly similar or larger pores than the particle size, although the nC60 filtration behaviour appeared to be different. The nC60 size to membrane pore size ratio and the ratio of the cake-layer deposition resistance to the clean membrane resistance, both play an important role on the nC60 filtration behaviour and on the efficiency of the backwash procedure recovering the initial membrane filtration conditions. These results become specifically significant in the context of drinking water production, for which they provide relevant information for an accurate selection between membrane processes and operational parameters for the removal of nC60 in the drinking water treatment. PMID:26773485

  12. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  13. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  14. Bench-scale co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The current task is to complete a long-term operability run using a 0.05 wt-% Mo-based catalyst at approximately 460{degrees}C. The objectives of this run are to demonstrate that high-severity conditions can be run for an extended period of time (at least one month) and to collect enough product sample to do a complete Hempel fractionation and detailed characterization of the individual naphtha, distillate, and VGO cuts. This information will be used to reevaluate the engineering design and product upgrading scheme that was developed under the first co-processing contract (DE-AC22-84PC70002). During the current two quarters, the long-term operability study was unsuccessfully attempted several times. This report discusses these attempts.

  15. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  16. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  17. Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. F.; Darab, J. G.; Matson, D. W.; Linehan, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), uniquely combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was initially demonstrated on a laboratory scale and was subsequently scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 sq m/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO2 produced by RTDS are included.

  18. Near-Tank Treatment of Hanford Tank Waste: Pilot-Scale Testing - 12107

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, P.P.; Edwards, M.K.; Shimskey, R.W.; Peterson, R.A.; Smith, C.; Tranbarger, R.

    2012-07-01

    In order to reduce the number of high level waste canisters that will have to be produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, supplemental waste treatment technologies are being investigated. One such technology is the Near-Tank Treatment System, which uses continuous sludge leaching, filtration, and ion exchange to process the waste in a simple, compact system. The Near Tank Treatment System is ideally suited for handling Hanford tanks with large amounts of boehmite, a difficult aluminum phase to dissolve. A pilot-scale Near Tank Treatment System was constructed and tested with a boehmite and iron oxyhydroxide waste simulant to evaluate the robustness and effectiveness of the system. The data from the pilot-scale tests were also used to assess scale-up from previously performed bench-scale tests. It should be noted that any work involving the use of simulated HLW has inherent limitations. For this work, every attempt was made to ensure that the simulant mimicked the actual waste performance as closely as possible. However, there are always limitations in the ability to The NTTS Demonstration Test established that all the subsystems could be operated concurrently to process the waste simulant. The NTTS had a stable performance during the Demonstration Test that required very little external manipulation once a steady state was achieved. The CSL demonstrated effectively 90% dissolution of the hard to leach boehmite phase. The cross flow filtration system was able to deliver decontaminated salt solution to the NTCR system. The NTCR system exceeded the design basis by providing effluent below the detection limit beyond the design basis required time. The NTTS system was successfully demonstrated and has shown that leaching and decontamination of the subsequent permeate can be readily achieved using relatively small footprint equipment in an at tank application. (authors)

  19. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  20. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  1. Quantifying oil filtration effects on bearing life

    SciTech Connect

    Needelman, W.M.; Zaretsky, E.V.

    1991-06-01

    Rolling-element bearing life is influenced by the number, size, and material properties of particles entering the Hertzian contact of the rolling element and raceway. In general, rolling-element bearing life increases with increasing level of oil filtration. Based upon test results, two equations are presented which allow for the adjustment of bearing L{sub 10} or catalog life based upon oil filter rating. It is recommended that where no oil filtration is used catalog life be reduced by 50 percent.

  2. Quantifying oil filtration effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needelman, William M.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1991-01-01

    Rolling-element bearing life is influenced by the number, size, and material properties of particles entering the Hertzian contact of the rolling element and raceway. In general, rolling-element bearing life increases with increasing level of oil filtration. Based upon test results, two equations are presented which allow for the adjustment of bearing L(sub 10) or catalog life based upon oil filter rating. It is recommended that where no oil filtration is used catalog life be reduced by 50 percent.

  3. Contamination control through filtration of microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stabekis, P. D.; Lyle, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the various kinds of gas and liquid filters used in decontamination and sterilization procedures. Also discussed are filtration mechanisms, characteristics of filter materials, and the factors affecting filter performance. Summaries are included for filter testing and evaluation techniques and the possible application of the filters to spacecraft sterilization.

  4. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver solutions as a function of reaction (dissolution) time, by analyzing offgas generation rate and composition, and by analyzing intermittent and final acid-insoluble solids at the end of the dissolution. The testing was conducted in a system designed to assess parameters that can influence sludge dissolution and provide information that can be used to determine operating conditions for the actual system.

  5. Industrial Membrane Filtration and Short-bed Fractal Separation Systems for Separating Monomers from Heterogeneous Plant Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, M; Kochergin, V; Hess, R; Foust, T; Herbst, R; Mann, N

    2005-03-31

    Large-scale displacement of petroleum will come from low-cost cellulosic feedstocks such as straw and corn stover crop residues. This project has taken a step toward making this projection a reality by reducing capital and energy costs, the two largest cost factors associated with converting cellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels. The technology exists for using acid or enzyme hydrolysis processes to convert biomass feedstock (i.e., waste cellulose such as straw, corn stover, and wood) into their base monomeric sugar building blocks, which can, in turn, be processed into chemicals and fuels using a number of innovative fermentation technologies. However, while these processes are technically possible, practical and economic barriers make these processes only marginally feasible or not feasible at all. These barriers are due in part to the complexity and large fixed and recurring capital costs of unit operations including filtration, chromatographic separation, and ion exchange. This project was designed to help remove these barriers by developing and implementing new purification and separation technologies that will reduce the capital costs of the purification and chromatographic separation units by 50% to 70%. The technologies fundamental to these improvements are: (a) highly efficient clarification and purification systems that use screening and membrane filtration to eliminate suspended solids and colloidal material from feed streams and (b) fractal technology based chromatographic separation and ion exchange systems that can substitute for conventional systems but at much smaller size and cost. A non-hazardous ''raw sugar beet juice'' stream (75 to 100 gal/min) was used for prototype testing of these technologies. This raw beet juice stream from the Amalgamated Sugar LLC plant in Twin Falls, Idaho contained abrasive materials and membrane foulants. Its characteristics were representative of an industrial-scale heterogeneous plant extract/hydrolysis stream, and therefore was an ideal model system for developing new separation equipment. Subsequent testing used both synthetic acid hydrolysate and corn stover derived weak acid hydrolysate (NREL produced). A two-phased approach was used for the research and development described in this project. The first level of study involved testing the new concepts at the bench level. The bench-scale evaluations provided fundamental understanding of the processes, building and testing small prototype systems, and determining the efficiency of the novel processes. The second level of study, macro-level, required building larger systems that directly simulated industrial operations and provided validation of performance to minimize financial risk during commercialization. The project goals and scope included: (1) Development of low-capital alternatives to conventional crop-based purification/separation processes; and (2) Development of each process to the point that transition to commercial operation is low risk. The project reporting period was January 2001 to December 2004. This included a one year extension of the project (without additional funding).

  6. Dynamic Optical Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  7. Dynamic optical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  8. Effect of hot vapor filtration on the characterization of bio-oil from rice husks with fast pyrolysis in a fluidized-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianju; Wu, Ceng; Liu, Ronghou; Fei, Wenting; Liu, Shiyu

    2011-05-01

    To produce high quality bio-oil from biomass using fast pyrolysis, rice husks were pyrolyzed in a 1-5 kg/h bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The effect of hot vapor filtration (HVF) was investigated to filter the solid particles and bio-char. The results showed that the total bio-oil yield decreased from 41.7% to 39.5% by weight and the bio-oil had a higher water content, higher pH, and lower alkali metal content when using HVF. One hundred and twelve different chemical compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The molecular weight of the chemical compounds from the condenser and the EP when the cyclone was coupled with HVF in the separation system decreased compared with those from the condenser and EP when only cyclone was used. PMID:21376572

  9. Certification of Probability of Sterilization of Liquid by Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Portner, Dorothy M.; Phillips, Charles R.; Hoffman, Robert K.

    1967-01-01

    Four types of hydrosol filters, two reusable (diatomaceous cylinder and fritted-glass funnel) and two disposable (asbestos pad and membrane filter) were challenged with a heavy bacterial suspension to assess their ability to produce sterile filtrates. Two of the four diatomaceous earth filters, the four fritted-glass funnels, and all of the asbestos pads tested generally gave sterile filtrates. However, only one type of filter, one of the membranes in its manufacturer's own holder, consistently gave sterile filtrates. The two other types of membranes usually gave sterile filtrates if tested in one manufacturer's holder, but all types invariably gave contaminated filtrates when tested in another manufacturer's holder. Contaminated filtrates were generally attributed to a poor reusable filter or to a faulty holder used with a disposable filter. If a high degree of certainty is required for sterile heat-labile filtrate, it is suggested that the liquid be passed through two or more filters in a previously tested and proven system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:4860528

  10. Pilot-scale testing of refining process for decontaminating lead

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.V.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the results of 1989--1990 pilot-scale tests of a refining process for decontaminating radioactively contaminated lead. Bench-scale tests in 1988 had been successful, and the pilot-scale tests were needed to determine whether the process would be effective on a larger scale. The tests were conducted at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility at the Idaho National Engineering laboratory.

  11. Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

    2009-03-09

    The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite dissolution kinetics and filter fouling are reported elsewhere (see Table S.1). The primary goal of scale-up testing was to examine how filter length influenced permeate flux rates. To accomplish this, the existing cells unit filter system, which employs a 2-ft-long, 0.5-in. (inner) diameter sintered stainless steel filter element, was redesigned to accommodate an 8-ft. sintered stainless steel filter element of the same diameter. Testing was then performed to evaluate the filtration performance of waste simulant slurries. Scale-up testing consisted of two separate series of filtration tests: 1) scale-up axial velocity (AV)/transmembrane pressure (TMP) matrix tests and 2) scale-up temperature tests. The AV/TMP matrix tests examined filtration performance of two different waste simulant slurries in the 8-ft. cells unit filter system. Waste simulant slurry formulations for the 8-ft. scale-up test was selected to match simulant slurries for which filtration performance had been characterized on the 2-ft CUF. For the scale-up temperature tests, the filtration performance at three test temperatures (i.e., 25°C, 40°C, and 60°C) was determined to evaluate if filter flux versus temperature correlations developed using the 2-ft filters were also valid for the 8-ft filters.

  12. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

    2005-10-28

    SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and operation of the full-scale two-stage SpinTek unit for treatment of a DOE waste-stream at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technology has very broad application across the DOE system. Nineteen DOE technical needs areas (Appendix C) have been identified. Following successful full-scale demonstration for treatment of DOE wastes, this innovative technology will be rapidly deployed on a wide range of waste and process streams throughout the DOE system.

  13. Effects of pore pressure and mud filtration on drilling rates in a permeable sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.; Sandstrom, J.; Tibbitts, G.

    1983-10-01

    During laboratory drilling tests in a permeable sandstone, the effects of pore pressure and mud filtration on penetration rates were measured. Four water-base muds were used to drill four saturated sandstone samples. The drilling tests were conducted at constant borehole pressure with different back pressures maintained on the filtrate flowing from the bottom of the sandstone samples. Bit weight was also varied. Filtration rates were measured while drilling and with the bit off bottom and mud circulating. Penetration rates were found to be related to the difference between the filtration rates measured while drilling and circulating. There was no observed correlation between standard API filtration measurements and penetration rate.

  14. MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to this project, MRI had carried out work for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the conceptual design of a solar system for solid waste disposal and a follow-on project to study the feasibility of bench-scale testing of desorption of organics from soil with destr...

  15. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.

    1999-07-01

    A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The filtration system consists of a fine, metal-screen filter that is immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As a gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of granular bed material is entrained and deposited on the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter that separates fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Because only the in-flowing gas maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer are stabilized, the layer remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limit the thickness of the granular layer on the filter, leading to self-cleaning of the filter. The original granular filtration testing system consisted of a set of filter elements; a two-dimensional fluidized-bed; a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV) and/or a classical scattering aerosol spectrometer (CSAS); and a continuous solid feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized-bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer. Two different filter element configurations were tested. The original filter showed high filtration performance when low density acrylic powder was used as bed material, but low filtration performance with heavy bed material (sand). The low filtration performance with this material was attributed to the failure to maintain a sufficiently thick granular layer at the screen filter surface. However, experimental data show that filtration performance for heavy bed material can be drastically improved by modifying the filter element. Collection efficiencies of over 99.95% were consistently obtained in a series of experiments under similar operating conditions.

  16. A PERSPECTIVE OF RIVERBANK FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverbank filtration is a process in which pumping of wells located along riverbanks induce a portion of the river water to flow toward the pumping wells. The process has many similarities to the slow sand filtration process. River water contaminants are attenuated due to a combi...

  17. MICROBIOLOGY AND DRINKING WATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about waterborne viruses and protozoan cysts developed in the third quarter of the twentieth century, and filtration research for microorganism control in the 1960's through 1980's has reflected these concerns. The chapter briefly reviews historical filtration research f...

  18. Filtration in industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C

    2001-01-01

    Filters used in industrial hygiene are of two basic types, corresponding with the two basic airborne hazards: particulate and vapor. They are as different in their construction as they are in their purpose, and each gives negligible protection against the other hazard. By use of the correct type, adequate filtration efficiency can usually be achieved. Most particulate filters are made from fibers, and finer fibers result in higher efficiency. Filters can capture particles much smaller than the fiber diameter, as a result of diffusional motion of the airborne particles and, in the case of filters that hold a permanent electric charge, electrostatic attraction. Most vapor filters are made from granules of activated carbon, which have an extremely large effective surface area, where molecules of contaminant are adsorbed. The performance of all filters tends to alter as the filter material becomes loaded. Electrically neutral particulate filters become more efficient but at the expense of increased resistance to airflow. Particulate filters that act by electric forces may become less efficient, and are often less inclined to clog. Vapor filters usually have a high initial efficiency, but the penetration of vapor increases as the filters become saturated with adsorbed vapor, and the performance of these filters is normally expressed in terms of their lifetime rather than their efficiency. It is important that the choice of a filter should be made with close reference to the situation in which it is to be used, and optimum respiratory protection should be sought, rather than maximum filtration efficiency. Special problems of filters are illustrated by some case histories, and finally the use of filters as size selectors for dust samplers is briefly described. PMID:11669390

  19. PILOT PLANT EXPLORATION OF SLOW RATE FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives to conventional coagulation water filtration plants (those that utilize coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration) may be appropriate for some small water utilities. One such alternative is slow rate filtration. This paper describes pilot plant studies ...

  20. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  1. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  2. Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

  3. Easily optimize batch pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.R.

    1998-02-01

    Several years ago, the author wrote an article describing a design method for batch pressure filtration systems. The method maximizes the production capability of a filtration system by selecting the best operating conditions--filtration time, initial mass flux, operating temperature, and pressure drop. Most often, maximizing production will also optimize total system costs, and both capital/investment and operating expenses. The method requires a large number of calculations, and is time-consuming and cumbersome, even with a personal computer. This article presents a simplified and fast calculation technique. It`s based upon several dimensionless numbers and two graphs that relate the dimensionless numbers to each other.

  4. Dry well filtration system

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, L.R.; Work, J.A.

    1987-08-25

    A filtration system is described comprising: means for minimizing clogging of a dry well by silt and gravel and removing suspended particles from water entering a dry well including in combination: a buffer tank having a top, bottom, first and second sides, and first and second ends, with a water inlet at the first end and water outlet at the second end; means for connecting the water outlet to a dry well drain pipe; means for connecting the water inlet to a source of water input; baffle means for trapping silt and gravel to prevent such silt and gravel from reaching the water outlet, the baffle means comprising a baffle plate in the tank extending from the first side to the second side and from the bottom to a predetermined distance from the top near the first end and located with respect to the water inlet to prevent water flow in a straight line from the water inlet to the water outlet; and filter means for removing suspended particles from water passing through the tank, the filter means including a filter member in the tank and extending from the first side to the second side and extending substantially from the top to the bottom, the filter member located between the baffle plate and the water outlet to prevent particles of greater than a predetermined size carried by water flowing through the water inlet from passing through the filter member to the water outlet.

  5. Modern fueloil filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.

    1995-11-01

    Pumping out a home storage tank and filtering the oil through a cleaning machine is an excellent way to service a dirty tank, but even then proper filtration is still a must. Without good filteration, it can be very embarrassing for the service department to explain a sediment problem which can still occur even after charging a customer for pumping the tank. Modern filteration technology makes it possible to overcome the effects of poorer quality fueloil and provide better service to customers as well as lower service costs (therefore, more profit) to the oil heat company. Yesterday`s fueloil was plentiful and there was strong competition in the supply market. As a result refiners and distributors were careful to keep out contaminants. Today, however, that has changed and fueloil is no longer consistently delivered as pure as it used to be. While it is true that refinery production of No. 2 fueloil has reached new highs in btu content and clean burning characteristics, it is also true that increased use of the spot market has had a negative effect on fuel quality.

  6. Coupled plasma filtration adsorption.

    PubMed

    Formica, Marco; Inguaggiato, Paola; Bainotti, Serena; Wratten, Mary Lou

    2007-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the main causes of death in critically ill patients worldwide, and in many cases it is associated with renal and/or other organ failure. However, we do not have a unique efficient therapy to reduce this extremely high mortality rate. In the last years interest around the use of extracorporeal blood purification techniques has increased. One of the emerging treatments in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock is coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA), a novel extracorporeal blood purification therapy aimed at a nonselective reduction of the circulating levels and activities of both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Early experimental studies and the following clinical trials have demonstrated impressive results regarding hemodynamics and respiratory parameters, even in patients without concomitant acute renal injury, paralleled by a quick tapering of vasoactive drugs. Considering the still high morbidity and mortality rates in septic shock patients, this new blood purification technique seems to have benefits when applied early in the course of sepsis, also without renal indications, suggesting that it might be performed to prevent rather than to treat acute kidney injury. PMID:17464151

  7. Repeatability of the Petrifilm HEC test and agreement with a hydrophobic grid membrane filtration method for the enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Power, C A; McEwen, S A; Johnson, R P; Shoukri, M M; Rahn, K; Griffiths, M W; De Grandis, S A

    1998-04-01

    The Petrifilm HEC test (3M Canada Inc., London, Ontario), a quantitative microbiological test for Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated for its performance as a beef-carcass monitoring test. Test repeatability and agreement and agreement with an E. coli O157:H7 detection method using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) overlaid onto cefixime-tellurite-sorbitol MacConkey agar (CT-SMAC) followed by a latex agglutination test for the O157 antigen were determined by using pure cultures of E. coli O157:H7, beef samples experimentally contaminated with bovine feces containing E. coli O157:H7, and naturally contaminated beef carcasses of unknown E. coli O157:H7 status from a local abattoir. The Petrifilm HEC test showed excellent repeatability and excellent agreement with the HGMF-CT-SMAC method when test samples were obtained from pure cultures and experimentally contaminated meat. All 125 naturally contaminated beef carcasses surveyed were negative for E. coli O157:H7 with both microbial methods. The Petrifilm HEC test, however, demonstrated a significantly lower proportion of cross-reactive organisms (false-positive reactions) than the HGMF-CT-SMAC method. Given the performance of this test coupled with its ease of use and compact size, it shows considerable promise for carcass testing where abattoir laboratory facilities are limited and as a substitute for more complex laboratory testing methods used in established laboratories. PMID:9709201

  8. MGP soil remediation in a slurry-phase system: A pilot-scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bill Y.; Srivastava, V.J.; Paterek, J.R.; Pradhan, S.P.; Pope, J.R.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.; Jerger, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    An overall protocol for remediating manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils generally includes bench-scale evaluation of the technology, pilot-scale demonstration, and full-scale implementation. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale and pilot-scale study for treating an MGP soil with IGT`s integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) or Manufactured Gas Plant Remediation (MGP-REM) process in the slurry-phase mode of application. MGP soils are contaminated primarily with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An MGP site in New Jersey was the subject of this study. Soils from the site were used for the bench-scale evaluation of the integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment. The bench-scale study started with biological pre-treatment followed by chemical treatment and biological polishing. Results of the bench-scale study showed that this process was effective in degrading EPA Total as well as EPA Carcinogenic PAHs. A test matrix was developed to assess this technology at a pilot-scale facility. The test matrix consisted of at least eight semi-continuous runs designed to evaluate the effects of PAH concentration, total solids concentration, residence time, and a number of chemical reagent additions. An operating permit for 14 days was obtained to evaluate the process primarily for air emission data and secondarily for PAH degradation data. The PAH data showed that the MGP-REM process was very effective in degrading carcinogenic PAHs even under sub-optimal operating conditions. The field data also showed that the emissions of volatile organic compounds were well below the regulatory limits.

  9. Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-08-30

    The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and total alpha nuclides are <40 nCi/g, <40 nCi/g, and <18 nCi/g, respectively. However, to allow for changes in process conditions, the SPP is seeking a level of treatment that is about 50% of the WAC. The bounding separation goals for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

  10. Measuring of filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles in volume from scattered light by seeding particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, P.; Sidlof, P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the method which calculates a filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles from scattered light intensity by seeding particles. Thefiltration efficiency is commonly measured by particle counters. Samples of liquid or gas are taken during a test in front of and behind a filtration material. The concentration of particles is measured and the filtration efficiency is calculated. The filtration efficiency does not have to be uniform in itswhole surface. The uniformity of filtration is another indicator of a quality of filtration materials. Measurements described in this article were performed on a water filtration setup which enables optical access to the place where the filtration material is mounted. Pictures of illuminated seeding particles are made by a laser sheet and a camera. Visualisation of the filtration process enables measuring of the efficiency of separation versus time and also versus two-dimensional position in case of use of a traverse mechanism. The filtration textiles were tested by 1 ?m seeding particles. Mean value of light intensity and number of bright pixels in evaluative areas during image analysis were obtained. On the basis of these data, the filtration efficiency iscalculated. The best image analysis method was chosen.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production.

    PubMed

    Kartal, S N; Imamura, Y; Tsuchiya, F; Ohsato, K

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270 degrees C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. PMID:15207293

  12. Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.; Robinson, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the particulate properties that determine the filtration performance of fabric filters, and to investigate methods for modifying these particulate properties to enhance filtration performance. Inherent in these objectives is the development of an experimental approach that will lead to full-scale implementation of beneficial conditioning processes identified during the project. The general approach has included a large number of laboratory evaluations to be followed by optional field tests of a new successful conditioning processes performed on a sidestream device. This project was divided into five tasks. The schedule followed for these tasks is shown in Figure 4. Tasks 2 and 3 each focus on one of the two complementary parts of the project. Task 2 Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, evaluates the degree to which ash properties and fabric design determine filtration performance. Task 3 Survey of Methods to Modify the Particle Filtration Properties, provides a literature review and laboratory study of techniques to modify ash properties. The results of these two tasks were used in Task 4 Proof-of-Concept Tests of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties to demonstrate the effects on filtration performance of modifying ash properties. The findings of all the tasks are summarized in this Final Report. 13 refs.

  13. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  14. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  15. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  16. Nanofiber filter media for air filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Bharath Kumar

    Nanofibers have higher capture efficiencies in comparison to microfibers in the submicron particle size range of 100-500 nm because of small fiber diameter and increased surface area of the fibers. Pressure drop across the filter increases tremendously with decrease in fiber diameter in the continuum flow regime. Nanofibers with fiber diameter less than 300 nm are in the slip flow regime as a consequence of which steep increase in pressure drop is considerably reduced due to slip effect. The outlet or inlet gases have broad range of particle size distribution varying from few micrometers to nanometers. The economic benefits include capture of a wide range of particle sizes in the gas streams using compact filters composed of nanofibers and microfibers. Electrospinning technique was used to successfully fabricate polymeric and ceramic nanofibers. The nanofibers were long, continuous, and flexible with diameters in the range of 200--300 nm. Nanofibers were added to the filter medium either by mixing microfibers and nanofibers or by directly electrospinning nanofibers as thin layer on the surface of the microfiber filter medium. Experimental results showed that either by mixing Nylon 6 nanofibers with B glass fibers or by electrospinning Nylon 6 nanofibers as a thin layer on the surface of the microfiber medium in the surface area ratio of 1 which is 0.06 g of nanofibers for 2 g of microfibers performed better than microfiber filter media in air filtration tests. This improved performance is consistent with numerical modeling. The particle loading on a microfibrous filter were studied for air filtration tests. The experimental and modeling results showed that both pressure drop and capture efficiency increased with loading time. Nanofiber filter media has potential applications in many filtration applications and one of them being hot gas filtration. Ceramic nanofibers made of alumina and titania nanofibers can withstand in the range of 1000C. Ceramic nanofibers filter media were fabricated by mixing alumina microfibers (SAFFIL) and alumina nanofibers. The appropriate binders were tested for ceramic filter media. The ceramic filter media were tested for aerosol filtration.

  17. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system..., and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must...

  18. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system..., and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must...

  19. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system..., and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must...

  20. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system..., and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must...

  1. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system..., and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must...

  2. Effects of aluminum-copper alloy filtration on photon spectra, air kerma rate and image contrast.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Andréa; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, without the original aluminum filter, for dental radiography in terms of x-ray energy spectrum, air kerma rate and image quality. Comparisons of various thicknesses of aluminum-copper alloy in three different percentages were made with aluminum filtration. Tests were conducted on an intra-oral dental x-ray machine and were made on mandible phantom and on step-wedge. Depending on the thickness of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, the beam could be hardened and filtrated. The use of the aluminum-copper alloy filter resulted in reductions in air kerma rate from 8.40% to 47.33%, and indicated the same image contrast when compared to aluminum filtration. Aluminum-copper alloy filtration may be considered a good alternative to aluminum filtration. PMID:15798826

  3. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

    1991-07-31

    Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

  4. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

    1991-07-31

    Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.'' The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

  5. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the inflowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. This paper presents work since then on a continuous filtration system. The continuous filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized-bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solids feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized-bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

  6. METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperatation with Shell Synthetic Fuels, Incorporated to obtain data relevent to the design and operation of dry particulate solids filters, and Nahcolite as a chloride removal sorbent. Shell Synthetic Fuels Incorporated provided 60 mm O.D. {times} 40 mm I.D. {times} O.5 m long silicon carbide, LayCer{trademark} 70/3 candle filters for use in filtering coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the filters in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) are found in CRADA 93-011. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 93-011. Seven gasifier runs were conducted over an eighteen month period to accumulate 868 hours of operation. During this time, 3 filters were used 2 at a time to give individual candle usage of 254 hours, 525 hours, and 868 hours, respectively. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

  7. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Walters; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; R.-H. Yoon

    1999-01-01

    It is the objective of the current project to further refine the TES process developed at FETC through bench-scale and proof-of-concept (POC) test programs. The bench-scale test program is aimed at studying the charging mechanisms associated with coal and mineral matter and improving the triboelectrification process, while the POC test program is aimed at obtaining scale-up information. The POC tests will be conducted at a throughput of 200-250 kg/hr. It is also the objective of the project to conduct a cost analysis based on the scale-up information obtained in the present work. Specific objectives of the work conducted during the current reporting period can be summarized as follows: to complete the engineering design of the TES tribocharging system and electrostatic separator, and to continue work related to the procurement and fabrication of the key components required to construct and install the proposed POC test circuit.

  8. Filtration: An investment in IAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, H.E.B.

    1997-08-01

    Air filtration is a forgotten component in the resiliency engineering equation. This under-utilized asset is becoming more understandable and user-friendly, bringing about giant strides in application technology in commercial buildings for IAQ resiliency. Filtration and air cleaning are highly developed and well-established technologies in industrial and specialized application areas. These include a variety of clean room applications as well as a wide array of highly sophisticated industrial needs for varying degrees and types of cleansed air sources. Application areas include pharmaceutical, health care, process control, and electronic protection, to name a few. Yet filtration generally remains an under-utilized technology in the field of indoor environmental quality in commercial buildings. Although source control is clearly the preferred technique for controlling air contaminants, air cleaning can provide a spectrum of valuable and cost-effective tactics to achieve and maintain an acceptable indoor environment.

  9. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  10. Efficiency of bacterial filtration in various commercial air filters for hospital air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, M

    1978-09-01

    Filtration efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters is said to be over 99.97% of removal rate against the mist of thermogenerating-type of dioctyl phthalate with average particles diameter of 0.3 micrometer, as tested by the U.S. Military Standard 282 (1956). Filtration of bacterial aerosols through commercial air filters was tested to examine the efficiency of bacterial filtration with eight kinds of air filters. Percentage of bacterial filtration efficiency (% BFE) of three kinds of HEPA filters showed 100% BFE, while NBS-95 and NBS-85 showed over 99% BFE. BFE of NBS-75 air filter was 91.75%. PMID:359187

  11. Wound modulation after filtration surgery.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Leonard K; Sherwood, Mark B; Kahook, Malik Y

    2012-11-01

    Filtration surgery is the standard invasive procedure for the management of intraocular pressure in advanced glaucoma. The key to a successful outcome is to modulate the normal wound healing cascade that leads to closure of the newly created aqueous outflow pathway. Antifibrotic agents such as mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil have been increasingly used to modulate the wound healing process and increase surgical success. Although these agents have proven efficacy, they also increase the risk of complications. Efforts have centered on the identification of novel agents and techniques that can influence wound modulation without these complications. We detail new agents and methods under investigation to control wound healing after filtration surgery. PMID:23068975

  12. Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-07-01

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

  13. Filtrates and Residues: Gel Filtration--An Innovative Separation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James

    1985-01-01

    Gel filtration is a form of liquid chromatography that separates molecules primarily on the basis of their size. Advantages of using this technique, theoretical aspects, and experiments (including procedures used) are discussed. Several questions for students to answer (with answers) are also provided. (JN)

  14. Removal of pathogens using riverbank filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, M. M.; Emelko, M. B.; Thomson, N. R.

    2003-04-01

    Although more than hundred years old, in situ or Riverbank Filtration (RBF) has undergone a renewed interest in North America because of its potential as a surface water pre-treatment tool for removal of pathogenic microorganisms. A new RBF research field site has been constructed along the banks of the Grand River in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to assess factors influencing pathogen removal in the subsurface. Implementation of RBF and appropriate design of subsequent treatment (UV, chlorination, etc.) processes requires successful quantification of in situ removals of Cryptosporidium parvum or a reliable surrogate parameter. C.~parvum is often present in surface water at low indigenous concentrations and can be difficult to detect in well effluents. Since releases of inactivated C.~parvum at concentrations high enough for detection in well effluents are cost prohibitive, other approaches for demonstrating effective in situ filtration of C.~parvum must be considered; these include the use of other microbial species or microspheres as indicators of C.~parvum transport in the environment. Spores of Bacillus subtilis may be considered reasonable indicators of C.~parvum removal by in situ filtration because of their size (1 ?m in diameter), spherical shape, relatively high indigenous concentration is many surface waters, and relative ease of enumeration. Based on conventional particle filtration theory and assuming equivalent chemical interactions for all particle sizes, a 1 ?m B.~subtilis spore will be removed less readily than a larger C. parvum oocyst (4-6 ?m) in an ideal granular filter. Preliminary full-scale data obtained from a high rate RBF production well near the new RBF test site demonstrated greater than 1 log removal of B.~subtilis spores. This observed spore removal is higher than that prescribed by the proposed U.S. Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule for C.~parvum. To further investigate the removal relationship between C.~parvum, Giardia lamblia and proposed surrogates such as B.~subtilis, detailed characterization of site hydrogeology, geochemistry, and water quality (MPA, particles, TOC, ionic strength) are underway. Particle counts are being measured in the bank filtrate to compare particle breakthrough with breakthrough of B.~subtilis spores. Particle counting has been suggested by some regulatory bodies as a real-time measure of in situ filtration performance; however, particle counting is a limited tool for assessing the efficacy of pathogen removal by in situ filtration because it is incapable of identifying discrete particles and can fail to detect microorganisms with refraction indexes close to that of water. Preliminary B.~subtilis removal data from the full scale RBF well and preliminary site characterization, particle count, and B.~subtilis removal data from the RBF test site are presented.

  15. METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report is a summary of the results of activities of the particulate monitoring group in support of the METC/Shell CRADA 93-011. Online particulate monitoring began in August 1993 and ended in October 1994. The particulate monitoring group participated in six MGCR runs (No. 5 through No. 10). The instrument used in measuring the particle loadings (particle counts and size distribution) is the Particle Measuring Systems Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe High Temperature and High Pressure (PMS Model CSASP-100-HTHP). This PMS unit is rated to operate at temperatures up to 540{degree}C and gage pressures up to 2.07 MPa. Gas stream conditions, temperature at 540{degree}C, gage pressure at 2.93 MPa, and gas flowrate at 0.0157 SCM per second, precluded the direct measurement of particulate loadings in the gas stream with the PMS unit. A side stream was extracted from the gas stream after it came over to the MGCR, (Modular Gas Cleanup Rig), from the FBG, pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier, but before it entered the filter testing vessel. A sampling probe of 0.635 cm O.D. thin wall stainless steel tubing was used for extracting the sample gas isokinetically based on the expected flowrate. The sample gas stream was further split into two streams; one was directed to the PMS unit and the other to the alkali monitor unit.

  16. Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, David; DiBartolomeo, Dennis; Wang, Duo

    2007-09-01

    In an industrial cleanroom, significant energy savings were realized by implementing two types of demand controlled filtration (DCF) strategies, one based on particle counts and one on occupancy. With each strategy the speed of the recirculation fan filter units was reduced to save energy. When the control was based on particle counts, the energy use was 60% of the baseline configuration of continuous fan operation. With simple occupancy sensors, the energy usage was 63% of the baseline configuration. During the testing of DCF, no complaints were registered by the operator of the cleanroom concerning processes and products being affected by the DCF implementation.

  17. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  18. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  19. ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) at pilot scale. The pilot unit consisted of a conventional baghouse in parallel with an ESFF baghouse, allowing direct comparison. Reported results are for pulse-cl...

  20. Health benefits of particle filtration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product was developed under an interagency agreement between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews o...

  1. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  2. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL REMOVAL BY FILTRATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration ws originally used to remove contaminants that affect the appearance, odor, and taste of drinking water. Later it was demonstrated that bacteria in drinking water were causative agents of disease. Water treatment technology improved with the addition of disinfection, c...

  4. Filtration of ultrafine metallic particles in industry.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Morele, Y; Régnier, R

    2015-09-01

    Thermal metal spraying, metal cutting and arc welding processes generate large quantities of ultrafine particles that cause the irreversible clogging of industrial filters. The aim of the study performed was to identify the causes of the clogging of cartridge filters and investigate other paths for cleaning them. This study required the development of a test bench capable of reproducing a thermal spraying process to test the performances of different filtration techniques. This test instrument first, permitted the precise characterization of the aerosol generated by the process and, second, defined the clogging and cleaning conditions for filters. Several parameters were tested: the type of filter, online and off-line cleaning, pre-coating, cleaning by jets of high-speed compressed air via a probe. PMID:25759204

  5. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  6. A New Test Method for Material Flammability Assessment in Microgravity and Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H. D.; Haas, J. P.; Baas, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to modify the well-instrumented standard cone configuration to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. We will then develop a standard test method with pass-fail criteria for future use in spacecraft materials flammability screening. (For example, dripping of molten material will be an automatic fail.)

  7. The impact of flow surges on rapid gravity filtration.

    PubMed

    Han, Shejiao; Fitzpatrick, Caroline S B; Wetherill, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    In drinking water treatment flow fluctuations or surges can occur at the filtration stage. Pilot plant tests were carried out to investigate the impact of flow surges on filter performance in this study. Moreover a filtration model was applied to analyse the impact of flow surges on filter performance and predict the experimental data obtained from pilot plant tests. Experimental results showed that flow surges caused an increase in effluent particle concentration and head loss. Theoretical analysis in this study showed that the impact of a flow surge became more significant as the filtration run approaches the particle breakthrough stage. The model was also used to fit the data from one water treatment plant. The comparison demonstrated a good agreement. PMID:19095278

  8. WATER FILTRATION FOR ASBESTOS FIBER REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a comprehensive review of data on removal of asbestos fibers by granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth filtration. It summarizes data obtained in pilot plant studies at Duluth and Seattle, in research program carried out at Duluth's Lakewood filtrat...

  9. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that...

  10. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that...

  11. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that...

  12. Effect of filter media size, mass flow rate and filtration stage number in a moving-bed granular filter on the yield and properties of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Paenpong, Chaturong; Inthidech, Sudsakorn; Pattiya, Adisak

    2013-07-01

    Fast pyrolysis of cassava rhizome was performed in a bench-scale fluidised-bed reactor unit incorporated with a cross-flow moving-bed granular filter. The objective of this research was to examine several process parameters including the granular size (425-1160 ?m) and mass flow rate (0-12 g/min) as well as the number of the filtration stages (1-2 stages) on yields and properties of bio-oil. The results showed that the bio-oil yield decreased from 57.7 wt.% to 42.0-49.2 wt.% when increasing the filter media size, the mass flow rate and the filtration stage number. The effect of the process parameters on various properties of bio-oil is thoroughly discussed. In general, the bio-oil quality in terms of the solids content, ash content, initial viscosity, viscosity change and ageing rate could be enhanced by the hot vapour granular filtration. Therefore, bio-oil of high stability could be produced by the pyrolysis reactor configuration designed in this work. PMID:23644068

  13. METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

  14. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.

    1996-12-31

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion system often requires reliable and efficient cleanup devices that can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature, high- pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the in-flowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer are stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. The granular filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based, in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solid feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

  15. Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.

  16. Continuous Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Suspensions via Dynamic Cross-Flow Filtration.

    PubMed

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Toschkoff, Gregor; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Over the last years, continuous manufacturing has created significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Continuous filtration at low flow rates and high solid loadings poses, however, a significant challenge. A commercially available, continuously operating, dynamic cross-flow filtration device (CFF) is tested and characterized. It is shown that the CFF is a highly suitable technology for continuous filtration. For all tested model active pharmaceutical ingredients, a material-specific strictly linear relationship between feed and permeate rate is identified. Moreover, for each tested substance, a constant concentration factor is reached. A one-parameter model based on a linear equation is suitable to fully describe the CFF filtration performance. This rather unexpected finding and the concentration polarization layer buildup is analyzed and a basic model to describe the observed filtration behavior is developed. PMID:26147786

  17. Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenxiao

    Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling in muGAF systems can occur both on the membrane surface and in the cake layer. Fouling caused by soluble NOM, like polysaccharides, occurs mostly on the membrane surface, and increasing the adsorbent surface loading (i.e., the thickness of the layer) can mitigate fouling by such molecules. By contrast, fouling by colloids and particulate matter occurs mostly on the surface or upstream portion of the pre-deposited adsorbent layer. Use of smaller adsorbent particles improves the capture of these contaminants but also exacerbates such fouling. Lastly, preliminary tests demonstrate that muGAF is also effective at reducing fouling caused by NOM in seawater, and that combining multiple adsorbents in muGAF is a potential approach to optimize overall system performance.

  18. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF. PMID:23190556

  19. Dissemination, resuspension, and filtration of carbon fibers. [aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber transport was studied using mathematical models established for other pollution problems. It was demonstrated that resuspension is not a major factor contributing to the risk. Filtration and fragmentation tests revealed that fiber fragmentation shifts the fiber spectrum to shorter mean lengths in high velocity air handling systems.

  20. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of feed water that is converted to filtrate over the course of an operating cycle uninterrupted by...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for.... (4) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test must be based...

  1. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of feed water that is converted to filtrate over the course of an operating cycle uninterrupted by...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for.... (4) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test must be based...

  2. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of feed water that is converted to filtrate over the course of an operating cycle uninterrupted by...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for.... (4) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test must be based...

  3. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of feed water that is converted to filtrate over the course of an operating cycle uninterrupted by...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for.... (4) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test must be based...

  4. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPA FILTRATION UNITS AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine-the filtering efficiencies of 31 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units in use at asbestos-abatement projects. article-removal efficiencies for these units ranged from 90.53 to > 99.99 percent. ineteen (61%) of the units tested ...

  5. Electrospinning of nanofibers for filtration media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoungjun

    Since particulate impurity is regarded as the primary cause of lung diseases, purification of air has been a crucial issue. Filtration is the most conventional method to obtain clean air, whereby particulate matter is collected on a fibrous media. The use of fibrous filters is prevalent because of their high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. Fibrous filters were fabricated via the electrospinning process which can be used to produce continuous submicron-diameter sized fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with a mean fiber diameter of 224 nm were electrospun to form fibermats. Filtration tests on fibermats of PAN were conducted to confirm that filters of thinner fibers result in higher collection efficiencies and lower pressure drops than that of thicker fibers as predicted by the theoretical filtration mechanism. Results showed that electrospun PAN nanofibermats had a superior quality factor of 0.067+/-0 compared to 0.031+/-0.001 by the current state-of-the-art microfiber-based high particulate air (HEPA) filtration media. The verified theory implies that nanofibermats of other types of materials could also be considered as promising filtration media since filtration performance is independent of the material used. As materials for advanced next-generation filtration media, ceramics are favored over polymeric materials due to their robustness against environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, abrasive particles, and high temperature all of which degrade and damage the fibrous structure. Amidst various ceramic materials, the anatase phase of TiO2 was selected due to its mechanical property and versatility as a photocatalyst and microwave-absorbing material. Anatase TiO2 fibers were fabricated by electrospinning followed by heat treatment at 500°C for 3 hours. However, early precipitation or gelation of the organic solvent-based TiO2 sol posed a practical challenge in the sample preparation. In order to enhance stability of the precursor sol, a novel aqueous sol with titanium alkoxide was developed. As the result, the time taken for gelation or precipitation was elongated from 4 hours for the organic solvent-based sol to 4 months with the novel aqueous sol. In seeking the proper chemical composition to attain electrospinnability and maximize the period for storage before gelation, the reaction paths of hydrolysis and condensation for one of the components of the aqueous sol were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. After hydrolysis and condensation reactions, Si-O-Ti bonds were validated to be formed by the reaction mechanism. TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers were successfully electrospun from the aqueous sol system by addition of a spinning agent followed by heat treatment. In contrast to TiO2 fibers in which anatase phase was observed after heat treatment at 500°C, anatase phase was formed at 1100°C in TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers. The formation of Ti-O-Ti bonds was retarded due to the formation of Si-O-Ti bonds, as evidenced by the NMR results. In regard to the microstructure of TiO2 fibers and TiO 2-SiO2 composite fibers with anatase phases, the TiO 2-SiO2 composite fibers were observed to have no voids or cleavages on the surface than TiO2 fibers which have coarse structures created upon crystallization at magnification of x330,000 by transmission electron microscopy. The coarse structure of TiO2 fibers characterized as having cleavages at exposed surface grain boundaries is anticipated to adversely affect the mechanical stability by enhancing crack formation and propagation which will lead to failure of the fiber. In contrast, amorphous SiO2 fills in the spaces that have been created by the development of anatase phase for TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers. Smoother surfaces were observed as well in contrast with TiO2 fibers due to the amorphous SiO2 in the continuous phase of the composite material. Based on the observations, TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers are expected to have better mechanical stability by reducing the possibility of crack formation and blockage of crack propagation. The mean fiber diameter of TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers achieved was 243 nm, which is 8% thicker than the PAN fibers achieved and 54% thinner than fibers of the HEPA filter. Hence, the quality factor of the TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers is predicted to be between those of PAN fibermats and the HEPA filter by filtration theory; however it would be closer to that of PAN fibers. Moreover based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, the mechanical stability was improved as well by achieving denser structures in the fiber than in pure TiO2 fibers.

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

  7. Gravimelt Process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This final report contains the results of a bench-scale program to continue the development of the TRW proprietary Gravimelt Process for chemically cleaning coal. This project consisted of two major efforts, a laboratory study aimed at identifying parameters which would influence the operation of a bench unit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal and the design, construction and operation of two types of continuous plug-flow type bench-scale fused caustic leachers. This present bench scale project has demonstrated modes for the continuous operation of fused caustic leaching of coal at coal throughputs of 1 to 5 pounds per hour. The remaining process unit operations of leach solutions regeneration and coal washing and filtration should be tested at bench scale together with fused caustic leaching of coal to demonstrate the complete Gravimelt Process. 22 figures, 11 tables.

  8. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following:  ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith;  ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith;  ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and  EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below:  Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I (all isotopes) report primarily to the mineral product and not significantly to the off-gas;  {sup 99}Tc and Re show similar behavior in partitioning between product (major) and off-gas (trace) so Re is an acceptable surrogate for {sup 99}Tc;  {sup 99}Tc, Re, SO{sub 4} and Cr behavior, with respect to their durability in the final granular product, are controlled by the oxygen fugacity in the FBSR/BSR process, i.e. control of the REDuction/ OXidation (REDOX) equilibrium;  Mineralogy features related to the XRD patterns associated with the identified crystalline species and their relative amounts in radioactive and simulant products from the BSR and Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) are the same;  TCLP data are acceptable when RCRA metals are not shimmed in excess of their predicted concentrations in actual WTP-SW feeds and REDOX is controlled or an iron oxide catalyst is present as an insoluble spinel host for Cr;  ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing is below 2 g/m{sup 2} for the constituents of concern (COC); o Use of BET surface area to account for the surface roughness of the mineral granules demonstrates that the FBSR product is 2 orders of magnitude lower than the 2 g/m{sup 2} target;  All monoliths made from radioactive and non-radioactive (BSR and the ESTD engineering-scale) granular products pass compression testing at >500 psi, maintain PCT leach rates <2 g/m{sup 2}, and perform well in ASTM C1308 testing such that the measured Leach Indexes for key components (Na, Re/{sup 99}Tc and I) are all below current Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) target limits.  Good mass balance closure on Tc, Re, Cs, and I in all BSR tests (radioactive and non-radioactive); o SRS DWPF Secondary Waste shimmed to match WTP-SW  86-102% recovery of Re in the product streams for simulant and radioactive campaigns  109% recovery of 99Tc in the product streams for radioactive campaign;  91% recovery of I in the product streams for the simulant campaign;  98% recovery of {sup 129}I, ~93% recovery of {sup 125}I, and 151% recovery of {sup 127}I in the product streams ({sup 125}I has highest analytic sensitivity) for radioactive campaign.

  9. Removal of particle-associated bacteriophages by dual-media filtration at different filter cycle stages and impacts on subsequent UV disinfection.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Michael R; Andrews, Robert C; Hofmann, Ron

    2007-06-01

    This bench-scale study investigated the passage of particle-associated bacteriophage through a dual-media (anthracite-sand) filter over a complete filter cycle and the effect on subsequent ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Two model viruses, bacteriophages MS2 and T4, were considered. The water matrix was de-chlorinated tap water with either kaolin or Aldrich humic acid (AHA) added and coagulated with alum to form floc before filtration. The turbidity of the influent flocculated water was 6.4+/-1.5 NTU. Influent and filter effluent turbidity and particle counts were measured as well as headloss across the filter media. Filter effluent samples were collected for phage enumeration during three filter cycle stages: (i) filter ripening; (ii) stable operation; and (iii) end of filter cycle. Stable filter operation was defined according to a filter effluent turbidity goal of <0.3 NTU. Influent and filter effluent samples were subsequently exposed to UV light (254 nm) at 40 mJ/cm(2) using a low pressure UV collimated beam. The study found statistically significant differences (alpha=0.05) in the quantity of particle-associated phage present in the filter effluent during the three stages of filtration. There was reduced UV disinfection efficiency due to the presence of particle-associated phage in the filter effluent in trials with bacteriophage MS2 and humic acid floc. Unfiltered influent water samples also resulted in reduced UV inactivation of phage relative to particle-free control conditions for both phages. Trends in filter effluent turbidity corresponded with breakthrough of particle-associated phage in the filter effluent. The results therefore suggest that maintenance of optimum filtration conditions upstream of UV disinfection is a critical barrier to particle-associated viruses. PMID:17433406

  10. Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yang, P.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid Ping Yang 1,2, Min-hui Wu2, Xue-wen Zhu2, Tao Deng2, Xue-qing Sun2 1. Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China 2. Department of Geotechnical Engineering,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China Abstract The process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was tested by changing the polyanionic cellulose content in low-solids drilling fluid. The effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was analyzed. The test results showed that when time of filtration is same, the volume of filtrate loss decreases linearly with increasing polyanionic cellulose content. When polyanionic cellulose content is same, the rate of filtrate loss decreases nonlinearly with increasing time and the rate of filtrate loss will reach a stable value.The volume of filtrate loss in 7 to 8 minutes can reaches half of the total volume of filtrate loss. At the same time, the rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid decreases nonlinearly with increasing viscosity.When the apparent viscosity is between 3.5~4.15 MPa.s, decrease speed of rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid is quick. The results are helpful for characteristics evaluation of filtrate loss of drilling fluid and control of filtrate loss. Keyword Polyanionic Cellulose,Drilling Fluid,Process of Filtrate Loss Acknowledgments This investigation was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (projects No. 41002093 and 41072205); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (project No. B308), Tongji University; and the Program for Young Excellent Talents, Tongji University. The authors are extremely grateful for the financial support from these five organizations.

  11. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    PubMed

    Boutilier, Michael S H; Lee, Jongho; Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3) of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

  12. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material – can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

  13. Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight-month period. Final statistical analyses of the nine months of data indicate up to a four-log particle reduction occurs through river bank filtration. Consequently, Missouri River sediments within the City's well field are very effective in water filtration. This information was submitted to the IDNR for review and approval. Subsequently, the IDNR approved 4.0 log removal for Giardia and 3.5 log removal for Cryptosporidium through the riverbank and treatment plant. The City and IDNR have agreed on subrogate parameters for monitoring purposes.

  14. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200-250 kg/hr and obtain scale-up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC-scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design (Task 3). Work accomplished during this reporting period are summarized as follows: (i) An on-line tribocharge analyzer has been developed to study triboelectrification. (ii) The effects of aeration rate, feed rate and particle size on the tribocbarging mechanisms using the on-line tribocharge analyzer. (iii) A continuous bench-scale tnboelectrostatic separator has been constructed. (iv) Shakedown testing of the bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator is on-going.

  15. Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

    2011-06-01

    The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

  16. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  17. Membrane filtration of food suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Dudas, I

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images PMID:760637

  18. Zebra mussel control with backwash filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Dardeau, E.A. Jr.; Bivens, T.

    1995-12-31

    Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were found in North American waters in 1988 at Lake St. Clair, Michigan, when a ship from a European freshwater port released its ballast water. These organisms quickly spread from the Great Lakes to many midwestern, eastern, and southern streams and lakes. As macrofoulers, they quickly colonize new areas on many natural and artificial substrates. Zebra mussels clog intakes, piping, and screens. Power production facilities that withdraw large quantities of raw water to generate electricity and cool critical components are especially vulnerable. Many control strategies have been proposed and tested; however, not all of them are environmentally acceptable. The US Army Corps of Engineers, under the auspices of the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, has initiated a research program to control zebra mussels at public facilities. One test being conducted under this research program is a cooperative effort between the Corps` Nashville District, the Corps` Waterways Experiment Station, and several other agencies. The test involves the design and test of a backwash filtration system for a hydropower project in the Cumberland River Basin. The preliminary design, based on lessons learned from associated tests, is discussed. In addition, recommendations for future use are presented.

  19. COMPARISON OF SOME FILTRATION PROCESSES APPROPRIATE FOR GIARDIA CYST REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, and coagulation-filtration (including conventional treatment, direct filtration, and in-line filtration), have been evaluated for Giardia cyst removal at pilot plant and/or field scale. Properly designed and operated, the ...

  20. Loading and filtration characteristics of filtering facepieces.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Lehtimki, M; Willeke, K

    1993-02-01

    Most filtering facepieces used today are made of electret material (material with significant electrical charges on the filter fibers). Because of the addition of this electrical removal force, the filtration efficiency can be significantly increased without increasing the air pressure drop inside the respirator; pressure drop is closely related to physiological load. However, the removal by electrical forces is reduced in time, as aerosols deposit on the filter fibers. We have studied the contribution of this electrical removal and its change in time as a function of aerosol loading. To prove the change in aerosol penetration is due to the reduction of electrical force, the electrical charges were removed from new facepieces by the application of appropriate chemicals. The dust-mist filtering facepieces tested have similar fiber diameters and packing densities, as determined by scanning electron microscopy and pressure drop data. At a face velocity of 10 cm/s (corresponding to 100 L/min through a complete filtering facepiece) and an aerosol size of 0.16 microns, electrical force removal accounts for 69% of the total filtration for the respirator found to have the best filter quality but only 25% for the respirator (from a different manufacturer) found to have the worst filter quality. Our experimental data show that the removal efficiency of these facepieces is reduced in time by as much as this amount. However, under normal wear conditions, the total aerosol particle load is not as high as shown and the filtering facepieces are likely to be discarded before the fiber charges (i.e., the electrostatic attractions) are significantly diminished. PMID:8452097

  1. Recirculating Air Filtration Significantly Reduces Exposure to Airborne Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pui, David Y.H.; Qi, Chaolong; Stanley, Nick; Oberdrster, Gnter; Maynard, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Background Airborne nanoparticles from vehicle emissions have been associated with adverse effects in people with pulmonary and cardiovascular disease, and toxicologic studies have shown that nanoparticles can be more hazardous than their larger-scale counterparts. Recirculating air filtration in automobiles and houses may provide a low-cost solution to reducing exposures in many cases, thus reducing possible health risks. Objectives We investigated the effectiveness of recirculating air filtration on reducing exposure to incidental and intentionally produced airborne nanoparticles under two scenarios while driving in traffic, and while generating nanomaterials using gas-phase synthesis. Methods We tested the recirculating air filtration in two commercial vehicles when driving in traffic, as well as in a nonventilation room with a nanoparticle generator, simulating a nanomaterial production facility. We also measured the time-resolved aerosol size distribution during the in-car recirculation to investigate how recirculating air filtration affects particles of different sizes. We developed a recirculation model to describe the aerosol concentration change during recirculation. Results The use of inexpensive, low-efficiency filters in recirculation systems is shown to reduce nanoparticle concentrations to below levels found in a typical office within 3 min while driving through heavy traffic, and within 20 min in a simulated nanomaterial production facility. Conclusions Development and application of this technology could lead to significant reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, reducing possible risks to health and providing solutions for generating nanomaterials safely. PMID:18629306

  2. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or...

  3. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or...

  4. EFFECTIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR SMALL WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year study was conducted of various simple water filtration systems potentially appropriate for high-quality surface waters serving small systems. A slow sand filter without coagulant and a direct, rapid filter with coagulant were operated in parallel. Direct filtration with ...

  5. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN SLOW SAND FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), including the Surface Water Treatment Rule, have helped to renew the interest in the use of slow sand filtration (SSF) for treating surface waters for small communities. low sand filtration is not a...

  6. Design considerations for effective oil field filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Glaze, H.; Echols, J.B.

    1989-06-01

    Oil field filtration has special problems that relate to the nature of drilling and completing oil and gas wells. The use of clear brines is the root of many of these special problems. For example, within well-defined limits, there are virtually endless combinations of drilling mud constituents and mud weights. Mud weight dictates the completion fluid weight, and residual mud inside the production casing contaminates the completion fluid. As completion fluid weight increases, viscosity (Newtonian) and ionic strength of the completion brine increases. Filtration applications may be generally classified as follows: Wellsite, for completions and workovers, or stimulation; and Injection, for disposal or secondary recovery. This article focuses on wellsite filtration of completion and workover fluids. Effective filtration begins with a total system concept. Although frequently treated as such, filtration is not an isolated event during completion operations. Considerations for effective filtration include a system approach in which filtration is only a part. The system within which filtration occurs and must be considered consists of the following: Location and rig, Completion procedure, Drilling fluid, Completion fluid, Filter sizing and selection, and Quality control.

  7. Particle filtration in consolidated granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Wilkinson, David J.; Bolsterli, Mark; Hammond, Paul

    1993-03-01

    Grain-packing algorithms are used to model the mechanical trapping of dilute suspensions of particles by consolidated granular media. We study the distribution of filtrate particles, the formation of a damage zone (internal filter cake), and the transport properties of the host-filter-cake composite. At the early stages of filtration, our simulations suggest simple relationships between the structure of the internal filter cake and the characteristics of the underlying host matrix. These relationships are then used to describe the dynamics of the filtration process. Depending on the grain size and porosity of the host matrix, calculated filtration rates may either be greater than (spurt loss) or less than (due to internal clogging) those predicted by standard surface-filtration models.

  8. Use of hollow fiber tangential flow filtration for the recovery and concentration of HIV virus-like particles produced in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Alejandro; Pai, Amrita; Shiloach, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated viruses, inactivated viruses and virus like particles (VLPs) are known to be efficient vaccines partially due to their particulate structure. A potential HIV vaccine candidate engineered as a VLP (HIV gag-VLP) and produced in insect cells is currently under preclinical trials demanding large amounts. Due to their extreme fragility and sensitivity to shear forces the recovery and concentration of these extracellular enveloped particles of approximately 120 nm in size is challenging. The current bench scale gradient ultracentrifugation and precipitation methods have been found unsuitable for larger scale processes. In this study a two-step tangential flow filtration (TFF) process using hollow fibers was developed for the clarification and concentration of HIV gag-VLPs. The first step is microfiltration for cell removal and the second step is ultrafiltration for concentrating the HIV gag-VLPs. The chosen parameters for the microfiltration step were hollow fiber membranes of 0.45 ?m cut off 5000 s(-1) shear force and a flux of 10 LMH. The chosen parameters for the ultrafiltration step were a 500 kDa cut off membrane, 6000 s(-1) shear force and a trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of 1.25 bar. The utilization of these parameters provided with concentrated HIV-gag VLPs from 2L of starting cell suspension within 6h of processing time. These downstream processing conditions are extremely valuable for the further large-scale purification process development for HIV gag-VLPs and other particulate bioproducts. PMID:24157258

  9. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. First quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. During the past quarter, a number of project tasks have been initiated. All documents required for project startup (i.e., work plans, management plans, etc.) have been submitted to DOE for approval. A bench-scale TES unit and an apparatus for studying tribocharging mechanisms have been designed and are currently being fabricated. One of the three coal samples to be used for bench-scale testing has been acquired.

  10. PILOT-PLANT STUDIES OF SLOW-RATE FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives to conventional coagulation water filtration plants (those that utilize coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration) may be appropriate for some small water utilities. One such alternative is slow rate filtration. This paper describes pilot plant studies ...

  11. 31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. 12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. 10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 14. View of damage to southeast corner of filtration building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of damage to southeast corner of filtration building. Note construction of concrete over brick. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. 1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded over facility. Armory Street appears in the foreground. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  19. 7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. Laboratory building is at center left of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  20. 8. Detail view of southwest corner of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of southwest corner of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  1. 11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. Understanding Deep Bed Filtration by Direct Micro-scale Particulate Flow Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabolghasemi, M.; Prodanovic, M.

    2013-12-01

    Filtration of suspensions through porous beds occurs in a variety of applications such as drilling mud infiltration into rock formations and waste water treatment. Accurate modelling of filtration through porous media on macroscopic scale often requires a precise estimate of the filtration coefficient, which reflects the fraction of particles that get retained in the filter medium. A large number of deep bed filtration models assume a constant entrapment rate without taking into account the rate of particle release back into the flow. In addition, the available models often assume instantaneous entrapment, which ignores particle rolling. These assumptions lead to an almost static description of filtration phenomenon, which is in fact highly dynamic in nature. In this study we used a micro-scale simulation approach to understand the filtration of suspensions through a sphere pack. We applied a semi-coupled CFD-DEM method to directly model the fluid and particulate flow through the extracted pore space. The accuracy of the geometrical description of the flow domain was tested by calculating its porosity and permeability and comparing those to measured values. The results of the simulation provide the distribution of particle and fluid velocities throughout the filtration process. These velocity distributions show that under our simulation conditions, a significant portion of particles travel with a velocity 4 to 5 orders of magnitude slower than the average fluid velocity, which indicates that particle rolling is not negligible. Based on these results we propose a modified definition of filtration coefficient and estimate its values. Overall, this study provides an improved insight into deep bed filtration and reveals the absence of a granular phase flow equation in the existing deep bed filtration formulation. Finally, while we worked with sphere packing for this initial study, the simulation can take any pore space described by a binary (segmented) image and is thus capable of modelling both soils and real (imaged) rocks.

  3. Modeling of particle removal in the first coarse media of direct horizontal-flow roughing filtration.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H W; Park, N S; Kim, S; Park, S Y; Wang, C K

    2007-03-01

    Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) is an alternative pretreatment method e.g. prior to Slow Sand Filtration (SSF). However, some of its limitations are that the effluent quality drops drastically at higher turbidity (>200NTU) and at higher filtration rate (>1 m h(-1)). To overcome these drawbacks, we suggested Direct Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (DHRF), which is a modified system of Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) by addition of a low dose of coagulant prior to filtration. To optimize the DHRF configuration, a conceptual and mathematical model for the coarse compartment has been developed in analogy with multi-plate settler. Data from simple column settling test can be used in the model to predict the filter performance. Furthermore, the model developed herein has been validated by successive experiments. The conventional column settling test has been found to be handy and useful to predict the performance of DHRF for different raw water characteristics (e.g. coagulated or uncoagulated water, different amounts of organic matter, etc.) and different initial process conditions (e.g. coagulant dose, mixing time and intensity, etc.). An optimum filter design for the coarse compartment (grain size 20 mm) has been found to be of 3m h(-1) filtration rate with filter length of 4-4.5 m. PMID:17432386

  4. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

  5. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}, TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents.

  6. BENCH SCALE STUDIES OF LIMESTONE INJECTION FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a boiler simulator furnace, indicating that the parameters of major importance to SO2 capture are thermal environment, calcium/sulfur ratio, and sorbent composition. Thermal environment (local temperature) had a strong effect on the util...

  7. Nitrate to Ammonia Ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. At INEL alone there are 800,000 gallons. The largest quantity of these wastes is the 149 single shell tanks (SSTs) tanks at Hanford which can hold 1 million gallons each. The nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) process has been developed to remove a majority of the nitrate content from the wastes.

  8. BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

  9. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  10. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

  11. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model. PMID:25822651

  12. Filtration effects on ball bearing life and condition in a contaminated lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Moyer, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ball bearings were fatigue tested with a noncontaminated lubricant and with a contaminated lubricant under four levels of filtration. The test filters had absolute particle removal ratings of 3, 30, 49, and 105 microns. Aircraft turbine engine contaminants were injected into the filter's supply line at a constant rate of 125 milligrams per bearing hour. Bearing life and running track condition generally improved with finer filtration. The experimental lives of 3 and 30 micron filter bearings were statistically equivalent, approaching those obtained with the noncontaminated lubricant bearings. Compared to these bearings, the lives of the 49 micron bearings were statistically lower. The 105 micron bearings experienced gross wear. The degree of surface distress, weight loss, and probable failure mode were dependent on filtration level, with finer filtration being clearly beneficial.

  13. Filtration effects on ball bearing life and condition in a contaminated lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Moyer, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ball bearings were fatigue tested with a noncontaminated MIL-L-23699 lubricant and with a contaminated MIL-L-23699 lubricant under four levels of filtration. The test filters had absolute particle removal ratings of 3, 30, 49, and 105 microns. Aircraft turbine engine contaminants were injected into the filter's supply line at a constant rate of 125 milligrams per bearing hour. Bearing life and running track condition generally improved with finer filtration. The experimental lives of 3- and 30-micron filter bearings were statistically equivalent, approaching those obtained with the noncontaminated lubricant bearings. Compared to these bearings, the lives of the 49-micron bearings were statistically lower. The 105-micron bearings experienced gross wear. The degree of surface distress, weight loss, and probable failure mode were dependent on filtration level, with finer filtration being clearly beneficial.

  14. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 ?m. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 ?m, and their length is 0.6 ?m, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  15. Modeling of compressible cake filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Abbound, N.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Corapcioglu, M.Y. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1993-10-15

    The transport of suspended solid particles in a liquid through porous media has importance from the viewpoint of engineering practice and industrial applications. Deposition of solid particles on a filter cloth or on a pervious porous medium forms the filter cakes. Following a literature survey, a governing equation for the cake thickness is obtained by considering an instantaneous material balance. In addition to the conservation of mass equations for the liquid, and for suspended and captured solid particles, functional relations among porosity, permeability, and pressure are obtained from literature and solved simultaneously. Later, numerical solutions for cake porosity, pore pressure, cake permeability, velocity of solid particles, concentration of suspended solid particles, and net rate of deposition are obtained. At each instant of time, the porosity decreases throughout the cake from the surface to the filter septum where it has the smallest value. As the cake thickness increases, the trends in pressure variation are similar to data obtained by other researchers. This comparison shows the validity of the theory and the associated solution presented. A sensitivity analysis shows higher pressure values at the filter septum for a less pervious membrane. Finally, a reduction in compressibility parameter provides a thicker cake, causes more particles to be captured inside the cake, and reduces the volumetric filtrate rate. The increase of solid velocity with the reduction in compressibility parameter shows that more rigid cakes compress less.

  16. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K{trademark} resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well.

  17. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  18. Filtration in coal liquefaction - Influence of filtration conditions in non-hydrogenated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. W.; Rantell, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out to study the effects of filtration conditions upon the rate of filtration of non-hydrogenated coal digests. The results show the dependence of cake resistivity on both the filtration temperature and pressure. Filter cakes were found to be compressible, resulting in smaller increases in rate with increasing pressure than with incompressible cakes. The filtration temperature determines the packing of residual solids in the cake which in turn affects the cake resistivity. An empirical relation has been derived between filtration temperature and resistivity. With increasing temperature there is an increase in filtration rate due to the reduced viscosity, but a reduction owing to a higher packing density of solids in the filter cake.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid filtration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J; Mamoli, B

    1999-09-01

    By means of a randomized, controlled and open study the authors wanted to find out if cerebrospinal (CSF)-filtration was of substantial benefit to patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). Five SALS patients, aged 51-75 years, being treated with riluzole underwent CSF-filtration daily over five days (group A). Five other SALS patients, aged 52-70 years, were treated only with riluzole (group B). Although all five patients in the first group reported a subjective benefit following CSF- filtration, the Norris score, the Frenchay score, the vital capacity, the ulnar nerve F-wave persistence and the peak-ratio of the brachial biceps and anterior tibial muscles did not change significantly after five days of therapy, either in group A or in group B. In conclusion, filtration of 200-250 ml CSF daily, over five days, does not seem to have a substantial therapeutic effect in patients with SALS. PMID:10457394

  20. Purification of lysozyme by multistage affinity filtration.

    PubMed

    He, L Z; Sun, Y

    2002-09-01

    A multistage affinity filtration process was developed for the purification of proteins. An affinity adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing Cibacron Blue 3GA to TSK gel HW-65F. Adsorption equilibrium experiments showed that the blue TSK gel had a high affinity for lysozyme, while its binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was weaker. Using a three-stage affinity filtration system, lysozyme was purified from a model system (a mixture of lysozyme and BSA) and a natural source (chicken egg white). From the chicken egg white, the three-stage affinity filtration increased the recovery yield of lysozyme from 61 to 96%, compared with the one-stage process. A mathematical model taking into account the film and interior diffusions of protein and eluant was developed for the modeling and analysis of the experimental data. Both the experimental and modeling results indicate that the multistage affinity filtration technique can be employed for the selective recovery of proteins. PMID:14508673

  1. ADVANCED FILTRATION OF PULP MILL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot plants studies of reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) and ultrafiltration of pulp mill wastes were performed by International Paper Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (subcontractor). Decker filtrates were treated with dynamically formed reverse osmosis ...

  2. MICROBIAL PATHOGEN REMOVAL DURING BANK FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our incomplete understanding of processes and properties affecting pathogenic microbe transport during riverbank filtration is currently limiting our ability to predict the effectiveness of this water treatment option. We propose a series of fundamental experiments designed to...

  3. New developments in slow sand filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), including the Surface Water Treatment Rule, have helped to renew the interest in the use of slow sand filtration (SSF) for treating surface waters for small communities. Slow sand filtration is not a new process, but is one that has been used to treat water effectively since the early 1800's. Interest in slow sand filtration in the United States has increased dramatically in the past thirteen years. New analytical techniques, such as particle counting, improved turbidity, improved growth media for microbiological analysis, and advanced techniques for measuring organic constituents allowed for more detailed studies than were possible in the early 1900's. The new work led to the publication of design manuals and task committee reports describing slow sand filtration in detail.

  4. Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

  5. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1996-08-15

    The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  6. Coal filtration process and dewatering aids therefore

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, R.O.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for dewatering an aqueous slurry of solid coal particulates wherein the aqueous slurry contains between about 10 and 60 percent of solid coal particulates and a dewatering aid is added to the slurry followed by vacuum filtration thereof to produce a filter cake of the coal particulates. The improvement for lowering the water content of the filter cake comprises adding to the slurry prior to filtration an effective amount of a dewatering aid selected.

  7. Development of a Filtration-Based Bioluminescence Assay for Detection of Microorganisms in Tea Beverages.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yohei; Igarashi, Toshinori; Harada, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The market for tea drinks as healthy beverages has been steadily expanding, and ready-to-drink beverages in polyethylene terephthalate bottles have been popular. To more rapidly and accurately test tea beverages bottled in polyethylene terephthalate for microbial contamination, a newly developed filtration device and a washing method with a commercial bioluminescence assay were combined to detect low numbers of bacterial spores, fungal conidia, and ascospores. Washing buffers were formulated with nonionic detergents from the Tween series. Commercially available tea beverages were used to evaluate the filtration capacity of the filtration device, the effect of washing buffers, and the performance of the assay. The assay was tested with serially diluted suspensions of colonies of two bacterial strains, spores of three Bacillus strains, conidia of five fungal strains, and ascospores of four fungal strains. The filtration device enabled filtration of a large sample volume (100 to 500 ml), and the washing buffer significantly decreased the background bioluminescence intensity of tea samples when compared with the no-washing method. Low numbers (1 to 10 CFU/100 ml) of the tested strains of bacteria were detected within 8 to 18 h of cultivation, and fungi were detected within 24 to 48 h. Furthermore, a whole bottle (500 ml) of mixed tea was filtered through the filtration device and microbes were detected. This method could be used for quality control of bottled beverages without preincubation. PMID:26939661

  8. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters. PMID:16782123

  9. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration... the processing of food, under the following prescribed conditions; (a)(1) Ultra-filtration...

  10. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration... the processing of food, under the following prescribed conditions; (a)(1) Ultra-filtration...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration membranes identified in paragraphs (a)(1... following prescribed conditions; (a)(1) Ultra-filtration membranes that consist of paper impregnated...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration... the processing of food, under the following prescribed conditions; (a)(1) Ultra-filtration...

  14. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration... the processing of food, under the following prescribed conditions; (a)(1) Ultra-filtration...

  16. 10. View west of east entry to filtration beds. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View west of east entry to filtration beds. Note monitor roof and clerestory windows over central corridor. Laboratory building is sited over the center of the filtration bed building at extreme left center of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. Development of a centrifugal downhold separator with in-situ recycle of produced water (initial tests with 34.1 API gravity crude)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F.; Jubin, R.T.; Robinson, S.M.

    1998-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently developing a Centrifugal Downhole Separator (CDHS) which will extend the application of remotely operated separations equipment developed for the nuclear industry to in-well recovery of oil with in-situ recycle of the produced water. These units have been successfully used for surface treatment of produced water and wastewater generated during environmental clean-up operations. Performance data has shown that centrifugal units are capable of separating stable emulsions into ``single-phase`` streams with generally less than 1% cross-phase contamination. Initial testing will be conducted with a bench-scale separator to determine the separation efficiency of various crude oils and to provide information necessary to scale up the separator. Information from the bench-scale unit will be used in the design of a larger prototype, which will have a much larger height/diameter ratio and will incorporate some of the components necessary for down-hole operations. The prototype separator will be operated in the lab to verify scale-up parameters and separation efficiencies, as well as to provide information necessary to design a full-scale system. The full-scale system will be fabricated, installed in the field, and operated to demonstrate the technology. This paper discusses the initial testing of the bench-scale separator with a crude oil having an API gravity of 34.06{degrees}.

  18. Space shuttle maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program. Task 11: Stability analyses and acoustic model testing data dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    The combustion stability characteristics of engines applicable to the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System and the adequacy of acoustic cavities as a means of assuring stability in these engines were investigated. The study comprised full-scale stability rating tests, bench-scale acoustic model tests and analysis. Two series of stability rating tests were made. Acoustic model tests were made to determine the resonance characteristics and effects of acoustic cavities. Analytical studies were done to aid design of the cavity configurations to be tested and, also, to aid evaluation of the effectiveness of acoustic cavities from available test results.

  19. ELECTROSTATIC EFFECTS IN FABRIC FILTRATION: VOLUME II. TRIBOELECTRIC MEASUREMENTS AND BAG PERFORMANCE (ANNOTATED DATA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the construction and application of a bench-scale, single-bag, experimental filter. It also describes several complementary evaluation procedures and their data. Especially significant are the methods for, and results of, electrical determinations that are no...

  20. Evaluation of membrane filtration system using The “Pore Diffusion” for eliminating viruses

    PubMed Central

    HASHIMOTO-GOTOH, Akira; MATSUKI, Takahiro; MIYAZAWA, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a first study of virus removal by a novel membrane filtration system, named the “Pore Diffusion”. The “Pore Diffusion” manipulated the direction of circulating flow from vertical to parallel to the membrane, thereby achieved to alter the trans-membrane pressure as low as possible. We compared the viral activity between before and after filtration by both infectivity assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Among 4 “Pore Diffusion” modules tested, the big module with average pore size of 80 nm showed the highest log reduction value of viral activity. Our study shows the possibility of “The Pore Diffusion” to filtrate viruses from bioproducts without increasing the trans-membrane pressure, so that the filtration process can be carried out effectively and economically. PMID:25715959