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1

SAES(R) ST909 Bench Scale Methane Cracking Tests  

SciTech Connect

Bench Scale methane cracking tests have been completed using a stack of ten whole SAES(R) St909 pellets - a 6 gram sample size. Methane was found to be the most difficult impurity to process and can impact diffuser operation.

Klein, J.E.

2001-09-25

2

CMC Bench Scale Material Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 3.5 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed this test plan with technical assistance from ceramic scientists at the Dept. of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Albany Research Center who will perform the environmental exposure tests.

Mark Fitzsimmons; Gerard Pelletier; Dave Grimmett

2006-05-30

3

Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant  

SciTech Connect

Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics.

Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

1996-10-01

4

Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing media and amendments in larger pilot- or full-scale rain garden installations. The bench-scale study conclude...

5

Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process  

SciTech Connect

A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated with coal fines. In 1992, three cost-shared contracts were awarded to industry, under the first High-Efficiency Preparation (HEP I) solicitation. All three projects involved bench-scale testing of various emerging technologies, at the Federal Energy Technology Center*s (FETC*s), Process Research Facility (PRF). The first HEP I project, completed in mid-1993, was conducted by Process Technology, Inc., with the objective of developing a computerized, on-line system for monitoring and controlling the operation of a column flotation circuit. The second HEP I project, completed in mid-1994, was conducted by a team led by Virginia Polytechnic Institute to test the Mozely Multi-Gravity Separator in combination with the Microcel Flotation Column, for improved removal of mineral matter and pyritic sulfur from fine coal. The last HEP I project, of which the findings are contained in this report, was conducted by Custom Coals Corporation to evaluate and advance a micronized-magnetite-based, fine-coal cycloning technology. The micronized-magnetite coal cleaning technology, also know as the Micro-Mag process, is based on widely used conventional dense-medium cyclone applications, in that it utilizes a finely ground magnetite/water suspension as a separating medium for cleaning fine coal, by density, in a cyclone. However, the micronized-magnetite cleaning technology differs from conventional systems in several ways: ! It utilizes significantly finer magnetite (about 5 to 10 micron mean particle size), as compared to normal mean particle sizes of 20 microns. ! It can effectively beneficiate coal particles down to 500M in size, as compared to the most advanced, existing conventional systems that are limited to a particle bottom size of about 28M - 100 M. ! Smaller diameter cyclones, 4 to 10 inches, are used to provide the higher G-force required to separate the finer feed coal. ! Cyclone feed pressures up to 10 times greater than those used in conventional cleaning systems are employed to enhance the separating forces.

Edward R. Torak; Peter J. Suardini

1997-11-01

6

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-12-31

7

Selection of molten salt compositions for bench-scale molten salt processor tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selections are made of molten salt compositions for use in upcoming bench-scale molten salt processor tests. The selections are based on several criteria: (1) the melts should be primarily carbonate salts to provide a high capacity for gettering of chlorine from organic chlorides being processed in the bath, (2) melting points of the bath should be sufficiently low to operate

Krikorian

1991-01-01

8

100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

1993-03-01

9

Bench-Scale Evaluation of Coagulants for Low Turbidity Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the conventional jar test is ineffective for determining optimal coagulant dosages for low turbidity waters, utilities employing rapid-rate filtration of such waters may fail to maximize treatment efficiency for lack of a simple bench-scale proced...

D. R. Brink, S. I. Choi, M. Al-Ani, D. W. Hendricks

1988-01-01

10

Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

1993-06-01

11

Bench-Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both cabin and space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of bench-scale SA9T testing that was performed under a variety of test conditions and with several different trace contaminants. Tests were conducted to determine if the capacity of the SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O is compromised after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Tests also were conducted to evaluate the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream. In addition, testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures (29.6 KPa/4.3 psia) during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load.

Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

2011-01-01

12

100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

Field, J.G.

1994-06-10

13

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with microcel. Final report  

SciTech Connect

It was the purpose of this investigation to test a new fine coal cleaning system, in which a coal is cleaned first by column flotation to remove primarily ash-forming minerals and then by an enhanced gravity separation technique to remove the pyrite remaining in the flotation product. Of the various column flotation technologies developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, the Microcel{sup TM} flotation column was chosen because it is being used commercially in the US coal industry, particularly by low-sulfur coal producers. Of the various enhanced gravity separation technologies used in minerals industry, Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS) was chosen because it shows promise for pyrite rejection from fine coal streams containing a wide range of particle sizes. The bench-scale tests were conducted using three different circuit configurations, i.e.; Microcel{sup TM} column alone; MGS alone; and Microcel{sup Tm} and MGS in series. In general, high ash-rejections were achieved using Microcel{sup TM} column and an MGS unit in series, both the ash and pyritic sulfur rejections exceeded what can be achieved using either the Microcel{sup TM} column or the MGS unit alone, demonstrating a synergistic effect.

Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1995-03-01

14

Selection of molten salt compositions for bench-scale molten salt processor tests  

SciTech Connect

Selections are made of molten salt compositions for use in upcoming bench-scale molten salt processor tests. The selections are based on several criteria: (1) the melts should be primarily carbonate salts to provide a high capacity for gettering of chlorine from organic chlorides being processed in the bath, (2) melting points of the bath should be sufficiently low to operate the process in the 600--700{degree}C range, and (3) volatilities of chloride salts and HCl(g) from the melt should be low. Phase diagram and volatility data are presented showing how the compositional variation affects the above criteria. For use at a bath temperature of 700{degrees}C, molten salt compositions (in mole %) are selected as either 0.50 Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 0.43 K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 0.07 Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or 0.50 Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 0.40 K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 0.10 KCl. For a bath temperature of 600{degrees}C, the selected composition is 0.40 Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 0.41 K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 0.19 Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Krikorian, O.H.

1991-04-22

15

Bench-scale testing of fluidized-bed sorbents -- ZT-4  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc oxide-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor. Specific objectives of this study are the following: {sm_bullet} Investigating various manufacturing methods to produce fluidizable zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents in a particle size range of 50 to 400 {mu}m; Characterizating and screening the formulations for chemical reactivity, attrition resistance, and structural properties; Testing selected formulations in an HTHP bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor to obtain an unbiased ranking of the promising sorbents; Investigating the effect of various process variables, such as temperature, nature of coal gas, gas velocity, and chemical composition of the sorbent, on the performance of the sorbent; Life-cycle testing of the superior zinc ferrite and zinc titanate formulations under HTHP conditions to determine their long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength; Addressing various reactor design issues; Generating a database on sorbent properties and performance (e.g., rates of reaction, attrition rate) to be used in the design and scaleup of future commercial hot-gas desulfurization systems; Transferring sorbent manufacturing technology to the private sector; Producing large batches (in tonnage quantities) of the sorbent to demonstrate commercial feasibility of the preparation method; and Coordinate testing of superior formulations in pilot plants with real and/or simulated coal gas.

Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

1995-12-01

16

Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form.

Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frank, S. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-10-01

17

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results are presented from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle that verify the flow sheet design criteria for the specific subsections tested. Modifications were made involving simple component redesign to handle the required flows and to obtain compatibility with specific corrosive environments. The most notable change is the discovery of a potential solids nucleation problem in certain

D. Okeefe; C. Allen; G. Besenbruch; L. Brown; J. Norman; R. Sharp; K. McCorkle

1982-01-01

18

SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford tank farms contain approximately 57 million gallons of wastes, most of which originated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to produce plutonium for defense purposes. DOE intends to pre-treat the tank waste to separate the waste into a high level fraction, that will be vitrified and disposed of in a national repository as high-level waste (HLW), and a low-activity waste (LAW) fraction that will be immobilized for on-site disposal at Hanford. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the focal point for the treatment of Hanford tank waste. However, the WTP lacks the capacity to process all of the LAW within the regulatory required timeframe. Consequently, a supplemental LAW immobilization process will be required to immobilize the remainder of the LAW. One promising supplemental technology is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) to produce a sodium-alumino-silicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is primarily composed of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Nas[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Semivolatile anions such as pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and volatiles such as iodine as iodide (I{sup -}) are expected to be entrapped within the mineral structures, thereby immobilizing them (Janzen 2008). Results from preliminary performance tests using surrogates, suggests that the release of semivolatile radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and volatile {sup 129}I from granular NAS waste form is limited by Nosean solubility. The predicted release of {sup 99}Tc from the NAS waste form at a 100 meters down gradient well from the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) was found to be comparable to immobilized low-activity waste glass waste form in the initial supplemental LAW treatment technology risk assessment (Mann 2003). To confirm this hypothesis, DOE is funding a treatability study where three actual Hanford tank waste samples (containing both {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}I) will be processed in Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) to form the mineral product, similar to the granular NAS waste form, that will then be subject to a number of waste form qualification tests. In previous tests, SRNL have demonstrated that the BSR product is chemically and physically equivalent to the FBSR product (Janzen 2005). The objective of this paper is to describe the sample selection, sample preparation, and environmental and regulatory considerations for treatability studies of the FBSR process using Hanford tank waste samples at the SNRL. The SNRL will process samples in its BSR. These samples will be decontaminated in the 222-S Laboratory to remove undissolved solids and selected radioisotopes to comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping regulations and to ensure worker safety by limiting radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). These decontamination levels will also meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) definition of low activity waste (LAW). After the SNRL has processed the tank samples to a granular mineral form, SRNL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will conduct waste form testing on both the granular material and monoliths prepared from the granular material. The tests being performed are outlined in Appendix A.

DUNCAN JB

2010-08-19

19

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results are presented from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle that verify the flow sheet design criteria for the specific subsections tested. Modifications were made involving simple component redesign to handle the required flows and to obtain compatibility with specific corrosive environments. The most notable change is the discovery of a potential solids nucleation problem in certain H2SO4 solutions carrying small quantities of I2 and H I. The problem is believed to be associated with the combined relatively long storage times of the synthetic feed solutions and the agitation of greatly oversized centrifugal pumps. These precursory studies have further proven the technical viability of this sulfur-iodine process flow sheet design.

Okeefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; Brown, L.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.; McCorkle, K.

20

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce higher yields of liquids and valuable chemicals than conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been reported to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at ICT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under GH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select operating conditions for maximum production of PCX (phenol, cresols, and xylenols) from high-sulfur Illinois coals. During the third quarter, data from IGT and SIUC have been analyzed and compared, and these data suggest that increased coal conversion to liquids and to PCX requires a longer residence time of volatile precursors in contact with hot char than can be obtained in the fluidized bed. Consequently, we have decided to operate future tests in a moving-bed reactor.

Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-10-01

21

Bench-scale testing and evaluation of the direct sulfur recovery process. Final report, February 1990--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently recovering up to 99% or higher amounts of elemental sulfur from SO{sub 2}-containing regeneration tail-gas produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems by reacting the tail-gas with a small slipstream of coal gas. In this project, the DSRP was demonstrated with simulated gases at bench-scale with 3-in. diameter, 1-L size catalytic reactors. Fundamental kinetic and modeling studies were conducted to explain the significantly higher than thermodynamically expected sulfur recoveries in DSRP and to enable prediction of sulfur recovery in larger reactors. Technology transfer activities to promote the DSRP consisted of publications and discussions with architectural engineering firms and industrial parties especially IGCC system developers. Toward the end of the project, an agreement was signed with an IGCC system developer to scale up the DSRP and test it with actual gases in their 10-MW (thermal) coal gasification pilot-plant under a cooperative R&D agreement with the US Department of Energy.

Gangwal, S.K.; Chen, D.H.

1994-05-01

22

Baseline and optional bench-scale testing of a chemical candle filter safeguard device  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and test the feasibility of a hot-gas filter safeguard device (SGD) to prevent the release of dust in the event of candle filter failure under both pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) (oxidizing) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (reducing) operating conditions. The SGD must use existing filter system seals, gaskets, fixtures, and assemblies as much as possible. It must also activate quickly when a candle filter has failed, preferably preventing dust concentrations downstream of the SGD from exceeding 1 ppmw. In addition, the SGD must be able to operate in an inactive mode with minimal pressure drop, and its operation cannot be affected by repeated backpulse cleaning events of up to 3 psia and 1/2 second in duration.

Hurley, J.P.; Swanson, M.L.

2000-11-01

23

Bench-scale testing of novel high-temperature desulfurization sorbents: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Extrudates of regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents including zinc ferrite, copper-modified zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, copper aluminate, copper-iron aluminate, and copper manganate were prepared and tested for their potential to remove hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) from coal gasifier gas in a high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) fixed-bed reactor. The zinc containing sorbents were found to be more promising than those containing combinations of copper, aluminum, iron, and manganese. Reductions in H/sub 2/S concentration were achieved depending on sorbent, reactor temperature, and steam concentration. The copper-modified zinc ferrite sorbent reduced the H/sub 2/S concentration to less than 1 ppmv at up to 1100/degree/F with 20 volume % steam in the gas. The zinc ferrite sorbent showed no apparent loss in capacity over 15 sulfidation-regeneration cycles but underwent significant strength reduction in a coal-derived gas with 15% or less steam due to soot formation. Zinc titanate exhibited excellent strength and capacity retention at steam levels as low as 5% and temperatures as high as 1350/degree/F. 13 refs., 64 figs., 75 tabs.

Gangwal, S.K.; Harkins, S.M.; Stogner, J.M.; Woods, M.C.; Rogers, T.N.

1988-12-01

24

Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

SciTech Connect

Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater through formation of permeable reactive biobarriers (PRBB).

Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

2008-12-01

25

High-temperature, high-pressure testing of zinc titanate in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor for 100 cycles  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are being advanced worldwide to produce electricity from coal owing to their potential for superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. A key component of these plants is a hot-gas desulfurization system employing efficient regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents. Leading sorbent candidates include zinc ferrite and zinc titanate. These sorbents can remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in the fuel gas down to very low levels (typically <20 ppmv) at 500 to 750{degree}C and can be readily regenerated for multicycle operation with air. To this end, the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) has formulated and tested a series of zinc titanate sorbents in a high-temperature, high- pressure HTHP fluidized-bed bench-scale reactor. Multicycle HTHP bench-scale testing of these sorbents under a variety of conditions culminated in the development of a ZT-4 sorbent that exhibited the best overall performance in terms of chemical reactivity, sulfur capacity, regenerability, structural properties, and attrition resistance. Following this parametric study, a life-cycle test consisting of 100 sulfidation-regeneration cycles was carried out with ZT-4 in the bench unit.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1993-06-01

26

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-04-21

27

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-06-08

28

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel. Volume of Appendices, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the following appendices: Circuit design; test data and performance calculations; Box-Behnken statistical analysis; Response surface plots and computations; Test data and performance calculations; Long-duration test data and performance calculations; MGS partition curve data; Near-term test data and performance calculations; Economic evaluation; and CPPRF circuit drawings.

Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

1995-03-01

29

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1996-08-13

30

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project, which is scheduled to occur through January 1996, will be to install and test a 500{number_sign}/hr. fine coal-cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: continued purchasing small equipment and supplies for the circuit; procured a 46-ton sample of Lower Kittanning ``B`` Seam coal; completed eight primary integrated tests (PIT {number_sign}1--{number_sign}8) using the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam and the Grade-K and Grade-L magnetites; completed classifying cyclone tests using the Pittsburgh No. 8 and Lower Kittanning seams using a larger (0.5 inch) apex; completed data analysis on the four Grade-K magnetite ``closed-loop`` heavy-media cyclone tests; obtained a finer third grade of magnetite (Grade-M) with a MVD of approximately 3 microns; presented paper on the Micro- Mag project at the Coal Preparation, Utilization and Environmental Control Contractors Conference and a Poster Board Paper on the Micro- Mag Project at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference; and developed a method to modify all 5 Micro-Mag magnetic separators to approximately one third of their present size to better approximate commercial operation.

NONE

1995-10-11

31

TEST OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes pilot scale and laboratory tests of U.S. and Polish woven baghouse fabrics. Cotton, polyester, aramid, and glass fabrics were tested using cement, flyash, coal, and talc dusts at loadings of about 10 g/cu m, filtration velocities of 60 and 80 cu m/sq m, and a...

32

Laboratory/bench-scale testing and evaluation of the A. P. T. Dry-Plate Scrubber. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The A.P.T. Dry Plate Scrubber (DPS) uses a shallow, dense mobile bed of solid collector granules which move across a perforated plate. The gas stream containing fine particles and vapors is moved upward through the perforations to form high velocity gas jets. The fine particles are removed by inertial deposition onto the collector granules or by direct interception. Electrostatic forces also can be used to improve the collection efficiency and increase the adhesive forces between the particles and collectors. The DPS column consists of a series of collection stages (perforated plates) with the collectors either passing sequentially over each stage or being fed separately to each stage. The stages can be designed so as to promote the collection of large particles on the lower stages and the collection of fine particles and alkali vapors on the upper stages. The DPS is especially well suited for cleaning high temperature and pressure gases such as the effluent from a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) process. The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the DPS at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes.

None

1981-03-30

33

Bench-Scale Co-Processing  

SciTech Connect

This topical report is the first for the UOP Bench-Scale Co-processing contract. The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize the UOP single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. UOP co-processing uses a single-stage, slurry-catalyzed scheme in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active, well-dispersed catalyst permits operations at moderate- and high-severity reaction conditions with minimum detrimental thermal reactions. In this process, finely ground coal, petroleum resid, and catalyst are mixed, combined with hydrogen, and then directed to a single-stage reactor, where the simultaneous upgrading of the petroleum resid and coal occurs. The reactor effluent is directed to a series of separators, where a hydrogen-rich gas is recovered and recycled back to the reactor inlet. The balance of the material is sent to a series of separators, where the light gasses, light oil, vacuum gas on (VGO), catalyst, unconverted coal, ash, and residues are recovered. The catalyst is recycled back to the reactor. The UOP co-processing scheme is designed to be integrated into a conventional petroleum refinery. the hydrocarbon products from the co-processing unit will be sent to the refinery for final upgrading to finished products. A major focus of this contract is to investigate ways to reduce the catalyst and catalyst recovery costs and improve the overall economics of the process. This report documents the work completed under Task 2.0, Laboratory Support. The overall objective of Task 2.0 was to obtain and characterize the feedstocks for the contract and to provide a screening mechanism to test new catalyst systems prior to testing in the continuous pilot plant. The main elements of the experimental program for task 2.0 include: Feedstock procurement and analysis; catalyst improvements; and catalyst recycle screening.

Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Fullerton, H.E.

1993-11-08

34

COMPARING RBF WITH BENCH-SCALE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT FOR PRECURSOR REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors upon riverbank filtration (RBF) at three drinking water utilities in the mid-Western United States was compared with that obtained using a bench-scale conventional treatment train on the corresponding river waters. The riv...

35

EVALUATION OF A BENCH-SCALE DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM FOR SCREENING POTENTIAL REAGENTS AND OPERATING CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two series of bench-scale dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) laboratory tests, the primary objective of which was to evaluate the ability of a bench-scale dry FGD system to screen potential reagents and operating conditions in support of testing at larger pilo...

36

Bench-scale co-processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. Particular emphasis is given to defining and improving catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery techniques. The work during this quarter involved a series of temperature studies with different concentrations of Mo slurry catalyst. The results of bench-scale Runs 26 and 27 are discussed in the following report. 25 figs.

Nafis, D.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Lea, C.; Miller, M.A.

1990-03-27

37

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

1995-11-21

38

Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update  

SciTech Connect

This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

2011-04-04

39

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion. (VC)

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-01-01

40

MULTICOMPONENT AEROSOL DYNAMICS OF THE PB-O2 SYSTEM IN A BENCH SCALE FLAME INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was carried out to understand the formation and growth of lead particles in a flame incinerator. A bench scale flame incinerator was used to perform controlled experiments with lead acetate as a test compound. A dilution probe in conjunction with real-time aerosol instrum...

41

TESTS OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of filter fabrics. Tests were made on flat specimens and on bags. Fifteen styles of fabrics (made from cotton, polyester, aramid, or glass) were tested, using cement, coal, or talc dusts. Collection efficiencies and pressure...

42

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1992-01-01

43

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1992-12-01

44

100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

1993-05-01

45

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1993-01-01

46

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

BANNING DL

2011-02-11

47

Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems.Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that

Jenia A. McBrian Tufts; Jacky A. Rosati

2012-01-01

48

Report on Recommendations for Lab and Bench-Scale Tasks  

E-print Network

Generation Using a BioCarbon Fuel Cell 1 2.0 Electrical Energy Storage System and Infrastructure Development energy and distributed energy resources (DER) technologies; 3. Current assessment of the stateReport on Recommendations for Lab and Bench-Scale Tasks Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy

49

Operation of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and design of an inductively heated, bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) are described. The furnace is used as part of a pyrochemical process for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent light water reactor fuel. The focus is on the components that contain the metal melts and vapors. The forerunner of this paper focuses on the design of the induction power

M. A. Vest; G. K. Johnson; R. D. Pierce; E. J. Wesolowski

1997-01-01

50

Environmental Technology Verification--Baghouse Filtration Products: GE Energy QG061 Filtration Media (Tested September 2008)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report reviews the filtration and pressure drop performance of GE Energy's QG061 filtration media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests in September 2008. The objective of the ETV Program is to ...

51

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 16 weight percent CaCO{sub 3}. Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na{sub 2}S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na{sub 2}S, where it would be converted to Hg{sub 2}S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na{sub 2}S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.

1995-12-31

52

Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.  

PubMed

A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare. PMID:22442931

Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

2012-02-01

53

Analysis of nonionic surfactants in bench-scale biotreater samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effluents and activated sludges used in benchscale biotreater units have been analyzed for nonionic alcohol ethoxylates\\u000a and their residues. Separate bench-scale units were fed linear alcohol ethoxylates (AE), highly branched and branched nonylphenol\\u000a ethoxylates. Effluents and sludges were first pretreated by a foam sublation technique to provide a gross separation of surfactants\\u000a from the environmental matrix. This step was

S. T. Dubey; L. Kravetz; J. P. Salanitro

1995-01-01

54

Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into filtration in which visitors review basic filtration concepts, construct gravity and vacuum filtration units, and record the procedures in a virtual lab notebook. At the end of the module, those who complete it successfully will get a certificate.

2013-08-05

55

76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Postaccident Engineered-Safety-Feature...testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of...

2011-12-30

56

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier. Second quarterly project report, January 1, 1985--March 31, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion. (VC)

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-12-31

57

Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

58

Bench-scale testing of DOE/PETC`s GranuFlow Process for fine coal dewatering and handling. 1: Results using a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge  

SciTech Connect

Most advanced fine-coal cleaning processes involve the use of water. Utility companies are concerned not only with the lower Btu content of the resulting wet, cleaned coal, but more importantly with its handleability problems. Solutions to these problems would enhance the utilization of fine-coal cleaning processes in the utility industry. This paper describes testing of the GranuFlow Process, developed and patented by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy, using a high-gravity solid bowl centrifuge for dewatering and reconstitution of fine-cleaned-coal slurry at 300 lb per hour in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Fine-cleaned-coal slurry was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge. The treated products appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, lumpy, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the moisture content, handleability, and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product improved as the addition of emulsion increased from 2% to 8%. The improvement in handleability was most visible for the 200 mesh (75 micron) x 0 coal, when compared with 150 mesh (106 micron) x 0, 65 mesh (212 micron) x 0 or 28 mesh (600 micron) x 0 coals. Test results also showed that the moisture content was dramatically reduced (26--37% reduction) for the four different sizes of coals at 6 or 8% emulsion addition. Because of the moisture reduction and the granular form of the product, the freezing problem was also alleviated.

Wen, W.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Lowman, R.H.; Elstrodt, R. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

1995-12-31

59

BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-09-25

60

Bench-Scale Testing of Attrition Resistant Moving Bed Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems with cold-gas cleanup have now reached the early stages of commercialization. The foundation for this was successful completion of the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program several years ago. Destec Energy, Inc., a subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, has a plant in operation in Louisiana, and the 2 Wabash River Plant in Indiana is now starting up. A similar plant based on the Shell gasification technology is operating in the Netherlands. In two new plants now under construction, the Tampa Electric Plant in Florida and the Sierra Pacific Power Plant in Nevada, incorporating hot-gas cleanup technology is desirable. Unfortunately, some nagging problems remain with both sulfur sorbent and particle filter technology that may result in the use of cold-gas, rather than hot-gas, cleanup in these plants. With sulfur sorbents, the main problems are with mechanical property degradation and/or loss of sulfur capacity over many sulfidation-regeneration cycles. The sorbents receiving the most attention are all zinc based. They include various zinc titanate formulations and proprietary materials developed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) staff and the Phillips Petroleum Company. The investigators on this project are now completing their third year of effort on a superstrong zinc titanate sorbent. Prior to this year, various formulations were prepared and evaluated for their potential use in fixed- and fluidized-bed hot-gas desulfurization systems. A unique feature, the reason for the high strength, is that the zinc titanate is contained in a matrix of titanium dioxide. Its crush strength is more than 6 times that prior investigators achieved.

Swisher, J.H. [E& A Associates, Murphysboro, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

61

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

62

Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract.

NONE

1997-04-01

63

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

64

Test for the integrity of environmental tractor cab filtration systems.  

PubMed

Cab filtration systems can be used to protect vehicle operators from hazardous air contaminants. In a cab filtration system, a fan draws air through filters and pressurizes the cab with this filtered air. This article describes the application of a low-cost, optical particle counter to evaluate the performance of tractor cab filtration systems. The tractors were equipped with environmental enclosures to protect the operators from pesticide exposures that occur during air blast spraying in orchards. Prior to testing, all environmental tractor cabs underwent a complete maintenance overhaul followed by a careful inspection by the manufacturer's field representative. As part of this maintenance effort, 13 tractors with cab filtration systems were tested in an enclosure. A Met One model 227B two-channel optical particle counter was used to measure the aerosol concentration outside and inside the cab. Ambient aerosol and/or aerosol generated by burning incense sticks were used to challenge the stationary cab filtration system in an enclosure. The ratio of the outside to inside concentration (Co/Ci) is the exposure reduction attained by the cab system. Alternatively, the inside concentration divided by the outside concentration times 100 (Ci/Co x 100) gives the percent penetration. All 13 tractors were tested for leak sites. Leak sites were identified and sealed. This process was repeated until each cab showed an exposure reduction ratio Co/Ci of at least 50 (aerosol penetration into the cab Ci/Co x 100 was less than 2%) at the 0.3-0.5 microm particle size interval. PMID:16183625

Moyer, Ernest S; Heitbrink, William A; Jensen, Paul A

2005-10-01

65

ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

66

Actinide Recovery Experiments with Bench-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode in Fission Product-Laden Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the observations and analytical results from a series of bench- scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments that recovered transuranic elements together with uranium from a molten electrolyte laden with real fission products. Variable parameters such as the ratio of Pu3+/U3+ in the electrolyte, liquid cadmium cathode voltage, and feed materials were tested in the LCC experiments. Actinide recovery efficiency and Pu/U ratio in the liquid cadmium cathode product under variable conditions are reported in the article. Separation factors for actinides and rare earth elements in the salt/cadmium system are also presented.

S. X. Li; S. D. Herrmann; R. W. Benedict; K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

2009-02-01

67

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1992--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The present work effort relates to an investigation of surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in overall coal conversions and the product quality. Based on the results of a Phase 1 preliminary study on the effect of several surfactants on coal liquefaction, sodium lignosulfonate was chosen as the surfactant for a detailed parametric study to be conducted at JPL using a batch autoclave reactor. These tests primarily related to thermal liquefaction of coal. The results of JPL autoclave test runs showed an increase in overall conversions from 5 to 15% due to surfactant addition over the base case of coal alone. A continuous-flow bench scale coal liquefaction process run was conducted over a 5-day period at Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated (HRI). This test showed that the surfactant is suitable for an industrial continuous recycle process, and does not interfere with the supported catalyst. After the bench scale test, a series of autoclave runs were conducted with coprocessing the surfactant and the Ni-Mo catalyst. These experiments showed that high conversions and product quality can be maintained at milder processing conditions. Based on results of the autoclave test runs, the overall product values were obtained for two stage reactors at 400{degrees}C. The best product value was realized for the two-stage case (e) which showed an 8% improvement over the base case.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1994-03-31

68

Radioactive Testing Results in Support of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility - Filtrate Test  

SciTech Connect

This report documents results investigating the decomposition of excess NaTPB in presence of filtrate from one of the Cycle I Demonstration tests, fulfilling a request by CST Engineering and the ITP Flow Sheet Team.

Hobbs, D.T.

1998-10-21

69

Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

70

Bacterial community in the biofilm of granular activated carbon (GAC) PreBiofilter in bench-scale pilot plants for surface water pretreatment.  

PubMed

Biofilters of granular activated carbon (GAC) are responsible for the removal of organic matters in drinking water treatments. PreBiofilters, which operate as the first unit in a surface water treatment train, are a cost-effective pretreatment for conventional surface water treatment and provide more consistent downstream water quality. This study investigated bacterial communities from the samples of raw surface water, biofilm on the PreBiofilter, and filtrates for surface water pretreatment. A bench-scale pilot plant of PreBiofilter was constructed to pretreat surface water from the Canoochee River, GA, USA. PreBiofilter exhibited a significant reduction of total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. The evenness and Shannon diversity of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher on the biofilm of PreBiofilter than in raw water and filtrates. Similar bacteria communities were observed in the raw water and filtrates using relative abundance of bacterial OTUs. However, the bacterial communities in the filtrates became relatively similar to those in the biofilm using presence/absence of bacterial OTUs. GAC biofilm or raw water and filtrates greatly contributed to the abundance of bacteria; whereas, bacteria sheared from colonized biofilm and entered filtrates. Evenly distributed, diverse and unique bacteria in the biofilm played an important role to remove organic matters from surface water for conventional surface water pretreatment. PMID:25267475

Wu, Tiehang; Fu, George Yuzhu; Sabula, Michael; Brown, Tommy

2014-12-01

71

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE EPA OWNED BENCH SCALE PILOT PLANT FOR EVALUATING SCR DENOX CATALYSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the use of EPA's bench-scale pilot plant to evaluate catalysts used in the ammonia (NH3)-based technology and process for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides. A key objective was to establish the performance of SCR catalysts on U.S. uels and...

72

A practical pulverized coal feeder for bench-scale combustion requiring low feed rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory coal metering device for the entrainment of pulverized coals is described. The system uses controlled aerodynamic stripping of the powder surface by a carrier gas to effect the coal feed. This device has been used for approximately one year in bench-scale combustion studies requiring exacting feed rates with very satisfactory results.

Burch, T. E.; Conway, R. B.; Chen, W. Y.

1991-02-01

73

SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

74

Residual moisture reduction of coarse coal using air purging. 1. Bench scale studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air purging is a new way of reducing the moisture content of coarse coal product from vibrating basket centrifuges. The process concept involves the injection of a turbulent stream of high velocity air through the coal bed as it traverses the centrifuge basket. The study described in this paper shows that the technique works at the bench-scale.Simple theoretical treatment predicted

B. K Johnston; S. K Nicol; C. J Veal

2001-01-01

75

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in bench-scale sequencing batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bench-scale sequencing batch reactors were fed with domestic wastewater and operated in an anaerobic-aerobic sequence for 139 d. Denitrification during the aerated react period was observed and the factors influencing the extent of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were examined. It was found that the influence of DO on the nitrification rate during the aerated react period could be described

Elisabeth V. Münch; Paul Lant; Jürg Keller

1996-01-01

76

Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of {sup 137}Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including {sup 90}Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in {sup 90}Sr.

Brooks, K.P; Myers, R.L; Rappe, K.G.

1997-01-01

77

Pilot tests on the catalytic filtration of dioxins.  

PubMed

Tests were conducted to study the removal efficiencies (REs) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from flue gas during a test program involving a pilot-scale catalytic filter (CF) module and a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). The REs attained with the CF on a side stream and a conventional activated carbon (AC) injection and baghouse filtration system in the full-scale MSWI are evaluated via simultaneous sampling and analysis of both gas- and particle-phase PCDD/Fs. Flue gas without AC is supplied to the pilot-scale CF module for evaluating its RE capabilities. The REs achieved with the CF at 180 °C are 96.80 and 99.50%, respectively, for the gas phase and the particulate contained. The gas-phase PCDD/F RE rises significantly at 200 and 220 °C. The air/cloth (A/C) ratio defined as is the gas flow rate (m(3)/min) divided by the filtration area (m(2)) also affects the PCDD/F RE, especially in the gas phase. At 180 °C, a RE of gas-phase PCDD/Fs of 95.94% is attained with the CF at 0.8 m/min, yet it decreases at higher A/C ratios (1 and 1.2 m/min). A significantly lower toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration (0.71 ng I-TEQ/g) was measured in the filter dust of the CF module compared to that collected by the AC adsorption system (4.18 ng I-TEQ/g), apparently because of the destruction of gas-phase PCDD/Fs by the catalyst. PMID:24617498

Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Shu Hao; Lin, Syuan Hong; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo Been

2014-04-01

78

Degradation and detoxification of 4-nitrophenol by advanced oxidation technologies and bench-scale constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The degradation and detoxification towards the duckweed Lemna minor of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) was studied by means of bench-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), TiO(2)-photocatalysis and Fenton + photoFenton reactions. The main goal of this work was to compare the three treatment techniques to evaluate their possible combination for the efficient, low cost treatment of 4NP effluents. In CWs, adsorption on the substrate of 4NP was found to achieve 34-45%. Low concentrations (up to 100 ppm) of 4NP were successfully treated by CWs in 8-12 h. The microbial degradation of 4NP started after a lag phase which was longer with higher initial concentrations of the pollutant. The greatest degradation rate was found to occur at initial concentrations of 4NP between 60 and 90 ppm. Solar TiO(2)-photocatalysis was faster than the CWs. The greatest removals in terms of mass of 4NP removed after 6 h of irradiation were found to occur at 4NP concentrations of about 200 ppm. Fenton reaction provided complete 4NP degradation up to 500 ppm in only 30 min but TOC was removed by only about 40%. The resulting toxicities were below 20% for initial 4NP concentrations below 300 ppm. It was the Fenton + photoFenton combination (180 min in total) that provided TOC reductions up to 80% and negative L. minor growth inhibition for almost all the 4NP concentrations tested. The combination of solar TiO(2)-photocatalysis (6 h) with CWs (16 h) was able to completely treat and detoxify 4NP effluents with concentrations as high as 200 ppm of the organic. PMID:22525833

Herrera-Melián, J A; Martín-Rodríguez, A J; Ortega-Méndez, A; Araña, J; Doña-Rodríguez, J M; Pérez-Peña, J

2012-08-30

79

Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

2013-12-31

80

Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

Schmidt, Andrew J.

2006-01-20

81

Bench-scale co-oxidative production of propylene oxide by methanotrophs  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the co-oxidative production of value-added chemicals using methanotrophs has been investigated by the authors. Several of these co-oxidative products have been evaluated for stereo- or regiospecific properties. Propylene oxide (1,2-epoxypropane) is one of the products that has been selected for further evaluation. This paper describes the first steps toward bench-scale production of propylene oxide. Propylene oxide has been produced stereospecifically (60% R-form, 40% S-form) in gram quantities in bench-scale liquid culture reactors. Several operational parameters and conditions have been determined for both a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and a packed-bed bubble-column reactor (PBR). The production phase of the propylene oxide has been significantly extended by intermittent addition of propylene and regeneration with methane. The paper also describes the performance of the CSTR and PBR for propylene oxide production.

Hill, A.H.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.; Akin, C.A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Hayes, T.D.; Frank, J.R. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1990-01-01

82

Bench-scale studies on gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of bench-scale studies on the development of catalysts for conversion of biomass to specific gas products. The primary objective of these studies was to define operating conditions that allow long lifetimes for secondary catalysts used in biomass gasification. Nickel-based catalysts that were found to be active for conversion of wood to synthesis gases in previous studies were evaluated. These catalysts remained active indefinitely in laboratory studies but lost activity rapidly when evaluated in a process research unit. Bench-scale equipment was designed and installed to resolve the differences between laboratory and PRU results. Primary catalysts (alkali carbonates) were also evaluated for their effectiveness in improving conversion yields from biomass gasification. 21 refs., 27 figs., 19 tabs.

Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Wilcox, W.A.

1987-11-01

83

Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7-15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt % sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt % sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. During the second quarter, the authors completed the acid pretreatment of 25 lb (11 kg) of the 40 x 80-mesh IBC-105 coal and 7 lb (3 kg) of carbonizer char. Modifications of the bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor were completed, permitting extended-duration char-producing runs with caking coal. Char-producing runs were initiated at 1100 F and 20 psig in nitrogen, and will continue into the third quarter.

Knight, R.A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-06-01

84

Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production. PMID:24861313

Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

2014-11-01

85

Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Wahlquist, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

1996-07-01

86

Methods to avoid post-filtration precipitation in treatment of high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant currently under construction for treating high level waste at the Hanford Site will rely on ultrafiltration to provide solids liquid separation as a core part of the treatment process. A series of bench-scale simulant tests have been performed to evaluate the potential for post-filtration precipitation. These tests focused on identifying precipitation from a range of potential feed compositions and providing the data required to evaluate mitigation options. A series of tests were performed using a variety of simulant samples. These tests identified the expected extent of supersaturation that develops under normal operations and identified and characterized the solids phases that are expected to form when the filtrate solutions are stored. In addition, tests identified the potential to mitigate the formation of these solids through both dilution and the application of increased temperature.

Russell, Renee L.; Snow, Lanee A.; Peterson, Reid A.

2010-07-01

87

Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies  

E-print Network

- bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed

Li, Ying

88

Bone-Bound Glucoamylase as a Biocatalyst in Bench-Scale Production of Glucose Syrups from Liquefied Cassava Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assesses the bench-scale application of a non-conventional support, bone particles, for glucoamylase (GA) immobilization\\u000a and its subsequent use in cassava starch hydrolysis. Upon determining the appropriate conditions to immobilize GA onto chicken\\u000a bone particles, such as pH, ionic strength, particle size, and enzyme load, bench-scale immobilization of commercial GA without\\u000a further purification was performed. Under the selected conditions,

Cecilia Carpio; Fabricio Escobar; Francisco Batista-Viera; Jenny Ruales

2011-01-01

89

Design and testing of an experiment to measure self-filtration in particulate suspensions  

E-print Network

An experiment for measuring self-filtration in terms of change in volume fraction downstream of a constriction compared to volume fraction upstream of said constriction was designed and tested. The user has the ability to ...

Flander, Mattias S. (Mattias Simon)

2011-01-01

90

Bench-scale electrochemical system for generation of CO and syn-gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow cell based, bench-scale electrochemical system for generation of synthesis-gas (syn-gas) is reported. Sensitivity to\\u000a operating conditions such as CO2 flow, current density, and elevated temperature are described. By increasing the temperature of the cell the kinetic overpotential\\u000a for the reduction of CO2 was lowered with the cathode voltage at 70 mA cm?2 decreased by 0.32 V and the overall cell voltage

Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

2011-01-01

91

Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

1982-07-01

92

Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel Bench-Scale Experiment Results  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent light water reactor fuel at bench-scale in a hot cell at the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex. The process involves the conversion of oxide fuel to metal by electrolytic means, which would then enable subsequent separation and recovery of actinides via existing electrometallurgical technologies, i.e., electrorefining. Four electrolytic reduction runs were performed at bench scale using ~500 ml of molten LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O electrolyte at 650 ºC. In each run, ~50 g of crushed spent oxide fuel was loaded into a permeable stainless steel basket and immersed into the electrolyte as the cathode. A spiral wound platinum wire was immersed into the electrolyte as the anode. When a controlled electric current was conducted through the anode and cathode, the oxide fuel was reduced to metal in the basket and oxygen gas was evolved at the anode. Salt samples were extracted before and after each electrolytic reduction run and analyzed for fuel and fission product constituents. The fuel baskets following each run were sectioned and the fuel was sampled, revealing an extent of uranium oxide reduction in excess of 98%.

Steven D. Herrmann

2007-04-01

93

Bench-scale bioethanol production from eucalyptus by high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose fermentation method.  

PubMed

In the bioethanol production process, high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation are important technologies for obtaining increased ethanol concentrations; however, bench-scale studies using combinations of these methods are limited. In this study, we hydrolyzed high solid concentration of milled eucalyptus using commercial enzymes and obtained 138.4 g/L total monomeric sugar concentration. These sugars were fermented to 53.5 g/L of ethanol by a xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, MA-R4. These experiments were performed in bench scale (using 50 L scale solid mixer and 70 L scale fermenter). The results obtained in this study were comparable to our previous results in laboratory scale, indicating that we successfully achieved an efficient high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation system in bench scale. PMID:23917411

Fujii, Tatsuya; Murakami, Katsuji; Endo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Minowa, Tomoaki; Matsushika, Akinori; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

2014-04-01

94

Evaluation of the role of heterogeneities on transverse mixing in bench-scale tank experiments by numerical modeling.  

PubMed

In this work, numerical modeling is used to evaluate and interpret a series of detailed and well-controlled two-dimensional bench-scale conservative tracer tank experiments performed to investigate transverse mixing in porous media. The porous medium used consists of a fine matrix and a more permeable lens vertically aligned with the tracer source and the flow direction. A sensitivity analysis shows that the tracer distribution after passing the lens is only slightly sensitive to variations in transverse dispersivity, but strongly sensitive to the contrast of hydraulic conductivities. A unique parameter set could be calibrated to closely fit the experimental observations. On the basis of calibrated and validated model, synthetic experiments with different contrasts in hydraulic conductivity and more complex setups were performed and the efficiency of mixing evaluated. Flux-related dilution indices derived from these simulations show that the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between matrix and high-permeable lenses as well as the spatial configuration of tracer plumes and lenses dominate mixing, rather than the actual pore scale dispersivities. These results indicate that local material distributions, the magnitude of permeability contrasts, and their spatial and scale relation to solute plumes are more important for macro-scale transverse dispersion than the micro-scale dispersivities of individual materials. Local material characterization by thorough site investigation hence is of utmost importance for the evaluation of mixing-influenced or -governed problems in groundwater, such as tracer test evaluation or an assessment of contaminant natural attenuation. PMID:23675977

Ballarini, E; Bauer, S; Eberhardt, C; Beyer, C

2014-01-01

95

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02

96

Mild gasification technology development process: Task 3, Bench-scale char upgrading study, February 1988--November 1990  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop mild gasification technology and co-product utilization. The objective of Task 3 was to investigate the necessary steps for upgrading the mild gasification char into potential high-market-value solid products. Recommendations of the Task 1 market survey section formed the basis for selecting three value-added solid products from mild gasification char: form coke, smokeless fuel, and activated adsorbent char. The formation and testing for the form coke co-product involved an evaluation of its briquette strength and reactivity. The measured tensile strength and reactivity of the form coke sample briquettes were in the range of commercial coke, and development tests on a larger scale are recommended. The reaction rate of the form coke carbon with carbon dioxide at 1825{degree}F was measured using a standard procedure. A smokeless fuel briquette with limestone added to control sulfur can be made from mild gasification char in a simple manner. Test results have shown that briquettes with limestone have a heating value comparable to other solid fuels and the limestone can retain up to 88% of the sulfur during combustion in a simple bench-scale combustion test, almost all of it as a stable calcium sulfate. Adsorbent chars were prepared with a standard steam activation procedure and tested for a variety of pertinent property and performance values. Such adsorbents may be better suited for use in some areas, such as the adsorption of low-molecular-weight substances, because of the smaller pore sizes measured in the char. 5 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Knight, R.A.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

1990-12-01

97

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2009-02-28

98

Bench-scale experiments for the development of a unified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the in vitro diagnosis of Leishmania species' promastigotes.  

PubMed

We developed, in bench-scale experiments, a unified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis using DNA of cultivated promastigotes. Two primer sets for the LAMP assay were designed based on the 18S rRNA gene, and their sensitivity and specificity were tested and compared. Both of them were specific for Leishmania as the DNA of all ten Leishmania species tested was amplified, whereas the DNA of other parasites, including that of Trypanosoma, was not. The detection limit for primer set 1 ranged between 30 pg and 3·6 fg, depending on which Leishmania species tested. Primer set 2 showed high sensitivity, but was less sensitive than primer set 1. Our findings lead to the conclusion that the LAMP assay with primer set 1 is a promising and effective assay for the successful detection of a wide range of Leishmania infections using only a unified multiplex LAMP test. PMID:24168822

Karani, M; Sotiriadou, I; Plutzer, J; Karanis, P

2014-08-01

99

BENCH-SCALE STUDIES ON THE SIMULTANEOUS FORMATION OF PCBS AND PCDDS/FS FROM COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports on a bench-scale experimental study to characterize a newly built reactor system that was built to: produce levels and distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) production similar to those achieved by previous re...

100

Textile wastewater treatment in a bench-scale anaerobic-biofilm anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor combined with nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the treatability of textile wastewaters in a bench-scale experimental system, comprising an anaerobic biofilter, an anoxic reactor and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The MBR effluent was thereafter treated by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. The proposed system was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the textile wastewater under the operating conditions applied in the study.

Selene Grilli; Daniela Piscitelli; Davide Mattioli; Stefania Casu; Alessandro Spagni

2011-01-01

101

Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-20

102

Regional-Scale Salt Tectonics Modelling: Bench-Scale Validation and Extension to Field-Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of salt in the evolution of the West African continental margin, and in particular its impact on hydrocarbon migration and trap formation, is an important research topic. It has attracted many researchers who have based their research on bench-scale experiments, numerical models and seismic observations. This research has shown that the evolution is very complex. For example, regional analogue bench-scale models of the Angolan margin (Fort et al., 2004) indicate a complex system with an upslope extensional domain with sealed tilted blocks, growth fault and rollover systems and extensional diapers, and a downslope contractional domain with squeezed diapirs, polyharmonic folds and thrust faults, and late-stage folding and thrusting. Numerical models have the potential to provide additional insight into the evolution of these salt driven passive margins. The longer-term aim is to calibrate regional-scale evolution models, and then to evaluate the effect of the depositional history on the current day geomechanical and hydrogeologic state in potential target hydrocarbon reservoir formations adjacent to individual salt bodies. To achieve this goal the burial and deformational history of the sediment must be modelled from initial deposition to the current-day state, while also accounting for the reaction and transport processes occurring in the margin. Accurate forward modeling is, however complex, and necessitates advanced procedures for the prediction of fault formation and evolution, representation of the extreme deformations in the salt, and for coupling the geomechanical, fluid flow and temperature fields. The evolution of the sediment due to a combination of mechanical compaction, chemical compaction and creep relaxation must also be represented. In this paper ongoing research on a computational approach for forward modelling complex structural evolution, with particular reference to passive margins driven by salt tectonics is presented. The approach is an extension of a previously published approach (Crook et al., 2006a, 2006b) that focused on predictive modelling of structure evolution in 2-D sandbox experiments, and in particular two extensional sand box experiments that exhibit complex fault development including a series of superimposed crestal collapse graben systems (McClay, 1990) . The formulation adopts a finite strain Lagrangian method, complemented by advanced localization prediction algorithms and robust and efficient automated adaptive meshing techniques. The sediment is represented by an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model based on extended critical state concepts, which enables representation of the combined effect of mechanical and chemical compaction. This is achieved by directly coupling the evolution of the material state boundary surface with both the mechanically and chemically driven porosity change. Using these procedures the evolution of the geological structures arises naturally from the imposed boundary conditions without the requirement of seeding using initial imperfections. Simulations are presented for regional bench-scale models based on the analogue experiments presented by Fort et al. (2004), together with additional insights provided by the numerical models. It is shown that the behaviour observed in both the extensional and compressional zones of these analogue models arises naturally in the finite element simulations. Extension of these models to the field-scale is then discussed and several simulations are presented to highlight important issues related to practical field-scale numerical modelling.

Crook, A. J. L.; Yu, J. G.; Thornton, D. A.

2010-05-01

103

PILOT-SCALE FIELD TESTS OF HIGH-GRADIENT MAGNETIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of using a 5100 cu m/hr mobile pilot plant to evaluate the effectiveness and economics of applying high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to particulate emission control. A 4-1/2 month test program was conducted at a Pennsylvania sintering plant to char...

104

Macrokinetic and quantitative microbial investigation on a bench-scale biofilter treating styrene-polluted gaseous streams.  

PubMed

We performed a macrokinetic and quantitative microbial investigation of a continuously operating bench-scale biofilter treating styrene-polluted gases. The device was filled with a mixture of peat and glass beads as packing medium and inoculated with the styrene-oxidizing strain, Rhodococcus rhodochrous AL NCIMB 13259. The experimental data of styrene and microbial concentrations, obtained at different biofilter heights, were used to evaluate the pollutant concentration profiles as well as the influence of styrene loading on biomass distribution along the packing medium. Styrene and biomass concentration profiles permitted detection of a linear relationship between the amount of biomass grown in a given section of the biofilter and that of pollutant removed, regardless of the operating conditions tested. Biomass development in the bed appeared to: depend linearly on pollutant concentration at an inlet styrene concentration of <0.10 g m(-3) in the gaseous stream; achieve a maximum value (7. 10(7) colony forming units per gram of packing material) within a wide styrene concentration range (0.10 to 1.0 g m(-3)); and fall sharply beyond this inhibition threshold. The process followed zeroth-order macrokinetics with respect to styrene concentration, which is consistent with zeroth-order microkinetics with either fully active or not fully active biofilm. The maximal volumetric styrene removal rate was found to be 63 g m(packing material) (-3) h(-1) for an influent pollutant concentration of 0.80 g m(-3) and a superficial gas velocity of 245 m h(-1). PMID:12740930

Zilli, Mario; Converti, Attilio; Di Felice, Renzo

2003-07-01

105

Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

Hulburt, D.A.

1981-05-01

106

Bench-Scale Electrochemical System for Generation of CO and Syn-Gas  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale system for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 has been developed which produces CO and H2 (syn-gas) mixtures. The system is equipped with a gas-diffusion electrode which partially alleviates some of the mass-transport issues associated with CO2 delivery to the cathode. The positive effect of temperature was discovered where at 70°C a reduction in cell voltage of 1.57 V (compared to ambient) was observed at 70 mA cm-2. Controlling the flow of CO2 made it possible to maintain set H2:CO ratios with CO accounting for 25-90% of the product and H2 accounting for 10-75%. The cell, after an initial stabilization period of 40 min, displays reproducible, stable behavior. The current cell design brings the current densities for CO2 reduction closer to what is currently achieved in industrial alkaline electrolysis cells. This report discusses the electrolyte, electrode materials and variables which have been found to be significant in the production of CO and syn-gas mixtures.

Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

2011-06-01

107

Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor.  

PubMed

A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG, (HOC(2)H(4))2S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion. PMID:17239533

Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol

2007-08-17

108

Bench-scale vitrification studies with Savannah River Site mercury contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charted by the Department of Energy (DOE)--Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, mercury containing LLMW streams were targeted. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to mercury containing LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes have to be determined and the treatment for the mercury portion must also be determined. Selected additives should ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form is produced, while the mercury treatment should ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury are not released into the environment. The mercury containing LLMW selected for vitrification studies at the SRTC was mercury contaminated soil from the TNX pilot-plant facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Samples of this soil were obtained so bench-scale vitrification studies could be performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability and leach resistance. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.

1995-12-31

109

Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene.  

PubMed

The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.233±0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development. PMID:25084057

Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G

2014-09-01

110

Operation and modeling of bench-scale SBR for simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorus using real wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental work was carried out on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from real wastewater using a bench-scale SBR process.\\u000a The phosphorus removal was stable and the phosphorus concentration remaining in the reactor was maintained within 1.5 ppm,\\u000a regard-less of the addition of an external carbon source. In the case of nitrogen, an external carbon source was necessary\\u000a for denitrification. The effect

Seong-Jin Lim; Ra Kyung Moon; Woo Gi Lee; Sunhoon Kwon; Byung Geon Park; Ho Nam Chang

2000-01-01

111

Bench-scale study on zero excess activated sludge production process coupled with ozonation unit in membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this bench-scale study, two promising processes for minimizing excess activated sludge (EAS) production, i.e., membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sludge ozonation (SO), were coupled in this study into the MBR-SO process to treat domestic wastewater for 80 days, and the vital related operational factors were also investigated. Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and

Zheng Wang; Lin Wang; Bao Z. Wang; Yi F. Jiang; Shuo Liu

2008-01-01

112

SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

ROBBINS RA

2011-02-11

113

Bench scale testing - Phase I, Task 4. Topical progress report, September 1994--January 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment.

NONE

1995-07-01

114

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

115

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

116

BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF SORBENT ADDITIVES FOR TRACE METAL CAPTURE AND RETENTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The suitability of six minerals; silica, diatomaceous earth, kaolin, bauxite, alumina and attapulgite clay, as potential sorbents for the capture and immobilization of trace metals was evaluated. he behavior of five trace metals; arsenic, cadmium, chromium,, lead and nickel was t...

117

Bench-scale evaluation of drinking water treatment parameters on iron particles and water quality.  

PubMed

Discoloration of water resulting from suspended iron particles is one of the main customer complaints received by water suppliers. However, understanding of the mechanisms of discoloration as well as role of materials involved in the process is limited. In this study, an array of bench scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the most common variables (pH, PO4, Cl2 and DOM) on the properties of iron particles and suspensions derived from the oxygenation of Fe(II) ions in NaHCO3 buffered synthetic water systems. The most important factors as well as their rank influencing iron suspension color and turbidity formation were identified for a range of water quality parameters. This was accomplished using a 2(4) full factorial design approach at a 95% confidence level. The statistical analysis revealed that phosphate was found to be the most significant factor to alter color (contribution: 37.9%) and turbidity (contribution: 45.5%) in an iron-water system. A comprehensive study revealed that phosphate and chlorine produced iron suspension with reduced color and turbidity, made ?-potential more negative, reduced the average particle size, and increased iron suspension stability. In the presence of DOM, color was observed to increase but a reverse trend was observed to decrease the turbidity and to alter particle size distribution. HPSEC results suggest that higher molecular weight fractions of DOM tend to adsorb onto the surfaces of iron particles at early stages, resulting in alteration of the surface charge of iron particles. This in turn limits particles aggregation and makes iron colloids highly stable. In the presence of a phosphate based corrosion inhibitor, this study demonstrated that color and turbidity resulting from suspended iron were lower at a pH value of 6.5 (compared to pH of 8.5). The same trend was observed in presence of DOM. This study also suggested that iron colloid suspension color and turbidity in chlorinated drinking water systems could be lower than non-chlorinated systems. PMID:24075475

Rahman, M Safiur; Gagnon, Graham A

2014-01-01

118

Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.  

PubMed

Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s. Overspray and direct-spray results indicated that most of the change in aerosol size distribution occurred between the time the paint aerosol impacted the painted surface and the time the overspray became 2.8 s old. The overall mean MMAD of overspray in the study was 6.4 mum and may have been underestimated due to sampling efficiency biases. If inhaled by a worker, the overspray aerosols evaluated in this study would mostly deposit in the head airways region of the respiratory tract. Paint overspray aerosols contained Cr primarily in the Cr(VI) state. PMID:15596421

Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

2005-01-01

119

Filtration effects on the alkali metal content of biocrude oil  

SciTech Connect

The production of fuels and chemicals from biomass feedstocks is one of the areas of renewable energy research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Fast pyrolysis is one of the thermochemical conversion methods being developed at NREL for recovering the stored energy in biomass. The physical properties of thermochemically derived biomass fuels are very important if these fuels are to be used for electrical power generation, in steam boilers, or diesel fuel. The alkali metal content of the biocrude is very critical if it is going to be used as a turbine fuel to avoid damaging or wearing turbine blades. To study the origin of alkali metals, calcium and other trace inorganic content of biocrude, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was pyrolyzed in a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor at 500{degrees}C. After pyrolysis, cold filtration and leaching tests were carried out on die biocrude derived from the switchgrass. Cold filtration and leaching test results showed that the char particles in the oil are the main cause of the high alkali metal contents. The inorganics are sequestered in the char particles and do not leach into the oil phase. These char particles are of submicron size and cannot be easily removed by cold filtration. Consequently, a small hot gas filtration unit was attached to the fluidized bed reactor to remove the char particles in situ. An analysis of die hot gas filtered pyrolysis oils for alkali metals and ash showed that alkali metal content can be reduced to less than 10 ppm compared to 250-300 ppm for a cyclone separated oil.

Besler-Gueran, S.; Agblevor, F.A.; Scahill, J.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

120

Influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances on colour removal by coagulation and filtration.  

PubMed

This study aims to verify the influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances (AHSs) on the effectiveness of coagulation with aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. Coagulation-filtration tests using the jar test and bench-scale sand filters were carried out with water samples having a true colour of approximately 100 Hazen units and prepared with AHSs of different molecular sizes. Stability diagrams are presented showing regions of > or = 90% and > or = 95% apparent colour removal delineated for each water sample using plots of total metal ion concentration (Al3+ and Fe3+) versus coagulation pH. To achieve the same degree of colour removal, the water samples with smaller apparent molecular sizes and a higher percentage of fulvic acids required higher dosages of both aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. PMID:22439564

Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

2011-12-01

121

Urban water reuse: microbial pathogens control by direct filtration and ultraviolet disinfection.  

PubMed

Physicochemical treatment efficiency for unrestricted urban water reuse was evaluated at a conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pilot plant set-up consisted of an alum coagulation step, granular media upflow flocculation and direct downflow dual-media filtration followed by ultraviolet disinfection (dose of 95 mJ cm(-2)). Optimum aluminum sulfate dosage of 10 mg L(-1) and coagulation pH 7.0 were preset based on bench scale tests. Under WWTP stable operation, water quality met United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggested guidelines for unrestricted urban reuse regarding turbidity (mean value 1.3 NTU) and suspended solids (mean value 2.1 mg L(-1)). When WWTP overall plant performance dropped from 90 to 80% (although BOD value stayed below 6 mg O2 L(-1), suggesting unrestricted reuse), solids breakthrough in filtrate was observed. Microorganism removal rates were: total coliforms 60.0%, Escherichia coli 63.0%, Giardia spp. 81.0%, and helminth eggs 62.5%; thus organisms still remained in filtrate. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency was 4.1- and 3.8-log for total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. Considering low UV efficiency obtained for helminths and the survival of protozoa and helminths in the environment, effluent quality presents risk to public health if destined for unrestricted urban reuse. PMID:25252350

de Lima Isaac, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Tosetto, Mariana S; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimarães, José Roberto

2014-09-01

122

Filtration Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineering has developed various means to remove impurities from water. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own "filtration system" out of everyday items. Working with "muddy" water, learners develop a design, and then build and test a system to remove as much impurities from the water as possible. Learners view their own tests and those of other teams, evaluate their results, and present findings to the group. The group with the clearest "filtered" water is considered to have developed the best filter system. Safety note: Be sure to stress that the "filtered" water, no matter how clear, is not suitable for drinking. For younger students, do not provide charcoal as a filtration option.

Ieee

2014-05-22

123

Development of a standard bench-scale cell for electrochemical studies on inert anodes. Inert Anode/Cathode Program  

SciTech Connect

Objective of this work was to develop a standard bench-scale cell for performing short-term ac and dc polarization studies on inert anode candidate materials in molten cryolite. Two designs for electrochemical cells were developed and successfully evaluated in short-term experiments. Both cells consisted on the inert anode as a small cylindrical specimen partially sheathed in alumina, an Al/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ reference electrode, and a cryolite bath saturated in alumina. The difference between the two cells was in the design of the cathode. One cell used a bare solid metal cathode; the other used an aluminum pad similar to the Hall-Heroult configuration.

Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Boget, D.I.

1986-07-01

124

Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report: July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present results from culture isolation and selection studies, bench-scale fermentation experiments, and ethanol recovery experiments. Several promising isolates have been obtained in addition to Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC, and are being used in batch and continuous culture comparison studies. C. ljungdahlii is being utilized in two-stage bench-scale reactor studies, aimed at producing ethanol in high concentrations from a stable culture system. Finally, solvent comparison studies have been performed for the economical recovery of ethanol from the fermentation broth.

Not Available

1993-12-31

125

Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

Eakin, D.E.

1996-03-01

126

Bench scale retorting of Kentucky oil shale: comparison of a fixed bed to 1 1\\/2 and 3 inch fluid bed retorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench scale fluid bed retorting of Kentucky oil shale has provided evidence that for the small particle sizes used in this study increases in oil yield, which have been shown to be feasible for eastern US shale, is primarily due to decreased cracking of oil vapors and that release of hydrocarbons from the shale depends on pyrolysis temperature and not

A. M. Rubel; S. D. Carter

1984-01-01

127

Comparison of two online flocculation monitoring techniques for predicting turbidity removal by granular media filtration.  

PubMed

Particulate matter removal in drinking water treatment via direct granular filtration requires specific flocculation conditions (a process typically termed 'high energy flocculation'). Predicting filtered water turbidity based on flocculated water characteristics remains difficult. This study has sought to establish a relationship between filtered water turbidity and the flocculated water characteristics. Flocculation oflow-turbidity raw water was evaluated online using a Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA) and a Dynamic Particle Analyser in a modified jar test followed by a bench-scale anthracite filter. Coagulants used were alum, PASS100 and ferric sulphate, in addition to a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) cationic polymer. They were dosed in warm and cold waters, and flocculated with intensities (G) from 0 to 100 s(-1). Of the two instruments selected to analyse flocculation performance, the Dynamic Particle Analyser was shown to be the most sensitive, detecting small changes in floc growth kinetics and even floc growth under low flocculation conditions which remained undetected by the PDA. Floc size was shown to be insufficient in predicting particulate matter removal by direct granular filtration as measured by turbidity, although a threshold d(v) value (50 microm) could be identified for the test conditions evaluated in this project, above which turbidity was systematically lower than 0.2 NTU. PMID:21882562

Ball, T; Carrière, A; Barbeau, B

2011-07-01

128

In situ encapsulation bench-scale demonstration report FY-94 (for TTP-ID 142012)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the test objectives, procedures, and results of the laboratory-scale tests of in situ waste encapsulation of buried waste using a synthetic analogue of natural cement. The products of the reaction FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O + Ca(OH){sub 2} = gypsum and iron oxide/hydroxide were examined as a possible waste encapsulation material for application at the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This technique for transuranic waste encapsulation is being pursued by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration as a possible candidate containment and stabilization method for geologic time. The data indicate that the iron waste encapsulation materials tested are appropriate choices for the intended purpose. Based on these observations and conclusions, full-scale tests are recommended to determine the performance of the iron waste isolation materials under field conditions and for extended time periods. The viscosity of the reagents indicates that jet grouting is probably an appropriate application method.

Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

1995-01-01

129

SCREENING/FLOTATION TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. VOLUME I. BENCH SCALE AND PILOT PLANT INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A four-layer sinusoidal sandwich plate structure, reinforced with micro concrete grout next to the skin faces and hydrostatically pressurized with hydraulic fluid internally is subjected to transverse load tests. The plate is simply supported on all four sides, and its stiffness ...

130

Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of

1997-01-01

131

WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for measurements. All of the cured grouts were measured for bleed and set. All of the cured grouts satisfied the bleed and set requirements, where no bleed water was observed on any of the grout samples after one day and all had set within 3 days of curing. This data indicates, for a well mixed product, bleed and set requirement are satisfied for the range of acidic feeds tested in this task. The yield stress measurements provide both an indication on the mixability of the salt solution with dry materials and an indication of how quickly the grout is starting to form structure. The inability to properly mix these two streams into a well mixed grout product will lead to a non-homogeneous mixture that will impact product quality. Product quality issues could be unmixed regions of dry material and hot spots having high concentrations of americium 241. Mixes that were more difficult to incorporate typically resulted in grouts with higher yield stresses. The mixability from these tests will provide Waste Solidification Building (WSB) an indication of which grouts will be more challenging to mix. The first yield stress measurements were statistically compared to a list of variables, specifically the batched chemicals used to make the acidic solutions. The first yield stress was also compared to the physical properties of the acidic solutions, physical and pH properties of the neutralized/pH adjusted solutions, and chemical and physical properties of the grout.

Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

2009-03-20

132

Bench-scale demonstration of an integrated deSoot–deNO x system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic deSoot–deNOx system, comprising Pt and Ce fuel additives, a Pt-impregnated wall-flow monolith soot filter and a vanadia-type monolithic NH3-SCR catalyst, was tested with a two-cylinder DI diesel engine. The soot removal efficiency of the filter was 98–99mass% with a balance temperature (stationary pressure drop) of 315°C at an engine load of 55%. The NOx conversion ranged from 40

M Makkee; H. C Krijnsen; S. S Bertin; H. P. A Calis; C. M van den Bleek; J. A Moulijn

2002-01-01

133

Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.  

PubMed

The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. PMID:22133839

Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

2012-02-01

134

15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

2002-01-01

135

Recycling of polyethene and polypropene in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor by high-temperature pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The high-temperature pyrolysis of polyethene (PE), polypropene (PP), and mixtures of these polymers was studied in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor (RCR). Experiments showed that the effect of the sand or reactor temperature on the product spectrum obtained is large compared to the effect of other parameters (for instance, residence time). In general, it can be concluded that the amount of polymer converted into propene and butene decreases with higher cracking severity (higher temperatures or longer residence times), while the fraction methane increases. About 80 wt% of the polymer is converted into gas at a reactor temperature of 898 K, while 20 wt% is converted into intermediate waxlike compounds or aromatics in the case of PE. The gas yield increases slightly with the reactor and/or sand temperature to 88 wt% at higher temperatures. The total amount of alkenes decreases with increasing cracking intensity, which suggests that the reactor should be operated at the lowest possible temperature. The results indicate that the reactor offers a few significant advantages compared to other reactors (no fluidization gas necessary, good solid-polymer mixing, no cyclones necessary) and a competitive product spectrum. However, significant improvements are still possible to make the reactor concept technically and economically more attractive.

Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Faculty of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Faculty of Chemical Engineering

1998-06-01

136

[Evaluation of glomerular filtration rate in plasma cell dyscrasias--which test for ambulatory practice?].  

PubMed

To select the best mathematical formula for ambulatory monitoring of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD's) we evaluated GFR in 32 pts (22 M + 10 F; mean age 66.1 +/- 9.6) with newly recognized PCD's with the following routine GFR tests: creatinine concentration in serum (Crs); 24 hr's standard creatinine clearance (Crcl) as a reference test; calculation of GFR from Baracskay (BGFR) and Cockcroft-Gault (C-GGFR) formulas. There were: 16 pts without monoclonal proteinuria MP(-) and 16 pts with monoclonal proteinuria MP(+) (0.44-40.3; mean 9.54 g/day). The abnormal values for Crs were defined as > 1.5 mg/dl; for Crcl as < 80.0 ml/min. Only 41% (13/32) of pts had abnormal values of Crs and 84% (27/32) had abnormal values of Crcl. In the group of pts without monoclonal proteinuria MP(-) statistical significance between 24-hr's creatinine clearance and GFR calculated by Cockcroft-Gault as well as Baracskay formulas was not stated. In the group of pts with monoclonal proteinuria MP(+) statistical significance was not stated only between 24-hr's creatinine clearance and GFR calculated by Cockcroft-Gault formula. That was no statistical significance in GFR evaluated with this methods between patients with kappa and lambda monoclonal proteinuria. We concluded, that for ambulatory monitoring of pts with PCD's MP(+) only Cockcroft-Gault formula is recommended. On the other hand pts MP(-) might be monitored using Barasckay as well as Cockcroft-Gault formulas. Because Csr over estimated values of Crcl in both groups of pts, the other serum marker of GFR should be investigated. PMID:12026518

Zelichowski, G; Raczka, A; Wa?kowicz, Z

2001-11-01

137

Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

Gering, K.L.

1993-01-01

138

Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ``blank`` monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

Gering, K.L.

1993-01-01

139

Filtration Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how choice of commercial swimming-pool filtration systems is driven by the project-specific needs of the pools. Also highlighted are definitions of specific terms used when discussing filtration systems. Questions that pool designers can answer to make filtration-system purchasing decisions are listed. (GR)

Ward, Ken; Hunsaker, Scot

1997-01-01

140

Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

Bílek, Petr; Šidlof, Petr; Hr?za, Jakub

2012-04-01

141

Matrix acidity determination: A bench scale method for predicting resid cracking of FCC catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Novel methods for determination of matrix acidity of cracking catalysts are discussed. Virgin matrix acidity is determined after complete destruction of the zeolite phase by acid treating the catalyst at pH 2. Properties of acid-treated catalyst closely approximate those of pure matrix. However, the virgin matrix acidity does not correlate with resid cracking performance of the catalyst under commercial or pilot plant conditions. A second method has been developed that facilitates the measurement of matrix acidity on a laboratory deactivated sample with properties similar to that in the commercial cracking unit. The approach is based on total destruction of the zeolite by steaming at 870 C for 5 h. Acidity of the steamed catalyst closely resembles that of steamed pure matrix and has a good correlation with the resid cracking activity in the pilot plant testing. Preservation of matrix acid sites during hydrothermal deactivation was shown to be an important requirement for achieving high resid cracking activity.

Alerasool, S.; Doolin, P.K.; Hoffman, J.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

1995-02-01

142

Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation and Crossflow Filtration of 241-AN-102 Large C  

SciTech Connect

This work provides an important confirmation of the new strontium/permanganate precipitation process to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C (Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107) wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. As a bench-scale demonstration, a series of seven precipitation batches and crossflow filtration campaigns were performed to remove strontium-90 and transuranics from 16.5 liters of Tank 241-AN-102 ''Large C'' supernatant liquid containing entrained solids.

Nash, C.A.

2001-05-21

143

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The ceramic cross-flow filter (CXF) system is a promising method to be used in advanced coal based power systems for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) particle removal. Using a subpilot scale pressurized fluid-bed combustor (PFBC) at Argonne National Laboratory and various PFBC simulators, prior projects have indicated that CXF systems can be used in oxidizing environments at PFBC conditions. To extend the use of CXF systems, this project completed an economic analysis comparing the cost of various oxygen and air blown gasification systems with the CXF system incorporated, initiated the scaleup of the CXF element from development to commercial size, predicted the characteristics of gasifier dust cake, evaluated cleaning pulse characteristics in a large multielement simulation, upgraded pulse cleaning mathematical model, and completed additional testing of the CXF elements under gasification (reducing) and PFBC conditions. Coors Ceramic Company and GTE Products Corporation were integrally involved in this program through the development and fabrication of the CXF elements. 39 figs., 23 tabs.

Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Meyer, J.H.; Vidt, E.J.

1989-09-01

144

Molecular indicators of Nitrobacter spp. population and growth activity during an induced inhibition event in a bench scale nitrification reactor.  

PubMed

The Nitrobacter spp. ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and transcript (rRNAt) abundance were quantified in a bench scale nitrification reactor during baseline periods of high nitrification efficiency and an intervening staged inhibition event. The transcript to gene ratio (rRNAt/rDNA) was highly sensitive to changes in the reactor nitrite oxidation rate. During high nitrification efficiency, the rRNAt/rDNA metric displayed a range from 0.68 to 2.01 with one-sided (?=0.10) lower and upper prediction intervals of 0.70 and 1.78, respectively. When nitrification was inhibited by disabling the reactor pH control system, this activity metric declined an order of magnitude to ? 0.05, well below the lower prediction interval reflecting high nitrification efficiency. The decline was rapid (2h) and preceded a significant drop in reactor nitrification performance, which occurred as ammonia accumulated. The rRNAt/rDNA ratio remained low (? 0.05) for several days after the pH control system was re-enabled at a setpoint of 8.0, which otherwise induced rapid oxidation of accumulated ammonia and produced high free ammonia concentrations. The timing of a subsequent increase in the rRNAt/rDNA ratio, which transiently exceeded the upper prediction interval established during the baseline period of high nitrification efficiency, was not coincidental with resumption of pH control at 7.2 that lowered free ammonia concentrations to non-inhibitory levels. Rather, nitrite oxidation resumed and the rRNAt/rDNA ratio increased only after oxidation of accumulated ammonia was complete, which was coincidental with reduced reactor oxygen demand. In summary, the Nitrobacter rRNAt/rDNA activity metric reflected timely and easily recognizable changes in nitrite oxidation activity, illustrating that molecular data can be used to diagnose poor biological wastewater treatment performance. PMID:22289677

Hawkins, Shawn; Robinson, Kevin; Layton, Alice; Sayler, Gary

2012-04-15

145

Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.  

PubMed

Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature. PMID:22980959

Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

2013-01-01

146

Removal of sulfate and heavy metals by sulfate reducing bacteria in short-term bench scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mildly acidic metal (Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al and Mg), arsenic and sulfate contaminated waters were treated, over a 14 day period at 25°C, in a bench-scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor filled with silica sand and employing a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The activity of SRB increased the water pH from ?4.5 to 7.0, and enhanced the

Tony Jong; David L Parry

2003-01-01

147

Immobilized lipase-mediated long-chain fatty acid esterification in dense carbon dioxide: bench-scale packed-bed reactor study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-chain fatty acid esters are useful functional molecules responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and lubricant industry. In the present work, lipase-catalysed production of n-octyl oleate by esterification of oleic acid with 1-octanol in dense CO2, as reaction medium, was performed in bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for

Chiara Giulia Laudani; Maja Habulin; Željko Knez; Giovanna Della Porta; Ernesto Reverchon

2007-01-01

148

Filtration Rates and Pressure Driving Force in AV Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole blood filtration rate of hemofilters were measured in in vitro circuits simulating the pressure and flow conditions of arteriovenous filtration. For all devices tested, filtration rate was found to be independent of blood velocity and wall shear rate but to increase linearly with applied transmembrane pressure according to the following relationship: QF = K(TMPH -??), where QF is

Michael J. Lysaght; Baerbel Schmidt; Hans J. Gurland

1983-01-01

149

Numerical simulation of competitive aerobic / anaerobic hydrocarbon plume biodegradation in two-dimensional bench scale lab-experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biodegradation of oxidizable hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface requires the presence of compatible microbial communities as well as sufficient amounts of electron acceptors and nutrients. In this context, transverse mixing, driven by dispersion and diffusion, is one of the main mechanisms governing the availability of dissolved electron acceptors at a hydrocarbon plume fringe. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons limited by transverse mixing has been studied experimentally in 2D bench-scale flow-through tanks, filled with a saturated porous medium. Flow of groundwater through the tanks was induced by pumping water at one side through injection ports, and simultaneously extracting water at the other side of the tank. An ethylbenzene plume was established by injection through the central inlet port. A mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopomers was used in order to investigate the spatial distribution of degradation processes via monitoring of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation. In the first phase of the experiment, aerobic biodegradation was studied. For this purpose, the tank was recharged with water containing oxygen as a dissolved electron acceptor and the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 was inoculated. Later, nitrate was added to the recharge water as an additional electron acceptor and the denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was amended to study competitive aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation. A numerical reactive transport model of the experiment was set up for a model based interpretation of the observed degradation patterns. In a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the relevant hydrodynamic parameters on the observable distributions of ethylbenzene isotopomers, oxygen and nitrate was studied. Subsequent model calibration allowed for a good agreement with ethylbenzene concentrations measured at the tank outlet ports as well as oxygen concentrations, which were measured at several profiles perpendicular to the flow direction along the plume. Simulated microbial growth was strongest near the central tank inlet, where both, oxygen and ethylbenzene were available at high concentrations, and along the transverse mixing zone at the fringe of the developed ethylbenzene plume. Model based interpretation of the aerobic/anaerobic phase with competitive biodegradation proved to be ambiguous due to uncertainties regarding the actual stoichiometry of the specific denitrification reaction. Also, the simulated isotopic patterns were very sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the A. aromaticum EbN1 biomass. Ethylbenzene concentrations and isotopic patterns predicted by the numerical model match the measurements quite well for the first half of the aerobic/anaerobic phase. A distinct increase in biodegradation dynamics later on hints at a change in biodegradation dynamics during the course of the experiment.

Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.

2011-12-01

150

Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

Francis, C. W.

1993-09-01

151

Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Summary of bench-scale tests for FY 1986 and FY 1987  

SciTech Connect

Processes to reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acid are being demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids such as HF-HNO/sub 3/, etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and HNO/sub 3/ strip solution containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup -/ to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup -2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in a downstream precipitation step. 10 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

Stewart, T.L.

1987-09-01

152

Bench-scale testing of a magnetic ion exchange resin for removal of disinfection by-product precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to compare enhanced coagulation with anion exchange for removal of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors (i.e. natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide). Treatment with a magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX®) was the primary focus of this study. Raw waters from four utilities in California were evaluated. The waters had low turbidity, low to moderate organic

Treavor H. Boyer; Philip C. Singer

2005-01-01

153

Bench-scale testing of a magnetic ion exchange resin for removal of disinfection by-product precursors.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to compare enhanced coagulation with anion exchange for removal of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors (i.e. natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide). Treatment with a magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX((R))) was the primary focus of this study. Raw waters from four utilities in California were evaluated. The waters had low turbidity, low to moderate organic carbon concentrations, a wide range of alkalinities, and moderate to high bromide ion concentrations. The treated waters were compared based on removal of ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP). The results indicated that treatment with MIEX is more effective than coagulation at removing UV-absorbing substances and DOC. Treatment with MIEX and treatment with MIEX followed by coagulation yielded similar results, suggesting that coagulation of MIEX-treated water does not provide additional removal of organic carbon. MIEX treatment reduced the THMFP and HAAFP in all waters, and did so to a greater extent than coagulation. Treatment with MIEX was most effective in raw waters having a high specific UV absorbance and a low anionic strength. Following MIEX treatment, subsequent chlorination resulted in a shift to the more brominated THM and HAA species as compared to chlorination of the raw water. MIEX also removed bromide to varying degrees, depending on the raw water alkalinity and initial bromide ion concentration. PMID:15862326

Boyer, Treavor H; Singer, Philip C

2005-04-01

154

An overview of glomerular filtration rate testing in dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

Determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a valuable, yet underused, diagnostic tool for evaluating renal function in dogs and cats. This article first reviews the hormonal and hemodynamic factors which contribute to GFR, followed by a description of considerations when selecting a pharmacokinetic model and methods of animal-to-animal standardization. The best-characterized existing GFR markers, including creatinine, radiolabeled markers, and iohexol, are reviewed in depth, as well as alternative but lesser-used techniques. A weighted means analysis of reported GFR measurements in healthy dogs and cats and a review of selected studies that have examined GFR alterations in animals with naturally-occurring and experimental diseases provide the reader with preliminary guidelines on expected GFR results in these species and disease conditions. PMID:20541957

Von Hendy-Willson, Vanessa E.; Pressler, Barrak M.

2010-01-01

155

Microwave Digestion--Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy as a sensitive method for forensic diatom test.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of drowning is one of the most difficult issues in forensic practice. A number of methods have been developed over the years to determine whether a person was drowned. Microwave Digestion-Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy (MD-VF-Auto SEM) method we developed is a new qualitative and quantitative method of diatom test for diagnosis of drowning. The new method is based on microwave digestion technique, vacuum filtration, and automated SEM, which would achieve a maximal recovery of diatoms and identify diatoms easily by SEM with high resolution. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of this method, the recovery of diatom, and loss ratio of centrifugation, which were compared using the MD-VF-Auto SEM method and the conventional acid digestion method. Two groups of samples were designed in the study. Groups A (n?=?20) and B (n?=?20) were performed by MD-VF-Auto SEM method and the conventional acid digestion method, respectively. In addition, another eight water samples were centrifuged, and the diatoms in the supernatant and precipitate were counted and measured, respectively, in order to find out how many diatoms were lost after centrifugation. The difference between the two groups was statistically highly significant, and about 34 % of diatoms were lost after centrifugation at 4,000 rpm for 15 min. The results showed that the MD-VF-Auto SEM method was more sensitive and specific. PMID:22885954

Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chao; Hu, Sunlin; He, Shuwen; Lu, Siya

2013-03-01

156

40 CFR 265.225 - Waste analysis and trial tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.225 ...required by § 265.13, whenever a surface impoundment is to be used to...treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or pilot plant scale tests); or (ii)...

2010-07-01

157

CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

1999-10-01

158

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

.A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-09

159

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS CENTER TECHNOLOGY SPECIFIC TEST PLAN: REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICL AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS BY MEMBRANE FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is the Environmental technology Verification (ETV) Technology Specific test Plan (TSTP) for evaluation of water treatment equipment for removal of microbiological and particulate contaminants using membrane filtration. This TSTP is to be used as a guide in the dev...

160

Waste water filtration enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

Martin, H.L.

1989-01-01

161

Experimental investigation of the formaldehyde removal mechanisms in a dynamic botanical filtration system for indoor air purification.  

PubMed

Botanical filtration has been proved to be effective for indoor gas pollutant removal. To understand the roles of different transport, storage and removal mechanism by a dynamic botanical air filter, a series of experimental investigations were designed and conducted in this paper. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) plants was selected for test, and its original soil or activated/pebbles root bed was used in different test cases. It was found that flowing air through the root bed with microbes dynamically was essential to obtain meaningful formaldehyde removal efficiency. For static potted plant as normally place in rooms, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), which is often used to quantify the air cleaning ability of portable air cleaners, was only ?5.1m(3)/h per m(2) bed, while when dynamically with air flow through the bed, the CADR increased to ?233m(3)/h per m(2) bed. The calculated CADR due to microbial activity is ?108m(3)/h per m(2) bed. Moisture in the root bed also played an important role, both for maintaining a favorable living condition for microbes and for absorbing water-soluble compounds such as formaldehyde. The role of the plant was to introduce and maintain a favorable microbe community which effectively degraded the volatile organic compounds adsorbed or absorbed by the root bed. The presence of the plant increased the removal efficiency by a factor of two based on the results from the bench-scale root bed experiments. PMID:25164387

Wang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Jingjing; Zhang, Jensen S

2014-09-15

162

Filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory simulated liquid low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

A method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) is being developed in which the material will be solidified in cement and stored in an aboveground engineered storage facility. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic isotopes. Filtration methods to remove transuranic isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) were investigated in this study. Initial batch studies using waste from MVST indicate that {gt}99.9{percent} of the transuranic isotopes can be removed from the bulk liquid by simple filtration. Bench-scale studies with a nonradioactive surrogate waste indicate that {gt}99.5{percent} of the suspended solids can be removed from the bulk liquid via inertial crossflow filtration. 4 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

1989-08-01

163

40 CFR 265.225 - Waste analysis and trial tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.225 Waste analysis... (i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or pilot...

2011-07-01

164

Fermentation Bench-scale to pilot-scale capabilities for the conversion of biomass to sugars, fuels, and chemicals  

E-print Network

, and dissolved oxygen control · Data acquisition and recipe control for the Biostat Q and Q-plus systems · CO2 and fermentation testing - Different enzyme mixtures - Pretreated lignocellulosic feedstocks at low and high solids the effect of the environment on algae growth and lipid production - Using algae residue as a feedstock

165

Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Three bacteria, Clostridium ljungdahlii and isolates ERI-8 and 0-52, have been utilized in CSTR studies in order to directly compare the performance of the bacteria in continuous culture in converting synthesis gas components to ethanol. C. ljungdahlii is able to produce higher concentrations of ethanol than the other bacteria, largely because medium development with this bacterium has been ongoing for 2--3 years. However, both of the ERI isolates are quite promising for ethanol production and, therefore, will be studied further in the CSTR. A comparison of the energy costs for various ethanol recovery techniques has been made for use in the bench scale system. The techniques considered include direct distillation, extraction with various solvents followed by distillation, air stripping followed by distillation, pervaporation followed by distillation, reverse osmosis and temperature swing extraction. Extraction with a solvent possessing a relatively high distribution coefficient for ethanol and a high separation factor (relative ability to extract ethanol in favor of water), followed by distillation, is the most desirable technology.

Not Available

1993-09-01

166

Model based evaluation of a contaminant plume development under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in 2D bench-scale tank experiments.  

PubMed

The influence of transverse mixing on competitive aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume was investigated using a two-dimensional, bench-scale flow-through laboratory tank experiment. In the first part of the experiment aerobic degradation of increasing toluene concentrations was carried out by the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1. Successively, ethylbenzene (injected as a mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopologues) substituted toluene; nitrate was added as additional electron acceptor and the anaerobic denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was inoculated to study competitive degradation under aerobic /anaerobic conditions. The spatial distribution of anaerobic degradation was resolved by measurements of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation induced by the anaerobic strain as well as compound concentrations. A fully transient numerical reactive transport model was employed and calibrated using measurements of electron donors, acceptors and isotope fractionation. The aerobic phases of the experiment were successfully reproduced using a double Monod kinetic growth model and assuming an initial homogeneous distribution of P. putida F1. Investigation of the competitive degradation phase shows that the observed isotopic pattern cannot be explained by transverse mixing driven biodegradation only, but also depends on the inoculation process of the anaerobic strain. Transient concentrations of electron acceptors and donors are well reproduced by the model, showing its ability to simulate transient competitive biodegradation. PMID:24122285

Ballarini, E; Beyer, C; Bauer, R D; Griebler, C; Bauer, S

2014-06-01

167

Computational fluid dynamics assessment: Volume 2, Isothermal simulations of the METC bench-scale coal-water slurry combustor: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The isothermal turbulent, swirling flow inside the METC pressurized bench-scale combustor has been simulated using ISOPCGC-2. The effects of the swirl numbers, the momentum ratio of the primary to secondary streams, the annular wall thickness, and the quarl angle on the flow and mixing patterns have been investigated. The results that with the present configuration of the combustor, an annular recirculation zone is present up to secondary swirl number of four. A central (on axis) recirculation zone can be obtained by increasing the momentum of the secondary stream by decreasing the annular area at the reactor inlet. The mixing of the primary (fuel carrier) air with the secondary air improves only slightly due to swirl unless a central recirculation zone is present. Good mixing is achieved in the quarl region when a central recirculation zone is present. A preliminary investigation of the influence of placing flow regulators inside the the combustor shows that they influence the flow field significantly and that there is a potential of obtaining optimum flow conditions using these flow regulators. 58 refs., 47 figs., 12 tabs.

Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

1988-09-01

168

Bench-scale and field-scale evaluation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase specific primers for monitoring BTX bioremediation.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to test a molecular genetic method for in situ monitoring of aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) biodegrading microorganisms. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23DO) genes occur in bacteria that biodegrade benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, biphenyl, and naphthalene. A competitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) technique using a single set of primers specific for an entire subfamily of C23DO genes was recently developed. To determine whether bacteria containing these C23DO genes actually exist in environments contaminated by BTX, aerobic microcosms containing previously uncontaminated soil were amended with different aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA extracts were analyzed by QC-PCR for C23DO genes. Anaerobic microcosms were established to confirm that oxygen was also necessary for the enrichment of C23DO genes. Field testing was done at two sites undergoing monitored natural attenuation. In microcosm experiments naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-xylene strongly enriched for C23DO genes while benzene, toluene, and o-xylene produced only transient, weakly detectable genes. In the field study, C23DO genes were detected in groundwater samples contaminated with either xylenes or naphthalene. The results of this study demonstrated that molecular genetic techniques can provide an accurate and rapid method to detect microorganisms capable of aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation. Such a technique would be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of aeration technologies and for documenting microbial processes for monitored natural attenuation. PMID:14975661

Mesarch, Matthew B; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Nies, Loring

2004-03-01

169

Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester.  

PubMed

Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-? Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-?, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-? models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). PMID:23624047

Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A

2013-06-01

170

Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study  

SciTech Connect

Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-10-01

171

Bond strength to root dentin and fluid filtration test of AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the bond strength and seal ability produced by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems to root canal dentin. Material and Methods Sixty extracted single-root human teeth, instrumented manually to size 40, were divided into three groups (n=20) according to the sealer used; G1: AH Plus, G2: EndoREZ, and G3: RealSeal sealers. After filling using the lateral condensation technique, each sealer group was randomly divided into two subgroups according to the tests applied (n=10 for µPush-out test and n=10 for fluid filtration test). A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of apical leakage. Four 1-mm-thick slices (cervical and medium level) were obtained from each root sample and a µPush-out test was performed. Failure modes were examined under microscopy at 40x, and a one-way ANOVA was applied to analyze the permeability. Non-parametrical statistics for related (Friedman's and Wilcoxon's rank tests) or unrelated samples (Kruskal-Wallis' and Mann-Whitney's tests) allowed for comparisons of µPush-out strength values among materials at the different levels. Statistical significance was accepted for p values <.05. Results There are no significant differences among fluid filtration of the three sealers. The sealer/core material does not significantly influence the µPush-out bond strength values (F=2.49; p=0.10), although statistically significant differences were detected with regard to root level (Chi2=23.93; p<0.001). AH Plus and RealSeal obtained higher bond strength to intraradicular dentin in the medium root slices. Conclusions There are no significant differences between the permeability and global µPush-out bond strength to root canal dentin achieved by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems. PMID:24037078

MAHDI, Alaa Abdul; BOLANOS-CARMONA, Victoria; GONZALEZ-LOPEZ, Santiago

2013-01-01

172

The Use of Bench-scale Treatability Studies in the Design of Engineered Wetlands for the Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and Leachate in the Vicinity of Coal MinesA Case Study in Ohio, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineered wetland systems are a passive treatment technology which are versatile, environmentally-friendly, and cost-effective for the remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and leachate.Experience derived from a site in Ohio, United States, showed that the preliminary design of an engineered wetland system downstream of a former coal mine\\/landfill could be significantly improved by the performance of bench-scale treatability studies. Results

Gary I. Lagos; P. Geo

2011-01-01

173

In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, MeHg levels decreased on the time scale of days to weeks. • Capping materials should sequester MeHg produced and not contribute to the production of MeHg.

Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)] [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)] [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

2013-08-15

174

RIVERBANK FILTRATION EFFECTIVENESS IN AN ARID ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This experiment is a field test of bank filtration at a site where water level and salinity vary on an annual basis, as they do in many arid and semi-arid streams. No other studies of bank filtration have been performed in this kind of setting. Along the border with Mexico, shall...

175

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Revised final report, [October 1992--October 1993]: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The main advantage of the project is that it allowed PTI to gain knowledge and experience about the proper approach, methods and hardware required to properly optimize and control column flotation performance. Many operational problems were incurred during the project, some of that PTI was able to solve during the project and other that must be overcome as the technology is further developed and commercialized. The key operating problems experienced with the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column that must be further researched and overcome include: (1)The low concentrate solids content which limited the throughput capacity of the column, due to high froth washing requirements. The low concentrate solids content also lead to difficulty obtaining accurate On-Line Monitor measurements, due to the poor measurement sensitivity obtained with low solids content samples (particularly less than 5.0 wt %). (2) The higher-than-anticipated reagent dosages that undoubtedly contributed to the low solids content listed above, and also caused foaming problems within PTI`s On-Line Monitor. A defoaming reagent addition (Nalco 7810) was required to provide consistent sample size and reproducible On-Line Monitor counts for the concentrate samples collected within the circuit. PTI and UK`s CAER staff will continue to research alternative column design, particularly alternative air bubble generation and air distribution systems, to try to maximize column concentrate solids content while reducing reagent dosage requirements. In addition to the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column operation there were also a number of hardware problems with PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor that must be remedied for future commercial installations.

Not Available

1993-10-27

176

EFFECT OF PARAMETERS OF FILTRATION ON DUST CLEANING FABRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes 4 years of laboratory and large-scale tests on the dust filtration process and the basic filtration parameters that determine performance. Physical parameters describing fabric and dust cake structure were defined and three basic dust filtration mechanisms w...

177

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

178

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Filtration technologies other than conventional filtration treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water system may use a filtration technology not listed in paragraph (a) of this...

2010-07-01

179

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF R3f GARNET BEAD FILTRATION AND MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION SYSTEMS; FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of tests conducted to date at the EPA T&E Facility on the R3f filtration system utilizing fine beads (such as garnet beads or glass beads) and a conventional multimedia filtration system. Both systems have been designed and built by Enprotec, a...

180

Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

NONE

1996-08-01

181

Fibrous particle filtration  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses how filtration of air inside industrial facilities is essential to remove process generated particles. Filtration of particulate matter creates a safer working environment, decreases plant maintenance costs, and increases equipment life. It also may be required by OSHA regulations. The baghouse (fabric filter) is arguably the best method for the majority of situations where large volumes of air have to be filtered for particulate matter. The baghouse is simple in overall design, and bag cleaning advancements and decades of proven performance have made it the best choice for many industrial applications. Nevertheless, in many fibrous particle applications, baghouse performance is surpassed by drum filtration. However, industries that generate mostly fibrous particles comprise less than 10% of all industries that require indoor air filtration. (The accompanying sidebar lists six fibrous particle characteristics.)

Harrington, K. (Continental Air Systems, Winfield, AL (United States))

1993-03-01

182

MEMBRANE FILTRATION GUIDANCE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Manual provides guidance on the selection, design, and operation of membrane filtration to comply with the treatment requirements of the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 ESWTR)....

183

COMPARISONS OF VARIOUS FILTRATION MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews use of filtering materials in diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, slow sand filtration, and coagulation-rapid rate filtration. For DE filtration, increased effluent clarity (lower turbidity) is generally attained at the expense of increased rates of head loss i...

184

Hot gas filtration technical issues  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research has been to provide an understanding of factors pertinent to the development of an effective filtration system for removing particles from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams in advanced power generation systems under development by the Department of Energy. Information used to define the filtration system issues was compiled from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) Contractors Conferences, specific tasks assigned to Southern Research Institute, meetings with METC personnel and contractors, and other conferences and workshops organized by METC. Initial research and pilot scale installations have shown that there are some potential problem areas. Thick ash deposits have formed, bridging from passive surfaces to the filter material and between filter candles. A great number of ceramic filters have broken in various experimental and demonstration devices, especially during long-term testing. This paper reviews particulate characteristics (effects on filtration processes, conventional fly ash, gasifier char, PFBC ash, and detailed studies of PFBC ash) and ceramic filter materials (general issues, thermal stress, clay-bonded SiC filter materials, and monolithic ceramic materials).

Pontius, D.H.

1995-11-01

185

Filtration of a Hanford AN-104 Sample  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's 241-AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter. Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

POIRIER, MICHAEL

2004-04-19

186

Filtration of A Hanford AN-104 Sample  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter.Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

Poirier, MichaelR

2004-03-01

187

FILTRATION PARAMETERS FOR DUST CLEANING FABRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of bag filter fabrics. Filtration performance data and mathematical modeling parameters are given for four Polish fabrics tested with cement dust, coal dust, flyash, and talc. Conclusions include: (1) The process of clean ai...

188

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02

189

Mechanisms in Compressible Cake Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic mechanisms influencing filtration dewatering of compressible water and wastewater sludges were examined. Results revealed many hitherto unappreciated aspects of filtration dewatering and pointed out the lack of reliability of present means for chara...

R. I. Dick

1989-01-01

190

Liquid filtration simulation  

SciTech Connect

We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

1996-06-01

191

Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of upflow sludge blanket filtration (USBF) covers the whole spectrum of chemical and biological treatment of water\\u000a using the agglomeration processes for transformation of colloidal and dissolved impurities in water into separable floc suspension.\\u000a The technical applications of USBF involve a wide range of treatment of underground and surface water for communal and industrial\\u000a use, and municipal, industrial,

Svatopluk Mackrle; Vladimír Mackrle; Old?ich Dra?ka

192

40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the test; gross measurements such as turbidity may not be used. (4) The maximum...the test; gross measurements such as turbidity may not be used. (iii) The maximum...monitoring must include continuous filtrate turbidity monitoring. (ii) Continuous...

2010-07-01

193

40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the test; gross measurements such as turbidity may not be used. (4) The maximum...the test; gross measurements such as turbidity may not be used. (iii) The maximum...monitoring must include continuous filtrate turbidity monitoring. (ii) Continuous...

2012-07-01

194

40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.  

...the test; gross measurements such as turbidity may not be used. (4) The maximum...the test; gross measurements such as turbidity may not be used. (iii) The maximum...monitoring must include continuous filtrate turbidity monitoring. (ii) Continuous...

2014-07-01

195

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

1974-01-01

196

Quantifying oil filtration effects on bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rolling-element bearing life is influenced by the number, size, and material properties of particles entering the Hertzian contact of the rolling element and raceway. In general, rolling-element bearing life increases with increasing level of oil filtration. Based upon test results, two equations are presented which allow for the adjustment of bearing L(sub 10) or catalog life based upon oil filter rating. It is recommended that where no oil filtration is used catalog life be reduced by 50 percent.

Needelman, William M.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1991-01-01

197

Effect of Filtration Velocity and Filtration Pressure Drop on the Bag-Cleaning Performance of a Pulse-Jet Baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the filtration velocity and filtration pressure drop at the beginning of bag cleaning were used as experimental parameters to evaluate the bag-cleaning performance of a pulse-jet baghouse. The effective residual pressure loss was used to indicate the cleaning performance after bag cleaning. Two different test dusts, fly ash and limestone, were used. The critical cleaning indices under

CHUEN-JINN TSAI; MING-LUN TSAI; HSIN-CHUNG LU

2000-01-01

198

Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC  

SciTech Connect

Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP filter. (4) Filtrate flux for slurries containing solids and defoamers was between the range of .04 to .13 gpm/f{sup 2} which is better than the average flux of 0.024 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for Late Wash. (5) Filtrate flux is weakly dependent on the variables of insoluble solids concentration, defoamer concentration, transmembrane pressure, axial velocity, and filtration time.

Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

2000-01-27

199

Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), uniquely combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was initially demonstrated on a laboratory scale and was subsequently scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 sq m/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO2 produced by RTDS are included.

Buehler, M. F.; Darab, J. G.; Matson, D. W.; Linehan, J. C.

1994-01-01

200

Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials  

SciTech Connect

A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was demonstrated on a laboratory scale and scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 m{sup 2}/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO{sub 2} produced by RTDS are included.

Buehler, M.F.; Darab, J.G.; Matson, D.W.; Linehan, J.C.

1993-12-01

201

TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

2003-05-01

202

TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

2003-05-21

203

Mercury capture in bench-scale absorbers  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives,a brief overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of mercury by both dry sorbents and wet scrubbers. The emphasis in the research is on development of a better understanding of the key factors that control the capture of mercury. Future work is expected to utilize that information for the development of new or modified process concepts featuring enhanced mercury capture capabilities. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne -research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are `not effective in removing mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; and chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or (CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon. Preliminary results from the wet scrubbing research include: no removal of elemental mercury is obtained under normal scrubber operating conditions; mercury removal is improved by the addition of packing or production of smaller gas bubbles to increase the gas-liquid contact area; polysulfide solutions do not appear promising for enhancing mercury removal in typical FGC systems; stainless steel packing appears to have beneficial properties for mercury removal and should be investigated further; and other chemical additives may offer greatly enhanced removals.

Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

1994-08-01

204

Dynamic optical filtration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

205

Dynamic Optical Filtration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

206

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

207

Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance  

SciTech Connect

The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite dissolution kinetics and filter fouling are reported elsewhere (see Table S.1). The primary goal of scale-up testing was to examine how filter length influenced permeate flux rates. To accomplish this, the existing cells unit filter system, which employs a 2-ft-long, 0.5-in. (inner) diameter sintered stainless steel filter element, was redesigned to accommodate an 8-ft. sintered stainless steel filter element of the same diameter. Testing was then performed to evaluate the filtration performance of waste simulant slurries. Scale-up testing consisted of two separate series of filtration tests: 1) scale-up axial velocity (AV)/transmembrane pressure (TMP) matrix tests and 2) scale-up temperature tests. The AV/TMP matrix tests examined filtration performance of two different waste simulant slurries in the 8-ft. cells unit filter system. Waste simulant slurry formulations for the 8-ft. scale-up test was selected to match simulant slurries for which filtration performance had been characterized on the 2-ft CUF. For the scale-up temperature tests, the filtration performance at three test temperatures (i.e., 25°C, 40°C, and 60°C) was determined to evaluate if filter flux versus temperature correlations developed using the 2-ft filters were also valid for the 8-ft filters.

Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

2009-03-09

208

Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver solutions as a function of reaction (dissolution) time, by analyzing offgas generation rate and composition, and by analyzing intermittent and final acid-insoluble solids at the end of the dissolution. The testing was conducted in a system designed to assess parameters that can influence sludge dissolution and provide information that can be used to determine operating conditions for the actual system.

AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

1999-03-24

209

MICROBIOLOGY AND DRINKING WATER FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concerns about waterborne viruses and protozoan cysts developed in the third quarter of the twentieth century, and filtration research for microorganism control in the 1960's through 1980's has reflected these concerns. The chapter briefly reviews historical filtration research f...

210

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR): A Serum Creatinine-Based Test for the Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease and its Impact on Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important epidemic and public health problem that is associated with a significant risk for vascular disease and early cardiovascular mortality as well as progression of kidney disease. Currently it is classified into five stages based on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as recommended by many professional guidelines. Radiolabelled methods for measuring GFR are accurate but not practical and can be used only on a very limited scale while the traditional methods require timed urine collection with its drawback of inaccuracy, cumbersomeness and inconvenience for the patients. However, the development of formula- based calculation of estimated GFR (eGFR) has offered a very practical and easy approach for converting serum creatinine value into GFR result taking into consideration patient’s age, sex, ethnicity and weight (depending on equation type). The commonly used equations include Cockraft and Gault (1976), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) (1999) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) (2009). It is the implementation of these equations particularly the MDRD that has raised the medical awareness in the diagnosis and management of CKD and its adoption by many guidelines in North America and Europe. The impact and pitfalls of each of these equations in the screening, diagnosis and management of patients with CKD are presented and discussed in this review. PMID:22496934

Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Al Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Riyami, Dawood

2012-01-01

211

MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI  

EPA Science Inventory

Prior to this project, MRI had carried out work for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the conceptual design of a solar system for solid waste disposal and a follow-on project to study the feasibility of bench-scale testing of desorption of organics from soil with destr...

212

Reaction-to-Fire of Wood Products and Other Building Materials: Part II, Cone Calorimeter Tests and Fire Growth Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Part II work evaluated results from the bench-scale cone calorimeter tests (ISO 5660-1) for 11 different un-treated wood products, three different fire-retardant-treated (FRT) plywood materials, Type X gypsum board, and FRT polyurethane foam, which w...

M. A. Dietenberger, O. Grexa, R. H. White

2012-01-01

213

Nanoparticles filtration by leaked fibrous filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is first to measured nanoparticles penetration through three different fiberglass filters intentionally-pierced with calibrated needles at different filtration velocity. Then a semi-empirical model based on the air flow resistances of the new and perforated filter media and on the mechanism of Brownian diffusion for the collection of ultrafine particles by the media enables to well predict the efficiency observed for all tested operating conditions. Results show that the increase of particles penetration is all the more important that the pinhole is large and that the particle diameter is low. Another result is that the filtration efficiency of the new filter media controlled the penetration. A high efficiency filter with a high resistance to air flow will be more damaged than a low efficiency filter when being perforated.

Mouret, Guillaume; Calle-Chazelet, Sandrine; Thomas, Dominique; Bemer, Denis; Appert-Collin, Jean-Christophe

2009-05-01

214

Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the particulate properties that determine the filtration performance of fabric filters, and to investigate methods for modifying these particulate properties to enhance filtration performance. Inherent in these objectives is the development of an experimental approach that will lead to full-scale implementation of beneficial conditioning processes identified during the project. The general approach has included a large number of laboratory evaluations to be followed by optional field tests of a new successful conditioning processes performed on a sidestream device. This project was divided into five tasks. The schedule followed for these tasks is shown in Figure 4. Tasks 2 and 3 each focus on one of the two complementary parts of the project. Task 2 Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, evaluates the degree to which ash properties and fabric design determine filtration performance. Task 3 Survey of Methods to Modify the Particle Filtration Properties, provides a literature review and laboratory study of techniques to modify ash properties. The results of these two tasks were used in Task 4 Proof-of-Concept Tests of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties to demonstrate the effects on filtration performance of modifying ash properties. The findings of all the tasks are summarized in this Final Report. 13 refs.

Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.; Robinson, M.S.

1990-06-01

215

Nanofiber filter media for air filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofibers have higher capture efficiencies in comparison to microfibers in the submicron particle size range of 100-500 nm because of small fiber diameter and increased surface area of the fibers. Pressure drop across the filter increases tremendously with decrease in fiber diameter in the continuum flow regime. Nanofibers with fiber diameter less than 300 nm are in the slip flow regime as a consequence of which steep increase in pressure drop is considerably reduced due to slip effect. The outlet or inlet gases have broad range of particle size distribution varying from few micrometers to nanometers. The economic benefits include capture of a wide range of particle sizes in the gas streams using compact filters composed of nanofibers and microfibers. Electrospinning technique was used to successfully fabricate polymeric and ceramic nanofibers. The nanofibers were long, continuous, and flexible with diameters in the range of 200--300 nm. Nanofibers were added to the filter medium either by mixing microfibers and nanofibers or by directly electrospinning nanofibers as thin layer on the surface of the microfiber filter medium. Experimental results showed that either by mixing Nylon 6 nanofibers with B glass fibers or by electrospinning Nylon 6 nanofibers as a thin layer on the surface of the microfiber medium in the surface area ratio of 1 which is 0.06 g of nanofibers for 2 g of microfibers performed better than microfiber filter media in air filtration tests. This improved performance is consistent with numerical modeling. The particle loading on a microfibrous filter were studied for air filtration tests. The experimental and modeling results showed that both pressure drop and capture efficiency increased with loading time. Nanofiber filter media has potential applications in many filtration applications and one of them being hot gas filtration. Ceramic nanofibers made of alumina and titania nanofibers can withstand in the range of 1000°C. Ceramic nanofibers filter media were fabricated by mixing alumina microfibers (SAFFIL) and alumina nanofibers. The appropriate binders were tested for ceramic filter media. The ceramic filter media were tested for aerosol filtration.

Raghavan, Bharath Kumar

216

Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-01-08

217

Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-31

218

Effects of aluminum-copper alloy filtration on photon spectra, air kerma rate and image contrast.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the performance of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, without the original aluminum filter, for dental radiography in terms of x-ray energy spectrum, air kerma rate and image quality. Comparisons of various thicknesses of aluminum-copper alloy in three different percentages were made with aluminum filtration. Tests were conducted on an intra-oral dental x-ray machine and were made on mandible phantom and on step-wedge. Depending on the thickness of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, the beam could be hardened and filtrated. The use of the aluminum-copper alloy filter resulted in reductions in air kerma rate from 8.40% to 47.33%, and indicated the same image contrast when compared to aluminum filtration. Aluminum-copper alloy filtration may be considered a good alternative to aluminum filtration. PMID:15798826

Gonçalves, Andréa; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

2004-01-01

219

Water Filtration and Purity of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the concept of water purity. In this activity, students will test a sample of water collected from a local water supply and test its purity and evaluate its safety for consumption by looking for pollutants. Before starting, students should have a grasp on how to convert nanoscale measurements. This lab will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. Teacher Preparation Guides, Student Guides, Water Filtration Presentation, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included. 

2014-08-12

220

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-02-19

221

MGP soil remediation in a slurry-phase system: A pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

An overall protocol for remediating manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils generally includes bench-scale evaluation of the technology, pilot-scale demonstration, and full-scale implementation. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale and pilot-scale study for treating an MGP soil with IGT`s integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) or Manufactured Gas Plant Remediation (MGP-REM) process in the slurry-phase mode of application. MGP soils are contaminated primarily with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An MGP site in New Jersey was the subject of this study. Soils from the site were used for the bench-scale evaluation of the integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment. The bench-scale study started with biological pre-treatment followed by chemical treatment and biological polishing. Results of the bench-scale study showed that this process was effective in degrading EPA Total as well as EPA Carcinogenic PAHs. A test matrix was developed to assess this technology at a pilot-scale facility. The test matrix consisted of at least eight semi-continuous runs designed to evaluate the effects of PAH concentration, total solids concentration, residence time, and a number of chemical reagent additions. An operating permit for 14 days was obtained to evaluate the process primarily for air emission data and secondarily for PAH degradation data. The PAH data showed that the MGP-REM process was very effective in degrading carcinogenic PAHs even under sub-optimal operating conditions. The field data also showed that the emissions of volatile organic compounds were well below the regulatory limits.

Liu, Bill Y.; Srivastava, V.J.; Paterek, J.R.; Pradhan, S.P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pope, J.R. [Elizabethtown Gas Co., Union, NJ (United States); Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Jerger, D.E. [OHM Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

222

METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperatation with Shell Synthetic Fuels, Incorporated to obtain data relevent to the design and operation of dry particulate solids filters, and Nahcolite as a chloride removal sorbent. Shell Synthetic Fuels Incorporated provided 60 mm O.D. {times} 40 mm I.D. {times} O.5 m long silicon carbide, LayCer{trademark} 70/3 candle filters for use in filtering coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the filters in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) are found in CRADA 93-011. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 93-011. Seven gasifier runs were conducted over an eighteen month period to accumulate 868 hours of operation. During this time, 3 filters were used 2 at a time to give individual candle usage of 254 hours, 525 hours, and 868 hours, respectively. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

NONE

1995-06-01

223

Electrical short circuit and current overload tests on aircraft wiring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of electrical short circuit and current overload tests performed on commercial aircraft wiring are presented. A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate circuit breaker response to overcurrent and to determine if the wire showed any visible signs of thermal degradation due to overcurrent. Three types of wire used in commercial aircraft were evaluated: MIL-W-22759\\/34 (150 C

Patricia Cahill

1995-01-01

224

Wound modulation after filtration surgery.  

PubMed

Filtration surgery is the standard invasive procedure for the management of intraocular pressure in advanced glaucoma. The key to a successful outcome is to modulate the normal wound healing cascade that leads to closure of the newly created aqueous outflow pathway. Antifibrotic agents such as mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil have been increasingly used to modulate the wound healing process and increase surgical success. Although these agents have proven efficacy, they also increase the risk of complications. Efforts have centered on the identification of novel agents and techniques that can influence wound modulation without these complications. We detail new agents and methods under investigation to control wound healing after filtration surgery. PMID:23068975

Seibold, Leonard K; Sherwood, Mark B; Kahook, Malik Y

2012-11-01

225

Filtrates and Residues: Gel Filtration--An Innovative Separation Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gel filtration is a form of liquid chromatography that separates molecules primarily on the basis of their size. Advantages of using this technique, theoretical aspects, and experiments (including procedures used) are discussed. Several questions for students to answer (with answers) are also provided. (JN)

Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James

1985-01-01

226

Nanoparticle Filtration Performance of NIOSH Certified Particulate Air Purifying Filtering Facepiece Respirators: Evaluation by Light Scattering Photometric and Particle Number-Based Test Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test methods employ charge neutralized NaCl or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols to measure filter penetration levels of air-purifying particulate respirators photometrically using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester at 85 L\\/min. A previous study in our laboratory found that widely different filter penetration levels were measured for nanoparticles depending on whether

Samy Rengasamy; Benjamin C. Eimer

2012-01-01

227

Nanoparticle Filtration Performance of NIOSH-Certified Particulate Air-Purifying Filtering Facepiece Respirators: Evaluation by Light Scattering Photometric and Particle Number-Based Test Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test methods employ charge neutralized NaCl or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols to measure filter penetration levels of air-purifying particulate respirators photometrically using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester at 85 L\\/min. A previous study in our laboratory found that widely different filter penetration levels were measured for nanoparticles depending on whether

Samy Rengasamy; Benjamin C. Eimer

2012-01-01

228

Baghouse filtration products verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces EPA`s Air Pollution Control Technology Verification (APCT) program and then focuses on the immediate objective of the program: laboratory performance verification of cleanable filter media intended for the control of fine particulate emissions. Data collected during the laboratory verification testing, which simulates operation in full-scale fabric filters, will be used to show expected performance for collection of

J. C. Mycock; J. H. Turner; D. W. VanOsdell; J. R. Farmer; T. G. Brna

1998-01-01

229

STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

230

ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) at pilot scale. The pilot unit consisted of a conventional baghouse in parallel with an ESFF baghouse, allowing direct comparison. Reported results are for pulse-cl...

231

Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

Matkowsky, Bernard J.

1995-01-01

232

Pressure filtration of flocculated suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the development of a compressional rheology of a flocculated suspension, a number of separation processes have been modeled. With respect to the two-stage pressure filtration process of compact formation and then consolidation, the rheological formulation appears at first examination to be significantly at variance with the conventional engineering approach. The present model may be reconciled to the early engineering

Kerry A. Landman; Lee R. White; Maria Eberl

1995-01-01

233

Health benefits of particle filtration  

EPA Science Inventory

This product was developed under an interagency agreement between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews o...

234

MICROBIOLOGICAL REMOVAL BY FILTRATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Filtration ws originally used to remove contaminants that affect the appearance, odor, and taste of drinking water. Later it was demonstrated that bacteria in drinking water were causative agents of disease. Water treatment technology improved with the addition of disinfection, c...

235

Hydrodynamic studies in crossflow filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the mechanism of filter cake stripping in crossflow filtration was studied. The Shields Diagram for the critical shear stress versus shear Reynold Number was extended to include the existence of suction at the wall. The work, in conjunction with other authors' work, could form the basis of a complete, general model to describe the mechanism of this

Hameed; DS Al-Mousilly

2001-01-01

236

Treatment of gasoline residuals by granular activated carbon based biological filtration  

SciTech Connect

The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) as a support medium in the treatment of gasoline residuals is investigated. A bench-scale column provided the experimental results and the system was operated using prehumidification of the incoming gas stream only. The average and maximum elimination capacities of the biofilter were high compared to published bench scale results for compost biofilters. Plate counts show that both bacterial and fungal numbers increased as the column operated. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Medina, V.F.; Webster, T.; Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ramaratnam, M. [Westates Carbon, City of Commerce, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

237

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...141.74(a) and (c). (2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a...For each approval, the State will set turbidity performance requirements that the...

2011-07-01

238

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...141.74(a) and (c). (2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a...For each approval, the State will set turbidity performance requirements that the...

2014-07-01

239

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...141.74(a) and (c). (2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a...For each approval, the State will set turbidity performance requirements that the...

2013-07-01

240

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...141.74(a) and (c). (2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a...For each approval, the State will set turbidity performance requirements that the...

2012-07-01

241

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 NTU, measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (c)(1). (c) Diatomaceous earth filtration. (1) For systems using diatomaceous earth filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's...

2010-07-01

242

WATER FILTRATION FOR ASBESTOS FIBER REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a comprehensive review of data on removal of asbestos fibers by granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth filtration. It summarizes data obtained in pilot plant studies at Duluth and Seattle, in research program carried out at Duluth's Lakewood filtrat...

243

METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration  

SciTech Connect

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

O`Brien, T.J.

1995-06-01

244

Granular filtration in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion system often requires reliable and efficient cleanup devices that can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature, high- pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the in-flowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer are stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. The granular filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based, in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solid feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.

1996-12-31

245

Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling in muGAF systems can occur both on the membrane surface and in the cake layer. Fouling caused by soluble NOM, like polysaccharides, occurs mostly on the membrane surface, and increasing the adsorbent surface loading (i.e., the thickness of the layer) can mitigate fouling by such molecules. By contrast, fouling by colloids and particulate matter occurs mostly on the surface or upstream portion of the pre-deposited adsorbent layer. Use of smaller adsorbent particles improves the capture of these contaminants but also exacerbates such fouling. Lastly, preliminary tests demonstrate that muGAF is also effective at reducing fouling caused by NOM in seawater, and that combining multiple adsorbents in muGAF is a potential approach to optimize overall system performance.

Cai, Zhenxiao

246

Filtration of contaminated suspended solids for the treatment of surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

As few technologies exist worldwide for the treatment of contaminated surface water, a new approach is currently under development consisting of an in situ water treatment system based on a floating filtration process for adsorbed contaminants such as heavy metals. Laboratory filtration tests were performed for the removal of contaminated suspended solids (SS) from surface water. SS, chemical oxygen demand

Catherine N. Mulligan; Neginmalak Davarpanah; Masaharu Fukue; Tomohiro Inoue

2009-01-01

247

Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF. PMID:23190556

Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

2013-01-01

248

Dissemination, resuspension, and filtration of carbon fibers. [aircraft fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon fiber transport was studied using mathematical models established for other pollution problems. It was demonstrated that resuspension is not a major factor contributing to the risk. Filtration and fragmentation tests revealed that fiber fragmentation shifts the fiber spectrum to shorter mean lengths in high velocity air handling systems.

Elber, W.

1980-01-01

249

Sorbent Testing for Solidification of Organic Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Waste - Phase IV  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating various sorbents to solidify and immobilize hazardous constituents of the organic fraction of plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS).[5] The purpose of the solidification is to provide a cost-effective alternative to incineration of the waste. Incineration at the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at SRS is currently identified as the treatment technology for PUREX waste. However, the CIF is not in operation at this time, so SRS is interested in pursuing alternatives to incineration for treatment of this waste. The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office in Butte, MT was designated as the facility for conducting the sorbent testing and evaluation for the organic PUREX waste surrogate. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. tested and evaluated two clay and two polymer sorbents with the capability of solidifying organic PUREX waste. A surrogate organic PUREX waste recipe was utilized, and sorbents were tested and evaluated at bench-scale, 22-liter (5-gallon) scale, and 242-liter (55-gallon) scale. This paper presents experimental results evaluating four sorbent materials including: Imbiber Beads{sup TM} IMB230301-R, Nochar A610 Petrobond{sup TM}, Petroset II{sup TM}, and Petroset II Granular{sup TM}. Previous work at SRS indicated that these products could solidify organic PUREX waste on a bench scale [1]. The sorbents were evaluated using operational criteria and final wasteform properties. Operational criteria included: sorbent capacity; sorption rate; sorbent handling; and mixing requirements. Final wasteform evaluation properties included: ignitability; thermal stability; offgas generation, leachability tests and volumetric expansion. Bench-scale tests, 22-liter (5-gallon) tests, and initial 242-liter (55-gallon) tests are complete. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale, 22-liter (5-gallon) scale, and 242-liter (55-gallon) scale tests performed during FY05 with an aqueous/PUREX surrogate. (authors)

Bickford, J.L.; Joyce, H.O. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., P.O. Box 4078, Butte, MT 59701 (United States); Holmes-Burns, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 705-3C, P.O. Box A, Aiken SC 29802 (United States)

2006-07-01

250

Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem  

PubMed Central

Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material – can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

2014-01-01

251

Experimental determination of the filtration flow propagation velocities based on the air flow in rock cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental procedure and test data on assessment of rates of air filtration flow are reported. Permeability of the test\\u000a specimens differ by more than four orders in the range of linear filtration. The tests with core specimens under the gas pressures\\u000a of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 MPa established relationships between the gas propagation rate, gas pressure, structure and

A. P. Kurshin

2010-01-01

252

Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

2011-06-01

253

Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA. PMID:25007243

Jamal, Sondus; Chang, Sheng; Zhou, Hongde

2014-01-01

254

Cellulase recovery via membrane filtration.  

PubMed

A combined sedimentation and membrane filtration process was investigated for recycling cellulase enzymes in the biomass-to-ethanol process. In the first stage, lignocellulose particles longer than approx 50 microm were removed by means of sedimentation in an inclined settler. Microfiltration was then utilized to remove the remaining suspended solids. Finally, the soluble cellulase enzymes were recovered by ultrafiltration. The permeate fluxes obtained in microfiltration and ultrafiltration were approx 400 and 80 L/(m2 x h), respectively. A preliminary economic analysis shows that the cost benefit of enzyme recycling may be as much as 18 cents/gal of ethanol produced, provided that 75% of the enzyme is recycled in active form. PMID:11963858

Mores, W D; Knutsen, J S; Davis, R H

2001-01-01

255

Filtration of a Hanford AW-101 Waste Sample  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this test were: determine the optimum filter operating parameters to maximize filter flux; determine whether the mean filter flux across the dewatering cycle matches or exceeds the plant design throughput; dewater the feed sample to 20 wt percentage insoluble solids; wash the sample to determine which species are removed during the washing process; provide filtrate to the ion exchange test program; the project flowsheet for the separation of LAW entrained solids assumes the entrained solids slurry from ultrafiltration contains 20 wt percentage insoluble solids by weight. These tests must therefore confirm that the slurry rheology is compatible with this requirement. No solids must pass into the ultrafiltration permeate; and after the filtration stage is complete, the rig will be chemically cleaned to determine if the clean water flux can be returned to pre-operation (clean) levels.

POIRIER, M.R.

2004-05-12

256

Design of a small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration module  

E-print Network

A new small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. The goal of this unit is to filter an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) from a mixture of API ...

Wong, Katherine Wing-Shan

2010-01-01

257

Evaluation of Collector Well Configurations to Model Hydrodynamics in Riverbank Filtration and Groundwater Remediation  

E-print Network

remediation. This study models the hydrodynamics surrounding collector well configurations in riverbank filtration and groundwater remediation. Visual Modflow® was utilized to run a variety of numerical models to test four areas: flux along the laterals of a...

De Leon, Tiffany Lucinda

2011-10-21

258

COMPARISON OF SOME FILTRATION PROCESSES APPROPRIATE FOR GIARDIA CYST REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, and coagulation-filtration (including conventional treatment, direct filtration, and in-line filtration), have been evaluated for Giardia cyst removal at pilot plant and/or field scale. Properly designed and operated, the ...

259

EFFECTIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR SMALL WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year study was conducted of various simple water filtration systems potentially appropriate for high-quality surface waters serving small systems. A slow sand filter without coagulant and a direct, rapid filter with coagulant were operated in parallel. Direct filtration with ...

260

APPLICATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION TO COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the application of fabric filtration to combustion sources, with emphasis on research and development efforts directed toward assessment and documentation of full-scale baghouse operation, better understanding of the filtration process, and ...

261

Getting your money's worth from filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s water filtration plant operators may need to remove particulate contaminants, such as asbestos or Giardia cysts, in addition to algae, bacteria, soil particles, viruses, and other particles that filters previously were intended to remove. Even though the contaminants of concern may change, the fundamentals for effective filtration that were stated in earlier years still are valid. Moreover,

Gary S. Logsdon; Kim Fox

1982-01-01

262

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts at some turbidity level higher than 0.5 NTU in at least...the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system. However,...

2012-07-01

263

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts at some turbidity level higher than 0.5 NTU in at least...the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system. However,...

2011-07-01

264

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts at some turbidity level higher than 0.5 NTU in at least...the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system. However,...

2013-07-01

265

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

...filtration or direct filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of...inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts at some turbidity level higher than 0.5 NTU in at least...the State may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that system. However,...

2014-07-01

266

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN SLOW SAND FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), including the Surface Water Treatment Rule, have helped to renew the interest in the use of slow sand filtration (SSF) for treating surface waters for small communities. low sand filtration is not a...

267

The development of a new small-scale smoke toxicity test method and its comparison with real-scale fire tests.  

PubMed

A comprehensive methodology has been developed for obtaining and using smoke toxicity data for fire hazard analysis. This bench-scale method can simulate diverse fire conditions and identify extremely toxic smoke under both pre- and post-flashover conditions. However, incidence data show that most of the fire deaths in the U.S. occur outside the room of fire origin from smoke and toxic gases that are generated from a fire under post-flashover conditions. Therefore, the most relevant real-scale combustion conditions to simulate in the bench-scale apparatus would be the post-flashover conditions which are achieved by using radiant heat, a high heat flux, and correcting the bench-scale carbon monoxide (CO) results to agree with CO yields observed in real-scale post-flashover fires. The number of test animals (Fischer 344 male rats) is minimized by using the N-Gas Model to estimate the LC50 value from the chemical analysis of the smoke. The current N-Gas Model predicts the toxicity of complex fire gas mixtures based on a large data base of experimental results of individual and mixed gases that include CO, CO2, reduced O2, HCN, HCl, HBr, and NOx. The prediction is checked with a small number of animal tests and an approximate LC50 value is determined. The bench-scale results have been validated with full-scale room wall burns of a limited number of materials of widely differing characteristics chosen to challenge the system. The toxic potency values are assessed to determine if the smoke from a material or product is unusually or extremely toxic and can then be used in computations of fire hazard. PMID:1335176

Levin, B C

1992-12-01

268

POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing: technical progress report no. 3--January 1, 1996-March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. During the reporting period there were activities under the following tasks: project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; and process evaluation. The work on the remaining tasks is scheduled for the next months.

NONE

1996-10-01

269

40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 ...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10... § 141.171 Criteria for avoiding filtration. In addition to the...

2010-07-01

270

40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 ...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10... § 141.171 Criteria for avoiding filtration. In addition to the...

2011-07-01

271

Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

2000-06-09

272

Detection of damage of a filter by visualization of filtration process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with testing of filters on the basis of visualization of filtration process. A filtration material can be damaged by flow of the filtered medium, high pressure drop and long-term adverse conditions. These negative effects can cause extensive damage of the filtration textile and filtration efficiency decreases. The filter can be also fractured during manufacturing, processing or by improper manipulation. A testing of a purposely damaged filtration textile is described in the article. Experiments were performed on the filtration setup which permits an optical entrance to the position where a sample of filter is placed. A laser sheet is directed into this place. Scattered light from seeding particles in front of and behind the filter is captured by a digital camera. Images from the camera are analyzed and the filtration efficiency versus time and also versus position can be obtained. Measuring chain including light scattering theory and measuring of light intensity by a digital camera are also discussed in the article.

Bílek, P.; Šidlof, P.

2014-03-01

273

Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

Yu, Zhimin

274

Filtration effects on ball bearing life and condition in a contaminated lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball bearings were fatigue tested with a noncontaminated MIL-L-23699 lubricant and with a contaminated MIL-L-23699 lubricant under four levels of filtration. The test filters had absolute particle removal ratings of 3, 30, 49, and 105 microns. Aircraft turbine engine contaminants were injected into the filter's supply line at a constant rate of 125 milligrams per bearing hour. Bearing life and running track condition generally improved with finer filtration. The experimental lives of 3- and 30-micron filter bearings were statistically equivalent, approaching those obtained with the noncontaminated lubricant bearings. Compared to these bearings, the lives of the 49-micron bearings were statistically lower. The 105-micron bearings experienced gross wear. The degree of surface distress, weight loss, and probable failure mode were dependent on filtration level, with finer filtration being clearly beneficial.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Moyer, D. W.

1978-01-01

275

Linear Thermodynamics of Rodlike DNA Filtration  

E-print Network

Linear thermodynamics transportation theory is employed to study filtration of rodlike DNA molecules. Using the repeated nanoarray consisting of alternate deep and shallow regions, it is demonstrated that the complex ...

Li, Zirui

276

Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates  

E-print Network

Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous ...

Sutherland, Kelly R.

277

DIATOMITE FILTRATION SYSTEM OF LOMPOC, CALIF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lompoc, Calif., pioneered the use of diatomaceous earth filtration for a large lime soda softening plant. After 5 years of operation, the installation's performance profile is now well outlined and shows that performance exceeds prior expectations.

Charles H. Lawrance

1969-01-01

278

Method of increasing fine coal filtration efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Fine coals suspended in a coal flotation froth are more efficiently filtered when the flotation froth is subjected to a thickening operation prior to filtration. The thickening operation is accomplished by the use of a clarifier or thickener.

Moyer, W.H.

1981-01-13

279

Filtration behaviors of giardia and c ryptosporidium—ionic strength and pH effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laboratory-scale filtration tests of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in both 2mm-?glass beads and 2mm-? polystyrene beads filters were conducted to investigate their filtration behaviors. The protozoan parasites were used as target particles, while the chemical system altered by changing the electrolyte concentration and pH. The results significantly indicate that ionic strength have a positive effect on the removal

Bing-Mu Hsu; Chihpin Huang; Jill Ruhsing Pan

2001-01-01

280

Filtration improvement study at Three Mile Island Unit 2: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed to investigate filtration improvement techniques applied to an existing filtration system installed at TMI-2 to maintain water clarity for on-going defueling activities on the damaged reactor. The investigation included laboratory and full-scale testing of organic and inorganic coagulant aids and of various precoat and body feed materials singly or in combination with coagulant aids. 33 figs., 21 tabs.

Vance, J.N.

1987-10-01

281

Effects of aluminum-copper alloy filtration on photon spectra, air kerma rate and image contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the performance of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, without the original aluminum filter, for dental radiography in terms of x-ray energy spectrum, air kerma rate and image quality. Comparisons of various thicknesses of aluminum-copper alloy in three different percentages were made with aluminum filtration. Tests were conducted on an intra-oral dental x-ray machine and were made on mandible phantom

Andréa Gonçalves; João Manuel; Domingos de Almeida ROLLO; Marcelo GONÇALVES; Francisco HAITER NETO

2004-01-01

282

A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

2010-12-01

283

Coal filtration process and dewatering aids therefore  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a method for dewatering an aqueous slurry of solid coal particulates wherein the aqueous slurry contains between about 10 and 60 percent of solid coal particulates and a dewatering aid is added to the slurry followed by vacuum filtration thereof to produce a filter cake of the coal particulates. The improvement for lowering the water content of the filter cake comprises adding to the slurry prior to filtration an effective amount of a dewatering aid selected.

Keys, R.O.

1990-01-09

284

Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery  

SciTech Connect

Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

1995-04-01

285

Polymer filtration: An emerging technology for selective metals recovery  

SciTech Connect

Polymer Filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or waste waters. The technology uses water-soluble polymers that are specially designed to selectively bind with metal ions in the aqueous solution. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration technology. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the ultrafiltration membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions which are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. We are testing this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other radionuclides from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. Some advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint.

Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

286

Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL Inc. (United States)

1996-08-15

287

Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.  

PubMed

Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation. PMID:22482494

Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

2012-06-01

288

Bench-scale vitrification of low level radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vitrification treatability study described in this paper was carried out following US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. A tiered experimental approach was used which consisted of remedy screening and remedy selection tiers. This paper examines the vitrification of eight waste streams and reports results from the remedy screening tier.

S. Rutherford; E. F. Jr. Stine

1994-01-01

289

Nitrate to Ammonia Ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. At INEL alone there are 800,000 gallons. The largest quantity of these wastes is the 149 single shell tanks (SSTs) tanks at Hanford which can hold 1 million gallons each. The nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) process has been developed to remove a majority of the nitrate content from the wastes.

Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L.

1995-12-31

290

BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

Unknown

1999-07-01

291

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

Cicero, C.A.

1996-05-08

292

Development of bench-scale metal distillation furnace (retort)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes for the recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuels required the design of a high-temperature vacuum furnace. The furnace had to be able to melt actinides, distill volatile metals (zinc and magnesium), be able to operate in a nitrogen glove box with low head room, and heat resonably fast while being capable of holding temperature. Induction heating was chosen

M. A. Vest; L. Smith; R. D. Pierce

1995-01-01

293

BENCH SCALE STUDIES OF LIMESTONE INJECTION FOR SO2 CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of experiments in a boiler simulator furnace, indicating that the parameters of major importance to SO2 capture are thermal environment, calcium/sulfur ratio, and sorbent composition. Thermal environment (local temperature) had a strong effect on the util...

294

Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Duncan, J.B.

1997-01-07

295

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: evaluation of cellulase culture filtrates under use conditions  

SciTech Connect

Culture filtrates from three mutant strains of Trichoderma reesei grown on lactose and on cellulose were compared under use conditions on four cellulose substrates. Cellulose culture filtrates contained five to six times as much cellulase as lactose culture filtrates. Unconcentrated cellulose culture filtrates produced up to 10% sugar solutions from 15% cellulose in 24 hours. Specific activity in enzyme assays and efficiency in saccharification tests were low for enzymes from all the mutants. Over a wide range the percent saccharification of a substrate in a given time was directly proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of initial concentrations of enzyme and substrate. As a result of this, dilute enzyme is more efficient than concentrated enzyme, but if high sugar concentrations are desired, very large quantities of enzyme are required. Since the slopes of these plots varied, the relative activity of cellulase on different substrates may be affected by enzyme concentration. (Refs. 28).

Mandels, M.; Medeiros, J.E.; Andreotti, R.E.; Bissett, F.H.

1981-09-01

296

Effects of iron and culture filtrates on killing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by normal human serum.  

PubMed Central

Neisseria gonorrhoeae GC9, both colony types T2 and T4, were killed by normal human serum, although populations of colony type T4 were more susceptible. Ferric ammonium citrate prevented the killing of populations of both T2 and T4 colony types. Other iron compounds tested showed no protective effect, nor did ammonium citrate or the divalent cations magnesium or calcium. A filtrate from cultures of an N. gonorrhoeae strain grown in a liquid defined medium showed a similar protective effect in the serum assay. The filtrate appeared to chelate iron, as measured by decreased ability of iron-free transferin to bind iron in the presence of the filtrate. However, the two effects did not appear to be related. Neither ferric ammonium citrate nor the culture filtrate sufficiently inactivated complement to account for protection. PMID:101468

Norrod, P; Williams, R P

1978-01-01

297

Effect of filtration on rolling-element-bearing life in contaminated lubricant environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue tests were conducted on groups of 65 millimeter-bore ball bearings under four levels of filtration with and without a contaminated MIL-L-23699 lubricant. The baseline series used noncontaminated oil with 49 micron absolute filtration. In the remaining tests contaminants of the composition found in aircraft engine filters were injected into the filter's supply line at a constant rate of 125 milligrams per bearing-hour. The test filters had absolute particle removal ratings of 3, 30, 49, and 105 microns (0.45, 10, 30, and 70 microns nominal), respectively. Bearings were tested at 15,000 rpm under 4580 newtons radial load. Bearing life and running tract condition generally improved with finer filtration. The 3 and 30 micron filter bearings in a contaminated lubricant had statistically equivalent lives, approaching those from the baseline tests. The experimental lives of 49 micron bearings were approximately half the baseline bearing's lives. Bearings tested with the 105 micron filter experienced wear failures. The degree of surface distress, weight loss, and probable failure mode were found to be dependent on filtration level, with finer filtration being clearly beneficial.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Moyer, D. W.; Sherlock, J. J.

1978-01-01

298

New high performance fabric for hot gas filtration  

SciTech Connect

The development of new filter media designed for reduced baghouse operating costs via increased filtration capacity and/or reduced pressure drop is discussed. The development steps from defining industry needs, product optimization through laboratory tests and industrial baghouse evaluations are reviewed. Results show a significant improvement in baghouse performance, i.e., reduced deltap and emissions and increased a/c ratio compared to incumbent filter media. Small scale tests comparing performance of various state of the art and new filter media, and the potential impact on baghouse operating cost are reviewed.

Shah, J.N.

1984-01-01

299

Removal of benzocaine from water by filtration with activated carbon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benzocaine is a promising candidate for registration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as an anesthetic in fish culture, management, and research. A method for the removal of benzocaine from hatchery effluents could speed registration of this drug by eliminating requirements for data on its residues, tolerances, detoxification, and environmental hazards. Carbon filtration effectively removes many organic compounds from water. This study tested the effectiveness of three types of activated carbon for removing benzocaine from water by column filtration under controlled laboratory conditions. An adsorptive capacity was calculated for each type of activated carbon. Filtrasorb 400 (12 x 40 mesh; U.S. standard sieve series) showed the greatest capacity for benzocaine adsorption (76.12 mg benzocaine/g carbon); Filtrasorb 300 (8 x 30 mesh) ranked next (31.93 mg/g); and Filtrasorb 816 (8 x 16 mesh) absorbed the least (1.0 mg/g). Increased adsorptive capacity was associated with smaller carbon particle size; however, smaller particle size also impeded column flow. Carbon filtration is a practical means for removing benzocaine from treated water.

Howe, G. E.; Bills, T. D.; Marking, L. L.

1990-01-01

300

Assessment and mitigation of DNA loss utilizing centrifugal filtration devices.  

PubMed

Maximizing DNA recovery during its isolation can be vital in forensic casework, particularly when DNA yields are expected to be low, such as from touch samples. Many forensic laboratories utilize centrifugal filtration devices to purify and concentrate the DNA; however, DNA loss has been reported when using them. In this study, all centrifugal filtration devices tested caused substantial DNA loss, affecting low molecular weight DNA (PCR product) somewhat more than high molecular weight DNA. Strategies for mitigating DNA loss were then examined, including pre-treatment with glucose, glycogen, silicone (RainX(®)), bovine serum albumin, yeast RNA, or high molecular weight DNA. The length of pre-treatment and UV irradiation of pre-treatment reagents were also investigated. Pre-treatments with glucose and glycogen resulted in little or no improvement in DNA recovery, and most or all DNA was lost after silicone pre-treatment. Devices pre-treated with BSA produced irregular and uninterpretable quantitative PCR amplification curves for the DNA and internal PCR control. On the other hand, nucleic acid pre-treatments greatly improved recovery of all DNAs. Pre-treatment time and its UV irradiation did not influence DNA recovery. Overall, the results show that centrifugal filtration devices trap DNA, yet their proper pre-treatment can circumvent that loss, which is critical in the case of low copy forensic DNA samples. PMID:25173492

Doran, Ashley E; Foran, David R

2014-11-01

301

Filtration of dust particulates with a moving granular bed filter.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a moving granular bed filter designed for cold test to filter coal particulates. A series of experiments were carried out at room temperature to demonstrate the collection efficiency of this method of filtration technology (i.e., the moving granular bed filter) at different filtration superficial velocities and mass flow rates of filter granules but with a fixed inlet dust concentration. The dynamic characteristics of the filter system were evaluated by measuring variations in the outlet concentration and size distribution of dust particulates. The collection mechanisms of the filter granules in the moving granular bed filter were also studied. Experimental results showed that the collection efficiency could be enhanced by using a filtration superficial velocity of 30 cm/s and mass flow rate of 450 g/min. The results of this study indicate this type of method could be useful for application in different cross-flow filter systems for gas cleanup. The focus in the current study is essentially the development of a moving granular bed filter that could be applied in a high-temperature environment. The results are expected to serve as the basis for future research. PMID:19615817

Chen, Yi-Shun; Hsiau, Shu-San; Lai, Sin-Chang; Chyou, Yau-Pin; Li, Hsuan-Yi; Hsu, Chia-Jen

2009-11-15

302

GPS Data Filtration Method for Drive Cycle Analysis Applications  

SciTech Connect

When employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the raw data samples, such as sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive-cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software. Without reliable speed and time information, the validity of derived metrics for drive cycles, such as acceleration, power, and distance, become questionable. This study explores some of the common sources of error present in raw onboard GPS data and presents a detailed filtering process designed to correct for these issues. Test data from both light and medium/heavy duty applications are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtration process across the range of vehicle vocations. Graphical comparisons of raw and filtered cycles are presented, and statistical analyses are performed to determine the effects of the proposed filtration process on raw data. Finally, an evaluation of the overall benefits of data filtration on raw GPS data and present potential areas for continued research is presented.

Duran, A.; Earleywine, M.

2013-02-01

303

Effect of filtration velocity and filtration pressure drop on the bag-cleaning performance of a pulse-jet baghouse  

SciTech Connect

In this study the filtration velocity and filtration pressure drop at the beginning of bag cleaning were used as experimental parameters to evaluate the bag-cleaning performance of a pulse-jet baghouse. The effective residual pressure loss was used to indicate the cleaning performance after bag cleaning. Two different test dusts, fly ash and limestone, were used. The critical cleaning indices under different operation conditions for bag cleaning were also investigated. A critical average pulse overpressure was found to exist beyond which bag-cleaning performance did not improve much. It was found the filter's final filtration resistance is an important parameter to decide whether a Venturi is necessary for a good bag-cleaning performance or not. Use of a Venturi was found to increase the average pulse overpressure for a system with a filter's final resistance coefficient greater than about 500 Pa{center{underscore}dot}s/cm. However, no Venturi is recommended when the filter's final resistance coefficient is smaller than 500 Pa{center{underscore}dot}s/cm.

Tsai, C.J.; Tsai, M.L.; Lu, H.C.

2000-01-01

304

New treatability tests  

SciTech Connect

EPA, under its Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, recently announced results from treatability tests on Thorneco Inc.'s (Payson, Ariz.) Enzyme-Activated Cellulose Technology. The technology relies on cellulose coated with a proprietary enzyme to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous solutions. Following enzyme treatment, cellulose is placed in one or more towers that operate in series. Contaminated water enters the towers from the bottom and flows upward through the enzyme-activated cellulose to a discharge pipe at the top. The technology can remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous solutions in the form of ions, particulates or colloidal compounds. The treatability study was conducted between Aug. 26 and Sept. 30, 1991, at the Engineering Science treatability lab in Atlanta. Contaminated groundwater came from Stream A at the Stringfellow Superfund site in Glen Avon, Calif. A bench-scale treatability study was performed because of a lack of complete background data and uncertainty concerning the technology's removal mechanisms.

Roy, K.A.

1993-01-01

305

Paradoxical glomerular filtration of carbon nanotubes  

PubMed Central

The molecular weight cutoff for glomerular filtration is thought to be 30–50 kDa. Here we report rapid and efficient filtration of molecules 10–20 times that mass and a model for the mechanism of this filtration. We conducted multimodal imaging studies in mice to investigate renal clearance of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) construct covalently appended with ligands allowing simultaneous dynamic positron emission tomography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging, and microscopy. These SWCNTs have a length distribution ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The average length was determined to be 200–300 nm, which would yield a functionalized construct with a molecular weight of ?350–500 kDa. The construct was rapidly (t1/2 ? 6 min) renally cleared intact by glomerular filtration, with partial tubular reabsorption and transient translocation into the proximal tubular cell nuclei. Directional absorption was confirmed in vitro using polarized renal cells. Active secretion via transporters was not involved. Mathematical modeling of the rotational diffusivity showed the tendency of flow to orient SWCNTs of this size to allow clearance via the glomerular pores. Surprisingly, these results raise questions about the rules for renal filtration, given that these large molecules (with aspect ratios ranging from 100:1 to 500:1) were cleared similarly to small molecules. SWCNTs and other novel nanomaterials are being actively investigated for potential biomedical applications, and these observations—that high aspect ratio as well as large molecular size have an impact on glomerular filtration—will allow the design of novel nanoscale-based therapeutics with unusual pharmacologic characteristics. PMID:20566862

Ruggiero, Alessandro; Villa, Carlos H.; Bander, Evan; Rey, Diego A.; Bergkvist, Magnus; Batt, Carl A.; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Deen, William M.; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

2010-01-01

306

Development and validation of a low cost blood filtration element separating plasma from undiluted whole blood  

PubMed Central

Clinical point of care testing often needs plasma instead of whole blood. As centrifugation is labor intensive and not always accessible, filtration is a more appropriate separation technique. The complexity of whole blood is such that there is still no commercially available filtration system capable of separating small sample volumes (10-100??l) at the point of care. The microfluidics research in blood filtration is very active but to date nobody has validated a low cost device that simultaneously filtrates small samples of whole blood and reproducibly recovers clinically relevant biomarkers, and all this in a limited amount of time with undiluted raw samples. In this paper, we show first that plasma filtration from undiluted whole blood is feasible and reproducible in a low-cost microfluidic device. This novel microfluidic blood filtration element (BFE) extracts 12??l of plasma from 100??l of whole blood in less than 10?min. Then, we demonstrate that our device is valid for clinical studies by measuring the adsorption of interleukins through our system. This adsorption is reproducible for interleukins IL6, IL8, and IL10 but not for TNF?. Hence, our BFE is valid for clinical diagnostics with simple calibration prior to performing any measurement. PMID:22662072

Homsy, Alexandra; van der Wal, Peter D.; Doll, Werner; Schaller, Roland; Korsatko, Stefan; Ratzer, Maria; Ellmerer, Martin; Pieber, Thomas R.; Nicol, Andreas; de Rooij, Nico F.

2012-01-01

307

FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 µm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

308

Gel Filtration Chromatography: A Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography. The procedure separates two highly colored proteins of different molecular weights on a Sephadex G-75 in 45 minutes. This time includes packing the column as well. Background information, reagents needed, procedures used, and results obtained are…

Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.

1984-01-01

309

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: MEMBRANE FILTRATION - SBP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

SBP Technologies Inc. (SBP) has developed a membrane-based separation technology that can reduce the volume of contaminated groundwater requiring treatment. The SBP Filtration Unit consists of porous, sintered, stainless steel tubes arranged in a shell-and-tube module configurati...

310

Removal of arsenic compounds by chemisorption filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on arsenic removal from water sources down to the residual concentration below 10 ?g\\/l are reported. The basic physico-chemical\\u000a parameters are set for arsenic removal by polystyrene modified by polymer polyHIPE granules, calcium alginate granules saturated\\u000a (coated) with iron hydroxide. Adsorption filtration is an efficient method of arsenic removal.

P. M. Solozhenkin; A. I. Zouboulis; I. A. Katsoyiannis

2007-01-01

311

Functional Morphology of the Glomerular Filtration Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anionic charge barrier and the endothelial and epithelial pore sizes on the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) were examined in white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus). Ruthenium red was used to stain anionic charge sites on the GFB. The tissue was treated by normal dehydration and freeze substitution dehydration for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the basal lamina was isolated

ELDON J. BRAUN

1996-01-01

312

FILTRATION ASSOCIATED TO TORSION SEMI-STABLE ...  

E-print Network

Introduction. 2. 2. Filtration encoded in p-adic Hodge data ... Mst is a contravariant functor, there exists a W(k)-linear map Mst(j) : Mst(?2) ?. Mst(?1). ... local OE-algebra and any ring homomorphism x : RVF ? A with A an OE-

2014-09-12

313

ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION - AN UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) on a slipstream of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler using reverse-air-cleaned woven fiberglass filter bags. Operation was demonstrated using ESFF at a glass-to-cloth ...

314

Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further

B. W. Walker; D. Hobbs

2000-01-01

315

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT USING SLOW SAND FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent re-interest in slow sand filtration was brought about by the needs for small communities to install treatment technologies that are effective, less costly, and easier to operate and maintain than the more sophisticated rapid sand filters. These simpler technologies for sma...

316

Filtration engineering study to upgrade the ETF  

SciTech Connect

Filtration technologies are evaluated which have potential to augment or upgrade the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The study was written in anticipation of treating future waste waters that have high fouling potentials. The Three ultrafilters judged to be capable of treating future waste waters are: hollow fiber, tubular, and centrifugal

McDonald, F.N.N.

1995-10-18

317

Filtration characteristics of polysulfone membrane filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysulfone (PSF) membrane filters are employed as thermoplastic material in fabricating membranes for use in water ultrafiltration systems and gas separation. However, PSF membrane filters have seldom been used in aerosol filtration. Therefore, this work clarifies the effects of PSF membrane filters on aerosol penetration. Three concentrations of casting solutions (10%, 15%, and 20%) were used to form membranes with

Hsiao-Lin Huang; Shinhao Yang

2006-01-01

318

FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 1. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth filtration of drinking water was studied under various operating conditions for removal of Giardia cysts, total coliform bacteria, standard plate count bacteria, turbidity, and particles. Seven grades of diatomaceous earth were used. Temper...

319

POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal strearrts. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a jet processor. To meet the overall objective an eleven task work plan has been designed. The work ranges from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment.

None

1998-11-12

320

30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main flood valves is at left and crossover valve is a right. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

321

Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients. To determine the reliability of creatinine as a measure of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we compared the simultaneous clearance of creatinine to that of three true filtration markers of graded size in 171 patients with various glomerular diseases. Using inulin (radius [rs] = 15 Å) as a reference marker,

Ovadia Shemesh; Helen Golbetz; Joseph P Kriss; Bryan D Myers

1985-01-01

322

Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum in bank filtration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of waterborne disease. Many surface water systems therefore depend on filtration systems, including bank filtration systems, for the removal of the pathogenic oocysts. To better understand the effectiveness, e.g., of bank filtration systems, we have implemented a series of columns studies under various environmental conditions (column length: 10 cm - 60

T. Harter; E. R. Atwill; L. L. Hou

2003-01-01

323

20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to remove schmutzdeck (top, dirty sand layer containing particulate contamination, dead microorganisms and debris) for cleaning and or disposal. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

324

Membrane filtration technology for the metals fabrication industry  

SciTech Connect

Membrane filtration for separating contaminants from aqueous cleaning solutions based on molecular size, shape, and charge is described in this paper. Ultrafiltration is a pressure driven membrane filtration technique capable of producing high quality filtrate from wastewater. Three case studies are briefly described where ultrafiltration has been incorporated into the manufacturing process.

Peden, J.; Lindsey, T. [Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, Champaign, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

325

“Zebrafishing” for Novel Genes Relevant to the Glomerular Filtration Barrier  

PubMed Central

Data for genes relevant to glomerular filtration barrier function or proteinuria is continually increasing in an era of microarrays, genome-wide association studies, and quantitative trait locus analysis. Researchers are limited by published literature searches to select the most relevant genes to investigate. High-throughput cell cultures and other in vitro systems ultimately need to demonstrate proof in an in vivo model. Generating mammalian models for the genes of interest is costly and time intensive, and yields only a small number of test subjects. These models also have many pitfalls such as possible embryonic mortality and failure to generate phenotypes or generate nonkidney specific phenotypes. Here we describe an in vivo zebrafish model as a simple vertebrate screening system to identify genes relevant to glomerular filtration barrier function. Using our technology, we are able to screen entirely novel genes in 4–6 weeks in hundreds of live test subjects at a fraction of the cost of a mammalian model. Our system produces consistent and reliable evidence for gene relevance in glomerular kidney disease; the results then provide merit for further analysis in mammalian models. PMID:24106712

Staggs, Lynne; Schroder, Patricia; Kaufeld, Jessica; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

2013-01-01

326

Filtration, Vacuum (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Filtration, Vacuum: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". Filtration is a technique used to separate a solid from a liquid. The solid is separated from the liquid phase by passing the mixture over a filtering media. The mixture can be forced through the filter by either gravity or reduced pressure on one side of the filter (by creating a vacuum). It is possible to separate a solid from a liquid by either technique, however there are advantages to each technique. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

327

Filtration, Gravity (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Filtration, Gravity: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". Filtration is a technique used to separate a solid from a liquid. The solid is separated from the liquid phase by passing the mixture over a filtering media. The mixture can be forced through the filter by either gravity or reduced pressure on one side of the filter (by creating a vacuum). It is possible to separate a solid from a liquid by either technique, however there are advantages to each technique. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

328

Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

Cosma, T.

1974-01-01

329

Potential for Riverbank filtration in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riverbank filtration (RBF) has been used for many decades in Europe and the United States to provide drinking water to communities\\u000a located on riverbanks. In India, the development of RBF has the potential to provide drinking water to many cities located\\u000a on the Ganga Plains currently using surface water as a source for their public water supply. Water diversion for

Cornelius Sandhu; Thomas Grischek; Pradeep Kumar; Chittaranjan Ray

2011-01-01

330

Granular filtration in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas stream. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the in-flowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. Batch mode filtration performance of the filter was first reported at the Ninth Annual Coal-Fueled Heat Engines, Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion, and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting.

Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

1995-12-31

331

Allelopathic Effects of Cyanobacterial Filtrates on Baltic Diatom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the formation of massive and harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments. Recent studies indicate that blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea has grown significantly in last decades, so it is important to determine the allelopathic interactions between the dominant species of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In this work we investigated the influence of allelopathic compounds on the growth of Skeletonema marinoi by addition of cell-free filtrate of the Baltic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena cultures grown under different temperature (15-25°C). Additionally the effects of filtrates of both an exponential and a stationary growing culture of N. spumigena were tested on diatom. These studies indicate that high temperature affected the donor species by increasing its production of allelochemicals. The highest drop of growth of analyzed diatom were observed after the addition of cell-free filtrate obtained from N. spumigena grown at 25°C and constituted 70% of their control. N. spumigena was only allelopathic in exponential growth phase, whereas the cyanobacteria filtrate from stationary phase have any effect on S. marinoi. These findings suggest that N. spumigena may reveal allelopathic activity and that the production of allelopathic substances is influenced by the temperature and growth phase of cyanobacteria. Allelopatia mo?e by? kluczowym czynnikiem wp?ywaj?cym na tworzenie si? masowych zakwitów sinic w wielu wodnych ekosystemach. Badania pokazuj?, ?e zakwity sinic w Morzu Ba?tyckim w ostatnich dekadach znacznie si? nasili?y, dlatego tak wa?ne jest okre?lenie stopnia oddzia?ywania allelopatycznego dominuj?cych w tym akwenie gatunków fitoplanktonu. W przeprowadzonych badaniach okre?lono wp?yw zwi?zków allelopatycznych produkowanych przez ba?tyck? sinic? Nodularia spumigena hodowan? w ró?nych temperaturach (15-25°C) na wzrost okrzemki Skeletonema marinoi. Dodatkowo w niniejszej pracy porównano wp?yw przes?czu komórkowego uzyskanego z hodowli sinic b?d?cych w fazie logarytmicznego i stacjonarnego wzrostu. Badania wykaza?y, ?e temperatura modyfikuje allelopatyczne oddzia?ywania i na przyk?ad najwy?szy spadek wzrostu zaobserwowano u S. marinoi po dodaniu przes?czu uzyskanego z kultur N. spumigena hodowanych w 25°C. Wynosi? on 70% w stosunku do kontroli. Ponadto w pracy stwierdzono, ?e N. spumigena wykazywa?a oddzia?ywanie allelopatyczne na badan? okrzemk? jedynie wtedy, gdy dodawany przes?cz komórkowy pochodzi? z fazy logarytmicznego wzrostu. Wyniki uzyskane w niniejszej pracy sugeruj?, ?e ba?tyckie sinice mog? wykazywa? oddzia?ywania allelopatyczne w stosunku do okrzemek a produkcja zwi?zków allelopatycznych mo?e by? zale?na od temperatury oraz fazy wzrostu, w której znajduj? si? organizmy donorowe.

?liwi?ska, Sylwia; Lata?a, Adam

2012-01-01

332

Filtration of bioaerosols using a granular metallic filter with micrometer-sized collectors  

SciTech Connect

Several experimental studies with granular bed filters composed of micrometer-sized spherical or sintered metallic granules have demonstrated their use in aerosol filtration. However, the effectiveness of these metallic membrane filters against bioaerosols has not been established. In this work, the filtration efficiency and filter quality of these filters against airborne B. subtilis endospore and MS2 virus were determined as a function of face velocity and loading time. In experiments, a physical removal efficiency greater than 99.9% and a viable removal efficiency of greater than 5-log were observed for both bacterial spore and viral aerosols. A lower face velocity produced both higher collection efficiency and filter quality for virus but was not statistically significant for spore filtration. Although the filter had high filtration efficiency of the test bioaerosols, the filter's high pressure drop resulted in a low filter quality (0.25-0.75 kPa- 1). Overall, filters with micrometer-sized collectors capture bioaerosols effectively but their applications in aerosol filtration may be limited by their high pressure drop.

Damit, Brian E [ORNL] [ORNL; Bischoff, Brian L [ORNL] [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL] [ORNL; Wu, Dr. Chang-Yu [University of Florida, Gainesville] [University of Florida, Gainesville; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

333

Laboratory Measurements of the Spatial Distribution of Gas Velocities through Seasoned Baghouse Fabrics throughout a Simulated Filtration Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the spatial distribution of the gas velocity across seasoned filter bag samples was measured with high resolution throughout a simulated filtration cycle. The samples were obtained from utility baghouses employing shake\\/deflate and reverse-gas cleaning. The tests simulated a filtration cycle with a constant air to cloth ratio of 2 acfm\\/ft for a two-hour period with a gas

Wallace G. Kistler; William J. Steele; Duane H. Pontius; Richard K. Albano

1986-01-01

334

Environmental Technology Verification Report -- Baghouse filtration products, GE Energy QG061 filtration media ( tested May 2007)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center, a cente...

335

Filtration demonstration plant as reverse osmosis pretreatment in an industrial water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse osmosis (RO) has emerged as an alternative treatment in industrial water production. However, RO systems need suitable pretreatment to avoid membranes fouling. A demonstration study was conducted to assess improvements to RO pretreatment in the water treatment plant of a steel factory. Various pretreatment options, resulting from the combination of the existing treatment with different filtration stages, were tested.

Noelia Quevedo; Joan Sanz; Amaya Lobo; Javier Temprano; Iñaki Tejero

336

EPA FABRIC FILTRATION STUDIES: 1. PERFORMANCE OF NON-WOVEN NYLON FILTER BAGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the potential of various new fabrics as baghouse filters and to obtain data for their use, by the fabric filtration community. The testing consisted of simulating a baghouse operation in a carefully controlled laboratory setting...

337

ELECTROSTATIC AUGMENTATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION: REVERSE-AIR PILOT UNIT EXPERIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the use of a pilot unit (consisting of two baghouses in a parallel-flow arrangement on a slipstream from an industrial pulverized-coal boiler house) to test electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) in a reverse-air cleaning mode. ESFF is character...

338

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT--BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, W.L. GORE ASSOC., INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center evaluates the performance of baghouse filtration products used primarily to control PM2.5 emissions. This verification statement summarizes the test results for W.L. Gore & Assoc....

339

EFFECT OF TANK DESIGN AND TWO-PHASED FILTRATION ON CLEANLINESS LEVEL OF WATER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filtration in water hydraulic system may be problematic, due to chemical, physical and biological contamination. This contamination may cause quick increase in the pressure difference over the filter element. The aim of this research was to test different kinds of tank sizes and filter combinations and to determine their effects on water quality in a water hydraulic system. In this

Hannu RIIPINEN; Sari SOINI; Jaakko A. PUHAKKA; Kari T. KOSKINEN

2005-01-01

340

Mechanisms controlling filtration at the core bit for oil-based muds  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory half-scale coring experiments using 4-in.-diameter reservoir rock samples were conducted with field oil-based muds (OBM). The OBM were formulated to have low water content and low fluid loss to minimize the potential impact of the invading OBM filtrate on connate water saturations (S{sub w}). The OBM had been used previously during Prudhoe Bay (Alaska) field coring operations conducted to obtain connate S{sub w} measurements. Laboratory overbalance pressure and temperature were similar to the reservoir downhole environment. The coring test data were OBM filtrate volume generated during coring, pressure in the rock beneath the bit as the bit approached, and pressure in the half-scale 2-in. core during and after the core bit passed by. Also, at the end of each test, dynamic and static OBM filtrate volumes were measured while only circulating the mud and with no mud flowing. OBM filtrate properties, viscosity, emulsifier content, water content, and interfacial tension (IFT) were measured after coring was conclude. S{sub w} was measured before and after coring. Conclusions from these tests are discussed. Results mean that the pressure gradients in the core during coring are very low, so displacement of water by capillary number effects will not occur, and above the oil/water transition zone, cores taken with OBM similar to the ones used here should yield reliable in-situ S{sub w} values.

Warner, H.R. Jr.; Rathmell, J.J.

1997-06-01

341

Red Cell Apheresis with Automated In-Line Filtration  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to provide data on concurrent red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) apheresis with RBC in-line leukoreduction and automated addition of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) using the new version (V6.0) of Trima Accel®. Methods In this two-center paired study, each subject completed a test and a control procedure with an interval of 9 weeks between procedures. In the test arm, single RBC and PLT units were collected on the Trima Accel V6.0 (in-line leukofiltration and automated addition of SAGM). In the control arm, they were collected on Trima Accel V5.1/V5.2 (post-collection leukoreduction, manual SAGM addition). RBC percent hemolysis, potassium concentration and adenosine triphosphate over storage, hemoglobin (Hb) yield, and residual white blood cells (WBC) were determined. Results 34 subjects successfully completed both test and control procedures. Post-storage hemolysis was similar in both groups, and all values were less than 0.8% for both arms. Residual WBC counts in all RBC units were less than 1 × 106/unit. In-line processed RBC units (V6.0) have a significantly higher volume and more Hb/unit due to filtration recovery improvements. All procedures were well tolerated by the subjects. Conclusion In-line filtration and automated addition of storage solution on Trima Accel V6.0 allows collection of ready-to-use RBC units that meet EU requirements. PMID:24847185

Matthes, Gert; Ingilizov, Marin; Dobao, Maria Luz; Marques, Susana; Callaert, Martine

2014-01-01

342

The Equivariant Slice Filtration: a Primer  

E-print Network

We present an introduction to the equivariant slice filtration. After reviewing the definitions and basic properties, we determine the slice dimension of various families of naturally arising spectra. This leads to an analysis of pullbacks of slices defined on quotient groups, producing new collections of slices. Building on this, we determine the slice tower for the Eilenberg-Mac Lane spectrum associated to a Mackey functor for a cyclic $p$-group. We then relate the Postnikov tower to the slice tower for various spectra. Finally, we pose a few conjectures about the nature of slices and pullbacks.

Hill, Michael A

2011-01-01

343

CCMR: Advanced Nanomaterials towards Water Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Block copolymer derived nanostructured materials provide a unique platform for novel membranes used for water filtration. One challenge in this field is the high cost of block copolymers and the necessity to orient the pore structure Using polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) we constructed a model membrane to examine the relationship between its macromolecular structure and function. Our model membrane has uniform porosity, tunable pore sizes, and adjustable mechanical and chemical properties in order to achieve optimum performance. We demonstrate the process of finding a suitable solvent system and generating a porous, nanostructured membrane . The resulting membrane shows promise for selective separations on the nanometer scale.

Li, Yuk M.

2010-08-15

344

A rigid porous filter and filtration method  

SciTech Connect

The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

1998-12-01

345

Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

2010-04-30

346

On-sun test results from second-generation and advanced-concepts alkali-metal pool-boiler receivers  

SciTech Connect

Two 75-kW{sub t} alkali-metal pool-boiler solar receivers have been successfully tested at Sandia National Laboratories` National Solar Thermal Test Facility. The first one, Sandia`s `` second-generation pool-boiler receiver,`` was designed to address commercialization issues identified during post-test assessment of Sandia`s first-generation pool-boiler receiver. It was constructed from Haynes alloy 230 and contained the alkali-metal alloy NaK-78. The absorber`s wetted side had a brazed-on powder-metal coating to stabilize boiling. This receiver was evaluated for boiling stability, hot- and warm-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency. Boiling was stable under all conditions. All of the hot restarts were successful. Mild transient hot spots observed during some hot restarts were eliminated by the addition of 1/3 torr of xenon to the vapor space. All of the warm restarts were also successful. The heat-transfer crisis that damaged the first receiver did not recur. Thermal efficiency was 92.3% at 750{degrees}C with 69.6 kW{sub t} solar input. The second receiver tested, Sandia`s ``advanced-concepts receiver,`` was a replica of the first-generation receiver except that the cavities, which were electric-discharge-machined in the absorber for boiling stability, were eliminated. This step was motivated by bench-scale test results that showed that boiling stability improved with increased heated-surface area, tilt of the heated surface from vertical, and added xenon. The bench-scale results suggested that stable boiling might be possible without heated-surface modification in a 75-kW{sub t} receiver. Boiling in the advanced-concepts receiver with 1/3 torr of xenon added has been stable under all conditions, confirming the bench-scale tests.

Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Dudley, V.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-05-01

347

Comparison of Garnet Bead Media Filtration and Multimedia Filtration for Turbidity and Microbial Pathogen Removal  

EPA Science Inventory

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA?s) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) in Cincinnati, Ohio is evaluating drinking water filtration systems to determine their capability to meet the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ...

348

Effect of surface-active agents on filtration and post-filtration characteristics of fine coal  

SciTech Connect

The effect of two surfactants, a flocculant, a frother and a collector on -32 Mesh coal have been investigated on an individual basis as well as in suitable combinations. The modification of surface properties of coal like adsorption, wettability and zeta potential in the presence of these reagents have been related to filtration and post-filtration characteristics. Surface tension data was used to measure reagent concentration in the aqueous solution. Rate of adsorption studies were also performed. Wettability characteristics were delineated with direct contact angle measurements on coal pellets as well as indirectly obtained by capillary pressure data. The zeta potential of coal slurries in the presence of reagents was measured by the technique of microelectrophoresis. Filtration and dewatering experiments were carried out in a lab-scale unit at 67 kPa vacuum for various slurry and reagent concentrations after premixing with powdered coal. Washing phenomena was investigated by using surfactants as wash liquor at various wash ratios and concentrations. The amount of adsorption of wash liquor in filter cakes was also measured. In most cases, three distinct regions were obtained in the adsorption isotherms, characteristic of bilayer formation. The observed complex behavior of the moisture content curves upon filtration/dewatering have been explained on the basis of adsorption of molecules at various concentrations and physical adsorption models as well as reduction of surface tension in the aqueous phase.

Venkatadri, R.A.

1985-01-01

349

SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

2007-07-16

350

EM Task 9 - Centrifugal Membrane Filtration  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to establish the utility of a novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology for the remediation of liquid mixed waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in support of the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., a small business and owner of the novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to establish the applicability of the technology to DOE site remediation and the commercial viability of the technology for liquid mixed waste stream remediation. The technology is a uniquely configured process that makes use of ultrafiltration and centrifugal force to separate suspended and dissolved solids from liquid waste streams, producing a filtered water stream and a low-volume contaminated concentrate stream. This technology has the potential for effective and efficient waste volume minimization, the treatment of liquid tank wastes, the remediation of contaminated groundwater plumes, and the treatment of secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, as well as the liquid waste stream generated during decontamination and decommissioning activities.

Stevens, B.G.; Stepan, D.J.; Hetland, M.D.

1998-11-01

351

Experimental study of head loss and filtration for LOCA debris  

SciTech Connect

A series of controlled experiments were conducted to obtain head loss and filtration characteristics of debris beds formed of NUKON{trademark} fibrous fragments, and obtain data to validate the semi-theoretical head loss model developed in NUREG/CR-6224. A thermally insulated closed-loop test set-up was used to conduct experiments using beds formed of fibers only and fibers intermixed with particulate debris. A total of three particulate mixes were used to simulate the particulate debris. The head loss data were obtained for theoretical fiber bed thicknesses of 0.125 inches to 4.0 inches; approach velocities of 0.15 to 1.5 ft/s; temperatures of 75 F and 125 F; and sludge-to-fiber nominal concentration ratios of 0 to 60. Concentration measurements obtained during the first flushing cycle were used to estimate the filtration efficiencies of the debris beds. For test conditions where the beds are fairly uniform, the head loss data were predictable within an acceptable accuracy range by the semi-theoretical model. The model was equally applicable for both pure fiber beds and the mixed beds. Typically the model over-predicted the head losses for very thin beds and for thin beds at high sludge-to-fiber mass ratios. This is attributable to the non-uniformity of such debris beds. In this range the correlation can be interpreted to provide upper bound estimates of head loss. This is pertinent for loss of coolant accidents in boiling water reactors.

Rao, D.V.; Souto, F.J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01

352

Development of an Indexing Media Filtration System for Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective maintenance of air quality aboard spacecraft cabins will be vital to future human exploration missions. A key component will be the air cleaning filtration system which will need to remove a broad size range of particles including skin flakes, hair and clothing fibers, other biological matter, and particulate matter derived from material and equipment wear. In addition, during surface missions any extraterrestrial planetary dust, including dust generated by near-by ISRU equipment, which is tracked into the habitat will also need to be managed by the filtration system inside the pressurized habitat compartments. An indexing media filter system is being developed to meet the demand for long-duration missions that will result in dramatic increases in filter service life and loading capacity, and will require minimal crew involvement. These features may also benefit other closed systems, such as submarines, and remote location terrestrial installations where servicing and replacement of filter units is not practical. The filtration system consists of three stages: an inertial impactor stage, an indexing media stage, and a high-efficiency filter stage, packaged in a stacked modular cartridge configuration. Each stage will target a specific range of particle sizes that optimize the filtration and regeneration performance of the system. An 1/8th scale and full-scale prototype of the filter system have been fabricated and have been tested in the laboratory and reduced gravity environments that simulate conditions on spacecrafts, landers and habitats. Results from recent laboratory and reducegravity flight tests data will be presented.

Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

2013-01-01

353

ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

2002-08-16

354

Multicycle testing of zinc ferrite  

SciTech Connect

Zinc ferrite is a leading regenerable sorbent candidate for high- temperature desulfurization of coal gasifier gases. 3/16'' extrudates of a particular zinc ferrite (T-2465) were subjected to two multicycle tests (Test 1 and Test 2) in a high pressure high-temperature bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. In both tests, simulated KRW gasifier gases were used for sulfidation. In Test 1, the sorbent was mixed with 5 weight percent coal char fines elutriated from the KRW gasifier prior to the testing. The simulated gas for this test contained 15 volume percent steam. In Test 2, the sorbent was tested without fines but in the presence of a simulated gas containing only 5 volume percent steam. Over 15 cycles during Test 1 and 5 cycles during Test 2, the sorbent consistently reduced the hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) concentration to less than 5 ppmv and exhibited no downward trend in sulfur adsorption capacity. However, the sorbent extrudates underwent considerable reduction in strength during both tests. During Test 1, crush strength of the sorbent declined from 4.1 lb/mm to 1.3 lb/mm and some decrepitation occurred. Decrepitation and strength reduction were much more severe during Test 2 as only 30% of the sorbent extrudates remained intact after 5 cycles. Carbon formation followed by sorbent-carbon interaction is believed to be the primary cause of the strength reduction. 5 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

Gangwal, S.K.; Harkins, S.M.; Stogner, J.M.; Woods, M.C.

1988-10-01

355

40 CFR 141.552 - My system consists of “alternative filtration” and is required to conduct a demonstration-what is...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limits? (a) If your system consists of alternative filtration(filtration other than slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth filtration, conventional filtration, or direct filtration) you are required to conduct a demonstration...

2010-07-01

356

POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

1998-04-01

357

Building, Testing, and Post Test Analysis of Durability Heat Pipe No.6  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Thermal Program at Sandia supports work developing dish/Stirling systems to convert solar energy into electricity. Heat pipe technology is ideal for transferring the energy of concentrated sunlight from the parabolic dish concentrators to the Stirling engine heat tubes. Heat pipes can absorb the solar energy at non-uniform flux distributions and release this energy to the Stirling engine heater tubes at a very uniform flux distribution thus decoupling the design of the engine heater head from the solar absorber. The most important part of a heat pipe is the wick, which transports the sodium over the heated surface area. Bench scale heat pipes were designed and built to more economically, both in time and money, test different wicks and cleaning procedures. This report covers the building, testing, and post-test analysis of the sixth in a series of bench scale heat pipes. Durability heat pipe No.6 was built and tested to determine the effects of a high temperature bakeout, 950 C, on wick corrosion during long-term operation. Previous tests showed high levels of corrosion with low temperature bakeouts (650-700 C). Durability heat pipe No.5 had a high temperature bakeout and reflux cleaning and showed low levels of wick corrosion after long-term operation. After testing durability heat pipe No.6 for 5,003 hours at an operating temperature of 750 C, it showed low levels of wick corrosion. This test shows a high temperature bakeout alone will significantly reduce wick corrosion without the need for costly and time consuming reflux cleaning.

MOSS, TIMOTHY A.

2002-03-01

358

Flux Enhancement in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Fouling and It's Minimization by Flow Reversal  

SciTech Connect

Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Three feed solutions (Bovine serum albumin (BSA), apple juice and citrus fruit pectin) were studied in crossflow membrane filtration. These solutes are well-known in membrane filtration for their fouling and concentration polarization potentials. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using each of the feed solutes show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and operating transmembrane pressure. Thus, flow reversal technology seems an attractive alternative to mitigate fouling problem in crossflow membrane filtration.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2005-08-04

359

THE ROLE OF FILTRATION IN PREVENTING WATERBORNE DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Filtration is an important treatment process in the removal of pathogenic microorganisms and the prevention of waterborne disease. Historically, filtration was responsible for reducing death and illness from waterborne disease in 1871 in Germany. Other early examples in the U.S. ...

360

Reduction of cholera in Bangladeshi villages by simple filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on results of ecological studies demonstrating that Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of epidemic cholera, is commensal to zooplankton, notably copepods, a simple filtration procedure was developed whereby zooplankton, most phytoplankton, and particulates >20 mum were removed from water before use. Effective deployment of this filtration procedure, from September 1999 through July 2002 in 65 villages of rural Bangladesh,

Rita R. Colwell; Anwar Huq; M. Sirajul Islam; K. M. A. Aziz; M. Yunus; N. Huda Khan; A. Mahmud; R. Bradley Sack; G. B. Nair; J. Chakraborty; David A. Sack; E. Russek-Cohen

2003-01-01

361

Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

1972-01-01

362

On calculation of filtration flows from sprayers of irrigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the hydrodynamic formulation, consideration is given to plane steady filtration in a homogeneous isotropic ground from sprayers through a soil layer underlain by a highly permeable pressure water-bearing formation in the presence of the ground capillarity and evaporation from the free surface. Filtration is studied by formulating a mixed multiparametric boundary-value problem of the theory of analytical functions, which is solved using the Polubarinova-Kochina method and procedures of conformal mapping of the regions of special kind that are characteristic of underground-hydromechanics problems. On the basis of the model proposed, an algorithm of computation of capillary water spread and filtration flow rate was developed in situations where in the water filtration from sprayers, account is taken of the ground capillarity, evaporation from the free surface, and of the upthrust from the side of the underlying well-permeable formation. With the aid of the exact analytical dependences obtained and of numerical calculations, a hydrodynamic analysis is performed for the structure and characteristic features of the modeled process, and for the influence of all physical parameters of the scheme on the filtration characteristics. Consideration is given to the limiting and particular cases associated with the absence of separate factors characterizing the modeled process, such as the ground capillarity, evaporation from the free surface, and the upthrust from the side of the underlying water-bearing highly permeable layer. Calculated results for filtration from canals with identical filtration characteristics and similar filtration schemes are compared.

Bereslavskii, É. N.

2012-05-01

363

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

...2014-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141.174... § 141.174 Filtration sampling requirements. (a...individual filter using an approved method in § 141.74(a) and...the system must conduct grab sampling every four hours in lieu...

2014-07-01

364

Household scale slow sand filtration in the Dominican Republic  

E-print Network

Slow sand filtration is a method of water treatment that has been used for hundreds of years. In the past two decades, there has been resurgence in interest in slow sand filtration, particularly as a low-cost, household-scale ...

Donison, Kori S. (Kori Shay), 1981-

2004-01-01

365

Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration  

E-print Network

Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Christoph Beckermann Associate Beckermann, C., "Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration," in Proceedings of the 46th, 1992. #12;Abstract This paper presents an analysis of water modeling of steel pouring to study (1) air

Beckermann, Christoph

366

A spectrum-level Hodge filtration on topological Hochschild homology.  

E-print Network

We define a functorial spectrum-level filtration on the topological Hochschild homology of any commutative ring spectrum $R$, and more generally the factorization homology $R \\otimes X$ for any space $X$, echoing algebraic constructions of Loday and Pirashvili. We investigate the properties of this filtration and show that it breaks THH up into common eigenspectra of the Adams operations.

Saul Glasman

367

PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON FABRIC FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report highlights significant developments in fabric filtration technology. It reviews results of several field and laboratory studies performed over the last 10 years, by or under the sponsorship of the EPA, so that the reader may be better able to assess filtration equipmen...

368

RIVERBANK FILTRATION: FATE OF DBP PRECURSORS AND SELECTED MICROORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and selected microorganisms during riverbank filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking water utilities. At all three sites, filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking wa...

369

Numerical Simulation of Mud-Filtrate Invasion in Deviated Wells  

E-print Network

of deviated wells. We simulate numerically the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in vertical, horizontal by introducing an effective-flow-rate function that describes the evo- lution in time of the rate of invasion (numerically and in the laboratory) the physics of mud-filtrate invasion. Drilling variables such as mud

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

370

CONSTANT PRESSURE FILTRATION OF MONO-DISPERSED DEFORMABLE PARTICLE SLURRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constant pressure filtration experiments of Ca-alginate gel particle, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were conducted to study the local properties of cake layer formation by deformable particles. Effects of particle deformation due to frictional drag and cake mass on cake compression and contact area among particles were examined. The factors that lead to the increase in filtration resistance were

Wei-Ming Lu; Kuo-Lun Tung; Shu-Mei Hung; Jia-Shyan Shiau; Kuo-Jen Hwang

2001-01-01

371

Effects of Ultra-Clean and centrifugal filtration on rolling-element bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue tests were conducted on groups of 65-millimeter bore diameter deep-groove ball bearings in a MIL-L-23699 lubricant under two levels of filtration. In one test series, the oil cleanliness was maintained at an exceptionally high level (better than a class "000" per NAS 1638) with a 3 micron absolute barrier filter. These tests were intended to determine the "upper limit" in bearing life under the strictest possible lubricant cleanliness conditions. In the tests using a centrifugal oil filter, contaminants of the type found in aircraft engine filters were injected into the filters' supply line at 125 milligrams per bearing-hour. "Ultra-clean" lubrication produced bearing fatigue lives that were approximately twice that obtained in previous tests with contaminated oil using 3 micron absolute filtration and approximately three times that obtained with 49 micron filtration. It was also observed that the centrifugal oil filter had approximately the same effectiveness as a 30 micron absolute filter in preventing bearing surface damage.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Moyer, D. W.; Needelman, W. M.

1981-01-01

372

Rapid isolation and presumptive diagnosis of uropathogens by using membrane filtration and differential media.  

PubMed Central

Random urine samples from hospitalized patients (n = 550) and seeded sterile filtered urine samples (n = 730) were used to test a membrane filtration technique, Qualture (Future Medical Technologies International, Inc., West Palm Beach, Fla.), for the detection and identification of uropathogens. Results for each sample were compared with those obtained by the calibrated loop (0.01 ml) method to demonstrate the sensitivity of the method as a screening tool and the specificity of the presumptive diagnosis obtained from the pattern of growth on differential media. The medium was supplied as dehydrated nutrient pads (Sartorius AG, Goettingen, Germany) and was activated by rehydration by the addition of the liquid specimen. With a threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml defining a positive culture, the sensitivity of the Qualture was 100%. At lower levels of bacteriuria, the Qualture was more sensitive than the calibrated loop method. Significant infections were presumptively diagnosed at 4 h by filtration rather than at 24 h on agar medium. The specificity of uropathogen identification ranged from 99% for Enterococcus spp. to 83% for Pseudomonas spp. Citrobacter spp. could not be differentiated from Escherichia coli and Providencia spp. could not be differentiated from Proteus spp., which does not create a therapeutic dilemma. Filtration, isolation, quantitation, and presumptive diagnosis are performed in one step, without subculture. Membrane filtration is a sensitive and rapid technique, with the advantage that it can be used as a collection and transport device without the use of growth inhibitors. PMID:1774240

Friedman, M P; Danielski, J M; Day, T E; Dunne, J C; Evangelista, A T; Freeman, T R

1991-01-01

373

Membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation to treat recirculating aquaculture system effluents.  

PubMed

Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus often require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents. Chemical precipitation tests were conducted by adding magnesium chloride and alum at different chemical concentrations and pH values, respectively. Crossflow, flat-sheet membrane filtration modules were used to examine the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity in terms of solid/liquid separation efficiency and permeate flux decline. The results showed that membrane filtration can effectively separate the phosphorus precipitates after chemical precipitation. The total phosphorus in the treated effluent was reduced to less than 0.05 mg L(-1) with a removal efficiency of more than 90%. However, much lower removal efficiencies were obtained for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and turbidity. It was concluded that membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation can become an effective, compact treatment technology to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for RAS effluent discharge. PMID:17071913

Yang, Ling; Zhou, Hongde; Moccia, Richard

2006-01-01

374

Use of colloid filtration theory in modeling movement of bacteria through a contaminated sandy aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

??? A filtration model commonly used to describe removal of colloids during packed-bed filtration in water treatment applications was modified for describing downgradient transport of bacteria in sandy, aquifer sediments. The modified model was applied to the results of a small-scale (7 m), natural-gradient tracer test and to observations of an indigenous bacterial population moving downgradient within a plume of organically contaminated groundwater in Cape Cod, MA. The model reasonably accounted for concentration histories of labeled bacteria appearing at samplers downgradient from the injection well in the tracer experiment and for the observed 0.25-??m increase in average cell length for an unlabeled, indigenous bacterial population, 0.6 km downgradient from the source of the plume. Several uncertainties were apparent in applying filtration theory to problems involving transport of bacteria in groundwater. However, adsorption (attachment) appeared to be a major control of the extent of bacterial movement downgradient, which could be described, in part, by filtration theory. Estimates of the collision efficiency factor, which represents the physicochemical factors that determine adsorption of the bacteria onto the grain surfaces, ranged from 5.4 ?? 10-3 to 9.7 ?? 10-3.

Harvey, R. W.; Garabedian, S. P.

1991-01-01

375

Task 9 - centrifugal membrane filtration. Semi-annual report April 1--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses a centrifugal membrane filtration technology developed by SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. The Tank Waste Focus Area was chosen for study. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{mu}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. The performance of the unit was evaluated with a statistical test design that determined the effect of temperature, pressure, membrane rotational speed, and solids loading on permeate flux. All four variables were found to be statistically significant, with the magnitude of the effect in the order of temperature, solids loading, rotor speed, and pressure. Temperature, rotor speed, and pressure had an increasing effect on flux with increasing value, while increases in solids loading showed a decrease in permeate flux. Significant interactions between rotor speed and solids loading and pressure and solids loading were also observed. The regression equation derived from test data had a correlation coefficient of 0.934, which represents a useful predictive capability for integrating the technology into DOE cleanup efforts. An extended test run performed on surrogate waste showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

Stepan, D.J.; Moe, T.A.; Collings, M.E.

1997-05-01

376

pH-Dependent retention changes during membrane filtration of aluminum-coagulated solutions and the effect of precentrifugation.  

PubMed

During jar tests on alum-based drinking water treatment, dissolved Al determinations on solutions coagulated at pH ? 6.5 were not reproducible. These determinations were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after syringe filtration (0.45 ?m polyethersulfone membrane). In order to better define these anomalies, the filtrates were collected in sequential fractions of 7.5 mL. At coagulation pHs of 6.5 and 7.0, retention changes were demonstrated by large filtrate concentration reductions at all temperatures tested (0.1, 5.0, and 17.0 °C). In all cases, the concentrations converged to levels <50 ?g/L within the fourth sequential fraction. In comparison, no retention change was observed for jar tests conducted at the same temperatures but in the low range of the minimum solubility domain, at pHs 5.5 and 6.0. The retention changes were also eliminated by precentrifugation (7000 g for 45 min; pH 6.5-7.2). At weaker precentrifugation conditions, as well as by varying membrane surface area or membrane fouling, the filtrate concentrations behaved according to a barrier buildup at the membrane-solution interface by unsettled flocculation residuals. The influence of flocculation time and temperature emphasized the importance of reaction rates, which could be enhanced at the interface by concentration polarization effects. These phenomena have implications on analytical protocols and on filtration in full-scale treatment. PMID:23413878

Bérubé, Denis; Dorea, Caetano

2013-03-19

377

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

378

Application of the flexible fiber filter module (3FM) filter to sea water filtration.  

PubMed

The new 3FM filter (Flexible Fiber Filter Module), implementing very fine nylon fibers as filtration media was tested at pilot scale for the first time on sea water. The objective was to improve the quality of raw sea water to produce water for injection into offshore wells for extraction purposes on oil-bearing fields. Particles larger than 5 microm must be removed from the water of injection to avoid clogging at the point of injection into the porous rock. The purpose of the tests carried out over several months at Palavas Les Flots (France) was to specify the optimal operating conditions of the 3FM filter. Various coagulants and combinations of reagents were tested at velocities ranging between 50 and 200 m(3)/m(2)/h (ground filtration velocity). On raw sea water of about 1 NTU turbidity and at velocities of 100 m(3)/m(2)/h, the filtered water contained about 300 particles per mL larger than 1 microm, and less than 15 particles larger than 5 microm per mL. The filter runs range from one hour to few hours, variable according to the raw water turbidity, the reagent dosing rate and the filtration velocity. Backwashes, a succession of air scours at high air flow rates combined with water phases, the total duration of which did not exceed 1 minute, were shown to be efficient during the three months testing period. 3FM filter performance was promising for many other possible applications. PMID:18048989

Jeanmaire, J-P; Suty, H; Marteil, P; Breant, P; Pedenaud, P

2007-01-01

379

Characterization of filtration and regeneration behavior of rigid ceramic filters and particle properties at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

For power generation with combined cycles or production of so called advanced materials by vapor phase synthesis particle separation at high temperatures is of crucial importance. There, systems working with rigid ceramic barrier filters are either of thermodynamical benefit to the process or essential for producing materials with certain properties. A hot gas filter test rig has been installed to investigate the influence of different parameters e.g. temperature, dust properties, filter media and filtration and regeneration conditions into particle separation at high temperatures. These tests were conducted both with commonly used filter candles and with filter discs made out of the same material. The filter disc is mounted at one side of the test rig. That is why both filters face the same raw gas conditions. The filter disc is flown through by a cross flow arrangement. This bases upon the conviction that for comparison of filtration characteristics of candles with filter discs or other model filters the structure of the dust cakes have to be equal. This way of conducting investigations into the influence of the above mentioned parameters on dust separation at high temperatures follows the new standard VDI 3926. There, test procedures for the characterization of filter media at ambient conditions are prescribed. The paper mainly focuses then on the influence of particle properties (e.g. stickiness etc.) upon the filtration and regeneration behavior of fly ashes with rigid ceramic filters.

Pilz, T. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

1995-12-31

380

75 FR 28295 - Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and Spherion Staffing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-72,144] Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers...2009, applicable to workers of Cummins Filtration, including on-site leased workers...Lake Mills, Iowa location of Cummins Filtration to provide procurement and...

2010-05-20

381

Quantifying Factors That Impact Riverbed Dynamic Permeability at a Riverbank Filtration Facility  

E-print Network

Quantifying Factors That Impact Riverbed Dynamic Permeability at a Riverbank Filtration Facility of riverbed permeability dynamics associated with Riverbank filtration. The results are also expected modeling studies of the Wohler riverbank filtration system on the Russian River, California suggested

Hubbard, Susan

382

Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consists of three phases, namely: model development; laboratory studies; and field testing. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit. Progress to date is described.

Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [Consol Inc., PA (United States)

1994-06-01

383

Antimicrobial Air Filtration Using Airborne Sophora Flavescens Natural-Product Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated nanoparticle generation from a natural plant extract using the aerosol technique of the nebulization-thermal drying process, and tested its usefulness for antimicrobial air filtration. Sophora flavescens Ait. ethanolic extract was prepared as an antimicrobial natural-product suspension. Suspension droplets were generated using a single-jet Collison nebulizer, passed through an active carbon absorber to remove ethanol, and mixed and dried

Jae Hee Jung; Gi Byoung Hwang; Sun Young Park; Jung Eun Lee; Chu Won Nho; Byung Uk Lee; Gwi-Nam Bae

2011-01-01

384

Treatment of arsenic in Bangladesh well water using a household co-precipitation and filtration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a household filtration process and investigate the effects of phosphate and silicate on the removal of arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater by ferric hydroxides. Fe\\/As ratios of greater than 40 (mg\\/mg) were required to reduce arsenic to less than 50?g\\/L in Bangladesh well water due to the presence of elevated

Xiaoguang Meng; George P Korfiatis; Christos Christodoulatos; Sunbaek Bang

2001-01-01

385

Experimental Test Plan for Grouting H-3 Calcine  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 4400 cubic meters of solid high-level waste called calcine are stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Under the Idaho Cleanup Project, dual disposal paths are being investigated. The first path includes calcine retrieval, package "as-is", and ship to the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The second path involves treatment of the calcine with such methods as vitrification or grouting. This test plan outlines the hot bench scale tests to grout actual calcine and verify that the waste form properties meet the waste acceptance criteria. This is a necessary sequential step in the process of qualifying a new waste form for repository acceptance. The archive H-3 calcine samples at the Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Building attached to New Waste Calcining Facility will be used in these tests at the Remote Analytical Laboratory. The tests are scheduled for the second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

Alan K. Herbst

2006-01-01

386

The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of the study was to investigate the role of filtration in maintaining clean heat exchanger coils and overall performance. Combinations of 6 different levels of filtration (MERV 14, 11, 8, 6, 4, and no filter) and 4 different coils (an eight-row lanced-fin coil, HX8L), (an eight-row wavy-fin coil, HX8W), (a four-row lanced-fin coil, HX4L) and (a two-row lanced-fin coil, HX2L) were tested at 4 different air velocities (1.52, 2.03, 2.54,3.05 m/s (300, 400, 500, 600 ft/min)). The fouled conditions were obtained after injection of 600 grams of ASHRAE standard dust upstream of the filter/coil combination. This magnitude of dust is representative of a year of normal operation for an air conditioning system. The air-side pressure drops of the coils and filters and air-side heat transfer coefficients of the coils were determined from the measurements under the clean and fouled conditions. Depending upon the filter and coil test, the coil pressure drops increased in the range of 6%-30% for an air velocity at 2.54 m/s (500 ft/min). The impact was significantly greater for tests performed without a filter. The largest relative effect of fouling on pressure drop occurs for coils with fewer rows and having lanced fins. Coils with a greater number of rows can hold more dust so that a fixed amount of dust has a relatively smaller impact. The impact of fouling on air-side heat transfer coefficients was found to be relatively small. In some cases, heat transfer was actually enhanced due to additional turbulence caused by the presence of dust. The experimental results for pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients were correlated and the correlations were implemented within computer models of prototypical rooftop air conditioners and used to evaluate the impact of fouling on cooling capacity and EER. The equipment cooling capacity is reduced with fouling primarily because of a decrease in air flow due to the increase pressure drop rather than due to changes in h eat transfer coefficient. In most cases, the EER was reduced with fouling primarily due to increased fan power. However, the changes in EER were relatively small, in the range of 1%-9% (10%). For most cases, equipment having low efficiency filters had higher EER after fouling than equipment with high efficiency filters, because the high efficiency filter caused significantly higher pressure drops than the low efficiency filters. The extra filter pressure drop outweighed the reduced coil pressure drop after fouling. The impact of fan efficiency curves was also investigated in the study. The energy penalty associated with high efficiency filters was reduced considerably with higher efficiency fans. There is an energy penalty associated with the use of high efficiency filtration. However, the primary reason for selecting high efficiency filters for a particular application would be improved air quality. For HX8L, the quantity of dust passing through the coil with a MERV4 filter was approximately 30 times the dust passing the coil with a MERV14 filter. Without an upstream filter, the quantity of dust passing through the coil was approximately 60 times the value for a MERV14 filter.

Li Yang; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll

2004-06-30

387

Critical analysis of uncertainties during particle filtration.  

PubMed

Using the law of propagation of uncertainties we show how equipment- and measurement-related uncertainties contribute to the overall combined standard uncertainties (CSU) in filter permeability and in modelling the results for polystyrene latex microspheres filtration through a borosilicate glass filter at various injection velocities. Standard uncertainties in dynamic viscosity and volumetric flowrate of microspheres suspension have the greatest influence on the overall CSU in filter permeability which excellently agrees with results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Two model parameters "maximum critical retention concentration" and "minimum injection velocity" and their uncertainties were calculated by fitting two quadratic mathematical models to the experimental data using a weighted least squares approximation. Uncertainty in the internal cake porosity has the highest impact on modelling uncertainties in critical retention concentration. The model with the internal cake porosity reproduces experimental "critical retention concentration vs velocity"-data better than the second model which contains the total electrostatic force whose value and uncertainty have not been reliably calculated due to the lack of experimental dielectric data. PMID:23020418

Badalyan, Alexander; Carageorgos, Themis; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; You, Zhenjiang; Zeinijahromi, Abbas; Aji, Keyiseer

2012-09-01

388

Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1994-05-01

389

Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates  

PubMed Central

Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous mesh (fiber diameter d ?0.1 ?m) at low velocity (U = 1.6 ± 0.6 cm·s?1, mean ± SD) and is thus a low Reynolds-number (Re ?10?3) process. In contrast to the current view that particle encounter is dictated by simple sieving of particles larger than the mesh spacing, a low-Re mathematical model of encounter rates by the salp feeding apparatus for realistic oceanic particle-size distributions shows that submicron particles, due to their higher abundances, are encountered at higher rates (particles per time) than larger particles. Data from feeding experiments with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-?m diameter polystyrene spheres corroborate these findings. Although particles larger than 1 ?m (e.g., flagellates, small diatoms) represent a larger carbon pool, smaller particles in the 0.1- to 1-?m range (e.g., bacteria, Prochlorococcus) may be more quickly digestible because they present more surface area, and we find that particles smaller than the mesh size (1.4 ?m) can fully satisfy salp energetic needs. Furthermore, by packaging submicrometer particles into rapidly sinking fecal pellets, pelagic tunicates can substantially change particle-size spectra and increase downward fluxes in the ocean. PMID:20696887

Sutherland, Kelly R.; Madin, Laurence P.; Stocker, Roman

2010-01-01

390

Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Older People  

PubMed Central

We aimed at reviewing age-related changes in kidney structure and function, methods for estimating kidney function, and impact of reduced kidney function on geriatric outcomes, as well as the reliability and applicability of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in older patients. CKD is associated with different comorbidities and adverse outcomes such as disability and premature death in older populations. Creatinine clearance and other methods for estimating kidney function are not easy to apply in older subjects. Thus, an accurate and reliable method for calculating eGFR would be highly desirable for early detection and management of CKD in this vulnerable population. Equations based on serum creatinine, age, race, and gender have been widely used. However, these equations have their own limitations, and no equation seems better than the other ones in older people. New equations specifically developed for use in older populations, especially those based on serum cystatin C, hold promises. However, further studies are needed to definitely accept them as the reference method to estimate kidney function in older patients in the clinical setting. PMID:24772439

Fusco, Sergio; Corica, Francesco; Marino, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Mari, Vincenzo; Corsonello, Andrea

2014-01-01

391

Critical analysis of uncertainties during particle filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the law of propagation of uncertainties we show how equipment- and measurement-related uncertainties contribute to the overall combined standard uncertainties (CSU) in filter permeability and in modelling the results for polystyrene latex microspheres filtration through a borosilicate glass filter at various injection velocities. Standard uncertainties in dynamic viscosity and volumetric flowrate of microspheres suspension have the greatest influence on the overall CSU in filter permeability which excellently agrees with results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Two model parameters "maximum critical retention concentration" and "minimum injection velocity" and their uncertainties were calculated by fitting two quadratic mathematical models to the experimental data using a weighted least squares approximation. Uncertainty in the internal cake porosity has the highest impact on modelling uncertainties in critical retention concentration. The model with the internal cake porosity reproduces experimental "critical retention concentration vs velocity"-data better than the second model which contains the total electrostatic force whose value and uncertainty have not been reliably calculated due to the lack of experimental dielectric data.

Badalyan, Alexander; Carageorgos, Themis; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; You, Zhenjiang; Zeinijahromi, Abbas; Aji, Keyiseer

2012-09-01

392

Inhibition of biofilm formation and lipase in Candida albicans by culture filtrate of Staphylococcus epidermidis in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida spp. are fourth most common cause of bloodstream infection in developed countries and emerging agents of fungemia in developing countries, with considerable attributable mortality. Candidemia is associated with the formation of complex, structured microbial communities called biofilms. Biofilm formation makes treatment difficult due to improper drug penetration and factors like high cost and adverse effects of antifungal drugs available. Hence, low-cost alternatives are urgently required to treat device-associated invasive candidiasis. Objectives: To study the effect of culture filtrate of Staphylococcus epidermidis on biofilm formation and lipase expression of Candida albicans in vitro. Materials and Methods: Yeast cells isolated from clinical samples were suspended to a turbidity of 106 in (a) Yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) broth and (b) culture filtrate, and 100 ?l of each were dispensed in separate wells of microtiter plate. After repeated washing and reloading with respective liquid media, readings were taken spectrophotometrically. To check for lipase inhibition, yeasts were incubated overnight in YPD and filtrate and subcultured on media containing Tween-80 and CaCl2. Positive lipase activity was denoted by haziness around colonies. Results: Mean reading of C. albicans in YPD broth was 0.579 while the same when yeasts were suspended in S. epidermidis culture filtrate was 0.281 (P < 0.05 by Z-test of significance). Lipase of C. albicans was inhibited by culture filtrate. Filtrate was found to be nontoxic to human cell line. Conclusions: Culture filtrate of S. epidermidis can hence pave the way for development of new strategies to inhibit biofilm formation in device-associated candidemia. PMID:25298939

Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Gupta, Prashant; Banerjee, Gopa; Jain, Amita; Singh, Mastan

2014-01-01

393

EXPERIMENTS ON CAKE DEVELOPMENT IN CROSSFLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self cleaning through the action of wall shear stress, which is created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduces permeability. Low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Salt Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site and the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford Site. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date, increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter axial flowrate, which is limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, which is limited by space and increases the required pump load. In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on startup techniques and filter cake development. This paper discusses those filter studies. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, and filter cleaning. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, which were both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to demonstrate increases in filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. This paper describes the selection of a challenging simulated waste and crossflow filter tests to demonstrate how performance can be improved over current operation.

Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

2011-04-14

394

Improved filtration membranes through self-organizing amphiphilic comb copolymers  

E-print Network

The operating cost of a membrane filtration system is generally determined by two major factors: the permeability of the membrane to water, and the lifetime of the membrane. Both of these are strongly affected by the ...

Asatekin Alexiou, Ayse

2009-01-01

395

RESEARCH PAPER Inertial microfluidics for continuous particle filtration  

E-print Network

bacteria strains such as E. coli O157:H7 (*1 lm) from water (Blankenstein and Larsen 1998; Odegaard 1998 of colloidal and supracolloidal residues (*10 lm) from wastewater effluents, and filtration of pathogenic

Papautsky, Ian

396

Simulation of filtration for suspension transport in porous media  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development and application of a novel method for analyzing the filtration of particles transported through a granular porous medium. The proposed analysis considers the deposition of particles ...

Kim, Yun Sung, 1974-

2005-01-01

397

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or direct filtration must conduct continuous monitoring of turbidity for each individual filter using an approved method in...minutes. (b) If there is a failure in the continuous turbidity monitoring equipment, the system must conduct grab...

2011-07-01

398

CONTRIBUTIONS OF WATER FILTRATION TO IMPROVING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A variety of water quality improvements can be accomplished by properly operated filtration plants. These include reduction of turbidity, micro-organisms, asbestos fibers, color, trihalomethane precursors, and organics adsorbed to particulate matter. The focus of the paper is on ...

399

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or direct filtration must conduct continuous monitoring of turbidity for each individual filter using an approved method in...minutes. (b) If there is a failure in the continuous turbidity monitoring equipment, the system must conduct grab...

2012-07-01

400

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or direct filtration must conduct continuous monitoring of turbidity for each individual filter using an approved method in...minutes. (b) If there is a failure in the continuous turbidity monitoring equipment, the system must conduct grab...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or direct filtration must conduct continuous monitoring of turbidity for each individual filter using an approved method in...minutes. (b) If there is a failure in the continuous turbidity monitoring equipment, the system must conduct grab...

2010-07-01

402

A CONTINUED INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED FABRIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes three experiments performed by Southern Research Institute under a cooperative agreement with EPA. First was a demonstration of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) used to collect particulate matter (PM) from fossil fuel electrical power pl...

403

Viability staining of soybean suspension-cultured cells and a seedling stem cutting assay to evaluate phytotoxicity of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines culture filtrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytotoxicity of culture filtrates of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, the fungus causing sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean (Glycine max), was tested with a viability stain of soybean suspension-cultured cells and a stem cutting assay of soybean seedlings. Suspension-cultured\\u000a cells from a SDS-susceptible soybean cultivar were exposed to cell-free culture filtrates of F. solani f. sp. glycines or

S. Li; G. L. Hartman; J. M. Widholm

1999-01-01

404

A simple membrane filtration-elution method for the enumeration of F-RNA, F-DNA and somatic coliphages in 100-ml water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method which combines membrane filtration (MF) with a new swirling elution (SE) procedure was developed for the enumeration of F-RNA, F-DNA and somatic coliphages in 100 ml water samples. Using replicates of a diluted sewage seed, test methods were compared with overlay plate counts. The method (MF-SE) involves 3 min sample filtration through a membrane filter, 6 min swirling

L. W. Sinton; R. K. Finlay; A. J. Reid

1996-01-01

405

Hydraulic aspects of riverbank filtration—field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Düsseldorf waterworks have been using riverbank filtration since 1870 with bank filtration as the most important source for public water supply in this densely populated and industrialised region. There have been many threats to this supply in the last few decades—e.g. poor river water quality, heavy clogging of the riverbed, accidental pollution—which had to be overcome. First field studies

Jürgen Schubert

2002-01-01

406

Experiments concerning the dynamic filtration of drilling mud  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTS CONCERNING THE DYNAMIC FILTRATION OF DRILLING MUD A Thesis by JOHN GARY ELLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1989 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EXPERIMENTS CONCERNING THE DYNAMIC FILTRATION OF DRILLING MUD A Thesis by JOHN GARY ELLER Approved as to style and content by: Hans C. Ju am-Wold (Chair of Committee) tephen A. Holditch (Member) Ted...

Eller, John Gary

2012-06-07

407

Leaching of copper converter slag with Aspergillus niger culture filtrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of copper converter slag of M\\/s Hindustan Copper Ltd, Ghatshila (Bihar, India) was carried out usingAspergillus niger culture filtrate. The effects of the duration of leaching, temperature, pulp density and the addition of hydrochloric acid were studied.A. niger culture filtrate solubilized metals from the converter slag at levels of 18.70% copper, 7.40% nickel and 4.00% cobalt. Addition of hydrochloric

Lal Bihari Sukla; Rabi Narayan Kar; Vinita Panchanadikar

1992-01-01

408

Direct filtration for recovery of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae in the field  

PubMed Central

The recovery of schistosome cercariae from natural waters has been limited by variations in turbidity and in the accuracy of recovery with different techniques. A modification of the Rowan vacuum paper filtration method employing a battery-operated pumping system, a glass—silicone plate filter, and a specially designed filter holder is described and evaluated. Field tests on St Lucia indicate a mean filtration volume of 12.2 litres per filter at a mean turbidity of 20.3 Jackson turbidity units. Overall, 86% of the volumes filtered per filter were in excess of 6 litres. Particle size, rather than turbidity, was found to be the main factor influencing filter blockage, reading time, and accuracy. Recoveries of 0.01 cercaria (Schistosoma mansoni) per litre sampled were obtained, but the practical limit of the method is considered to be closer to 0.1 cercaria per litre sampled. PMID:4541145

Sandt, Donald G.

1973-01-01

409

Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases, namely Phase I, model development, Phase II, laboratory studies, Phase III, field testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase I, the University of Kentucky in Phase 11, and Consol Inc. in Phase III of the program. All three organizations are involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase I and II will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit. Accomplishments to date are reported for the three phases.

Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

410

Modeling HIV-1 Dynamics and the Effects of Decreasing Activated Infected T-cell Count by Filtration  

E-print Network

in a dialysis process to filter HIV-1 from the blood5,6 . In these tests, affinity hemodialysis captured gp120Modeling HIV-1 Dynamics and the Effects of Decreasing Activated Infected T-cell Count by Filtration years mathematical models have been developed using differential equations for the progression of HIV-1

Stryker, Gabrielle A.

411

Cross flow filtration of aqueous radioactive tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology addresses remediation of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks. Baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. Solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. This basic process is used for decontamination of tank waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Ion exchange of radioactive ions has been proposed for other tank wastes, requiring removal of insoluble solids to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Additionally, volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage of High Level Wastes. The scope of this multi-site task is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. Testing has emphasized cross now filtration with metal filters to pretreat tank wastes, due to tolerance of radiation and caustic.

McCabe, D.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Reynolds, B.A. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wilson, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-02-01

412

DQE of wireless digital detectors: Comparative performance with differing filtration schemes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Wireless flat panel detectors are gaining increased usage in portable medical imaging. Two such detectors were evaluated and compared with a conventional flat-panel detector using the formalism of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1) for measuring modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using two different filtration schemes.Methods: Raw images were acquired for three image receptors (DRX-1C and DRX-1, Carestream Health; Inc., Pixium 4600, Trixell) using a radiographic system with a well-characterized output (Philips Super80 CP, Philips Healthcare). Free in-air exposures were measured using a calibrated radiation meter (Unfors Mult-O-Meter Type 407, Unfors Instruments AB). Additional aluminum filtration and a new alternative combined copper-aluminum filtration were used to conform the x ray output to IEC-specified beam quality definitions RQA5 and RQA9. Using the IEC 62220-1 formalism, each detector was evaluated at X{sub N}/2, X{sub N}, and 2X{sub N}, where the normal exposure level to the detector surface (X{sub N}) was set to 8.73 ?Gy (1.0 mR). The prescribed edge test device was used to evaluate the MTF, while the NNPS was measured using uniform images. The DQE was then calculated from the MTF and NNPS and compared across detectors, exposures, and filtration schemes.Results: The three DR systems had largely comparable MTFs with DRX-1 demonstrating lower values above 1.0 cycles/mm. At each exposure, DRX-1C and Pixium detectors demonstrated better noise performance than that of DRX-1. Zero-frequency DQEs for DRX-1C, Pixium, and DRX-1 detectors were approximately 74%, 63%, and 38% for RQA5 and 50%, 42%, and 28% for RQA9, respectively.Conclusions: DRX-1C detector exhibited superior DQE performance compared to Pixium and DRX-1. In terms of filtration, the alternative filtration was found to provide comparable performance in terms of rank ordering of different detectors with the added convenience of being less bulky for in-the-field measurements.

Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Departments of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Departments of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Murphy, Simon; Christianson, Olav [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

2013-08-15

413

Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II  

SciTech Connect

A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

R. A. Christini

1999-12-30

414

Pre-coagulation for microfiltration of an upland surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different coagulants on cake formation and hydraulic resistance in membrane filtration of strongly coloured (SUVA?4.8) upland surface water has been studied at bench-scale under constant pressure conditions. Coagulants used were aluminium sulphate, polyaluminium chloride, ferric chloride and ferric sulphate. Optimisation of coagulation parameters was carried by conventional jar testing. The R?c (specific cake resistance in m?2) values

A. T. Pikkarainen; S. J. Judd; J. Jokela; L. Gillberg

2004-01-01

415

Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: Optimisation of the filtration medium.  

PubMed

Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. PMID:25169645

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2014-12-15

416

Filtration at the microfluidic level: enrichment of nanoparticles by tunable filters.  

PubMed

We present an electrohydrodynamic device for filtration of nanometre-sized particles from suspensions. A high-frequency electric field is locally generated through the action of mutually parallel microelectrodes integrated into a microfluidic channel. Due to the mechanism of ohmic heating, a thermal gradient arises above these electrodes. In conjunction with temperature-sensitive properties of the fluid, an eddy flow behaviour emerges in the laminar environment. This acts as an adjustable filter. For quantification of the filtration efficiency, we tested a wide range of particle concentrations at different electric field strengths and overall external flow velocities. Particles with a diameter of 200 nm were retained in this manner at rates of up to 100%. Numerical simulations of a model taking into account the hydrodynamic as well as electric conditions, but no interactions between the point-shaped particles, yield results that are similar to the experiment in both the flow trajectories and the particle accumulation. Our easy technique could become a valuable tool that complements conventional filtration methods for handling nanometre-scaled particles in medicine and biotechnology, e.g. bacteria and viruses. PMID:21795763

Boettcher, M; Schmidt, S; Latz, A; Jaeger, M S; Stuke, M; Duschl, C

2011-08-17

417

Filtration at the microfluidic level: enrichment of nanoparticles by tunable filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an electrohydrodynamic device for filtration of nanometre-sized particles from suspensions. A high-frequency electric field is locally generated through the action of mutually parallel microelectrodes integrated into a microfluidic channel. Due to the mechanism of ohmic heating, a thermal gradient arises above these electrodes. In conjunction with temperature-sensitive properties of the fluid, an eddy flow behaviour emerges in the laminar environment. This acts as an adjustable filter. For quantification of the filtration efficiency, we tested a wide range of particle concentrations at different electric field strengths and overall external flow velocities. Particles with a diameter of 200 nm were retained in this manner at rates of up to 100%. Numerical simulations of a model taking into account the hydrodynamic as well as electric conditions, but no interactions between the point-shaped particles, yield results that are similar to the experiment in both the flow trajectories and the particle accumulation. Our easy technique could become a valuable tool that complements conventional filtration methods for handling nanometre-scaled particles in medicine and biotechnology, e.g. bacteria and viruses.

Boettcher, M.; Schmidt, S.; Latz, A.; Jaeger, M. S.; Stuke, M.; Duschl, C.

2011-08-01

418

Membrane treatment of the bleaching plant (EPO) filtrate of a kraft pulp mill.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of membrane technology to treat oxygen and peroxide-reinforced extraction stage (EPO) filtrate from a kraft pulp mill bleach plant. Three different types of tubular membranes were tested in a pilot plant: (i) tight ultrafiltration (UF); (ii) open UF followed by nanofiltration (UF + NF); and (iii) nanofiltration (NF). According to the separation performance, considering the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal, permeate flux, operational simplicity and cost, the results indicated that the best option for treatment of (EPO) filtrates was the tight UF membrane. This membrane obtained a COD removal of 79% with a colour reduction of 86%. The effect of (EPO) filtrate UF treatment on the mill effluent treatment plant was evaluated. Compared with the actual mill effluent, the results indicated that if the UF permeate was recycled in the bleaching area, the COD reduction efficiency increased by 7%, the final effluent colour decreased by 8%, the biological sludge production decreased by 18%, and the energy consumption decreased by 40%. In the tertiary treatment plant, the coagulant dosage decreased by 40%, and the tertiary sludge production decreased by 46%. PMID:25225931

Quezada, Rafael; Silva, Claudio Mudado; Passos Rezende, Ana Augusta; Nilsson, Leif; Manfredi, Mauro

2014-01-01

419

The Adaptor Protein Grb2 Is Not Essential for the Establishment of the Glomerular Filtration Barrier  

PubMed Central

The kidney filtration barrier is formed by the combination of endothelial cells, basement membrane and epithelial cells called podocytes. These specialized actin-rich cells form long and dynamic protrusions, the foot processes, which surround glomerular capillaries and are connected by specialized intercellular junctions, the slit diaphragms. Failure to maintain the filtration barrier leads to massive proteinuria and nephrosis. A number of proteins reside in the slit diaphragm, notably the transmembrane proteins Nephrin and Neph1, which are both able to act as tyrosine phosphorylated scaffolds that recruit cytoplasmic effectors to initiate downstream signaling. While association between tyrosine-phosphorylated Neph1 and the SH2/SH3 adaptor Grb2 was shown in vitro to be sufficient to induce actin polymerization, in vivo evidence supporting this finding is still lacking. To test this hypothesis, we generated two independent mouse lines bearing a podocyte-specific constitutive inactivation of the Grb2 locus. Surprisingly, we show that mice lacking Grb2 in podocytes display normal renal ultra-structure and function, thus demonstrating that Grb2 is not required for the establishment of the glomerular filtration barrier in vivo. Moreover, our data indicate that Grb2 is not required to restore podocyte function following kidney injury. Therefore, although in vitro experiments suggested that Grb2 is important for the regulation of actin dynamics, our data clearly shows that its function is not essential in podocytes in vivo, thus suggesting that Grb2 rather plays a secondary role in this process. PMID:23226445

Bisson, Nicolas; Ruston, Julie; Jeansson, Marie; Vanderlaan, Rachel; Hardy, W. Rod; Du, Jianmei; Hussein, Samer M.; Coward, Richard J.; Quaggin, Susan E.; Pawson, Tony

2012-01-01

420

Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1?µm, 2?µm, 4?µm, 7?µm, and 10?µm), and different flow rates (1?mL/min, 3?mL/min, 5?mL/min, 7?mL/min, and 10?mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2?µm, and the flow rate is 10?mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

2014-09-01

421

POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design (Task 3). Work accomplished during this reporting period include the construction of a Faraday Cage for measurement of particle charges (Subtask 3.1), construction of a bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator (Subtask 3.2) and development of a theoretical model for predicting motion of charged particles in a non-uniform electrostatic field (Subtask 3.2). This model will be useful for designing the POC module.

Yoon, R.-H.; Mesenyashin, A.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

1996-10-01

422

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

423

Recycling of cleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane 2 stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols. From the data collected in this work, a preliminary process design and economic evaluations were performed for a model mill with 1,000-ton/day pulp production that uses a bleaching sequence based on chlorine dioxide. Assuming 3 m{sup 3} acidic effluents to be treated per ton of pulp produced, the electrodialysis process would require a membrane area of about 361 m{sup 2} for this model mill. The energy consumption of the electrodialytic stack for separation is estimated to be about $160/day, and the estimated capital cost of the electrodia

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.; Energy Systems; Inst. of Paper Science and Tech.

2000-11-01

424

Recycling of bleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols.

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.

2002-03-04

425

Optical, real-time monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An easy and accurate assessment of the renal function is a critical requirement for detecting the initial functional decline of the kidney induced by acute or chronic renal disease. A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. The agent has a large dose-safety coefficient and the same space distribution and clearance characteristics as iothalamate. This new approach is a convenient and accurate way to perform real-time measurements of the glomerular filtration rate to detect early kidney disease before the renal function becomes severely and irreversibly compromised.

Rabito, Carlos A.; Chen, Yang; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Modell, Mark D.

2005-10-01

426

Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m3/s. It was interesting to note that doubling the pumpage of this collector well would bring in more ground water from the aquifer (with no atrazine) and thus have a lower concentration of atrazine in the filtrate. For highly conductive banks, it is possible to find some atrazine at a vertical well for a sustained pumpage rate of 0.0125 m3/s if the effect of sorption is neglected. However, with equilibrium sorption, the concentration would be below the detection limit. On the other hand, if a collector well of capacity 0.0875 m3/s is used at the place of the vertical well with highly conductive banks, atrazine concentration in the filtrate would be about 80% of river water even assuming equilibrium sorption and a half-life of 7.5 weeks. Remediation of river water contamination of the aquifer using 'scavenger' wells between the river and the pumping well(s) was not a feasible option due to the contact of the aquifer with a highly conductive bank at the site. However, moving the existing pumping well(s) 100 m upstream would have negligible impact from the bank-stored water. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Ray, C.; Soong, T.W.; Lian, Y.Q.; Roadcap, G.S.

2002-01-01

427

Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m 3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m 3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m 3/s. It was interesting to note that doubling the pumpage of this collector well would bring in more ground water from the aquifer (with no atrazine) and thus have a lower concentration of atrazine in the filtrate. For highly conductive banks, it is possible to find some atrazine at a vertical well for a sustained pumpage rate of 0.0125 m 3/s if the effect of sorption is neglected. However, with equilibrium sorption, the concentration would be below the detection limit. On the other hand, if a collector well of capacity 0.0875 m 3/s is used at the place of the vertical well with highly conductive banks, atrazine concentration in the filtrate would be about 80% of river water even assuming equilibrium sorption and a half-life of 7.5 weeks. Remediation of river water contamination of the aquifer using 'scavenger' wells between the river and the pumping well(s) was not a feasible option due to the contact of the aquifer with a highly conductive bank at the site. However, moving the existing pumping well(s) 100 m upstream would have negligible impact from the bank-stored water.

Ray, C.; Soong, T. W.; Lian, Y. Q.; Roadcap, G. S.

2002-09-01

428

Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria  

SciTech Connect

High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

Dougal, R.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01

429

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks Waste filtration process evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Oak Ridge National Laboratory wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning.The Gunite Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain heels which are a mixture of sludge, wash water, and bentonite clay. The tanks are to be cleaned out with a variety of flushing techniques and the dilute mixture transferred to another storage tank. One proposal is to transfer this mixture into existing Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), which already contain a large amount of sludge and supernate. The mixed aqueous phase will then be transferred to new MVST, which are prohibited from containing insoluble solids. To separate the solid from the liquid and thereby prevent solids transfer into the new MVST, a technique is needed that can cleanly separate the sludge and bentonite clay from the supernate. One proposed method for solid liquid separation is cross-flow filtration. Cross-flow filtration has been used at the Savannah River and West Valley sites for treatment of tank waste, and is being tested for applicability at other sites. The performance of cross-flow filters with sludge has been tested, but the impact of sludge combined with bentonite clay has not. The objective of this test was to evaluate the feasibility of using cross-flow filters to perform the solid liquid separation required for the mixture of Gunite and MVST tank wastes.

Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

1997-09-30

430