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1

Bench-Scale Filtration Testing in Support of the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP testing program specifies that bench-scale testing is to be performed in support of specific operations, including filtration, caustic leaching, and oxidative leaching.

Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Peterson, Reid A.

2009-09-28

2

Bench-scale tests on PMMA fires with water mist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water mist on solid fires are more complicated than on liquid pool fires. Both the smoke and heat release rates would be very different. In this paper, the action of water mist on bench-scale solid fuel polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fires in a confined space under different external radiant heat fluxes has been studied. Small-scale PMMA fire tests with

J. Qin; W. K. Chow

2005-01-01

3

SAES(R) ST909 Bench Scale Methane Cracking Tests  

SciTech Connect

Bench Scale methane cracking tests have been completed using a stack of ten whole SAES(R) St909 pellets - a 6 gram sample size. Methane was found to be the most difficult impurity to process and can impact diffuser operation.

Klein, J.E.

2001-09-25

4

CMC Bench Scale Material Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 3.5 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed this test plan with technical assistance from ceramic scientists at the Dept. of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Albany Research Center who will perform the environmental exposure tests.

Mark Fitzsimmons; Gerard Pelletier; Dave Grimmett

2006-05-30

5

Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report  

SciTech Connect

A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

2000-12-06

6

Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant  

SciTech Connect

Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics.

Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

1996-10-01

7

Bench-scale crossflow filtration of Hanford tank C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110 sludge slurries  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has a bench-scale crossflow filter installed in a shielded hot cell for testing radioactive feeds. During FY97 experiments were conducted on slurries from radioactive Hanford waste from tanks C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110. Each tank was tested at three slurry concentrations (8, 1.5, and 0.05 wt% solids). A two-parameter central composite design which tested transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. Crossflow filtration was found to remove solids effectively, as judged by filtrate clarity and radiochemical analysis. If the filtrates from these tests were immobilized in a glass matrix, the resulting transuranic and ({sup 90}Sr) activity would not breach low activity waste glass limits of 100nCi/g (TRU) and 20 {mu}Ci/ml ({sup 90}Sr). Two exceptions were the transuranic activity in filtrates from processing 1.5 and 8 wt% C-106 tank waste. Subsequent analyses indicated that the source of the TRU activity in the filtrate was most likely due to soluble activity, but obviously proved ineffective at removing the soluble plutonium species. Re-testing of the C-106 supported this hypothesis. These data suggest the need to control carbonate and pH when processing tank wastes for immobilization.

Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

1997-09-01

8

Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests us...

J. B. Moreno T. A. Moss

1993-01-01

9

Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing media and amendments in larger pilot- or full-scale rain garden installations. The bench-scale study conclude...

10

Bench-Scale Testing of Nanofiltration for Seawater Desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-staged nanofiltration process is being evaluated as an alternative to reverse osmosis for seawater desalination. The primary goal of this system is to reduce energy consumption while producing potable water at an acceptable recovery rate. Investigation of this system at the bench-scale level focused on membrane surface characterization, ion rejection including boron, bromide, and iodide rejection, and flux decline.

Catherine J. Harrison; Yann A. Le Gouellec; Robert C. Cheng; Amy E. Childress

2007-01-01

11

Bench-scale testing for residual waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to develop a comprehensive liquid waste treatment system, wastes were collected from nine representative industrial establishments in Ventura County, California, including a washout grease oil sump, a cutting oil sump, anodizing sulfuric acid rinse, etc., and were treated by appropriate bench-scale processes for cyanide and cyanate oxidation (with hypochlorite), chromate reduction, heavy metal precipitation (as sulfides), coagulation

J. Vuceta; R. J. Calkins; J. R. Anderson; R. J. Tekippe; J. M. Montgomery; W. J. Bishop

1979-01-01

12

Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that

J. B. Moreno; T. A. Moss

1993-01-01

13

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-12-31

14

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-01-01

15

Bench-Scale Tests on Simultaneous Ignition of Two Different Plastics Through “Bridge-Mixing”  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Bridge-mixing” was proposed earlier to explain why different combustibles might be ignited simultaneously during flashover. Different fuel vapors gasified from those combustibles were ignited by thermal radiation first. Thermal feedback from flames above the combustibles would then ignite the solid. This point is further studied in this article by bench-scale tests with a cone calorimeter. Sample cubes of two materials

W. K. Chow; S. S. Han

2006-01-01

16

Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

The oral presentation will be at the EWRI International LID Conference in San Francisco, on April 11-14, 2010. The slides discuss the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing...

17

100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

1993-03-01

18

Bench-Scale Testing of Selected Remediation Alternatives for Contaminated Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Program within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) contained a component for demonstrating and evaluating sediment remediation technologies. Toward this end, bench-scale tests of solvent extraction, thermal desorption, and wet air oxidation technologies were conducted. Contaminated sediments were tested from the Grand Calumet River, Indiana; Buffalo River,

Dennis L. Timberlake; Stephen Garbaciak Jr

1995-01-01

19

Bench-Scale Evaluation of Coagulants for Low Turbidity Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the conventional jar test is ineffective for determining optimal coagulant dosages for low turbidity waters, utilities employing rapid-rate filtration of such waters may fail to maximize treatment efficiency for lack of a simple bench-scale proced...

D. R. Brink S. I. Choi M. Al-Ani D. W. Hendricks

1988-01-01

20

Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Oxide Fuel – Bench-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests were performed to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent light water reactor fuel at bench-scale in a hot cell at the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex (formerly Argonne National Laboratory - West). The process involves the conversion of oxide fuel to metal by electrolytic means, which would then enable subsequent separation and recovery of actinides via existing electrometallurgical technologies, i.e., electrorefining. Four electrolytic reduction runs were performed at bench scale using ~500 ml of molten LiCl -- 1 wt% Li2O electrolyte at 650 ºC. In each run, ~50 g of crushed spent oxide fuel was loaded into a permeable stainless steel basket and immersed into the electrolyte as the cathode. A spiral wound platinum wire was immersed into the electrolyte as the anode. When a controlled electric current was conducted through the anode and cathode, the oxide fuel was reduced to metal in the basket and oxygen gas was evolved at the anode. Salt samples were extracted before and after each electrolytic reduction run and analyzed for fuel and fission product constituents. The fuel baskets following each run were sectioned and sampled, revealing an extent of uranium oxide reduction in excess of 98%.

S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li; M. F. Simpson

2005-10-01

21

Bench-Scale Evaluation of Coagulants for Low Turbidity Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the conventional jar test is ineffective for determining optimal coagulant dosages for low turbidity waters, utilities employing rapid-rate filtration of such waters may fail to maximize treatment efficiency for lack of a simple bench-scale test for determining coagulant dosage. Using terms useful to water treatment plant operators, this article describes a simple bench-scale procedure for determining coagulant dosages for

Deborah R. Brink; Suing-Ill Choi; Mohammed Al-Ani; David W. Hendricks

1988-01-01

22

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the first quarterly technical progress report for PTI's Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI's KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI's On-Line Quality Monitor Control System. The twelve-month project will involve installation of a 300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC's Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) and testing of two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelvemonth project. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I - Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI's Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing. Phase II - ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project will be performed at PETC's CPPRF from January through May, 1993, and will be the major focus of the project. It will involve testing of the continuous 300 lb/hr. circuit. Phase II - Project Finalization: The project finalization phase will occur from June through September, 1993, at PTI's Calumet offices and will involve finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This quarterly progress report principally summarizes the results from the Phase I preparation work and the plan for the early portions of the Phase 11 installation and commissioning, which will occur in January and the first week of February, 1993.

Not Available

1992-01-22

23

Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot press sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric discharge machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical, dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

Moreno, J. B.; Moss, T. A.

1993-06-01

24

Synthetic lightweight aggregate from cool water slag: Bench-scale confirmation tests  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the potential for production of synthetic lightweight aggregate (SLA) from a Texaco coal gasification solid residue. The objective of the project was to develop a replacement for conventional lightweight aggregates typically derived from expanded clays and shales or natural lightweight aggregates. The sequence of tests performed to develop SLA from slag began with the crushing of samples of slag, followed by either extrusion or pelletization. The level of clay binder required for sufficient aggregate strength was evaluated. Using a tube furnace, expansion characteristics were studied as a function of temperature and residence time. Next, a large batch of SLA was produced in a muffle furnace and used to form concrete test cylinders. The unit weight of the resultant concrete was 105 lb/ft{sup 3}, with a compressive strength of 3100 psi, which meets the requirements specified in ASTM C 330 for lightweight aggregate of a comparable density. When the same sequence of tests was performed using a slag from which the bulk of the char had been removed, the concrete test cylinders showed an improved relationship between strength and density. Based on the results of bench-scale tests and the similarity to conventional LWA production, the conceptual design of an SLA processing plant was formulated. A comparative estimate of operating costs was prepared by analyzing data from plants using clays and shales to produce lightweight aggregates. 24 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S.R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

25

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y. [Exxon Research and Development Laboratories, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

26

Electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel -- bench-scale test preparations.  

SciTech Connect

Preparations are underway to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide nuclear fuel in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) and Argonne National Laboratory--West (ANL-W). The electrolytic reduction process, developed by the Laboratory's Chemical Technology Division, operates in an electrochemical cell that uses a molten solution of lithium chloride and dissolved lithium oxide as the electrolyte. The spent oxide fuel is loaded into a permeable steel basket as the cathode in the electrochemical cell and a platinum electrode functions as the anode. When an electrical potential is applied, the uranium oxide and other metal oxides are reduced to metal and remain in the cathode basket. Oxygen gas is formed at the platinum anode and dissipates into the system's argon atmosphere. Once reduced to metal, the spent fuel is capable of further electrometallurgical treatment in an electrorefiner to recover uranium and to ultimately effect the disposition of fission products into ceramic and metal waste forms. Thus, the electrolytic reduction process expands the electrometallurgical treatment capability to include spent oxide fuel. This report describes the bench-scale test preparations that are underway to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel.

Herrmann, S. D.; Li, S. X.; Simpson, M. F.; Wahlquist, D. R.

2002-08-12

27

Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

1990-04-01

28

Role of Bench-Scale Test Data in Assessing Real-Scale Fire Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need was seen for establishing a methodology by which bench-scale fire toxicity methods could be validated against real-scale room fires. The present study is the result of a pilot project in the area. Appropriate validation hypotheses have been put f...

V. Babrauskas R. H. Harris E. Braun B. Levin M. Paabo

1991-01-01

29

Bench scale laboratory tests to analyze non-linear flow in fractured media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of flow phenomena in fractured rocks is very important for groundwater resources management in hydrogeological engineering. A critical emerging issue for fractured aquifers is the validity of the Darcian-type "local cubic law", which assumes a linear relationship between flow rate and pressure gradient to accurately describe flow patterns. Experimental data obtained under controlled conditions such as in a laboratory increase our understanding of the fundamental physics of fracture flow and allow us to investigate the presence of non-linear flow inside fractures that generates a substantial deviation from Darcy's law. In this study the presence of non-linear flow in a fractured rock formation has been analyzed at bench scale in laboratory tests. The effects of non-linearity in flow have been investigated by analyzing hydraulic tests on an artificially created fractured rock sample of parallelepiped (0.60 × 0.40 × 0.8 m) shape. The volumes of water passing through different paths across the fractured sample for various hydraulic head differences have been measured, and the results of the experiments have been reported as specific flow rate vs. head gradient. The experimental results closely match the Forchheimer equation and describe a strong inertial regime. The results of the test have been interpreted by means of numerical simulations. For each pair of ports, several steady-state simulations have been carried out varying the hydraulic head difference between the inlet and outlet ports. The estimated linear and non-linear Forchheimer coefficients have been correlated to each other and respectively to the tortuosity of the flow paths. A correlation among the linear and non-linear Forchheimer coefficients is evident. Moreover, a tortuosity factor that influences flow dynamics has been determined.

Cherubini, C.; Giasi, C. I.; Pastore, N.

2012-08-01

30

Bench scale laboratory tests to analyze non-linear flow in fractured media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of flow phenomena in fractured rocks is very important for groundwater resources management in hydrogeologic engineering. A critical emerging issue for fractured aquifers is the validity of the Darcian-type "local cubic law" which assumes a linear relationship between flow rate and pressure gradient to accurately describe flow patterns. Experimental data obtained under controlled conditions such as in a laboratory allow to increase the understanding of the fundamental physics of fracture flow and to investigate the presence of non linear flow inside the fractures which brings to substantial deviation from Darcy's law. In this study the presence of non linear flow in a fractured rock formation has been analyzed at bench scale in laboratory tests. The effects of non linearity in flow have been investigated by analyzing hydraulic tests on artificially created fractured rock samples of parallelepiped (0.60 × 0.40 × 0.8 m) shape. The volumes of water passing through different paths across the fractured sample for various hydraulic head differences have been measured, and the results of the experiments have been reported as flow rate/specific discharge vs. head gradient. The experimental results closely match the Forchheimer equation and describe a strong inertial regime. Successively the results of the test have been interpreted by means of numerical simulations. For each pair of ports several steady-state simulations have been carried out varying the hydraulic head difference between inlet and outlet ports. The estimated linear and non linear Forchheimer coefficients have been correlated to each other and, respectively to the tortuosity of the flow paths. A correlation among the linear and non linear Forchheimer coefficients is evident. Moreover, a tortuosity factor has been determined that influences flow dynamics.

Cherubini, C.; Giasi, C. I.; Pastore, N.

2012-04-01

31

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results are presented from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle that verify the flow sheet design criteria for the specific subsections tested. Modifications were made involving simple component redesign to handle the required flows and to obtain compatibility with specific corrosive environments. The most notable change is the discovery of a potential solids nucleation problem in certain

D. Okeefe; C. Allen; G. Besenbruch; L. Brown; J. Norman; R. Sharp; K. McCorkle

1982-01-01

32

Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz

Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

2008-01-01

33

Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description  

SciTech Connect

Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

2002-08-01

34

SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford tank farms contain approximately 57 million gallons of wastes, most of which originated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to produce plutonium for defense purposes. DOE intends to pre-treat the tank waste to separate the waste into a high level fraction, that will be vitrified and disposed of in a national repository as high-level waste (HLW), and a low-activity waste (LAW) fraction that will be immobilized for on-site disposal at Hanford. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the focal point for the treatment of Hanford tank waste. However, the WTP lacks the capacity to process all of the LAW within the regulatory required timeframe. Consequently, a supplemental LAW immobilization process will be required to immobilize the remainder of the LAW. One promising supplemental technology is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) to produce a sodium-alumino-silicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is primarily composed of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Nas[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Semivolatile anions such as pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and volatiles such as iodine as iodide (I{sup -}) are expected to be entrapped within the mineral structures, thereby immobilizing them (Janzen 2008). Results from preliminary performance tests using surrogates, suggests that the release of semivolatile radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and volatile {sup 129}I from granular NAS waste form is limited by Nosean solubility. The predicted release of {sup 99}Tc from the NAS waste form at a 100 meters down gradient well from the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) was found to be comparable to immobilized low-activity waste glass waste form in the initial supplemental LAW treatment technology risk assessment (Mann 2003). To confirm this hypothesis, DOE is funding a treatability study where three actual Hanford tank waste samples (containing both {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}I) will be processed in Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) to form the mineral product, similar to the granular NAS waste form, that will then be subject to a number of waste form qualification tests. In previous tests, SRNL have demonstrated that the BSR product is chemically and physically equivalent to the FBSR product (Janzen 2005). The objective of this paper is to describe the sample selection, sample preparation, and environmental and regulatory considerations for treatability studies of the FBSR process using Hanford tank waste samples at the SNRL. The SNRL will process samples in its BSR. These samples will be decontaminated in the 222-S Laboratory to remove undissolved solids and selected radioisotopes to comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping regulations and to ensure worker safety by limiting radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). These decontamination levels will also meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) definition of low activity waste (LAW). After the SNRL has processed the tank samples to a granular mineral form, SRNL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will conduct waste form testing on both the granular material and monoliths prepared from the granular material. The tests being performed are outlined in Appendix A.

DUNCAN JB

2010-08-19

35

Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data. The project is divided into eight tasks which include design, construction, operation and testing, sample analysis, evaluation, and decommissioning. Coal will be received from three different mines and processed through the bench scale{backslash}e plant. Testing has been split into three phases: (1) Component Testing which will examine each of the major components independently, optimize, and compare performance to lab scale tests, (2) Integrated Testing will provide evaluation of the components operating as an integrated system, and (3) Extended Tests will utilize coal from each of the three mines to determine ash and sulfur removal on each candidate feedstock. Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for following tasks: project and test planning, and engineering and design.

Anast, K.

1993-07-23

36

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31

37

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce higher yields of liquids and valuable chemicals than conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been reported to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at ICT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under GH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select operating conditions for maximum production of PCX (phenol, cresols, and xylenols) from high-sulfur Illinois coals. During the third quarter, data from IGT and SIUC have been analyzed and compared, and these data suggest that increased coal conversion to liquids and to PCX requires a longer residence time of volatile precursors in contact with hot char than can be obtained in the fluidized bed. Consequently, we have decided to operate future tests in a moving-bed reactor.

Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-10-01

38

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with microcel. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was the purpose of this investigation to test a new fine coal cleaning system, in which a coal is cleaned first by column flotation to remove primarily ash-forming minerals and then by an enhanced gravity separation technique to remove the pyrite remai...

G. H. Luttrell P. Venkatraman D. I. Phillips R. H. Yoon

1995-01-01

39

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} in a 97:3 mole ratio (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemical feedstocks, particularly phenols, cresols, and xylenols (PCX). The addition of magnesia, coal ash, or clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion to these chemicals. The goal of this two-year project was to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at IGT. Tests were conducted with IBC-101 and IBC-105 coals under N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends, with and without mineral additives, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degree}F and 200 psig. These tests have provided data valuable to further development efforts on the process. In the first year, fluidized-bed tests were conducted using inert bed diluents (coke and sand) to retard agglomeration. PCX yields of 0.99 wt% maf coal were achieved in CH{sub 4} atmosphere, tripling the yield in N, atmosphere, while overall liquid yields were 18--20 wt% maf in either atmosphere. However, control of caking was difficult in spite of a very high bed dilution ratio of 4.5:1. During the second year, agglomeration was controlled by slurry impregnation of the coal with coal ash, magnesia, or montmorillonite at levels as low as 10 wt%. Thirteen continuous tests were conducted in 2-inch fluidized-bed and moving-bed reactors at test conditions of 900{degree}--1000{degree}F and 120 psig.

Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

40

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining Microcel and MGS technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column is effective in removing ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS is capable of efficiently removing coal-pyrite composites. Therefore, by combining both of these unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential of improving coal quality beyond that which could be achieved using either one of the technologies individually. In addition to the primary objective, secondary objectives of the proposed test program will include: (1) Circuit Optimization: The performance of each unit operation, individually and combined, will be optimized by conducting parametric studies as a function of key operating variables. The goal of this work will be to maximize the rejections of pyritic sulfur and ash while maintaining a high energy recovery; and (2) Process Variability: The steady-state performance of the optimized processing circuit will be studied (i) by conducting several long-duration test runs over a period of several days and (ii) by testing coal samples from other sources specified by the participating coal companies.

Not Available

1993-01-29

41

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

Not Available

1993-04-16

42

Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.  

PubMed

Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater through formation of permeable reactive biobarriers (PRBB). PMID:18683257

Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin; Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Apel, William A; Petersen, James N

2008-12-15

43

Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventonal coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

Anast, K.

1993-09-01

44

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

SciTech Connect

Portions of a bench-scale model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle have been operated at General Atomic Company as part of a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technology for hydrogen production from nonfossil sources. The hydrogen program is funded by the US Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, and General Atomic Company. The bench-scale model consists of three subunits which can be operated separately or together and is capable of producing as much as 4 std liters/min (6.7 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 3//s at standard conditions) of gaseous hydrogen. One subunit (main solution reaction) reacts liquid water, liquid iodine (I/sub 2/) and gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to form two separable liquid phases: 50 wt % sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) and a solution of iodine in hydriodic acid (HI/sub x/). Another subunit (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration and decomposition) concentrates the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ phase to the azeotropic composition, then decomposes it at high temperature over a catalyst to form gaseous SO/sub 2/ and oxygen. The third subunit (HI separation and decomposition) separates the HI from water and I/sub 2/ by extractive distillation with phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) and decomposes the HI in the vapor phase over a catalyst to form I/sub 2/ and product hydrogen. This paper presents the results of on-going parametric studies to determine the operating characteristics, performance, and capacity limitations of major components.

O'Keefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; McCorkle, K.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.

1980-07-01

45

High-temperature, high-pressure testing of zinc titanate in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor for 100 cycles  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are being advanced worldwide to produce electricity from coal owing to their potential for superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. A key component of these plants is a hot-gas desulfurization system employing efficient regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents. Leading sorbent candidates include zinc ferrite and zinc titanate. These sorbents can remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in the fuel gas down to very low levels (typically <20 ppmv) at 500 to 750{degree}C and can be readily regenerated for multicycle operation with air. To this end, the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) has formulated and tested a series of zinc titanate sorbents in a high-temperature, high- pressure HTHP fluidized-bed bench-scale reactor. Multicycle HTHP bench-scale testing of these sorbents under a variety of conditions culminated in the development of a ZT-4 sorbent that exhibited the best overall performance in terms of chemical reactivity, sulfur capacity, regenerability, structural properties, and attrition resistance. Following this parametric study, a life-cycle test consisting of 100 sulfidation-regeneration cycles was carried out with ZT-4 in the bench unit.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1993-06-01

46

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

Not Available

1993-08-24

47

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Quarterly technical progress report, September 21, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the first quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor Control System. The twelve-month project will involve installation of a 300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) and testing of two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelvemonth project. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I - Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing. Phase II - ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project will be performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through May, 1993, and will be the major focus of the project. It will involve testing of the continuous 300 lb/hr. circuit. Phase II - Project Finalization: The project finalization phase will occur from June through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and will involve finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This quarterly progress report principally summarizes the results from the Phase I preparation work and the plan for the early portions of the Phase 11 installation and commissioning, which will occur in January and the first week of February, 1993.

Not Available

1992-01-22

48

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis  

SciTech Connect

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without significant maintenance for the entire system life, as much as 20 to 30 years. Long-term liquid-metal boiling stability and materials compatibility with refluxing NaK-78 is not known and must be determined for the pool boiler receiver. No boiling system has been demonstrated for a significant duration with the current porous boiling enhancement surface and materials. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the full-scale pool boiler design as much as possible, including flux levels, materials, and operating cycles. On-sun testing is impractical because of the limited test time available. A test vessel was constructed with a porous boiling enhancement surface. The boiling surface consisted of a brazed stainless steel powder with about 50% porosity. The vessel was heated with a quartz lamp array providing about go W/CM2 peak incident thermal flux. The vessel was charged with NaK-78. This allows the elimination of costly electric preheating, both on this test and on fullscale receivers. The vessel was fabricated from Haynes 230 alloy. The vessel operated at 750{degrees}C around the clock, with a 1/2-hour shutdown cycle to ambient every 8 hours. The test completed 7500 hours of lamp-on operation time, and over 1000 startups from ambient. The test was terminated when a small leak in an Inconel 600 thermowell was detected. The test design and data are presented here. Metallurgical analysis of virgin and tested materials has begun, and initial results are also presented.

Andraka, C.E.; Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Jones, S.A.

1994-06-01

49

Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit. Task 5: Evaluation of bench-scale test results and equipment selection for in-plant pilot tests  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research effort is to improve the efficiency of fine coal flotation in preparation plants above that of currently used conventional cells. In addition to evaluating single-stage operation of four selected advanced flotation devices, the project will also evaluate them in two-stage configurations. The project is being implemented in two phases. Phase 1 comprises bench-scale testing of the flotation units, and Phase 2 comprises in-plant, proof-of-concept (POC), pilot-scale testing of selected configurations at the Cyprus Emerald preparation plant. The Task 5 report presents the findings of the Phase 1 bench-scale test results and provides the basis for equipment selection for Phase 2. Four advanced flotation technologies selected for bench-scale testing are: Jameson cell; Outokumpu HG tank cell; packed column; and open column. In addition to testing all four of the cells in single-stage operation, the Jameson and Outokumpu cells were tested as candidate first-stage cells because of their propensity for rapid attachment of coal particles with air bubbles and low capital and operating costs. The column cells were selected as candidate second-stage cells because of their high-efficiency separation of low-ash products from high-ash feed coals. 32 figs., 72 tabs.

NONE

1995-12-14

50

Laboratory/Bench Scale Testing and Evaluation of A.P.T. Dry Plate Scrubber. Sixteenth Quarterly Progress Report, December 1, 1983-February 29, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the dry plate scrubber (DPS) at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes. This ...

1984-01-01

51

Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.  

PubMed

The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

2013-04-01

52

Laboratory/bench scale testing and evaluation of A. P. T. dry plate scrubber. Fifty third monthly report, July 1-31, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the dry plate scrubber (DPS) at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes. The technical objective for July was to: continue DPS experiments to study ash cake accumulation phenomenon. The remaining test program on the HTP-DPS experiments will start after completing the ash cake accumulation experiments. The test plan for the remaining experiments was outlined and presented in the last monthly technical report. The HTP-DPS experiments will be performed with either alumina collectors or zirconia collectors. We have recommended zirconia collectors. This involves an increase in cost and this cost was submitted during the month. The work on the process design will be continued after completing the HTP-DPS experiments described above. It is anticipated that the above test plan will provide information on collector feed rates and collector to stone ratio for optimum system design. During this reporting period, two tests (Run No. 52/03 and 53/01) were completed to establish baseline ash accumulation characteristics. One test (Run No. 52/02) was performed to obtain the temperature profile of gas stream after replacing the heaters. The test conditions and data analysis for these three runs are presented and the test procedure is briefly described.

Not Available

1984-08-28

53

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-04-21

54

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-06-08

55

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel. Volume of Appendices, Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains the following appendices: Circuit design; test data and performance calculations; Box-Behnken statistical analysis; Response surface plots and computations; Test data and performance calculations; Long-duration test data and performan...

D. I. Phillips G. H. Luttrell P. Venkatraman R. H. Yoon

1995-01-01

56

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel. Volume of Appendices, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the following appendices: Circuit design; test data and performance calculations; Box-Behnken statistical analysis; Response surface plots and computations; Test data and performance calculations; Long-duration test data and performance calculations; MGS partition curve data; Near-term test data and performance calculations; Economic evaluation; and CPPRF circuit drawings.

Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

1995-03-01

57

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: continued purchase of small equipment and supplies for the circuit; completed the circuit commissioning task; procured one lot of PennMag Grade-K and one lot Grade-L magnetite; completed work on analytical investigations; completed Classifying Circuit Component Testing on Pittsburgh No. 8 coal; completed the final Heavy-Media cyclone component testing on the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam using Grade-K and Grade-L magnetites; continued QA/QC tests on wet screening, wet splitting, Marcy Balance, and reproducibility checks on component tests and component test samples; and completed the magnetite recovery circuit component testing with and without screens using the Grade-K magnetite and the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal seam. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1995-08-10

58

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1996-08-13

59

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1996-08-13

60

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University of Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemicals compared to conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous benchscale tests at IGT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select preferred operating conditions for production of targeted chemicals (phenol, cresols, naphthalene, C{sub 1}-naphthalenes) from high-sulfur Illinois coals.

Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H.

1992-08-01

61

High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup reactor.

Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

1981-04-01

62

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project, which is scheduled to occur through December 1995, will be to install and test a 500{number_sign}/hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The overall objectives of the project are to: Determine the effects of operating time on the characteristics of the recirculating medium in a continuous integrated processing circuit, and subsequently, the sensitivity of cyclone separation performance to the quality of the recirculating medium; and determine the technical and economic feasibility of various unit operations and systems in optimizing the separation and recovery of the micronized magnetite from the coal products. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1995-04-29

63

Containment filtration systems tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of eight containment venting filtration devices was measured at the Westinghouse Hanford Company's facilities under the sponsorship of the ACE consortium representing organizations from 18 countries. The efficacy of each of the filtration devices for the removal of fission product aerosols, which might potentially be released during a postulated severe reactor accident, was measured utilizing the same aerosols,

I. B. Wall; M. Merilo

1992-01-01

64

Development of a bench-scale immersed ultrafiltration apparatus for coagulation pretreatment experiments.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present results of a project that focused on developing a standardized bench-scale apparatus and operating procedures for immersed ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems to assess integrated process designs (e.g., coagulation-UF) under controlled laboratory conditions. The integrated test apparatus, termed Immersed Ultrafiltration Enhanced Coagulation (IUEC), was designed using a hollow-fiber, outside-in UF module immersed in a single compartment water preparation and filtration tank equipped with aeration mixing capabilities for coagulation and flocculation process evaluations. Bench-scale experiments were conducted with alum on a low turbidity surface water source to evaluate system performance of the integrated IUEC apparatus compared to a standard jar test unit. The experiments were evaluated by measuring the removal of natural organic matter and zeta-potential analysis from water collected from a conventional mechanically-mixed process with a manual transfer to a UF membrane system and comparing these results to the IUEC system. The results of this study demonstrated that using the single-compartment IUEC apparatus can provide water quality data that is congruent with those obtained through conventional methods that rely on use of standard jar tests. PMID:21547820

Walsh, Margaret E; Zhao, Na; Gagnon, Graham A

2011-01-01

65

Bench-scale co-processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this current is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme, which has developed under previous Contract AC22-84PC70002. Particular emphasis is given to defining and improving catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery techniques. The work during this quarter involved a series of bench-scale runs using a new Mo-based slurry catalyst. The results of bench-scale Runs 24 and 25 are discussed in the following report. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Nafis, D.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Lea, C.; Miller, M.A.

1990-03-07

66

TEST OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes pilot scale and laboratory tests of U.S. and Polish woven baghouse fabrics. Cotton, polyester, aramid, and glass fabrics were tested using cement, flyash, coal, and talc dusts at loadings of about 10 g/cu m, filtration velocities of 60 and 80 cu m/sq m, and a...

67

BENCH-SCALE RECOVERY OF LEAD USING AN ELECTROMEMBRANE/CHELATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a bench-scale treatability test to investigate key process parameters influencing an innovative chelation electrodeposition process for recovery of lead from contaminated sons. thylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta...

68

COMPARING RBF WITH BENCH-SCALE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT FOR PRECURSOR REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors upon riverbank filtration (RBF) at three drinking water utilities in the mid-Western United States was compared with that obtained using a bench-scale conventional treatment train on the corresponding river waters. The riv...

69

EVALUATION OF A BENCH-SCALE DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM FOR SCREENING POTENTIAL REAGENTS AND OPERATING CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two series of bench-scale dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) laboratory tests, the primary objective of which was to evaluate the ability of a bench-scale dry FGD system to screen potential reagents and operating conditions in support of testing at larger pilo...

70

Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-10-16

71

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquification of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Technical report, July 1995December 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994 extensive tests were conducted in the Exxon Research and Engineering Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The work conducted in 1994 explored a variety of dispersed iron molybdenum promoted catalyst systems for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide subbituminus coal. The goal was to identify the preferred iron system. We learned that among the catalysts tested,

L. A. Coless; M. C. Poole; M. Y. Wen

1996-01-01

72

Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing relatively high concentrations of zirconium and aluminum, representative of the cladding material of the reprocessed fuel that generated the calcine. A separate study to define the CCIM testing needs of these other calcine classifications in currently being prepared under a separate work package (WP-0) and will be provided as a milestone report at the end of this fiscal year.

Vince Maio

2011-08-01

73

Bench-scale feasibility testing of pulsed-air technology for in-tank mixing of dry cementitious solids with tank liquids and settled solids  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of testing performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulsed-air mixing technology (equipment developed by Pulsair Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA) to mix cementitious dry solids with supernatant and settled solids within a horizontal tank. The mixing technology is being considered to provide in situ stabilization of the {open_quotes}V{close_quotes} tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The testing was performed in a vessel roughly 1/6 the scale of the INEEL tanks. The tests used a fine soil to simulate settled solids and water to simulate tank supernatants. The cementitious dry materials consisted of Portland cement and Aquaset-2H (a product of Fluid Tech Inc. consisting of clay and Portland cement). Two scoping tests were conducted to allow suitable mixing parameters to be selected. The scoping tests used only visual observations during grout disassembly to assess mixing performance. After the scoping tests indicated the approach may be feasible, an additional two mixing tests were conducted. In addition to visual observations during disassembly of the solidified grout, these tests included addition of chemical tracers and chemical analysis of samples to determine the degree of mixing uniformity achieved. The final two mixing tests demonstrated that the pulsed-air mixing technique is capable of producing slurries containing substantially more cementitious dry solids than indicated by the formulations suggested by INEEL staff. Including additional cement in the formulation may have benefits in terms of increasing mobilization of solids, reducing water separation during curing, and increasing the strength of the solidified product. During addition to the tank, the cementitious solids had a tendency to form clumps which broke down with continued mixing.

Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

1997-09-01

74

Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level-Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory's Bench-Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Me...

V. Maio

2011-01-01

75

Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratoryâs Bench Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification'

Vince Maio

2011-01-01

76

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel. First quarterly report, September 29, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining Microcel and MGS technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column is effective in removing ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS is capable of efficiently removing coal-pyrite composites. Therefore, by combining both of these unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential of improving coal quality beyond that which could be achieved using either one of the technologies individually. In addition to the primary objective, secondary objectives of the proposed test program will include: (1) Circuit Optimization: The performance of each unit operation, individually and combined, will be optimized by conducting parametric studies as a function of key operating variables. The goal of this work will be to maximize the rejections of pyritic sulfur and ash while maintaining a high energy recovery; and (2) Process Variability: The steady-state performance of the optimized processing circuit will be studied (i) by conducting several long-duration test runs over a period of several days and (ii) by testing coal samples from other sources specified by the participating coal companies.

Not Available

1993-01-29

77

Development of a bench scale biomass torrefier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cofiring biomass with coal has become very popular with power utilities to reduce fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. It is relatively easy to implement on most common pulverised coal plants. However, raw biomass is difficult to utilise and requires upgrading to a higher quality fuel to substitute coal. Upgrading by torrefaction can improve the properties of biomass close to low rank coals suitable for cofiring. In this study, a bench scale torrefier was developed to produce torrefied biomass samples for further studies of its properties and combustion behaviour. The torrefier was developed from a domestic 1600W electric oven. Biomass pellets was then torrefied at 250 °C for 1 hour using this torrefier. Proximate analysis and gross calorific value (GCV) of the torrefied biomass were carried out. The results showed that GCV of the torrefied biomass had increased when compared to raw. The moisture content and volatile matter had decreased, and ash content and fixed carbon had increased as expected.

Mohd Ja'afar, M. N.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

2013-06-01

78

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion. (VC)

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-01-01

79

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-01-01

80

Coal liquefaction bench-scale studies. Volume 1. Bench-scale support: bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 0.2 TPD integrated coal liquefaction bench-scale unit was designed, constructed and operated at Kerr-McGee Corporation Cimarron Facility. This two-stage (Thermal and Catalytic) unit includes a coal liquefaction section for dissolution of coal, a Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD) section for deashing of coal liquids and a hydrotreating section for upgrading of liquid products. A program was initiated to evaluate the

J. M. Carver; G. B. Crawford; R. C. Janka; W. C. Momsen; A. S. Paranjape; D. E. Rhodes

1985-01-01

81

Revised validation of thermal-hydraulic model of SCWO bench scale reactor  

SciTech Connect

The FLUENT computer code was used to construct a coupled fluid flow-chemical kinetics model of a MODAR bench scale reactor. This model predicted temperatures measured during MODAR test run 523.F very satisfactorily but required some modification to the measured boundary conditions. Several improvements to the model were made during a similar study of a MODAR pilot scale reactor. This report presents a rerun of the bench scale results using the updated model and shows better predictions than the initial runs. As before, the results of these calculations indicate that for better model validation, we need to obtain more accurate boundary conditions in future test runs.

Kochan, R.J.; Oh, C.H.

1995-10-01

82

Solvent recovery from lube oil filtrates with a polyimide membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyimide membrane manufactured from a co-polymer of diaminophenylindane with benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride has been shown to have excellent chemical resistance and economically viable flux and rejection characteristics for the separation of light hydrocarbon solvents from lube oil filtrates. This asymmetric membrane was subjected to a series of bench scale hyperfiltration studies. After 2 months of continuous high pressure tests,

Lloyd S White; Albert R Nitsch

2000-01-01

83

Revised validation of thermal-hydraulic model of SCWO bench scale reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FLUENT computer code was used to construct a coupled fluid flow-chemical kinetics model of a MODAR bench scale reactor. This model predicted temperatures measured during MODAR test run 523.F very satisfactorily but required some modification to the me...

R. J. Kochan C. H. Oh

1995-01-01

84

Bench-Scale Evaluation Of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Technology To Stabilize Mercury Waste Mixtures  

EPA Science Inventory

This bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization of mercury (Hg) and mercuric chloride-containing surrogate test materials by the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics technology. This study was performed as part of a U.S. EPA program to evaluate treatment and d...

85

Chemical Desulfurization of Coal: Report of Bench-Scale Developments. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench-scale and laboratory tests were conducted for chemical removal of sulfur (S) from coal to produce a low sulfur coal to meet air quality standards. The method used was the Meyer's process in which pyritic sulfur is oxidized by ferric compounds to a w...

E. P. Koutsoukos G. J. Ogle J. W. Hamersma M. L. Kraft R. A. Meyers

1973-01-01

86

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31

87

Bench scale silver recovery unit for the MEO system  

SciTech Connect

Mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) is a process for treating low-level radioactive, organic, mixed wastes. When treating chlorinated organic compounds, MEO generates AgCl which needs to be recovered, converted into AgNO{sub 3}, and sent back to MEO for reuse. A silver recovery process developed in the lab-scale unit has been scaled up to bench scale 30 times bigger; conversion efficiencies are 98% for both. This paper reports the operational experience of the bench scale unit.

Hsu, P.C.; Chiba, Z.; Schumacher, B.J.; Murguia, L.C.; Adamson, M.G.

1996-02-01

88

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1992-12-01

89

TESTS OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of filter fabrics. Tests were made on flat specimens and on bags. Fifteen styles of fabrics (made from cotton, polyester, aramid, or glass) were tested, using cement, coal, or talc dusts. Collection efficiencies and pressure...

90

Coal liquefaction bench-scale studies. Volume 1. Bench-scale support: bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A 0.2 TPD integrated coal liquefaction bench-scale unit was designed, constructed and operated at Kerr-McGee Corporation Cimarron Facility. This two-stage (Thermal and Catalytic) unit includes a coal liquefaction section for dissolution of coal, a Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD) section for deashing of coal liquids and a hydrotreating section for upgrading of liquid products. A program was initiated to evaluate the technical feasibility of advanced coal liquefaction processes involving selective recycle of process streams to produce environmentally-acceptable fuel and useable by-products. This report summarizes the studies completed in the integrated unit through the end of calendar year 1982. Four integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process configurations were evaluated with the objective of maximizing the yield of liquid products and minimizing the production of gases. The integrated two-stage work completed to-date has demonstrated that is is possible to obtain higher coal conversions and higher distillate yields from an eastern bituminous coal than produced under prevalent non-integrated two-stage process configuration. It was shown in this integrated two-stage process configuration that high distillate yields could be attained with a short-contact-time (SCT) in the thermal stage while recycling hydrotreated Full-range SRC along with distillate solvent to the liquefaction stage. 1 ref., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Carver, J.M.; Crawford, G.B.; Janka, R.C.; Momsen, W.C.; Paranjape, A.S.; Rhodes, D.E.

1985-06-01

91

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

BANNING DL

2011-02-11

92

MASCOT - A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen by the UT3 thermochemical decomposition cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen has been constructed on the basis of the thermochemical water-decomposition process, UT-3, consisting of Br, Ca and Fe compounds. This plant is named MASCOT (Model Apparatus for Studying Cyclic Operation in Tokyo) and is designed to be capable of producing 3 1\\/h of gaseous hydrogen at standard conditions. During several test runs, the continuous

T. Nakayama; H. Yoshioka; H. Furutani; H. Kameyama; K. Yoshida

1984-01-01

93

Development of a bench-scale immersed ultrafiltration apparatus for coagulation pretreatment experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present results of a project that focused on developing a standardized bench-scale apparatus and operating procedures for immersed ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems to assess integrated process designs (e.g., coagulation-UF) under controlled laboratory conditions. The integrated test apparatus, termed Immersed Ultrafiltration Enhanced Coagulation (IUEC), was designed using a hollow-fiber, outside-in UF module immersed in

Margaret E. Walsh; Na Zhao; Graham A. Gagnon

2011-01-01

94

Bench-Scale Remediation Composting: Process Principles and Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to apply the principles of biochemical process kinetics, mass and heat transfer, and major process parameters in the design and application of bench-scale compost systems. The premise is that understanding the fundamentals of...

K. T. Preston S. Seiden K. S. Ro

1997-01-01

95

LBL continuous bench-scale liquefaction unit, operation and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale continuous liquefaction unit (CLU) is now fully operational. The CLU is a flexible system capable of examining feedstocks introduced in slurry form by various liquefying techniques. It is the only continuous biomass liquefaction unit currently in use. Emphasis has been on the liquefaction of aqueous slurries (about 20% organics) of prehydrolyzed Douglas fir wood, without recycle, under the

C. Figueroa; L. L. Schaleger; H. G. Davis

1981-01-01

96

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 16 weight percent CaCO{sub 3}. Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na{sub 2}S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na{sub 2}S, where it would be converted to Hg{sub 2}S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na{sub 2}S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.

1995-12-31

97

Bench-scale ozonation study of waste activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale ozonation study was conducted on waste activated sludge (WAS) in a 10-L, clear PVC, semi-batch, bubble column reactor. Two separate runs were performed on 5-L samples of WAS obtained from the Rocky Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Macon, Georgia. The Rocky Creek facility uses the extended aeration activated sludge process to treat domestic wastewater. Ozone was sparged

Richard O. Mines Jr; Laura W. Lackey

2009-01-01

98

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum\\/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to

M. A. Vest; E. F. Lewandowski; R. D. Pierce; J. L. Smith

1997-01-01

99

Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results  

SciTech Connect

Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

1990-09-28

100

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF NON-U.S. COALS FOR NOX FORMATION UNDER EXCESS AIR AND STAGED COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results of bench-scale fuel screening experiments. Twenty non-U.S. coals (including lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous) were tested in a 21 kWt refractory-lined tunnel furnace. NOx emissions were measured as a function of coal composition and initial fuel...

101

Environmental Technology Verification--Baghouse Filtration Products: GE Energy QG061 Filtration Media (Tested September 2008)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report reviews the filtration and pressure drop performance of GE Energy's QG061 filtration media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests in September 2008. The objective of the ETV Program is to ...

102

Coal liquefaction bench-scale studies. Volume 2. Bench-scale support: subbituminous coal. [Shell 324M  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 0.2 TPD integrated coal liquefaction bench-scale unit was designed, constructed and operated at Kerr-McGee Corporation Cimarron Facility. This two-stage (Thermal and Catalytic) unit includes a Coal Liquefaction section for dissolution of coal, a Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD) section for deashing of coal liquids and a Hydrotreating section for upgrading of liquid products. An experimental program was initiated to evaluate

J. M. Carver; G. B. Crawford; R. C. Janka; W. C. Momsen; A. S. Paranjape; D. E. Rhodes

1985-01-01

103

Installation-restoration general environmental technology development. Task 4. Bench-scale investigation of air stripping of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from soil. Final report, May 1985-January 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a bench-scale investigation which evaluated the role of aeration in thermal stripping of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from soil. The project included: process equipment design, development of a test plan, bench-scale investigation, and evaluation of results.

McDevitt, N.P.; Noland, J.W.; Marks, P.J.

1987-01-01

104

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Baghouse Filtration Products. Donaldson Company, Inc., Dura-Life No. 0701607 Filtration Media. Tested Octobe 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the pressure drop (AP) and filtration performance of Donaldson Company, Inc. Dura-Life No. 0701607 Filtration Media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests ...

2012-01-01

105

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier. Second quarterly project report, January 1, 1985--March 31, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion. (VC)

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-12-31

106

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier. Fourth quarterly report, July 1, 1985--September 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-12-31

107

Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

1991-01-01

108

Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

1991-12-31

109

Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg\\/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale

M. C. Mensinger; D. M. Rue; M. J. Roberts

1991-01-01

110

Coal liquefaction bench-scale studies. Volume 2. Bench-scale support: subbituminous coal. [Shell 324M  

SciTech Connect

A 0.2 TPD integrated coal liquefaction bench-scale unit was designed, constructed and operated at Kerr-McGee Corporation Cimarron Facility. This two-stage (Thermal and Catalytic) unit includes a Coal Liquefaction section for dissolution of coal, a Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD) section for deashing of coal liquids and a Hydrotreating section for upgrading of liquid products. An experimental program was initiated to evaluate the technical feasibility of advanced coal liquefaction processes involving selective recycle of process streams to produce environmentally-acceptable fuel and useable by-products. This report summarizes the studies completed in the integrated unit during the calendar year 1983 using a Wyoming subbituminous coal. Three integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process configurations were evaluated with the objective of maximizing the yield of liquid products and minimizing the production of gases. The integrated two-stage work completed to-date has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain high coal conversions and distillate yields from a western subbituminous coal. A subbituminous coal and petroleum resid were successfully co-processed. Bench-scale work, both in co-processing and liquefaction of a subbituminous coal, clearly demonstrated the importance of having a hydrogenated liquefaction solvent (residuum and distillate) to promote distillate yield and maintain unit operability. Solvent drying of subbituminous coal was successfully demonstrated. Iron oxides was found to be an excellent disposal catalyst in promoting conversion of subbituminous coal. The process solvent additive, quinoline/THQ, was found to promote distillate yield but problems were experienced with the irreversible loss of quinoline/THQ to cracked and heavy molecular weight products. 3 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

Carver, J.M.; Crawford, G.B.; Janka, R.C.; Momsen, W.C.; Paranjape, A.S.; Rhodes, D.E.

1985-06-01

111

Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of...

D. R. Wahlquist

1996-01-01

112

Filtration method efficiently desalts crude in commercial test  

SciTech Connect

During 3 months of industrial testing of a filtration crude oil desalting method, a total of 120,500 metric tons (mt), or 1,475 mt/d (almost 11,000 b/d) of crude was processed. Rongxi Du, Kai Peng, and Li Wang, engineers at Wuhan Petrochemical Works, Wuhan, China, in an unpublished report, indicate that they determined unit operating parameters and performed statistical analyses of desalting-efficiency data from the test run. The engineers also determined relationships between desalting efficiency and flow velocity, relative density, mixing pressure drop (MPD), filtration-tank pressure drop, and temperature. The desalting and dewatering level of single-stage filtrations desalting was found to be equal to that of two-stage electrostatic desalting with remarkable benefits resulting from reduced power, water, and demulsifier requirements. This paper describes the filtration desalting, test parameters, performance results, and filter revivification.

Not Available

1993-05-17

113

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

114

C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system`s ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF.

Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

1994-08-26

115

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

116

Bench-scale ozonation study of waste activated sludge.  

PubMed

A bench-scale ozonation study was conducted on waste activated sludge (WAS) in a 10-L, clear PVC, semi-batch, bubble column reactor. Two separate runs were performed on 5-L samples of WAS obtained from the Rocky Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Macon, Georgia. The Rocky Creek facility uses the extended aeration activated sludge process to treat domestic wastewater. Ozone was sparged through a porous diffuser at an application rate of 0.0525 mg O(3) min(- 1) at contact times of 9 days and 12 days, respectively, during Runs #1 and #2. Parameters that were monitored during the study included: alkalinity, ammonia, conductivity, nitrite, nitrate, pH, phosphate, solids degradation rate coefficient (K(D)), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS), turbidity, and unstirred sludge volume index (SVI(u)). Ozone was very effective at removing TCOD and TS. TCOD removals were 43% and 99% respectively for Runs #1 and #2. Total solids removal during Runs #1 and #2 was 50% and 95%, respectively. The degradation rate coefficient (K(D)) based on VSS was 0.17 days(- 1) and 0.54 days(- 1) for Runs #1 and #2. Both the nitrate and phosphate concentrations increased as ozone contact time increased during each run. The unstirred SVI decreased with an increase in ozone contact time, however, extended ozonation caused the SVI to increase. Actual ozone dosages for Runs #1 and #2 were 0.0036 and 0.011 mg O(3) per mg TS removed. PMID:19085593

Mines, Richard O; Lackey, Laura W

2009-01-01

117

Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus  

DOEpatents

A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: (a) a module retaining filter elements; (b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to engage a filter element there between; (c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and (f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: (a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and (b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member. 8 figs.

Lohnes, B.C.; Turner, T.D.; Klingler, K.M.; Clark, M.L.

1996-01-09

118

Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus  

DOEpatents

A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: a) a module retaining filter elements; b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to sealing engage a filter element therebetween; c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member.

Lohnes, Brent C. (Soda Springs, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Michael L. (Menan, ID)

1996-01-01

119

Bench Scale Fixation of Soils from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the result of a bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification) is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated ...

G. Rupp

1989-01-01

120

ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

121

System design study to reduce capital and operating costs and bench-scale testing of a circulating-bed AFB [atmospheric pressure fluidized bed] advanced concept: Phase 1, Design, cost estimate, and cost comparison for MWK circulating fluid bed combustor and oil-fired boilers: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) issued an RFP for a "System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Circulating-Bed AFB Advanced Concept." The design and cost study of a 150,000 pounds per hour steam boiler comprised Phase-I of the RFP. The objective was to produce a design with improved performance and reduced capital and operating costs compared with conventional atmospheric pressure fluidized bed (AFB) boilers. The final result was a significant reduction of capital cost - 36% below the lowest AFB plant cost. The steam cost was 24% below the corresponding cost for the AFB process. In June 1985, DOE issued a Change Order (C001) to the Phase-I study in order for MWK to design and estimate the cost for a scaled-down coal-fired (Illinois No. 6, 3% S) CFBC plant producing low pressure and low temperature steam (75,000lbs/hr, 200 psig, 387{degree}F), and to compare the costs -capital and steam costs -with those for a packaged high sulfur (3%) fuel oil-fired boiler, which is of the same capacity and requires SO{sub 2} removal. An additional objective was to estimate the cost for a No. 2 fuel oil-fired boiler that does not need any SO{sub 2} scrubber. An evaluation of the sensitivity of the steam cost to the oil-fired boiler capital cost and to fuel prices was also to be undertaken. The cost of steam produced by the No. 6 fuel oil boiler is 52% higher than the cost for CFBC, and the corresponding cost for the No. 2 fuel oil plant is 43% higher. Again, a large advantage for the CFBC comes from the low price of coal relative to that of oil. The large cost advantage of steam calculated for the MWK CFBC using coal as a fuel over the oil-fired boilers would remain even in the worst case scenario of a declining oil price accompanied by a steady coal price. 7 refs., 25 figs., 34 tabs.

Sadhukhan, P.; Lin, Y.Y.; Hsiao, K.H.; Richards, S.R.; Wagner, C.; Settle, W.H.; Bryant, J.; Gorman, W.A.; Newlin, T.; Shires, P.J.; James, J.L.

1986-06-01

122

Actinide Recovery Experiments with Bench-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode in Fission Product-Laden Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the observations and analytical results from a series of bench- scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments that recovered transuranic elements together with uranium from a molten electrolyte laden with real fission products. Variable parameters such as the ratio of Pu3+/U3+ in the electrolyte, liquid cadmium cathode voltage, and feed materials were tested in the LCC experiments. Actinide recovery efficiency and Pu/U ratio in the liquid cadmium cathode product under variable conditions are reported in the article. Separation factors for actinides and rare earth elements in the salt/cadmium system are also presented.

S. X. Li; S. D. Herrmann; R. W. Benedict; K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

2009-02-01

123

Membrane filtration of wastewater effluents for reuse: effluent organic matter rejection and fouling.  

PubMed

The reuse of treated wastewater to augment natural drinking water supplies is receiving serious consideration. Treatment of secondary and tertiary effluent by membrane filtration was investigated by assessing nanofiltration (NF) membrane and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in bench-scale experiments. It was found that secondary and tertiary effluent contained high concentration of effluent organic matter (EfOM), contributing EfOM-related fouling. Flux decline and EfOM rejection tests were evaluated, using a dead-end stirred cell filtration unit. Surface charge and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of membranes were significant factors in membrane performance including permeability and EfOM-rejection. PMID:11436785

Jarusutthirak, C; Amy, G

2001-01-01

124

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1992--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The present work effort relates to an investigation of surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in overall coal conversions and the product quality. Based on the results of a Phase 1 preliminary study on the effect of several surfactants on coal liquefaction, sodium lignosulfonate was chosen as the surfactant for a detailed parametric study to be conducted at JPL using a batch autoclave reactor. These tests primarily related to thermal liquefaction of coal. The results of JPL autoclave test runs showed an increase in overall conversions from 5 to 15% due to surfactant addition over the base case of coal alone. A continuous-flow bench scale coal liquefaction process run was conducted over a 5-day period at Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated (HRI). This test showed that the surfactant is suitable for an industrial continuous recycle process, and does not interfere with the supported catalyst. After the bench scale test, a series of autoclave runs were conducted with coprocessing the surfactant and the Ni-Mo catalyst. These experiments showed that high conversions and product quality can be maintained at milder processing conditions. Based on results of the autoclave test runs, the overall product values were obtained for two stage reactors at 400{degrees}C. The best product value was realized for the two-stage case (e) which showed an 8% improvement over the base case.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1994-03-31

125

Mercury capture by an activated carbon in a fixed-bed bench-scale system  

SciTech Connect

The control of mercury emissions for utility power plants may become important because of the Clean Air Act Amendments requirement that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. A study, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a sorbent-screening test protocol, screen potential mercury sorbents in a bench-scale fixed-bed system, and provide data to support efforts to model mercury capture mechanisms. A proper protocol is required to establish repeatability of the results and ensure reproducibility of results between different labs. To date, elemental mercury tests have been completed with several sorbents and under various flue gas conditions. The carbon-based sorbent used in this study was a lignite-based activated carbon (LAC). This paper presents results from the more recent tests with the LAC sorbent and elemental mercury. The LAC sorbent has also been used by others as a baseline sorbent.

Dunham, G.E.; Miller, S.J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bergman, P. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

1998-12-31

126

Bench-scale fixation of soils from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the result of a bench-scale soil-fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification) is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immobilization of contaminants via sorption or chemical reaction and physical transformation of the soil into a firm, impervious 'monolith.' Fixation has been used for years to immobilize metals in low-level radioactive wastes and specialized industrial wastes, such as baghouse dusts. It has not been commonly used at sites with organic contamination, however. The study utilized materials contaminated with metals and several types of organic contaminants including benzene, toluene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Samples of heavily contaminated soils and wastes from the site were chemically fixed using a proprietary product, and the resulting monoliths were subjected to various physical, chemical, and leaching tests. The purpose was to assess the efficacy of fixation for a complicated matrix, i.e., one that was physically heterogeneous and contained several classes of contaminants.

Rupp, G.

1989-07-01

127

A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters.  

PubMed

A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled and continuous hydraulic and ammonium loading. Flowrates and flow recirculation around the column are chosen to mimic full-scale hydrodynamic conditions, and minimize axial gradients. A reference ammonium loading rate is calculated based on the average loading experienced in the active zone of the full-scale filter. Effluent concentrations of ammonium are analyzed when the bench-scale column is subject to reference loading, from which removal rates are calculated. Subsequently, removal rates above the reference loading are measured by imposing short-term loading variations. A critical loading rate corresponding to the maximum removal rate can be inferred. The assay was successfully applied to characterize biokinetic behavior from a test rapid sand filter; removal rates at reference loading matched those observed from full-scale observations, while a maximum removal capacity of 6.9 g NH4(+)-N/m(3) packed sand/h could easily be determined at 7.5 g NH4(+)-N/m(3) packed sand/h. This assay, with conditions reflecting full-scale observations, and where the biological activity is subject to minimal physical disturbance, provides a simple and fast, yet powerful tool to gain insight in nitrification kinetics in rapid sand filters. PMID:24091186

Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

2013-09-19

128

Evaluation of a bench-scale membrane fouling protocol to determine fouling propensities of membranes during full-scale water reuse applications.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in recycling wastewater effluents for augmentation of existing water supplies. The treatment of wastewater effluents by an integrated membrane system, such as microfiltration pre-treatment followed by reverse osmosis, is the industry standard for groundwater recharge or reservoir augmentation projects. Membrane fouling, especially effluent organic matter fouling, is a major challenge for water reuse applications employing high-pressure membranes. While fouling control through pre-treatment is an important aspect in membrane system design and operation, selecting low fouling membranes is an equally important aspect. Although recent research has begun to elucidate fouling mechanisms, little work has been performed to develop methods to pre-determine the effluent organic matter fouling propensities of high-pressure membranes so that low-fouling membranes can be pre-selected for reuse applications. The purpose of this study was to utilize a bench-scale testing protocol to test the relative effluent organic matter fouling propensities of commercially available NF and RO membranes when treating wastewater effluents. Bench-scale fouling test results were then compared to operational data generated during pilot- and full-scale membrane testing. Pilot- and full-scale testing using recycled water demonstrated that membranes foul at significantly different rates and that the extent of fouling could be estimated utilizing the proposed bench-scale testing protocol. PMID:20818065

Bellona, C L; Wuertle, A; Xu, P; Drewes, J E

2010-01-01

129

77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...guide reflects the referenced industry standards. III....

2012-06-29

130

Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

131

OVERVIEW OF 'WHO IS DOING WHAT' IN LABORATORY- AND BENCH-SCALE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes and compares five past and eight current research studies in the area of laboratory- and bench-scale hazardous waste incineration research. The subjects covered range from non-flame to turbulent flame thermal destruction, and from conventional to innovative ...

132

Bench Scale Studies for Pretreatment of Sanitary Landfill Leachate with Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study using a bench scale model of two unit operations involved processes of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural coagulant) and flocculation-sedimentation have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. The results of this study has shown, that M. oleifera has a potential for the removal of heavy

SULEYMAN A. MUYIBI*; Fakhrul-Razi Ahmadun; Emad Ameen

2002-01-01

133

Rational design of heating elements using CFD: Application to a bench-scale adiabatic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling for designing an oven which enables the adiabatic operation of a chemical reactor at bench-scale. For accomplishing this scope, the oven consists of electrical heating elements, air circulation system and a control loop that uses the temperature inside the reactor as set-point for the reactor wall temperature. Depending on

Pablo Marín; Salvador Ordóñez; Fernando V. Díez

2011-01-01

134

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE EPA OWNED BENCH SCALE PILOT PLANT FOR EVALUATING SCR DENOX CATALYSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the use of EPA's bench-scale pilot plant to evaluate catalysts used in the ammonia (NH3)-based technology and process for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides. A key objective was to establish the performance of SCR catalysts on U.S. uels and...

135

Design and operation of a bench-scale coal liquefaction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a continuous flow, bench-scale, coal liquefaction reactor system. While designed initially to determine engineering kinetics of catalytic hydrogenation, changes in program objectives resulted in a system configured to determine specifics of noncatalytic coal dissolution in liquifiers or preheaters. Design flexibility allowed this change in experimentation and provides for simulation of the

R. M. Curlee; D. C. Hawn

1978-01-01

136

Bench?scale evaluation of asphalt emulsion stabilization of contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of ambient temperature asphalt emulsion stabilization technology to the environmental fixation of soils contaminated by organic contaminants, primarily hydrocarbons, was pioneered in 1987. Since that time, the process has seen many applications in recycling contaminated soils into an environmentally stable, structurally enhanced, paving base material. A bench?scale demonstration was undertaken to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the

Michael F. Conway P. E

1993-01-01

137

DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

138

Catalytic Products from a Bench-Scale, Simulated Fluidized-Bed Pyrolyzer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biomass (e.g. lignocellulosics and lipids) were catalytically converted under thermochemical conditions to bio-based, fungible industrial chemicals and products. The focus was on high temperature catalytic conversions of feedstocks in a bench-scale reactor designed to replicate a packed- or fluidiz...

139

Bacterial leaching of complex sulfide ore samples in bench-scale column reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several variables were examined in column bioleaching of a complex sulfide ore material which contained chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pyrite, pyrrhotite and sphalerite as the main sulfide minerals. Samples were used with varying proportions of pyrrhotite, pyrite, quartzite (low acid consumption) and skarn (high acid consumption). The experiments were carried out using bench-scale column leaching reactors which were inoculated with acidophilic, Fe-

Lasse Ahonen; Olli H. Tuovinen

1995-01-01

140

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in bench-scale sequencing batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bench-scale sequencing batch reactors were fed with domestic wastewater and operated in an anaerobic-aerobic sequence for 139 d. Denitrification during the aerated react period was observed and the factors influencing the extent of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were examined. It was found that the influence of DO on the nitrification rate during the aerated react period could be described

Elisabeth V. Münch; Paul Lant; Jürg Keller

1996-01-01

141

A Filtration and Water Control System for the Proposed Underwater Acoustic Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a discussion of a filtration and water control system for a proposed underwater acoustic test facility. It specifies functional requirements for the components and subsystems of a filtration system and, based on these requirements, it ...

O. C. Parrent

1970-01-01

142

Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of {sup 137}Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including {sup 90}Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in {sup 90}Sr.

Brooks, K.P; Myers, R.L; Rappe, K.G.

1997-01-01

143

Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and Direct Sulfur Recovery (DSRP) technologies by: scaling up the zinc titanate reactor system; developing an integrated skid-mounted zinc titanate desulfurization-DSRP reactor system; testing the integrated system over an extended period with real coal-gas from an operating gasifier to quantify the degradative effect, if any, of the trace contaminants present in coal gas; developing an engineering database suitable for system scaleup; and designing, fabricating and commissioning a larger DSRP reactor system capable of operating on a six-fold greater volume of gas than the DSRP reactor used in the bench-scale field test. This report discusses the field testing of the Zinc Titanate Fluid Bed Desulfurization/DSRP at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center.

NONE

1995-12-31

144

BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a one- or two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98 percent or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of coal gas to effect the desired reduction. In this project the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal gas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous studies) in a 75-mm, 1-L size fixed-bed reactor. Integrated with this testing, a US Department of Energy/Research Triangle Institute (DOE/RTI) patented zinc titanate-based fluidizable sorbent formulation was tested in a 75-mm (3-in.) diameter fluidized-bed reactor, and the regeneration offgas from that test was treated with the bench-unit DSRP. The testing was conducted at the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown in conjunction with test campaigns of the pilot-scale gasifier there. The test apparatus was housed in a mobile laboratory built in a specially equipped office trailer that facilitated moving the equipment from RTI in North Carolina to the West Virginia test site. A long duration test of the DSRP using actual coal gas and simulated regeneration offgas showed no degradation in efficiency of conversion to elemental sulfur after 160 h of catalyst exposure. An additional exposure (200 h) of that same catalyst charge at the General Electric pilot gasifier showed only a small decline in performance. That problem is believed to have been caused by tar and soot deposits on the catalyst, which were caused by the high tar content of the atypical fixed-bed gasifier gas. A six-fold larger, single-stage skid-mounted DSRP apparatus was fabricated for additional, larger-scale slipstream testing.

NONE

1998-05-01

145

BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Designs for advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems call for desulfurization of carbonaceous fuel-derived synthesis gas (syngas) using regenerable sorbents at high-temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions. Regeneration of the sulfided sorbent using an oxygen-containing gas stream or air results in a sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2})-containing offgas at HTHP conditions. The patented Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) developed by RTI with support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and its precursor organizations [Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)] efficiently converts the SO{sub 2} in this offgas to elemental sulfur. Under development since 1988, the original work was conducted in a laboratory with simulated laboratory gas mixtures. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process is a catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98% or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of syngas to effect the desired reduction. In this project, the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal-derived syngas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous projects for the original development work) in 75-mm (3-in) and 125-mm (5-in) fixed- and fluid-bed reactors. This report focuses primarily on the slipstream testing of a skid-mounted DSRP field-test unit that utilized the 125 mm (5-in) fluid-bed reactor. This slipstream testing was conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Power System Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama in conjunction with their coal gasification tests. The earlier work with 75 mm (3-in) reactors has been previously reported in detail. Thus, only the highlights of this earlier work will be reported in the main body of this report.

S.K. Gangwal; J.W. Portzer

2002-04-01

146

Bench-scale studies of biomass liquefaction with prior hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquefaction experiments were conducted batchwise using autoclaves. The oils produced in batch experiments were poor in quality, i.e., they solidified at room temperature and contained excessive amounts of acetone insoluble material, compared to oils produced in flow mode at the biomass liquefaction test facility at Albany, Oregon and in the process evaluation unit of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Possible causes of the difference in the quality and yields of oils are differences in the synthesis gas pressure initially imposed, and the rate of heating to the reaction temperature during which irreversible reactions can take place, as well as differences in gas/liquid contacting.

Ergun, S.; Yaghoubzadeh, N.

1982-02-01

147

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant- assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the fourth quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) Completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs and related analysis with Illinois {number_sign}6 coal with time as a variable at 375{degree}C, and pressures of 1800 psig; (2) an investigation into the mechanism of the effect that the lignosulfonate surfactant has in enhancing liquefaction yields; and (3) completion of a bench-scale test with the surfactant in the continuous flow Catalytic Two Stage Liquefaction Process (CTSL) reactor at HRI.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

1993-07-23

148

Mitigation of odor causing emissions--bench-scale investigation.  

PubMed

Emissions of malodors are considered to be the greatest threat to the compost industry. In work presented here, several simple odor mitigation alternatives were investigated for their effectiveness in preventing the release of common odorants, such as terpenes, ammonia, and reduced sulfur compounds. The mitigation methods studied included the use of a blanket of finished compost, compost amendment mixed within the feedstock, odor neutralizing agents (ONAs), and oxygen release compounds (ORCs). Among the mitigation alternatives investigated in this study, the use of finished compost as a blanket and finished compost as an amendment yielded the most conclusive and significant results. Both of these alternatives yielded a substantial emission reduction for terpenes, ammonia, and reduced sulfur compounds. The application of finished compost blanket resulted in up to 95% reduction of terpene and 25% reduction of ammonia emissions. Blending the feedstock with finished compost also provided substantial reduction of terpene emissions ranging from 73.6 to 93.1% at the 24% blending ratio, and up to 85% ammonia reduction a the 35% blending ratio. Use of finished compost also provided 75% lower reduced sulfur compound emissions at the 12% blending ratio. Misting and application of odor neutralizing agents did not result in any consistent reduction in emissions for any of the odorous compounds tested. Implications: The odor emissions from composting are often considered to be the biggest threat to composting facilities. Because most facilities cannot afford enclosures and contained composting vessels, there is a need to inexpensively and effectively control the odor emissions from composting facilities. The findings of this research can lead the way for efforts to control odor easily and cost effectively. In fact, the application of a compost blanket for odor control is already gaining acceptance by the composting industry. PMID:23362761

Büyüksönmez, Fatih; Rynk, Robert; Yucel, Asli; Cotton, Matt

2012-12-01

149

Filtration principles and practices  

SciTech Connect

This book provides theoretical and practical data on filtration of gases and liquids. Topics covered include the following: gas filtration theory; liquid filtration theory; filter media; industrial gas filtration; filtration pretreatment; filtration in the chemical process industry; ultrafiltration; filtration in the mineral industry; filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; cartridge filtration; high-efficiency air filtration; analytical applications of filtration; and filter evaluation and testing.

Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

1986-01-01

150

Bench-scale co-oxidative production of propylene oxide by methanotrophs  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the co-oxidative production of value-added chemicals using methanotrophs has been investigated by the authors. Several of these co-oxidative products have been evaluated for stereo- or regiospecific properties. Propylene oxide (1,2-epoxypropane) is one of the products that has been selected for further evaluation. This paper describes the first steps toward bench-scale production of propylene oxide. Propylene oxide has been produced stereospecifically (60% R-form, 40% S-form) in gram quantities in bench-scale liquid culture reactors. Several operational parameters and conditions have been determined for both a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and a packed-bed bubble-column reactor (PBR). The production phase of the propylene oxide has been significantly extended by intermittent addition of propylene and regeneration with methane. The paper also describes the performance of the CSTR and PBR for propylene oxide production.

Hill, A.H.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.; Akin, C.A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Hayes, T.D.; Frank, J.R. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1990-01-01

151

Bench-scale studies on gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of bench-scale studies on the development of catalysts for conversion of biomass to specific gas products. The primary objective of these studies was to define operating conditions that allow long lifetimes for secondary catalysts used in biomass gasification. Nickel-based catalysts that were found to be active for conversion of wood to synthesis gases in previous studies were evaluated. These catalysts remained active indefinitely in laboratory studies but lost activity rapidly when evaluated in a process research unit. Bench-scale equipment was designed and installed to resolve the differences between laboratory and PRU results. Primary catalysts (alkali carbonates) were also evaluated for their effectiveness in improving conversion yields from biomass gasification. 21 refs., 27 figs., 19 tabs.

Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Wilcox, W.A.

1987-11-01

152

Bench-scale fixation of soils from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the result of a bench-scale soil-fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits Superfund Site. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization\\/solidification) is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immobilization of contaminants via sorption or chemical reaction and physical transformation of the soil into a firm, impervious 'monolith.' Fixation has been used

Rupp

1989-01-01

153

Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Wahlquist, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

1996-07-01

154

Bone-Bound Glucoamylase as a Biocatalyst in Bench-Scale Production of Glucose Syrups from Liquefied Cassava Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assesses the bench-scale application of a non-conventional support, bone particles, for glucoamylase (GA) immobilization\\u000a and its subsequent use in cassava starch hydrolysis. Upon determining the appropriate conditions to immobilize GA onto chicken\\u000a bone particles, such as pH, ionic strength, particle size, and enzyme load, bench-scale immobilization of commercial GA without\\u000a further purification was performed. Under the selected conditions,

Cecilia Carpio; Fabricio Escobar; Francisco Batista-Viera; Jenny Ruales

2011-01-01

155

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, February--December 31, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is an annual progress report of DOE-sponsored process development work on the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The work consists of laboratory bench-scale investigations and process engineering design studies. A bench scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been planned to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The design of subunit I, which models the main

G. Caprioglio; J. D. de Graaf; K. H. McCorkle; J. H. Norman; T. Ohno; J. L. Russell; G. C. Webb

1978-01-01

156

Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives  

SciTech Connect

ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

Durham, M.D.

1993-08-13

157

Methods to avoid post-filtration precipitation in treatment of high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant currently under construction for treating high level waste at the Hanford Site will rely on ultrafiltration to provide solids liquid separation as a core part of the treatment process. A series of bench-scale simulant tests have been performed to evaluate the potential for post-filtration precipitation. These tests focused on identifying precipitation from a range of potential feed compositions and providing the data required to evaluate mitigation options. A series of tests were performed using a variety of simulant samples. These tests identified the expected extent of supersaturation that develops under normal operations and identified and characterized the solids phases that are expected to form when the filtrate solutions are stored. In addition, tests identified the potential to mitigate the formation of these solids through both dilution and the application of increased temperature.

Russell, Renee L.; Snow, Lanee A.; Peterson, Reid A.

2010-07-01

158

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Parker, R.J. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

1991-12-01

159

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. (Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Parker, R.J. (Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada))

1991-12-01

160

Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

1982-07-01

161

Bench-scale simulation of quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operating procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale.

Barbour, F.A. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)); Boysen, J.E. (Resource Technology Corp., Inc., Laramie, WY (United States))

1992-01-01

162

Bench-scale simulation of quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operating procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale.

Barbour, F.A. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Boysen, J.E. [Resource Technology Corp., Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

1992-06-01

163

Preliminary tests of overburden-material filtration and the capture-bag concept  

SciTech Connect

The experimental work described was performed to provide test data for the Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST) Damage Limitation Working Group. These preliminary tests explored techniques of shock absorption and aerosol filtration under transient airflow conditions. Two types of experiments were run using two separate apparatus. Nylon fabric capture bags were structurally tested on a small shock tube, and various filter media were tested for steady-state aerosol filtration efficiency during high pressure drops using a blowdown tube.

Horak, H.L.; Gregory, W.S.; Smith, P.R.; Beckett, M.A.

1981-07-01

164

Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel Bench-Scale Experiment Results  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent light water reactor fuel at bench-scale in a hot cell at the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex. The process involves the conversion of oxide fuel to metal by electrolytic means, which would then enable subsequent separation and recovery of actinides via existing electrometallurgical technologies, i.e., electrorefining. Four electrolytic reduction runs were performed at bench scale using ~500 ml of molten LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O electrolyte at 650 ºC. In each run, ~50 g of crushed spent oxide fuel was loaded into a permeable stainless steel basket and immersed into the electrolyte as the cathode. A spiral wound platinum wire was immersed into the electrolyte as the anode. When a controlled electric current was conducted through the anode and cathode, the oxide fuel was reduced to metal in the basket and oxygen gas was evolved at the anode. Salt samples were extracted before and after each electrolytic reduction run and analyzed for fuel and fission product constituents. The fuel baskets following each run were sectioned and the fuel was sampled, revealing an extent of uranium oxide reduction in excess of 98%.

Steven D. Herrmann

2007-04-01

165

Water Filtration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.|

Jacobsen, Erica K.

2004-01-01

166

In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 ?m. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 ?m and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 ?m. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

167

Characterization of a bench-scale system for studying the biodegradation of organic solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale system was developed that through its use contributes toward a more fundamental understanding of the composting process. The computer-controlled system maintained temperature and moisture levels within narrow ranges in thin layers of compost positioned on nylon mesh trays within the vessel. This system minimized complications caused by gradients observed in earlier systems. Specific O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} evolution rates were determined on the basis of dynamic mass balances. Water was introduced intermittently. Microbial biomass (ATP) was monitored at specific time intervals throughout the process. The system allows close observation of decomposition of feed materials at constant temperature and moisture levels throughout the process. 31 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Tseng, D.Y.; Chalmers, J.J.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Hoitink, H.A.J. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

168

Mild gasification technology development process: Task 3, Bench-scale char upgrading study, February 1988--November 1990  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop mild gasification technology and co-product utilization. The objective of Task 3 was to investigate the necessary steps for upgrading the mild gasification char into potential high-market-value solid products. Recommendations of the Task 1 market survey section formed the basis for selecting three value-added solid products from mild gasification char: form coke, smokeless fuel, and activated adsorbent char. The formation and testing for the form coke co-product involved an evaluation of its briquette strength and reactivity. The measured tensile strength and reactivity of the form coke sample briquettes were in the range of commercial coke, and development tests on a larger scale are recommended. The reaction rate of the form coke carbon with carbon dioxide at 1825{degree}F was measured using a standard procedure. A smokeless fuel briquette with limestone added to control sulfur can be made from mild gasification char in a simple manner. Test results have shown that briquettes with limestone have a heating value comparable to other solid fuels and the limestone can retain up to 88% of the sulfur during combustion in a simple bench-scale combustion test, almost all of it as a stable calcium sulfate. Adsorbent chars were prepared with a standard steam activation procedure and tested for a variety of pertinent property and performance values. Such adsorbents may be better suited for use in some areas, such as the adsorption of low-molecular-weight substances, because of the smaller pore sizes measured in the char. 5 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Knight, R.A.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

1990-12-01

169

A preliminary study of amorphous silica deposition in a bench-scale liquid fluidized bed heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of silica scale on heat transfer surfaces is a problem which must be solved before economic power generation from many high temperature geothermal brines will be possible. As a part of the liquid fluidized bed heat exchanger development project, a preliminary silica deposition study was conducted using a laboratory bench scale unit. The purpose of this study was to

K. L. Wagner; C. A. Allen

1976-01-01

170

Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Hot-gas desulfurization research utilizing regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents which can reduce the sulfur in coal gas to less than 20 ppMv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation is described. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} + 2H{sub 2}S {yields} 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O and Regeneration: 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 3O{sub 2} {yields} Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} + 2SO{sub 2}. The goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and Direct Sulfur Recovery (DSRP) technologies by: Scaling UP the zinc titanate reactor system; developing an integrated skid-mounted zinc titanate desulfurization-DSRP reactor system; testing the integrated system over an extended period with real coal-gas from an operating gasifier to quantify the degradative effect, if any, of the trace contaminants present in coal gas; developing an engineering database suitable for system scaleup; and designing, fabricating and commissioning a larger DSRP reactor system capable of operating on a six-fold greater volume of gas than the DSRP reactor used in the bench-scale field test.

Not Available

1994-10-01

171

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02

172

Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Culture isolation and selection studies are being performed in order to select the best biological system for bench-scale studies in producing ethanol from syngas components. Three isolates have been found which produce more than 2 g/L ethanol from CO and C0[sub 2]/H[sub 2] in batch culture. These low concentrations are actually quite promising since Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC, performs well in continuous culture but produces only small concentrations of ethanol in batch culture after several weeks of incubation. Two of the isolates have been utilized in the CSTR, where 90 percent CO conversions have been noted, while producing up to 2 g/L ethanol, in preliminary studies. CSTR studies will continue until steady state is reached. An anaerobic bacterium has been isolated from natural sources that converts the components of synthesis gas (CO, H[sub 2],C0[sub 2]) into ethanol. This organism, the only one known at that time to produce ethanol from synthesis gas, has been identified as a new clostridial strain and has been named Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC.

Not Available

1992-01-01

173

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2009-02-28

174

Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-20

175

Bench-scale study on zero excess activated sludge production process coupled with ozonation unit in membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this bench-scale study, two promising processes for minimizing excess activated sludge (EAS) production, i.e., membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sludge ozonation (SO), were coupled in this study into the MBR-SO process to treat domestic wastewater for 80 days, and the vital related operational factors were also investigated. Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and

Zheng Wang; Lin Wang; Bao Z. Wang; Yi F. Jiang; Shuo Liu

2008-01-01

176

Prefermentation to overcome nutrient limitations in food processing wastewater: Comparison of pilot- and bench-scale systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench- and a pilot-scale anaerobic\\/aerobic system were evaluated for the treatment of high strength tomato-processing wastewater. The pilot-scale anaerobic tank achieved better prefermentation of organic carbon and nitrogen than the bench-scale system, although overall system performance was comparable with more than 99% SBOD removal and 97% SCOD removal. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature effects were studied in the

Zhongda Xu; George Nakhla

2007-01-01

177

OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY FOR A FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS BENCH-SCALE REACTOR: EFFECT OF OBJECTIVE ELEMENTS ON OPTIMIZATION PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over an iron-based catalyst was developed for a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. Parametric sensitivity analysis found that inert fraction, H2\\/CO ratio, and inlet and wall temperatures are effective manipulated variables. Three optimization strategies, with different combinations of objective functions and manipulated variables, were suggested to optimize conditions using the genetic algorithm, and it was shown

Du-Yeong Hwang; Ji Hye Choi; Yun Ha Kim; Sang Bong Lee; Eun Duck Park; Myung-June Park

2011-01-01

178

A bench-scale aeration study using batch reactors on swine manure stabilization to control odour in post treatment storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale study on swine manure stabilization for odour control was conducted using batch aeration reactors. In trial 1, two aeration lengths, i.e., 0.5 and 4.0 day, were used under uncontrolled ambient temperature that increased gradually over the experimental period. While in trial 2, a 16.0-day aeration scheme was employed under constant 17°C. An airflow rate of 1.2L\\/s\\/m3 was used

ZhiJian Zhang; Jun Zhu; Keum J. Park

2006-01-01

179

Pretreatment of rice straw using an extrusion\\/extraction process at bench-scale for producing cellulosic ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of a twin-screw extrusion and an acid-catalyzed hot water extraction process performed at a bench-scale was used to prepare high monomeric xylose hydrolysate for cellulosic production. The influences of the screw speed (30–150rpm), barrel temperature (80–160°C) and corresponding specific mechanical energy of the extruder on the structural properties of the pretreated rice straw, sugar concentration and conversion were

Wen-Hua Chen; Yong-Yan Xu; Wen-Song Hwang; Jia-Baau Wang

2011-01-01

180

Removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in a bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to investigate the removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in both bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactors. The enzyme used in this application was a fungal tyrosinase [E.C. 1.14.18.1] immobilized in a system of chitosan and alginate. The immobilization matrix consisted of a chitosan matrix cross-linked with glutaraldehyde with

Lucila Ensuncho; Manuel Alvarez-Cuenca; Raymond L. Legge

2005-01-01

181

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978September 30, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and

G. Caprioglio; K. H. McCorkle; G. E. Besenbruch; J. S. Rode

1980-01-01

182

Anaerobic digestion of poultry manure: A bench-scale evaluation of methane yield and process monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Poultry manure from a commercial farm (caged layers) was fed to three 5-liter, intermittently-mixed, mesophilic anaerobic digesters on a daily basis. Large batches of manure were frozen, then thawed and diluted as needed to give a consistent composition through each phase of the study. Volatile solids (VS) destruction, methane yield (Yma), alkalinity, and other parameters were evaluated at fifteen operating configurations, with feed concentrations of 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0% VS and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 10 to 50 days. Effluent was partially decanted in two configurations to increase the solids retention time over the HRT by about 50%, and one configuration was a replicate to estimate experimental error. Digestion was successful at loading rates as high as 5.6 g VS per liter-day, although acclimation times as long as 5-7 HRTs were needed at start-up and between step-changes. The main problem at high loading rates was foam formation, which was controlled by chemical addition and increased mixing frequency. Grit and feathers were not serious problems at bench scale. VS destruction averaged 51.4% and was largely unaffected by HRT or feed concentration. Yma averaged 241 mls methane/g VS added, with low values in the 4.0% VS, 10-20 day HRT range. Yma also dropped 6% as the feed rose from 5.5% to 7.0 %. Batch (200 ml) bioassays indicated that the acetoclastic methanogens were not inhibited by volatile acids up to 5 g/l as HAc. Decant operation improved VS destruction slightly but had little effect on Yma. A double-endpoint alkalimetric technique was developed to rapidly and easily monitor digester performance.

Ripley, L.E.

1988-01-01

183

Impact of Experimental Factors in Soil Phosphorus Tests: Shaking Vessel, Filtration, and Centrifugation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis of Mehlich III, deionized water (DI), Bray, and Olsen soil phosphorus (P) extractions, variations in shaking vessel, centrifugation, and filter paper result in different soil test P (STP) values. Of these factors, centrifugation and type of filtration were found to have the greatest impact on the results of water?extractable P (WEP), that is, extraction with DI. Further

Daniel D. Ebeling; Joel G. Davis

2009-01-01

184

PILOT-SCALE FIELD TESTS OF HIGH-GRADIENT MAGNETIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of using a 5100 cu m/hr mobile pilot plant to evaluate the effectiveness and economics of applying high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to particulate emission control. A 4-1/2 month test program was conducted at a Pennsylvania sintering plant to char...

185

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1984-01-01

186

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-01-01

187

BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF SORBENT ADDITIVES FOR TRACE METAL CAPTURE AND RETENTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The suitability of six minerals; silica, diatomaceous earth, kaolin, bauxite, alumina and attapulgite clay, as potential sorbents for the capture and immobilization of trace metals was evaluated. he behavior of five trace metals; arsenic, cadmium, chromium,, lead and nickel was t...

188

Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program i...

G. L. Leatherman C. Cornelison S. Frank

1996-01-01

189

SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

ROBBINS RA

2011-02-11

190

BENCH-SCALE PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ECONOMIC ANALYSES OF ELECTROSTATIC DRY COAL CLEANING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of preliminary performance evaluations and economic analyses of the Advanced Energy Dynamics (AED) electrostatic dry coal-cleaning process. Grab samples of coal feed product coals were obtained from 25 operating physical coal cleaning (PCC) plants. These ...

191

Bench scale testing - Phase I, Task 4. Topical progress report, September 1994--January 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment.

NONE

1995-07-01

192

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A

R. F. Bauman; L. A. Coless; S. M. Davis; M. C. Poole; M. Y. Wen

1995-01-01

193

Filtration Systems, Inc. Report for SRS SpinTek Rotary Microfilter Testing  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) contracted with Filtration Systems, Inc to conduct a microfiltration test using their SpinTek Centrifugal filter and 5.6 M sodium, average salt solution simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste. The purpose of the test was to evaluate the centrifugal filter as a possible replacement for the Mott crossflow filters in the current design of the alpha removal flowsheet.

Poirier, M.R.

2001-06-27

194

Filtration Systems, Inc. Report for SRS SpinTek Rotary Microfilter Testing  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) contracted with Filtration Systems, Inc to conduct a microfiltration test using their SpinTek Centrifugal filter and 5.6 M sodium, average salt solution simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste. The purpose of the test was to evaluate the centrifugal filter as a possible replacement for the Mott crossflow filters in the current design of the alpha removal flowsheet.

Poirier, M.R.

2001-06-07

195

Test of fabric filtration materials. Final report Jun 73Dec 78  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes pilot scale and laboratory tests of U.S. and Polish woven baghouse fabrics. Cotton, polyester, aramid, and glass fabrics were tested using cement, flyash, coal, and talc dusts at loadings of about 10 g\\/cu m, filtration velocities of 60 and 80 cu m\\/sq m, and ambient temperature and humidity. General conclusions reached were: (1) air permeability is a

J. R. Koscianowski; L. Koscianowska; M. Szablewicz

1979-01-01

196

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCP- AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: SOLID-PHASE BIOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. urface s...

197

Removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in a bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to investigate the removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in both bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactors. The enzyme used in this application was a fungal tyrosinase [E.C. 1.14.18.1] immobilized in a system of chitosan and alginate. The immobilization matrix consisted of a chitosan matrix cross-linked with glutaraldehyde with an aliginate-filled pore space. This support matrix showed superior mechanical properties along with retaining the unique adsorptive characteristics of the chitosan. Adsorption of the o-quinone product by the chitosan reduced tyrosinase inactivation that is normally observed for this enzyme under these conditions. This approach allowed reuse of the enzyme in repeated batch applications. For the bench scale reactor (1.2-l capacity) more than 92% of the phenol could be removed from the feed water using an immobilized enzyme volume of 18.5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 150 min. Removal rates decreased with subsequent batch runs. For the pilot scale fluidized bed (60 l), 60% phenol removal was observed with an immobilized enzyme volume of 5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 7 h. Removal decreased to 45% with a repeat batch run with the same immobilized enzyme. PMID:15765216

Ensuncho, Lucila; Alvarez-Cuenca, Manuel; Legge, Raymond L

2005-03-12

198

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

1980-03-01

199

Dot-immunogold filtration assay as a screening test for syphilis.  

PubMed

A dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for the rapid detection of reaginic antibody in the serum of syphilitic patients was developed. The assay was simple, rapid, and reproducible. The test completion time was 2 min, and the assay required no equipment. The positive dot was very obvious, and the results could easily be determined with the naked eye. A total of 350 serum samples were examined by DIGFA, the rapid plasma reagin test, and the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test. The levels of agreement between DIGFA and the rapid reagin test and between DIGFA and the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test were 100 and 98%, respectively. The results of clinical application indicated that DIGFA could be used as a routine screening test for syphilis. PMID:8818901

Huang, Q; Lan, X; Tong, T; Wu, X; Chen, M; Feng, X; Liu, R; Tang, Y; Zhu, Z

1996-08-01

200

Influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances on colour removal by coagulation and filtration.  

PubMed

This study aims to verify the influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances (AHSs) on the effectiveness of coagulation with aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. Coagulation-filtration tests using the jar test and bench-scale sand filters were carried out with water samples having a true colour of approximately 100 Hazen units and prepared with AHSs of different molecular sizes. Stability diagrams are presented showing regions of > or = 90% and > or = 95% apparent colour removal delineated for each water sample using plots of total metal ion concentration (Al3+ and Fe3+) versus coagulation pH. To achieve the same degree of colour removal, the water samples with smaller apparent molecular sizes and a higher percentage of fulvic acids required higher dosages of both aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. PMID:22439564

Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

2011-12-01

201

An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of 137 Cesium from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions 2: Bench-Scale Column Experiments, Modeling, and Preliminary Process Design  

SciTech Connect

A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4?3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales.

Troy J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschagina; V. Utgikar

2009-03-01

202

Development of a standard bench-scale cell for electrochemical studies on inert anodes. Inert Anode/Cathode Program  

SciTech Connect

Objective of this work was to develop a standard bench-scale cell for performing short-term ac and dc polarization studies on inert anode candidate materials in molten cryolite. Two designs for electrochemical cells were developed and successfully evaluated in short-term experiments. Both cells consisted on the inert anode as a small cylindrical specimen partially sheathed in alumina, an Al/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ reference electrode, and a cryolite bath saturated in alumina. The difference between the two cells was in the design of the cathode. One cell used a bare solid metal cathode; the other used an aluminum pad similar to the Hall-Heroult configuration.

Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Boget, D.I.

1986-07-01

203

Pretreatment of rice straw using an extrusion/extraction process at bench-scale for producing cellulosic ethanol.  

PubMed

A combination of a twin-screw extrusion and an acid-catalyzed hot water extraction process performed at a bench-scale was used to prepare high monomeric xylose hydrolysate for cellulosic production. The influences of the screw speed (30-150 rpm), barrel temperature (80-160 °C) and corresponding specific mechanical energy of the extruder on the structural properties of the pretreated rice straw, sugar concentration and conversion were investigated. The optimal condition for the extrusion step was determined to be 40 rpm with 3% H2SO4 at 120 °C; the optimal condition for the extraction step was determined to be 130 °C for 20 min. After the pretreatment at the optimal condition, 83.7% of the xylan was converted to monomeric xylose, and the concentration reached levels of 53.7 g/L. Finally, after the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, an 80% yield of the total saccharification was obtained. PMID:21958526

Chen, Wen-Hua; Xu, Yong-Yan; Hwang, Wen-Song; Wang, Jia-Baau

2011-09-10

204

Glomerular filtration rate  

MedlinePLUS

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates ... with several other factors to estimate your glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Different formulas are used for adults ...

205

Full-Scale/Bench-Scale Correlations of Wall and Ceiling Linings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A complete testing and classification system requires both small- and large-scale test methods. In this article such a system is outlined employing the Cone Calorimeter and the Room/corner test for testing on a small and large scale, respectively. Transla...

U. Wickstroem U. Goeransson

1992-01-01

206

Shift Conversion and Methanation in Coal Gasification: Bench-Scale Evaluation of a Sulfur Resistant Catalyst. Quarterly Progress Report, January 1-March 31, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term bench-scale study described in the preceding quarterly report demonstrated the degree of improvement in specific methanation activity, lifetime, and sulfur resistance exhibited by the new iridium promoted nickel-on-alumina catalyst (Ir/Ni/Al...

B. J. Wood D. Sheridan J. G. McCarty C. M. Ablow H. Wise

1980-01-01

207

Conversion of biomass materials into gaseous products. Phase II. Interim technical report for the bench scale pilot plant studies. [Multiple hearth reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the thermal conversion of manure into gaseous materials has been performed. A bench scale pilot plant simulating the individual hearths of a multiple hearth reactor was constructed and the processing steps of drying, pyrolysis, steam-char reaction, and combustion were individually studied. Some runs were made on all of the processing steps, but emphasis was given to the

D. E. Garrett; R. D. Mikesell; D. C. Hoang

1978-01-01

208

A Comparative Study of Bench-Scale Flammability Properties of Electric Cables with Different Covering Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cone calorimeter tests were conducted on eight different elec tric cable samples at four different external heat flux levels between 20 and 50 kW\\/m2. Four of the cable samples were sheathed with PVC-based materi als and four with polyolefin-based materials. Some of the cone calorimeter test results were compared with those of the horizontally ventilated laboratory-scale gallery fire test and

Yuichi Nakagawa

1998-01-01

209

Co-Firing of Sewage Sludge with Bark in A Bench-Scale Bubbling Fluidized BED — A Study of Deposits and Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that addition of either sulfur and/or aluminosilicates such as kaolinite may reduce alkali induced deposit formation when firing biomass fuels. Sewage sludge is a fuel containing substantial amounts of sulfur and aluminosilicates, such as zeolites. In this work different amounts of sewage sludge (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%en) were co-fired with bark in a bench-scale BFB. SO2 and HCl emissions were measured and deposits were sampled during 3 hrs with an air-cooled probe with a surface temperature of 500°C at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 850°C and 650°C, respectively. The test results showed that an increase of the share of sewage sludge to the fuel mixture increased theformation of HCl and simultaneously decreased the Cl-content in the deposits. Usually this is considered to be a sign of sulfation of alkali chlorides. However, the increase of HCl canalso be caused by AI-silicates capturing alkali, thus releasing Cl as HCl to the gas phase. AIthough, sulfur increased in the fuel input with an increased share of sewage sludge, this was not reflected in the gaseous emissions as may be expected. Up to 4%en sewage sludge was fired together with bark without increasing the sulfur content in theemissions. At higher shares of sewage sludge the sulfur emissions increased linearly with an increase of sewage sludge. The amount of water soluble potassium fed into the boiler remained relatively constant in the different tests. This potassium is usually released as volatile salts. Nevertheless, the amount found in deposits decreased with an increase in sludge feeding. In this paper it was shown that interaction of potassium with AI-silicates in the bed is a probable cause for the decrease of potassium in the deposits, while both the sulfation of potassium chlorides and possibly also, the alkali capture by AI-silicates can weaken the deposition of Cl.

Yrjas, Patrik; Aho, Martti; Zevenhoven, Maria; Taipale, Raili; Silvennoinen, Jaani; Hupa, Mikko

210

Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste i...

1997-01-01

211

Comparison of toxic product yields from bench-scale to ISO room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic products are the main cause of fire injuries and deaths, but available methods for measuring or calculating toxic product yields have severe limitations. Full-scale or large-scale experimental re-creations of fire scenarios are sometimes used for the assessment of toxic hazard, but such tests are expensive, while small-scale or even larger-scale tests often provide poor simulations of full-scale conditions. From

A. A. Stec; T. R. Hull; J. A. Purser; D. A. Purser

2009-01-01

212

SCREENING/FLOTATION TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. VOLUME I. BENCH SCALE AND PILOT PLANT INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A four-layer sinusoidal sandwich plate structure, reinforced with micro concrete grout next to the skin faces and hydrostatically pressurized with hydraulic fluid internally is subjected to transverse load tests. The plate is simply supported on all four sides, and its stiffness ...

213

In situ encapsulation bench-scale demonstration report FY-94 (for TTP-ID 142012)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the test objectives, procedures, and results of the laboratory-scale tests of in situ waste encapsulation of buried waste using a synthetic analogue of natural cement. The products of the reaction FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O + Ca(OH){sub 2} = gypsum and iron oxide/hydroxide were examined as a possible waste encapsulation material for application at the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This technique for transuranic waste encapsulation is being pursued by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration as a possible candidate containment and stabilization method for geologic time. The data indicate that the iron waste encapsulation materials tested are appropriate choices for the intended purpose. Based on these observations and conclusions, full-scale tests are recommended to determine the performance of the iron waste isolation materials under field conditions and for extended time periods. The viscosity of the reagents indicates that jet grouting is probably an appropriate application method.

Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

1995-01-01

214

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test design and initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Fool boilers offer simplicity in desip and fabrication. Pool-boiler solar receiver operation has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, in order to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate without significant

C. E. Andraka; S. A. Jones; J. B. Moreno; T. A. Moss

1993-01-01

215

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without

C. E. Andraka; S. H. Goods; R. W. Bradshaw; J. B. Moreno; T. A. Moss; S. A. Jones

1994-01-01

216

WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for measurements. All of the cured grouts were measured for bleed and set. All of the cured grouts satisfied the bleed and set requirements, where no bleed water was observed on any of the grout samples after one day and all had set within 3 days of curing. This data indicates, for a well mixed product, bleed and set requirement are satisfied for the range of acidic feeds tested in this task. The yield stress measurements provide both an indication on the mixability of the salt solution with dry materials and an indication of how quickly the grout is starting to form structure. The inability to properly mix these two streams into a well mixed grout product will lead to a non-homogeneous mixture that will impact product quality. Product quality issues could be unmixed regions of dry material and hot spots having high concentrations of americium 241. Mixes that were more difficult to incorporate typically resulted in grouts with higher yield stresses. The mixability from these tests will provide Waste Solidification Building (WSB) an indication of which grouts will be more challenging to mix. The first yield stress measurements were statistically compared to a list of variables, specifically the batched chemicals used to make the acidic solutions. The first yield stress was also compared to the physical properties of the acidic solutions, physical and pH properties of the neutralized/pH adjusted solutions, and chemical and physical properties of the grout.

Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

2009-03-20

217

Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of olive pomace after solvent extraction and charcoal produced from the solid waste of olive oil press industry was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch tests showed that up to 80% of dye was removed when the dye concentration was 10mg\\/ml and the sorbent concentration was 45mg\\/ml. An

F. Banat; S. Al-Asheh; R. Al-Ahmad; F. Bni-Khalid

2007-01-01

218

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations, and process engineering. Final report, February 1977-December 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle is characterized by the following three reactions: 2H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + 2HI; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/; and 2HI ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/. This cycle was developed at General Atomic after several critical features in the above reactions were discovered. These involved phase separations, catalytic reactions, etc. Estimates of the energy efficiency of this economically reasonable advanced state-of-the-art processing unit produced sufficiently high values (to approx.47%) to warrant cycle development effort. The DOE contract was largely directed toward the engineering development of this cycle, including a small demonstration unit (CLCD), a bench-scale unit, engineering design, and costing. The work has resulted in a design that is projected to produce H/sub 2/ at prices not yet generally competitive with fossil-fuel-produced H/sub 2/ but are projected to be favorably competitive with respect to H/sub 2/ from fossil fuels in the future.

Norman, J.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Brown, L.C.; O'Keefe, D.R.; Allen, C.L.

1982-05-01

219

Alternative biological-treatment processes for remediation of creosote- and PCP-contaminated materials: Bench-scale treatability studies  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: solid-phase bioremediation or slurry-phase bioremediation. When indigenous microorganisms were employed as biocatalysts, solid-phase bioremediation was slow and ineffective (8-12 weeks required to biodegrade >50% of resident organics). Biodegradation was limited to lower-molecular-weight constituents rather than the more hazardous, higher-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds; PCP and HMW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing 4 or more fused rings resisted biological attach. Moreover, supplementation with aqueous solution of inorganic nutrients had little effect on the overall effectiveness of the treatment strategy. Alternatively, slurry-phase bioremediation was much more effective: >50% of targeted organics were biodegraded in 14 days. Again, however, more persistent contaminants, such as PCP and HMW PAHs, were not extensively degraded when subjected to the action of indigenous microorganisms.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattman, B.O.; Middaugh, D.P.; Chapman, P.J.

1991-03-01

220

Computational fluid dynamics assessment. Volume 2: Isothermal simulations of the METC bench-scale coal-water slurry combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isothermal turbulent, swirling flow inside the METC pressurized bench scale combustor was simulated using ISOPCGC-2. The effects of the swirl numbers, the momentum ratio of the primary to secondary streams, the annular wall thickness, and the quarl angle on the flow and mixing patterns were investigated. The results that with the present configuration of the combustor, an annular recirculation zone is present up to secondary swirl number of four. A central (on axis) recirculation zone can be obtained by increasing the momentum of the secondary stream by decreasing the annular area at the reactor inlet. The mixing of the primary (fuel carrier) air with the secondary air improves only slightly due to swirl unless a central recirculation zone is present. Good mixing is achieved in the quarl region when a central recirculation zone is present. A preliminary investigation of the influence of placing flow regulators inside the combustor shows that they influence the flow field significantly and that there is a potential of obtaining optimum flow conditions using these flow regulators.

Celik, Ismail; Chattree, Mayank

1988-09-01

221

Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

Eakin, D.E.

1996-03-01

222

Urinary schistosomiasis: testing with urine filtration and reagent sticks for haematuria provides a comparable prevalence estimate.  

PubMed

The relationship between school prevalence rates of urinary schistosomiasis, measured by urine filtration and by reagent sticks detecting haematuria, was investigated in nine primary schools in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to provide a methodological tool to compare results from studies that used these two different diagnostic techniques. A strong correlation was found between both measures (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001), and the equation of this linear relationship could be used to extrapolate the parasitological prevalence rate on the basis of the reagent stick testing, or the reverse. A review of the available literature indicated that the relationship holds true for certain settings, mainly in East Africa, but not for others, and it is therefore likely to be setting-specific. The same data demonstrated also a good relationship, at school level, between the mean school parasitological intensity and the sensitivity of the reagent sticks. A comparative testing of two different reagent stick brands (Hemastix and Combur 9) on 320 samples showed that the latter detected about 1.2-times more haematuria positives, and that this had also to be taken into account when aiming for a comparison of different techniques. PMID:8096108

Lengeler, C; Mshinda, H; Morona, D; deSavigny, D

1993-03-01

223

Comparison of two online flocculation monitoring techniques for predicting turbidity removal by granular media filtration.  

PubMed

Particulate matter removal in drinking water treatment via direct granular filtration requires specific flocculation conditions (a process typically termed 'high energy flocculation'). Predicting filtered water turbidity based on flocculated water characteristics remains difficult. This study has sought to establish a relationship between filtered water turbidity and the flocculated water characteristics. Flocculation oflow-turbidity raw water was evaluated online using a Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA) and a Dynamic Particle Analyser in a modified jar test followed by a bench-scale anthracite filter. Coagulants used were alum, PASS100 and ferric sulphate, in addition to a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) cationic polymer. They were dosed in warm and cold waters, and flocculated with intensities (G) from 0 to 100 s(-1). Of the two instruments selected to analyse flocculation performance, the Dynamic Particle Analyser was shown to be the most sensitive, detecting small changes in floc growth kinetics and even floc growth under low flocculation conditions which remained undetected by the PDA. Floc size was shown to be insufficient in predicting particulate matter removal by direct granular filtration as measured by turbidity, although a threshold d(v) value (50 microm) could be identified for the test conditions evaluated in this project, above which turbidity was systematically lower than 0.2 NTU. PMID:21882562

Ball, T; Carrière, A; Barbeau, B

2011-07-01

224

Baghouse Filtration Products Verification Testing, How it Benefits the Boiler Baghouse Opearator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for baghouse filtration products developed by the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center, one of six Centers under the ETV Program, and discusses how it benefits boi...

J. Farmer J. Mycock J. Turner

2002-01-01

225

Photocatalytic degradation of triazinic ring-containing azo dye (Reactive Red 198) by using immobilized TiO 2 photoreactor: Bench scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization and degradation of triazinic ring-containing azo dye by using TiO2-immobilized photoreactor is reported. A simple and easy method was used for the immobilization of photocatalyst. Reactive Red 198 (RR 198) was used as model compound. Photocatalytic degradation processes were performed using a 5L (bench scale) solution containing dye. Batch mode immersion type method was used for the treatment

Niyaz Mohammad Mahmoodi; Mokhtar Arami; Nargess Yousefi Limaee

2006-01-01

226

Immobilized lipase-mediated long-chain fatty acid esterification in dense carbon dioxide: bench-scale packed-bed reactor study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-chain fatty acid esters are useful functional molecules responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and lubricant industry. In the present work, lipase-catalysed production of n-octyl oleate by esterification of oleic acid with 1-octanol in dense CO2, as reaction medium, was performed in bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for

Chiara Giulia Laudani; Maja Habulin; Željko Knez; Giovanna Della Porta; Ernesto Reverchon

2007-01-01

227

Hydropyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse: effect of sample configuration on bio-oil yields and structures from two bench-scale reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire-mesh reactor, with the capability of virtually eliminating secondary reactions, has been used as base-case in the study of product yields and structures from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of a sample of sugar cane bagasse in a fixed-bed `hot-rod' reactor. Results from the two reactors have been compared to determine how best to assess bench-scale data which might be

R. V. Pindoria; I. N. Chatzakis; J.-Y. Lim; A. A. Herod; D. R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

1999-01-01

228

Molecular indicators of Nitrobacter spp. population and growth activity during an induced inhibition event in a bench scale nitrification reactor.  

PubMed

The Nitrobacter spp. ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and transcript (rRNAt) abundance were quantified in a bench scale nitrification reactor during baseline periods of high nitrification efficiency and an intervening staged inhibition event. The transcript to gene ratio (rRNAt/rDNA) was highly sensitive to changes in the reactor nitrite oxidation rate. During high nitrification efficiency, the rRNAt/rDNA metric displayed a range from 0.68 to 2.01 with one-sided (?=0.10) lower and upper prediction intervals of 0.70 and 1.78, respectively. When nitrification was inhibited by disabling the reactor pH control system, this activity metric declined an order of magnitude to ? 0.05, well below the lower prediction interval reflecting high nitrification efficiency. The decline was rapid (2h) and preceded a significant drop in reactor nitrification performance, which occurred as ammonia accumulated. The rRNAt/rDNA ratio remained low (? 0.05) for several days after the pH control system was re-enabled at a setpoint of 8.0, which otherwise induced rapid oxidation of accumulated ammonia and produced high free ammonia concentrations. The timing of a subsequent increase in the rRNAt/rDNA ratio, which transiently exceeded the upper prediction interval established during the baseline period of high nitrification efficiency, was not coincidental with resumption of pH control at 7.2 that lowered free ammonia concentrations to non-inhibitory levels. Rather, nitrite oxidation resumed and the rRNAt/rDNA ratio increased only after oxidation of accumulated ammonia was complete, which was coincidental with reduced reactor oxygen demand. In summary, the Nitrobacter rRNAt/rDNA activity metric reflected timely and easily recognizable changes in nitrite oxidation activity, illustrating that molecular data can be used to diagnose poor biological wastewater treatment performance. PMID:22289677

Hawkins, Shawn; Robinson, Kevin; Layton, Alice; Sayler, Gary

2012-01-11

229

Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation and Crossflow Filtration of 241-AN-102 Large C  

SciTech Connect

This work provides an important confirmation of the new strontium/permanganate precipitation process to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C (Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107) wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. As a bench-scale demonstration, a series of seven precipitation batches and crossflow filtration campaigns were performed to remove strontium-90 and transuranics from 16.5 liters of Tank 241-AN-102 ''Large C'' supernatant liquid containing entrained solids.

Nash, C.A.

2001-05-21

230

Liquid filtration  

SciTech Connect

Liquid filtration is a fundamental unit operation practiced extensively throughout the chemical process, petroleum, and allied industries. This book is a state-of-the-art review of this operation. The text reviews specific design and selection criteria, both theoretical and practical. There are many actual industrial problems given as a means of further elucidating the principles of filtration that are presented. All of the options and methods for equipment and component functions, as well as engineering design routes, are examined in detail, and optimum systems and functions are specified. Major Sections: Hydrodynamics of Flows Through Porous Media; Introduction to Filtration; Governing Laws of Cake Filtration; Governing Laws of Filter-Medium Filtration; Application of Filter Aids; Filter Media; Cake Washing; Cake Dewatering; Design Equations for Optimum Filtration; Summary of Graphical Analysis Techniques; Liquid Filtration Equipment; Ultrafiltration; Microporous Membrane Filtration; Industrial Applications of Reverse Osmosis Selection and Sizing of Prefilter/Final Filter Systems; Filtration Design Examples; Index.

Cheremisinoff, N.P.; Azbel, D.S.

1983-01-01

231

Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system  

SciTech Connect

Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation. The oxidant, or mediator, is a multivalent transition metal ion which is cleanly recycled in a number of charge transfer steps in an electrochemical cell. The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70{degrees}C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques. Although the oxidation of organics and the dissolution of transuranics by higher valency metal ions has been known for some time, applying the MEO technology to waste treatment is a relatively recent development. Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results from several other mediator/acid combinations will be included. Data obtained on the chemical, electrochemical, and engineering aspects will be presented. The topics of organics destruction, transuranic recovery, and some of the ancillary systems will be addressed, and areas requiring further study will be mentioned.

Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

1997-02-01

232

Numerical simulation of competitive aerobic / anaerobic hydrocarbon plume biodegradation in two-dimensional bench scale lab-experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biodegradation of oxidizable hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface requires the presence of compatible microbial communities as well as sufficient amounts of electron acceptors and nutrients. In this context, transverse mixing, driven by dispersion and diffusion, is one of the main mechanisms governing the availability of dissolved electron acceptors at a hydrocarbon plume fringe. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons limited by transverse mixing has been studied experimentally in 2D bench-scale flow-through tanks, filled with a saturated porous medium. Flow of groundwater through the tanks was induced by pumping water at one side through injection ports, and simultaneously extracting water at the other side of the tank. An ethylbenzene plume was established by injection through the central inlet port. A mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopomers was used in order to investigate the spatial distribution of degradation processes via monitoring of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation. In the first phase of the experiment, aerobic biodegradation was studied. For this purpose, the tank was recharged with water containing oxygen as a dissolved electron acceptor and the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 was inoculated. Later, nitrate was added to the recharge water as an additional electron acceptor and the denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was amended to study competitive aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation. A numerical reactive transport model of the experiment was set up for a model based interpretation of the observed degradation patterns. In a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the relevant hydrodynamic parameters on the observable distributions of ethylbenzene isotopomers, oxygen and nitrate was studied. Subsequent model calibration allowed for a good agreement with ethylbenzene concentrations measured at the tank outlet ports as well as oxygen concentrations, which were measured at several profiles perpendicular to the flow direction along the plume. Simulated microbial growth was strongest near the central tank inlet, where both, oxygen and ethylbenzene were available at high concentrations, and along the transverse mixing zone at the fringe of the developed ethylbenzene plume. Model based interpretation of the aerobic/anaerobic phase with competitive biodegradation proved to be ambiguous due to uncertainties regarding the actual stoichiometry of the specific denitrification reaction. Also, the simulated isotopic patterns were very sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the A. aromaticum EbN1 biomass. Ethylbenzene concentrations and isotopic patterns predicted by the numerical model match the measurements quite well for the first half of the aerobic/anaerobic phase. A distinct increase in biodegradation dynamics later on hints at a change in biodegradation dynamics during the course of the experiment.

Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.

2011-12-01

233

Field Testing and Modeling of the Fenton-Filtration Process for Arsenic Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fenton-filtration process has been found to lower the arsenic (As) concentration in groundwater below the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (ig/L). Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the addition of supplemental iron (Fe) to im...

G. R. Peyton S. D. Wilson T. R. Holm

2008-01-01

234

Development and Testing of a Novel Mechanical Device for Dewatering Peat. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, July 1-September 30, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Phase I, a bench-scale IRC press was designed fabricated, and tested. The results obtained from the testing of the bench-scale IRC press (3 inch-diameter outer roll and 2 inch-diameter inner roll) demonstrated that the IRC press can dewater the peat to...

1986-01-01

235

Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Summary of bench-scale tests for FY 1986 and FY 1987  

SciTech Connect

Processes to reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acid are being demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids such as HF-HNO/sub 3/, etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and HNO/sub 3/ strip solution containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup -/ to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup -2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in a downstream precipitation step. 10 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

Stewart, T.L.

1987-09-01

236

Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

Bílek, Petr; Šidlof, Petr; Hr?za, Jakub

2012-04-01

237

Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Solid-phase bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. Surface soil and sediment were contaminated with approximately 1 and 7% (weight basis) organic pollutants, respectively, but the more recalcitrant creosote constituents (i.e., high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were proportionately higher in the surface soil indicative of creosote weathering. Data suggest that full-scale site remediation employing solid-phase bioremediation strategies may not effectively meet acceptable treatment standards in the time defining these studies.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattmann, B.O.; Chapman, P.J.

1991-01-01

238

Filtration: Principles and practices. 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

This new book is the most authoritative and comprehensive guide to essential, state-of-the-art data. It provides the very latest theoretical and practical data on filtration for gas and liquids. The 2nd edition has been revised and updated to include several new chapters which detail filtration in the mineral industry, high-efficiency air filtration, cartridge filters, and ultrafiltration. The contents include: Gas filtration theory; Liquid-filtration theory; Filter media; Industrial gas filtration; Filtration pretreatment; Filtration in the chemical process industry; Ultrafiltration; Filtration in the mineral industry; Filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; Cartridge filtration; High-efficiency air filtration; Analytical applications of filtration; and Filter evaluation and testing.

Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

1998-12-31

239

Smart Application of Direct Gas Injection using a new conceptual model on Coherent and Incoherent Flow: From Bench Scale to Field Scale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the OXYWALL field experiment we developed the direct gas injection (DGI) of oxygen as a remediation technology, which allows the cost-efficient and large-scale cleaning of groundwater contaminated with organic contaminants. That technology can be used as wide-banded, unselective remediation method for complex contaminant mixtures. Particularly, it could be proofed in field experiments that mineral oil hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), the rather persistent gasoline component Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), and chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, like Trichloroethene and Monochlorobenzene, can be aerobically metabolized by autochthon microorganisms. Over the last 8 years the field site was investigated and a dense monitoring network was installed using Geoprobe direct- push technology and standard hydrogeological investigations were conducted, like EC-Logs, Injections-Logs, Gamma-Logs, TDR-probes, oxygen measurements with in-situ optodes, and tracer test with test gases SF6, Ar, and Oxygen. The key parameter for controling and regulating the DGI is the spatial and temporal distribution of the gas phase. High-resolution optical bench scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate local gas flow pattern and integral flow properties caused by point-like gas injection into water-saturated glass beads and natural sands. We observed a grain-size (dk)- and flow-rate (Q) dependent transition from incoherent to coherent flow. Conceptualizing the stationary tortuous gas flow as core-annulus flow and applying Hagen- Poiseuille flow for a straight capillary, we propose a flow-rate- and grain-size dependent stability criterion that could describe our experimental results and was used for classifying the experiments in a dk-Q-diagram (flow chart). Since DGI simulations are mainly based on continuum models, we also test the validity of the continuum approach for two-fluid flow in macroscopic homogeneous media by comparing our experimental flow pattern with the theoretical ones. It was found that a pulse-like function yields the best fit for the lateral gas saturation profile. This strange behaviour of a relatively sharp saturation transition is in contradiction to the widely anticipated picture of a smooth Gaussian-like transition, which is obtained by the continuum approach. Based on lab experiments, the proposed flow chart, and computer simulations the DGI-technology will be advanced and optimized at the field scale. A proper application of continuum models to direct gas injection should check, whether stable coherent flow is achieved; estimate the coherence length, and account for the channelized flow pattern by a realistic capillary pressure - saturation relationship. Further research is needed for modeling of direct gas injection to include appropriate stability criteria, the transition from coherent to incoherent flow, and bubble trapping. Geistlinger, H., Krauss, G., Lazik, D., and Luckner, L. (2006) Direct gas injection into saturated glass beads: transition from incoherent to coherent gas flow pattern. Water Resour. Res., 42 (7) W07403. Lazik, D., G. Krauss, H. Geistlinger, and H.-J. Vogel (2008) Multi-scale optical analyses of dynamic gas saturation during air sparging into glass beads, Transp. Porous Media. 74, 87-104.

Geistlinger, H.; Samani, S.; Pohlert, M.; Martienssen, M.; Engelmann, F.; Hüttmann, S.

2008-12-01

240

Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Slurry-phase bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. Aqueous slurries, containing 0.05% Triton X-100 to facilitate the soil washing process and to help stabilize the suspensions, were prepared from sediment and surface soil freshly obtained from the American Creosote Works Superfund site at Pensacola, Florida. Excluding PCP, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene and indeno(123-cd)pyrene, slurry-phase bioremediation of highly contaminated sediment (pH adjusted) resulted in rapid and extensive biodegradation (3-5 days to biodegrade > 50% of targeted compounds) of monitored constituents. Data suggest that slurry-phase bioremediation strategies can be effectively employed to remediate creosote-contaminated materials.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattmann, B.O.; Chapman, P.J.

1991-01-01

241

Design of a Test Kit for Determining Polyelectrolyte Dosages Prior to Direct Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a test kit which could be used for on-site prediction of the polymer dosage required for direct filtrtion of water sources such as streams and rivers. Criteria established for the test kit are that it be simple, ru...

R. C. Scholz M. L. Holcomb

1981-01-01

242

Offshore filtration testing and analysis of seawater for oil-field injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high rate media-type filter developed for water injection applications has been tested on a 400 BWPD (barrels of water per day) pilot plant to gather data on water quality achievable on equipment practical for offshore oil production installations. This work has been spread over 13 offshore locations around the world in seven different seas that represent a wide variety

J. B. Cappi; H. R. Blagden

1981-01-01

243

Filtration by eyelashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

2010-11-01

244

CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

1999-10-01

245

Photocatalytic degradation of triazinic ring-containing azo dye (Reactive Red 198) by using immobilized TiO2 photoreactor: bench scale study.  

PubMed

The decolorization and degradation of triazinic ring-containing azo dye by using TiO(2)-immobilized photoreactor is reported. A simple and easy method was used for the immobilization of photocatalyst. Reactive Red 198 (RR 198) was used as model compound. Photocatalytic degradation processes were performed using a 5 L (bench scale) solution containing dye. Batch mode immersion type method was used for the treatment of dye solution. UV-vis, ion chromatography (IC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses were employed to evaluate the results of the photocatalytic degradation of RR 198. Dye solution was completely decolorized in relatively short time (35 min) after UV irradiation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results verified that all of the dye molecules were destructed. Kinetics analysis indicates that the dye photocatalytic decolorization rates followed first order model (R(2) = 0.99). Ion chromatography analysis was used to investigate the formation and destruction of aliphatic carboxylic acids and formation of inorganic anions during the process. Formate and oxalate anions were detected as main aliphatic carboxylic intermediates, which were further oxidized slowly to CO(2). UV/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) process proved to be capable of successful decolorization and degradation of the RR 198. PMID:16298047

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Limaee, Nargess Yousefi

2005-11-17

246

Characteristics of structured lipid prepared by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of roasted sesame oil and caprylic acid in a bench-scale continuous packed bed reactor.  

PubMed

Structured lipid (SL) was prepared from roasted sesame oil and caprylic acid (CA) by Rhizomucor miehei lipase-catalyzed acidolysis in a bench-scale continuous packed bed reactor. Total incorporation and acyl migration of CA in the SL were 42.5 and 3.1 mol %, respectively, and the half-life of the lipase was 19.2 days. The SL displayed different physical and chemical properties, less saturated dark brown color, lower viscosity, lower melting and crystallization temperature ranges, higher melting and crystallization enthalpies, higher smoke point, higher saponification value, and lower iodine value, in comparison to those of unmodified sesame oil. The oxidative stability of purified SL was lower than that of sesame oil. There were no differences in the contents of unsaponifiables including tocopherols and phytosterols. However, total sesame lignans content was decreased in SL due to the loss of sesamol when compared to sesame oil. Most of the 70 volatiles present in roasted sesame oil were removed from SL during short-path distillation of SL. These results indicate that the characteristics of SL are different from those of original sesame oil in several aspects except for the contents of tocopherols and phytosterols. PMID:16819927

Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

2006-07-12

247

Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Three bacteria, Clostridium ljungdahlii and isolates ERI-8 and 0-52, have been utilized in CSTR studies in order to directly compare the performance of the bacteria in continuous culture in converting synthesis gas components to ethanol. C. ljungdahlii is able to produce higher concentrations of ethanol than the other bacteria, largely because medium development with this bacterium has been ongoing for 2--3 years. However, both of the ERI isolates are quite promising for ethanol production and, therefore, will be studied further in the CSTR. A comparison of the energy costs for various ethanol recovery techniques has been made for use in the bench scale system. The techniques considered include direct distillation, extraction with various solvents followed by distillation, air stripping followed by distillation, pervaporation followed by distillation, reverse osmosis and temperature swing extraction. Extraction with a solvent possessing a relatively high distribution coefficient for ethanol and a high separation factor (relative ability to extract ethanol in favor of water), followed by distillation, is the most desirable technology.

Not Available

1993-09-01

248

Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, September 24, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Culture isolation and selection studies are being performed in order to select the best biological system for bench-scale studies in producing ethanol from syngas components. Three isolates have been found which produce more than 2 g/L ethanol from CO and C0{sub 2}/H{sub 2} in batch culture. These low concentrations are actually quite promising since Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC, performs well in continuous culture but produces only small concentrations of ethanol in batch culture after several weeks of incubation. Two of the isolates have been utilized in the CSTR, where 90 percent CO conversions have been noted, while producing up to 2 g/L ethanol, in preliminary studies. CSTR studies will continue until steady state is reached. An anaerobic bacterium has been isolated from natural sources that converts the components of synthesis gas (CO, H{sub 2},C0{sub 2}) into ethanol. This organism, the only one known at that time to produce ethanol from synthesis gas, has been identified as a new clostridial strain and has been named Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC.

Not Available

1992-12-31

249

Development of a simultaneous partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) bench scale process for removal of ammonia from effluent of a fertilizer industry.  

PubMed

A simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was developed for the treatment of ammonia laden effluent of a fertilizer industry. Autotrophic aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing biomass was enriched and their ammonia removal ability was confirmed in synthetic effluent system. Seed consortium developed from these was applied in the treatment of effluent in an oxygen limited bench scale SNAD type (1L) reactor run at ambient temperature (?30°C). Around 98.9% ammonia removal was achieved with ammonia loading rate 0.35kgNH(4)(+)-N/m(3)day in the presence of 46.6mg/L COD at 2.31days hydraulic retention time. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biomass from upper and lower zone of the reactor revealed presence of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Planctomycetes and denitrifiers as the dominant bacteria carrying out anoxic oxidation of ammonia in the reactor. Physiological and molecular studies strongly indicate presence of anammox bacteria in the anoxic zone of the SNAD reactor. PMID:23313684

Keluskar, Radhika; Nerurkar, Anuradha; Desai, Anjana

2012-12-20

250

Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

2009-11-20

251

Degradation of Polar Organic Micropollutants during Riverbank Filtration: Complementary Results from Spatiotemporal Sampling and Push-Pull Tests.  

PubMed

The fate of polar organic micropollutants (logDOW (pH 7) between -4.2 and +3.5) during riverbank filtration (RBF) at the river Thur was studied using both spatiotemporally resolved sampling and single-well push-pull tests (PPT), followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The Thur is a dynamic prealpine river with an alluvial sandy-gravel aquifer, which is characterized by short groundwater travel times (a few days) from surface water infiltration to groundwater extraction. The spatiotemporal sampling allowed tracing concentration dynamics in the river and the groundwater and revealed persistence for the drug carbamazepine, while the herbicide MCPA (2-methyl-4-chloro-phenoxyacetic acid) and the drug 4-acetamidoantipyrine were very quickly degraded under the prevalent aerobic conditions. The corrosion inhibitor 1H-benzotriazole was degraded slightly, particularly in a transect influenced by river restoration measures. For the first time in situ first-order degradation rate constants for three pesticides and two pharmaceuticals were determined by PPTs, which confirmed the results of the spatiotemporal sampling. Atenolol was transformed almost completely to atenolol acid. Rate constants of 0.1-1.3 h(-1) for MCPA, 2,4-D, mecoprop, atenolol, and diclofenac, corresponding to half-lives of 0.6-6.3 h, demonstrated the great potential of RBF systems to degrade organic micropollutants and simultaneously the applicability of PPTs for micropollutants in such dynamic systems. PMID:24033151

Huntscha, Sebastian; Rodriguez Velosa, Diana M; Schroth, Martin H; Hollender, Juliane

2013-10-02

252

Waste water filtration enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

Martin, H.L.

1989-01-01

253

Filtration Efficiencies of Boothbay Depressor Trawls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The note reports tests on the filtration efficiencies of the Boothbay Depressor Trawls. The depressor blade and the hanging of the liner within a larger net did not affect filtration efficiency. The efficiencies were independent of the velocity of towing ...

J. J. Graham

1972-01-01

254

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A phase 11 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of, quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the third quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs and related analysis with Illinois {number_sign}6 coal at a processing temperature of 375{degree}C, and pressures of 1800 and 1500 psig, (2) completion and analysis of two autoclave reactor runs to observe the synergistic effect of the surfactant and an iron catalyst, and (3) setting up a subcontract with HRI Inc. to test the surfactant enhanced liquefaction process in a continuous flow reactor.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

1993-04-20

255

Test plan for Simulated Saltcake Retrieval Test  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the plan for a bench-scale laboratory test to evaluate physical and chemical parameters associated with dissolution of a simulated saltcake waste. Parameters to be measured during the test include water addition rate, liquid drainage rate, visual observations of flow patterns, physical appearance and volume of dissolving saltcake, chemical composition of drained liquid, and polarized light microscopy analysis of solids.

HERTING, D.L.

2000-07-19

256

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier. First quarterly project report, October 1, 1984--December 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1984-12-31

257

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier. Third quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-12-31

258

S3G\\/S4G PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A HOT CRUD FILTER AND FILTRATE SAMPLING UNIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crud filter and filtrate sampling unit have been developed for ; measuring the insoluble, colloidal and soluble concentration of steel corrosion ; products at SAR temperature and pressures. The data given in this report are for ; concentrations found in the TF-20 carbon steel loop. If proper flow conditions, ; through the filter, are met (0.05 gpm), the porous

1956-01-01

259

Filtration Techniques for Reversed Osmosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Filtration techniques for reverse osmosis pretreatment systems and methods for mathematical modeling and testing of filters as well as for determining concentration and particle size distribution of suspended solids are reviewed. The sensitivity of turbid...

K. H. Reinhardt H. J. Mueller

1980-01-01

260

Transuranic/Strontium Precipitation and Filtration of Hanford Complexant Waste  

SciTech Connect

A crossflow filtration campaign to remove entrained solids and precipitated solids from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 Envelope C was completed. A 0.61 m (2-foot) long, 0.0095 m (3/8 inches) internal diameter, 0.1 micron pore size Mott crossflow filter tube was used. An Envelope C (241-AN-102) sample containing entrained solids was then successfully pretreated for removal of strontium-90 and transuranic activity. The 1.2-liter sample was caustic adjusted, strontium and permanganate precipitated, and crossflow filtered in a bench scale demonstration. Filtration fluxes for the precipitate ranged from 2.93 to 8.80 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2}day) [0.05 to 0.15 gpm/ft{sup 2}]. Transmembrane pressures were in the range of 2.06 to 4.83 bar [30 to 70 psid] and crossflow velocities were in the range of 2.8 to 4.6 m/s [9 to 15 ft/s]. The filtrate product was decontaminated for strontium by a factor of 30 (1.7 uCi/ml at 5.8 M sodium). This work provides important confirmation of the new process to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP).

Nash, C.A.

2001-01-31

261

Vacuum Filtration Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention discusses a filtration apparatus which provides for semiautomatic operation by including a filter element dispenser located at a filtration station. In order to effect removal of a used filter element from the filtration station, a tilting m...

R. Repaske A. H. Rich J. L. Slemp

1991-01-01

262

Shift conversion and methanation in coal gasification: bench-scale evaluation of a sulfur resistant catalyst. Quarterly progress report, 1 October-31 December 1979  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale, long-term study is in progress of the deactivation rate of a new methanation catalyst which in earlier laboratory measurements had demonstrated both higher specific methanation activity and resistance to sulfur poisoning. The measurements are carried out in two parallel, fixed-bed reactors exposed to a feed stream (H/sub 2//CO = 3.1 +- 0.1, and 1.5 ppM H/sub 2/S) at a space velocity of 6700 hr/sup -1/ and a total gas pressure of 50 psig. One of the reactors contains the new catalyst, Ir-promoted nickel on alumina (Ir/Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/); the other, for the purpose of comparison, a commercial analyst (Ni/Al/sub 2/0/sub 3/). Each of the catalyst samples was diluted with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at a ratio of 5/1. The deactivation rates were examined in terms of the loss in conversion with exposure time to the syn gas mixture, the change in temperature distribution along the axis of the catalyst bed, and the breakthrough of hydrogen sulfide in the product stream. The results demonstrated significant differences between the two catalysts under study. For the same mass of catalyst and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ diluent the Ir/Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ samples exhibited a considerably longer life than Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. After 800 hours of operation the Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ has lost nearly 99 percent of its initial activity, while the activity loss amounts to only 25 percent in the case of Ir/Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. However the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ used as a diluent in the catalyst bed was not chemically inert, but interacted with H/sub 2/S in the feed stream. As a result an unequivocal, quantitative interpretation of the data in terms of effective lifetimes of the two catalysts under study is not possible.

Wood, B.J.; Sheridan, D.; McCarty, J.G.; Wise, H.

1980-01-18

263

Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a ⁶°Co source, and at full scale (387 l\\/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99%

Dougal

1993-01-01

264

Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

Duignan, M.R.

2000-07-27

265

Novel procedures accurately measure drilling mud dynamic filtration  

SciTech Connect

New equipment and test procedures can determine dynamic mud cake properties such as equilibrium cake thickness, porosity, permeability, compressibility, and erosion resistance. The following were developed to study dynamic filtration: a dynamic filtration cell; a recommended filtration medium; a mud cake thickness device; mud cake porosity determination method; calculation methods for shear rate determination beneath a rotating cone; determination of equilibrium cake thickness, erosion resistance, and compressibility; and preferred filtration display techniques. The article describes the equipment, test procedures, and typical filtration results.

Chenevert, M.E.; Al-Abri, S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Jin, L. (Stim-Labs Inc., Duncan, OK (United States))

1994-04-25

266

TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS  

SciTech Connect

Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) management has the goal of returning Tank 48H to routine service by January 2010 or as soon as practical. Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains {approx}240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with about 2 wt % potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). The main radioactive component in Tank 48H is {sup 137}Cs. The waste also contains {approx}0.15 wt % Monosodium Titanate (MST) which has adsorbed {sup 90}Sr, U, and Pu isotopes. A System Engineering Evaluation of technologies/ideas for the treatment of TPB identified Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a leading alternative technology to the baseline aggregation approach. Over 75 technologies/ideas were evaluated overall. Forty-one technologies/ideas passed the initial screening evaluation. The 41 technologies/ideas were then combined to 16 complete solutions for the disposition of TPB and evaluated in detail. Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is an aqueous phase process in which soluble or suspended waste components are oxidized using molecular oxygen contained in air. The process operates at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 to 320 C and 7 to 210 atmospheres, respectively. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). The basic flow scheme for a typical WAO system is as follows. The waste solution or slurry is pumped through a high-pressure feed pump. An air stream containing sufficient oxygen to meet the oxygen requirements of the waste stream is injected into the pressurized waste stream, and the air/liquid mixture is preheated to the required reactor inlet temperature. The reactor provides sufficient retention time to allow the oxidation to approach the desired level of organic decomposition. Typical reaction time is about 30-120 minutes. Heat exchangers are routinely employed to recover energy contained in the reactor effluent to preheat the waste feed/air entering the reactor. Auxiliary energy, usually steam, is necessary for startup and can provide trim heat if required. Since the oxidation reactions are exothermic, sufficient energy may be released in the reactor to allow the WAO system to operate without any additional heat input. After cooling, the oxidized reactor effluent passes through a pressure control valve where the pressure is reduced. A separator downstream of the pressure control valve allows the depressurized and cooled vapor to separate from the liquid. Typical industrial WAO applications have a feed flow rate of 1 to 220 gallons per minute (gpm) per train, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 10,000 to 150,000 mg/L (higher CODs with dilution). Note that catalysts, such as homogeneous copper and iron, their heterogeneous counterparts, or precious metals can be used to enhance the effectiveness (i.e., to lower temperature, pressure, and residence time as well as increase oxidation efficiencies) of the WAO reaction if deemed necessary.

Adu-Wusu, K

2006-03-31

267

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Revised final report, [October 1992--October 1993]: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The main advantage of the project is that it allowed PTI to gain knowledge and experience about the proper approach, methods and hardware required to properly optimize and control column flotation performance. Many operational problems were incurred during the project, some of that PTI was able to solve during the project and other that must be overcome as the technology is further developed and commercialized. The key operating problems experienced with the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column that must be further researched and overcome include: (1)The low concentrate solids content which limited the throughput capacity of the column, due to high froth washing requirements. The low concentrate solids content also lead to difficulty obtaining accurate On-Line Monitor measurements, due to the poor measurement sensitivity obtained with low solids content samples (particularly less than 5.0 wt %). (2) The higher-than-anticipated reagent dosages that undoubtedly contributed to the low solids content listed above, and also caused foaming problems within PTI`s On-Line Monitor. A defoaming reagent addition (Nalco 7810) was required to provide consistent sample size and reproducible On-Line Monitor counts for the concentrate samples collected within the circuit. PTI and UK`s CAER staff will continue to research alternative column design, particularly alternative air bubble generation and air distribution systems, to try to maximize column concentrate solids content while reducing reagent dosage requirements. In addition to the KEN-FLOTE{sup TM} Column operation there were also a number of hardware problems with PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor that must be remedied for future commercial installations.

Not Available

1993-10-27

268

Cesium Removal from Tanks 241-AN-103, -SX-105, and -AZ-101/102 Composite for Testing in Bench Scale Steam Reformer, Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereaf...

H. J. Huber J. B. Duncan

2011-01-01

269

Cesium Removal from Tanks 241-AN-103, -SX-105, and -AZ-101/102 Composite for Testing in Bench Scale Steam Reformer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereaf...

H. J. Huber J. B. Duncan

2011-01-01

270

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994December 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore

L. A. Coless; M. C. Poole; M. Y. Wen

1995-01-01

271

Melt Purification via Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background on the mechanisms and kinetics of filtration is discussed and the Drexel mathematical model is further elaborated and updated to encompass filtration at the higher temperatures encountered in steels and superalloys. A novel mathematical analysi...

D. Apelian R. Mutharasan C. Romanowski

1981-01-01

272

Effect of Parameters of Filtration on Dust Cleaning Fabrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes 4 years of laboratory and large-scale tests on the dust filtration process and the basic filtration parameters that determine performance. Physical parameters describing fabric and dust cake structure were defined and three basic dus...

J. R. Koscianowski L. Koscianowska E. Szczepankiewicz B. Werynski S. Bethke

1981-01-01

273

New wste calcining facility process off-gas filtration system and remote in-place DOP test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crabtrap, one component of a remotely-operable, experimental, in-place DOP test system for process off-gas HEPA filters being developed at Flanders Filters was tested with good results. The crabtrap is a device which is positioned downstream of a HEPA filter during in-place DOP testing to thoroughly mix and collect the air and DOP passing through the filter so the efficiency

H. H. Loo; R. R. Smith; G. E. Bingham; T. T. Allan; D. E. Wilcox

1978-01-01

274

DEVELOPMENT OF A CROSSFLOW FILTER TO REMOVE SOLIDS FROM RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE: COMPARISON OF TEST DATA WITH OPERATING EXPERIENCE - 9119  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the Savannah River Site (SRS) began treatment of liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farms. To treat waste streams containing {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts the waste with monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and select actinides. After MST contact, the process filters the resulting slurry to remove the MST (with sorbed strontium and actinides) and any entrained sludge. The filtrate is transported to the MCU to remove cesium. The solid particle removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the concentration of dissolved sodium, and transported to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. The authors conducted tests with 0.5 {micro} and 0.1 {micro} Mott sintered stainless steel crossflow filter at bench-scale (0.19 ft{sup 2} surface area) and pilot-scale (11.2 ft{sup 2}). The collected data supported design of the filter for the process and identified preferred operating conditions for the full-scale process (230 ft{sup 2}). The testing investigated the influence of operating parameters, such as filter pore size, axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, and solids loading, on filter flux, and validated the simulant used for pilot-scale testing. The conclusions from this work follow: (1) The 0.1 {micro} Mott sintered stainless steel filter produced higher flux than the 0.5 {micro} filter. (2) The filtrate samples collected showed no visible solids. (3) The filter flux with actual waste is comparable to the filter flux with simulated waste, with the simulated waste being conservative. This result shows the simulated sludge is representative of the actual sludge. (4) When the data is adjusted for differences in transmembrane pressure, the filter flux in the Actinide Removal Process is comparable to the filter flux in the bench-scale and pilot-scale testing. (5) Filter flux increased with transmembrane pressure, increased with axial velocity, and decreased with concentration in agreement with classical crossflow filtration theories.

Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S; Julius Lacerna, J

2009-03-01

275

Development and preliminary validation of an antibody filtration-assisted single-dilution chemiluminometric immunoassay for potency testing of Piscirickettsia salmonis vaccines.  

PubMed

Challenge with live pathogens could be substituted by serology for many veterinary diseases, however little progress has been made in the development of alternative batch vaccine potency tests for fish. This study reports the development and preliminary validation of a single-dilution filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (SD FAL-ELISA) applied to measure anti Piscirickettsia salmonis IgM in individual or pooled serum and mucus samples. The assay was set up to test a single-dilution of the sample. Serum SD FAL-ELISA yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 96%. SD FAL-ELISA was applied to evaluate pooled and individual samples from P. salmonis challenge assessments. Relative-light units values (RLU) obtained by SD FAL-ELISA were proportional to antibody levels in serum. RLU values obtained from pooled and individual serum samples increased with the observed relative percent survival (RPS) values, indicating a correlation between protection and specific IgM levels. Results obtained for specific IgM in mucus samples was not related to the RPS, but discriminated the vaccine that yielded high RPS (86.4%) from the others (40.9 and 54.5%). This is the first report on the development of an indirect high-throughput serological assessment for P. salmonis vaccine potency testing using both pooled or individual serum and cutaneous mucus samples. PMID:23040097

Wilda, Maximiliano; Lavoria, María Ángeles; Giráldez, Adrián; Franco-Mahecha, Olga Lucía; Mansilla, Florencia; Érguiz, Matías; Iglesias, Marcela Elvira; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

2012-10-02

276

ITP Filtrate Benzene Removal Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Existing ITP filtrate hold tanks may provide sufficient capacity and residence time to strip dissolved benzene from the incoming filtrate using nitrogen sparging in the bottom of the old tanks. This is based on equilibrium supported by late Wash test data using aged washed slurry. Theoretical considerations indicate that benzene stripping will be more difficult from the ITP unwashed high salt filtrates due to reduced mass transfer. Therefore experimental sparging data is needed to quantify the theoretical effects.Foaming limits which dictate allowable sparging rate will also have to be established. Sparging in the hold tanks will require installation of sintered metal spargers, and possibly stirrers and foam monitoring/disengagement equipment. The most critical sparging needs are at the start of the precipitation/concentration cycle, when the filtrate flux rate is the highest,and at the end of wash cycle where Henry`s equilibrium constant falls off,requiring more gas to sparge the dissolved benzene. With adequate recycle (for proper distribution) or sparging in the old tanks, the 30 inch column could be used for the complete ITP process. A courser packing would reduce back pressure while enabling benzene stripping. The Late Wash Tests indicate adequate benzene stripping even at reduced gas flow. This will require experimental verification under ITP conditions. Using the 30 in. column vs 18 in. during the wash cycle will enhance stripping without need for additional sparging provided the minimum flow requirements are met.

Dworjanyn, L.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-05-21

277

EFFECT OF PARAMETERS OF FILTRATION ON DUST CLEANING FABRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes 4 years of laboratory and large-scale tests on the dust filtration process and the basic filtration parameters that determine performance. Physical parameters describing fabric and dust cake structure were defined and three basic dust filtration mechanisms w...

278

HOW DO I RUN A PROPER JAR TEST PROCEDURE?  

EPA Science Inventory

The jar test has been and is ah important drinking water treatment plant design, process control, and research tool. n the drinking water field, the jar test is described as a "bench-scale" simulation of full-scale coagulation/flocculation/ sedimentation water treatment processes...

279

How Do I Run a Proper Jar Test Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The jar test has been and is an important drinking water treatment plantdesign, process control, and research tool. In the drinking water field,the jar test is described as a bench-scale simulation of full-scale coagulation/flocculation/ sedimentation wat...

D. A. Lytle

1995-01-01

280

Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

NONE

1996-08-01

281

Magnetic-seeding filtration  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

1997-10-01

282

Overview of membrane filtration  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the process of membrane filtration and its uses is presented. Typical applications include: water treatment and chemical filtration in the printed circuit industry; gas separation and purification, primarily removal of CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and water from fuel gas produced by anaerobic digestion of sewage, or flared gas from landfills, oil fields and coal mines; microfiltration of corrosive fluids; removal of bacteria; separation of oil/water mixtures; filtration of injection fluids used in secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced recovery of oil from wells.

Khatib, Z.

1986-03-01

283

TOXICITY BIOASSAY AND ELUATE HEAVY METALS ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE BENCH SCALE STABILIZATION STUDY OF SOILS FROM THE UNITED CHROME SUPERFUND NFL SITE CORVALLIS, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

In support of Environmental Protection Agency Region 10 and their United Chrome studies the staff at Environmental Research Laboratory-Corvallis performed toxicity bioassays and selected chemical analyses. Direct toxicity tests (i.e. using soil as the medium) and indirect toxicit...

284

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02

285

Monosodium Titanate Sludge Filtration  

SciTech Connect

Good filterability of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurry is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of crystalline organic TPB that forms a firm but porous filter cake, allowing salt solution to pass through without unduly compressing the cake. Addition of inorganic sludge or monosodium titanate (MST) has an adverse effect on filtration, but the overall filtration rate with TPB is satisfactory. Poor cross-flow filtration performance for the Salt Disposition Alternatives requiring MST filtration is attributed primarily to the difficulty in filtering the residual inorganic sludge rich in iron and aluminum precipitates. Ferric hydrolysis products and colloids form a bulky and sticky filter cake significantly reducing filtration rate. Similarly poor filtration rates were observed in the BNFL ferric/ferrous precipitation process, necessitating a change to permanganate precipitation. This report, based on a few sludge settling observations, does not resolve the MST/Sludge filterability issue. However, it does identify the need for a change in emphasis from cross-flow optimization to understanding and controlling the chemistry and physics of alkaline inorganic particle suspensions and filterability. Promising potential exists to identify or develop surfactants or flocculants to enhance filterability of SRS sludge and monosodium titanate. Additional work is needed to provide a basic understanding of the nature of caustic sludge filter cake formation.

Dworjanyn, L.O.

2000-11-07

286

Recycling of spent filter backwash water using coagulation-assisted membrane filtration: effects of submicrometre particles on membrane flux.  

PubMed

Membrane separation technology has been widely used for recycling of spent filter backwash water (SFBW) in water treatment plant. Membrane filtration performance is subject to characteristics of the particles in the SFBW. A bench-scale microfiltration (MF) coupled with pre-coagulation was set up to evaluate the recovery efficiency of SFBW. Effect of particle size distribution and zeta potential of the coagulated SFBW on the membrane filtration as well as the coagulation strategies were investigated. Pore clogging was more severe on the membrane with 1.0 mum pore size than on the membrane with 0.5 mum pore size due to the fact that submicrometre particles are dominant and their diameters are exactly closed to the pore size of the MF membrane. Pre-settling induced more severe irreversible fouling because only the submicrometre particles in the water become predominant after settling, resulting in the occurrence of more acute pore blocking of membrane. By contrast, pre-coagulation mitigates membrane fouling and improves membrane flux via enlarging particle size on membrane surface. The variations of zeta potential in response to coagulant dosing as well as fractal dimension were also compared with the performance of the subsequent filtration. The result showed that pre-coagulation induced by charge neutralization at the optimum dosage where the zeta potential is around zero leads to the optimal performance of the subsequent membrane filtration for SFBW recycling. At such condition, the fractal dimension of coagulated flocs reached minimum. PMID:20388988

Huang, Chihpin; Lin, Jr-Lin; Wu, C L; Chu, C P

2010-01-01

287

Tests of US Rock Salt for Long-Term Stability of CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed i...

R. M. Gehle R. L. Thoms

1986-01-01

288

COMPARISONS OF VARIOUS FILTRATION MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews use of filtering materials in diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, slow sand filtration, and coagulation-rapid rate filtration. For DE filtration, increased effluent clarity (lower turbidity) is generally attained at the expense of increased rates of head loss i...

289

Hot gas filtration technical issues  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research has been to provide an understanding of factors pertinent to the development of an effective filtration system for removing particles from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams in advanced power generation systems under development by the Department of Energy. Information used to define the filtration system issues was compiled from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) Contractors Conferences, specific tasks assigned to Southern Research Institute, meetings with METC personnel and contractors, and other conferences and workshops organized by METC. Initial research and pilot scale installations have shown that there are some potential problem areas. Thick ash deposits have formed, bridging from passive surfaces to the filter material and between filter candles. A great number of ceramic filters have broken in various experimental and demonstration devices, especially during long-term testing. This paper reviews particulate characteristics (effects on filtration processes, conventional fly ash, gasifier char, PFBC ash, and detailed studies of PFBC ash) and ceramic filter materials (general issues, thermal stress, clay-bonded SiC filter materials, and monolithic ceramic materials).

Pontius, D.H.

1995-11-01

290

Improved testing methodology for the evaluation of metals tolerant FCC catalysts: I: Vanadium passivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional bench-scale testing of FCC catalysts for vanadium tolerance usually involves doping fresh catalysts at several vanadium loadings via an impregnation procedure with subsequent MAT evaluation after appropriate steam deactivation. While such testing is adequate for scoping the passivation potential of candidate vanadium traps, it generally fails to predict performance between vanadium protected and unprotected catalysts as observed in pilot-plant

L. W. Jossens; J. V. Kennedy

1990-01-01

291

Technetium removal column flow testing with alkaline, high salt, radioactive tank waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes two bench-scale column tests conducted to demonstrate the removal of Tc-99 from actual alkaline high salt radioactive waste. The waste used as feed for these tests was obtained from the Hanford double shell tank AW-101, which contains double shell slurry feed (DSSF). The tank sample was diluted to approximately 5 M Na with water, and most of

D. L. Jr. Blanchard; D. E. Kurath; G. R. Golcar; S. D. Conradson

1996-01-01

292

Developing and testing electrochemical methods for treating metal salts, cyanides and organic compounds in waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods to process radioactive and hazardous (mixed) wastes were studied at a bench scale. Cadmium, copper, mercury, and chromium salts, cyanides, and simple organic compounds were used in the tests. Effective conditions were found to process these waste components by electrolysis. The equipment used in the tests included flow-through cells, a membrane cell, and a graphite packed bed cell.

J. Dziewinski; S. Marczak; E. Nuttall; G. Purdy; W. Smith; J. Taylor; C. Zhou

1998-01-01

293

Filtration of a Hanford AN-104 Sample  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's 241-AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter. Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

POIRIER, MICHAEL

2004-04-19

294

Filtration of A Hanford AN-104 Sample  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter.Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

Poirier, MichaelR

2004-03-01

295

Mercury capture in bench-scale absorbers  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives,a brief overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of mercury by both dry sorbents and wet scrubbers. The emphasis in the research is on development of a better understanding of the key factors that control the capture of mercury. Future work is expected to utilize that information for the development of new or modified process concepts featuring enhanced mercury capture capabilities. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne -research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are `not effective in removing mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; and chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or (CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon. Preliminary results from the wet scrubbing research include: no removal of elemental mercury is obtained under normal scrubber operating conditions; mercury removal is improved by the addition of packing or production of smaller gas bubbles to increase the gas-liquid contact area; polysulfide solutions do not appear promising for enhancing mercury removal in typical FGC systems; stainless steel packing appears to have beneficial properties for mercury removal and should be investigated further; and other chemical additives may offer greatly enhanced removals.

Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

1994-08-01

296

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

2003-05-01

297

TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

2003-05-21

298

TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

2003-05-01

299

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

2003-05-21

300

POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter, several modifications were made to the TES unit and the materials handling system. The cylindrical electrodes were replaced by a set of screen electrodes to provide a more uniform electrostatic field. The problem with the recycle conveyor neutralizing the particle charge was also corrected by replacing it with a bucket elevator. In addition, problems with the turbocharger were corrected by increasing the number of charging stages from one to two. These modifications have significantly improved the separation performance and have permitted the POC-scale unit to achieve results in line with those obtained by the bench-scale separator. The testing phase of the project was continued at a rapid pace during this quarter. The test work showed that the modifications to the TES unit and the reduction in feed size from 28 mesh to 35 mesh resulted in significant overall improvement in yield and combustible recovery compared to the data reported in the last quarter. At that time, there was a significant discrepancy between the bench-scale and the pilot-scale results. The pilot-scale test work is now approaching the bench scale test results. However, further pilot-scale test work is required to further improve the results and duplicate the bench-scale test work.

R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; A.D. Walters

2000-01-01

301

Filtration charaterization methods in MBR systems: A practical comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different methods for fi ltration characterization in Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) systems were compared. These were the Delft Filtration Characterization Method (DFCm), the Berlin Filtration Method (BFM) and an ex situ side-stream fi ltration test cell for the determination of the critical fl ux. The ex situ fi ltration test cell and the DFCm fi lter activated sludge from a

Teresa De la Torre; Vera Iversen; Adrien Moreau; Johan Stüber

2009-01-01

302

Modern fueloil filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumping out a home storage tank and filtering the oil through a cleaning machine is an excellent way to service a dirty tank, but even then proper filtration is still a must. Without good filteration, it can be very embarrassing for the service department to explain a sediment problem which can still occur even after charging a customer for pumping

1995-01-01

303

Filtration in Industrial Hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filters used in industrial hygiene are of two basic types, corresponding with the two basic airborne hazards: particulate and vapor. They are as different in their construction as they are in their purpose, and each gives negligible protection against the other hazard. By use of the correct type, adequate filtration efficiency can usually be achieved. Most particulate filters are made

Richard C. Brown

2001-01-01

304

FILTRATION PARAMETERS FOR DUST CLEANING FABRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of bag filter fabrics. Filtration performance data and mathematical modeling parameters are given for four Polish fabrics tested with cement dust, coal dust, flyash, and talc. Conclusions include: (1) The process of clean ai...

305

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart H - Filtration and Disinfection] [Sec. 141.73 - Filtration.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS-- Filtration and Disinfection Sec....

2009-07-01

306

New dimensions in water filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filtration efficiency for oil field injection water took a big step forward by combining flocculating chemicals with a unique upflow filter design. Minute concentrations of high polymers (polyelectrolytes) cause flocculation of undissolved solids in the sand bed of a new upflow filter to improve filtration characteristics. The upflow filter design is a unique departure from conventional filtration methods. The basic

D. M. Landis; R. A. Boze

1968-01-01

307

Modeling Reverse Osmosis Crossflow Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the initial stages of crossflow filtration, a concentration polarization layer forms near the membrane surface, causing a decrease in clean water flux over time. Accurate modelling of this flux decline is essential to improving the design of filtration systems in applications including water purification, food processing, and desalination. A continuum model of reverse osmosis crossflow filtration is developed by

Laura Campo; Brent Houchens

2007-01-01

308

Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver solutions as a function of reaction (dissolution) time, by analyzing offgas generation rate and composition, and by analyzing intermittent and final acid-insoluble solids at the end of the dissolution. The testing was conducted in a system designed to assess parameters that can influence sludge dissolution and provide information that can be used to determine operating conditions for the actual system.

AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

1999-03-24

309

Liquid filtration simulation  

SciTech Connect

We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

1996-06-01

310

40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equation: LRV = LOG10 (Cf )âLOG10 (Cp ) Where: LRV = log removal value...measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the filtrate concentration measured...detected in the filtrate, then the term Cp must be set equal to the detection...

2013-07-01

311

Industrial Membrane Filtration and Short-bed Fractal Separation Systems for Separating Monomers from Heterogeneous Plant Material  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale displacement of petroleum will come from low-cost cellulosic feedstocks such as straw and corn stover crop residues. This project has taken a step toward making this projection a reality by reducing capital and energy costs, the two largest cost factors associated with converting cellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels. The technology exists for using acid or enzyme hydrolysis processes to convert biomass feedstock (i.e., waste cellulose such as straw, corn stover, and wood) into their base monomeric sugar building blocks, which can, in turn, be processed into chemicals and fuels using a number of innovative fermentation technologies. However, while these processes are technically possible, practical and economic barriers make these processes only marginally feasible or not feasible at all. These barriers are due in part to the complexity and large fixed and recurring capital costs of unit operations including filtration, chromatographic separation, and ion exchange. This project was designed to help remove these barriers by developing and implementing new purification and separation technologies that will reduce the capital costs of the purification and chromatographic separation units by 50% to 70%. The technologies fundamental to these improvements are: (a) highly efficient clarification and purification systems that use screening and membrane filtration to eliminate suspended solids and colloidal material from feed streams and (b) fractal technology based chromatographic separation and ion exchange systems that can substitute for conventional systems but at much smaller size and cost. A non-hazardous ''raw sugar beet juice'' stream (75 to 100 gal/min) was used for prototype testing of these technologies. This raw beet juice stream from the Amalgamated Sugar LLC plant in Twin Falls, Idaho contained abrasive materials and membrane foulants. Its characteristics were representative of an industrial-scale heterogeneous plant extract/hydrolysis stream, and therefore was an ideal model system for developing new separation equipment. Subsequent testing used both synthetic acid hydrolysate and corn stover derived weak acid hydrolysate (NREL produced). A two-phased approach was used for the research and development described in this project. The first level of study involved testing the new concepts at the bench level. The bench-scale evaluations provided fundamental understanding of the processes, building and testing small prototype systems, and determining the efficiency of the novel processes. The second level of study, macro-level, required building larger systems that directly simulated industrial operations and provided validation of performance to minimize financial risk during commercialization. The project goals and scope included: (1) Development of low-capital alternatives to conventional crop-based purification/separation processes; and (2) Development of each process to the point that transition to commercial operation is low risk. The project reporting period was January 2001 to December 2004. This included a one year extension of the project (without additional funding).

Kearney, M; Kochergin, V; Hess, R; Foust, T; Herbst, R; Mann, N

2005-03-31

312

Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC  

SciTech Connect

Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP filter. (4) Filtrate flux for slurries containing solids and defoamers was between the range of .04 to .13 gpm/f{sup 2} which is better than the average flux of 0.024 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for Late Wash. (5) Filtrate flux is weakly dependent on the variables of insoluble solids concentration, defoamer concentration, transmembrane pressure, axial velocity, and filtration time.

Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

2000-01-27

313

MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI  

EPA Science Inventory

Prior to this project, MRI had carried out work for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the conceptual design of a solar system for solid waste disposal and a follow-on project to study the feasibility of bench-scale testing of desorption of organics from soil with destr...

314

Magnetic flocculation and filtration  

SciTech Connect

A model is available in predicting flocculation frequencies between particles of various properties under the influence of a magnetic field. This model provides a basic understanding of fundamental phenomena, such as particle-particle and particle-collector interactions, occurring in HGMF (high gradient magnetic field), and will be extended to describe experimental data of particle flocculation and filtration and predict the performance of high- gradient magnetic filters. It is also expected that this model will eventually lead to a tool for design and optimization of magnetic filters for environmental, metallurgical, biochemical, and other applications.

Yiacoumi, Sotira; Chin, Ching-Ju; Yin, Tung-Yu [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Tsouris, C., DePaoli, D.W.; Chattin, M.R.; Spurrier, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

315

Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-31

316

Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-01-08

317

Application of granular media filtration in wastewater reclamation and reuse.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted at room temperature (20-25 degrees C) using four identical filter columns made of Plexiglas, each of 1 m height and 15 cm internal diameter, packed with granular media of 70 cm depth. Each filter was operated at a constant filtration rate, thus four rates were tested in the range of 2-15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). Mono-media (sand) and dual-media (sand and anthracite) were tested and three types of municipal wastewaters, namely raw, primary and secondary-treated effluents were applied. The results obtained indicate that considerable improvements in effluent quality could be attained by tertiary sand filtration. Removal of solids, organics and bacteria was not significantly affected by the increase in filtration rate from 2 to 15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). The highest removal efficiency was obtained at low filtration rate of 2 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), but higher filtration rates achieved acceptable removal efficiencies and provided effluents of good quality to satisfy the irrigation water quality standards. Since the conventional sand filters in wastewater treatment plants operate at a rate in the range of 2-5 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), utilization of high rate filtration is advantageous and would result in significant cost savings. However, with high filtration rates the filters require more frequent backwashing. Dual-media filters achieved 50% reductions in BOD suggesting that filtration could be used to treat primary effluents in emergency cases. PMID:15027822

Hamoda, M F; Al-Ghusain, I; Al-Jasem, D M

2004-01-01

318

CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION  

SciTech Connect

SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and operation of the full-scale two-stage SpinTek unit for treatment of a DOE waste-stream at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technology has very broad application across the DOE system. Nineteen DOE technical needs areas (Appendix C) have been identified. Following successful full-scale demonstration for treatment of DOE wastes, this innovative technology will be rapidly deployed on a wide range of waste and process streams throughout the DOE system.

William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

2005-10-28

319

Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance  

SciTech Connect

The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite dissolution kinetics and filter fouling are reported elsewhere (see Table S.1). The primary goal of scale-up testing was to examine how filter length influenced permeate flux rates. To accomplish this, the existing cells unit filter system, which employs a 2-ft-long, 0.5-in. (inner) diameter sintered stainless steel filter element, was redesigned to accommodate an 8-ft. sintered stainless steel filter element of the same diameter. Testing was then performed to evaluate the filtration performance of waste simulant slurries. Scale-up testing consisted of two separate series of filtration tests: 1) scale-up axial velocity (AV)/transmembrane pressure (TMP) matrix tests and 2) scale-up temperature tests. The AV/TMP matrix tests examined filtration performance of two different waste simulant slurries in the 8-ft. cells unit filter system. Waste simulant slurry formulations for the 8-ft. scale-up test was selected to match simulant slurries for which filtration performance had been characterized on the 2-ft CUF. For the scale-up temperature tests, the filtration performance at three test temperatures (i.e., 25°C, 40°C, and 60°C) was determined to evaluate if filter flux versus temperature correlations developed using the 2-ft filters were also valid for the 8-ft filters.

Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

2009-03-09

320

MGP soil remediation in a slurry-phase system: A pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

An overall protocol for remediating manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils generally includes bench-scale evaluation of the technology, pilot-scale demonstration, and full-scale implementation. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale and pilot-scale study for treating an MGP soil with IGT`s integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) or Manufactured Gas Plant Remediation (MGP-REM) process in the slurry-phase mode of application. MGP soils are contaminated primarily with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An MGP site in New Jersey was the subject of this study. Soils from the site were used for the bench-scale evaluation of the integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment. The bench-scale study started with biological pre-treatment followed by chemical treatment and biological polishing. Results of the bench-scale study showed that this process was effective in degrading EPA Total as well as EPA Carcinogenic PAHs. A test matrix was developed to assess this technology at a pilot-scale facility. The test matrix consisted of at least eight semi-continuous runs designed to evaluate the effects of PAH concentration, total solids concentration, residence time, and a number of chemical reagent additions. An operating permit for 14 days was obtained to evaluate the process primarily for air emission data and secondarily for PAH degradation data. The PAH data showed that the MGP-REM process was very effective in degrading carcinogenic PAHs even under sub-optimal operating conditions. The field data also showed that the emissions of volatile organic compounds were well below the regulatory limits.

Liu, Bill Y.; Srivastava, V.J.; Paterek, J.R.; Pradhan, S.P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pope, J.R. [Elizabethtown Gas Co., Union, NJ (United States); Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Jerger, D.E. [OHM Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

321

40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...volumetric percent of feed water that is converted to...test must establish a quality control release value...relative to that in the feed water. (B) For direct...some aspect of filtrate water quality that is...

2012-07-01

322

Rotary Precoat Filtration of Sludge From Acid Mine Drainage Neutralization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two year study was conducted at 4 locations in Pennsylvania to test the effect of various alkalies and filter aids on rotary vacuum precoat filtration for dewatering of lime neutralization sludge. The process consisted of neutralization, aeration, sedim...

T. S. Brown

1971-01-01

323

Hot gas filtration technical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research has been to provide an understanding of factors pertinent to the development of an effective filtration system for removing particles from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams in advanced power generation systems under development by the Department of Energy. Information used to define the filtration system issues was compiled from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

1995-01-01

324

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73 Protection...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that...

2010-07-01

325

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS--] [Subpart P - Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection_Systems Serving 10,000 or] [Sec. 141.173 - Filtration.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...WATER REGULATIONS-- Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection_Systems...

2009-07-01

326

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving...or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water...

2010-07-01

327

System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Costs and Bench-Scale Testing of a Circulating-Bed AFB Advanced Concept. Phase 1, Task 2: Interim Report on Task 1 Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The M.W. Kellogg Company has had under consideration for many years a combustor design involving a circulating fluid bed of ash, coal, lime/limestone sorbent, and calcium sulfate. In a previous study for the Department of Energy, M.W. Kellogg performed a ...

L. D. Fraley K. H. Hsiao M. M. Lee Y. Y. Lin P. Sadhukhan

1985-01-01

328

System design study to reduce capital and operating costs and bench-scale testing of a circulating-bed AFB advanced concept. Phase 1, Task 2: interim report on Task 1 results  

SciTech Connect

The M.W. Kellogg Company has had under consideration for many years a combustor design involving a circulating fluid bed of ash, coal, lime/limestone sorbent, and calcium sulfate. In a previous study for the Department of Energy, M.W. Kellogg performed a design analysis for an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor whose performance should significantly exceed conventional FBC operation performance, i.e., the Kellogg CFBC. The analysis conclusively showed that the Kellogg CFBC met or exceeded performance criteria for advanced atmospheric FBC's. This is superior to those FBC's currently in the market place. The objective of the study presented here was to reduce capital and operating costs of the Kellogg CFBC, configured into an industrial boiler system of 150,000 pounds per hour steaming capacity. This report presents the design optimization, detailed designs, and cost estimates required to compare CFBC with conventional AFB. The results show the Kellogg CFBC to be a very economical concept. Technically, the Kellogg CFBC can meet or exceed all of the design criteria established for an advanced AFBC. Its compact design resembles an FCC unit in structure and operation. By staged combustion, NO/sub x/ emissions are controlled by the reducing atmosphere and sulfur absorption enhanced in the improved kinetics of the H/sub 2/S-CaO reaction. The unique combustor/riser design keeps the boiler tubes from exposure to corrosive combustion gases, solving the erosion and corrosion problems existing in conventional bubbling-bed AFB. 7 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

Fraley, L.D.; Hsiao, K.H.; Lee, M.M.; Lin, Y.Y.; Sadhukhan, P.; Schlossman, M.; Schreiner, W.C.; Solbakken, A.

1985-08-01

329

System design study to reduce capital and operating costs and bench-scale testing of a circulating-bed AFB advanced concept. Phase 1, Task 2: interim report on Task 1 results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M.W. Kellogg Company has had under consideration for many years a combustor design involving a circulating fluid bed of ash, coal, lime\\/limestone sorbent, and calcium sulfate. In a previous study for the Department of Energy, M.W. Kellogg performed a design analysis for an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor whose performance should significantly exceed conventional FBC operation performance, i.e., the Kellogg CFBC.

L. D. Fraley; K. H. Hsiao; M. M. Lee; Y. Y. Lin; P. Sadhukhan; M. Schlossman; W. C. Schreiner; A. Solbakken

1985-01-01

330

Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and total alpha nuclides are <40 nCi/g, <40 nCi/g, and <18 nCi/g, respectively. However, to allow for changes in process conditions, the SPP is seeking a level of treatment that is about 50% of the WAC. The bounding separation goals for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

Lee, D.D.

2001-08-30

331

Modern fueloil filtration  

SciTech Connect

Pumping out a home storage tank and filtering the oil through a cleaning machine is an excellent way to service a dirty tank, but even then proper filtration is still a must. Without good filteration, it can be very embarrassing for the service department to explain a sediment problem which can still occur even after charging a customer for pumping the tank. Modern filteration technology makes it possible to overcome the effects of poorer quality fueloil and provide better service to customers as well as lower service costs (therefore, more profit) to the oil heat company. Yesterday`s fueloil was plentiful and there was strong competition in the supply market. As a result refiners and distributors were careful to keep out contaminants. Today, however, that has changed and fueloil is no longer consistently delivered as pure as it used to be. While it is true that refinery production of No. 2 fueloil has reached new highs in btu content and clean burning characteristics, it is also true that increased use of the spot market has had a negative effect on fuel quality.

Berg, J.

1995-11-01

332

Transciliary filtration (Singh filtration) with the Fugo plasma blade.  

PubMed

This article describes plasma blade transciliary filtration for the surgical management of glaucoma in an indigent population. The procedure was found to be safe, effective and straightforward. PMID:18556974

Dow, C Thomas; deVenecia, Guillermo

2008-01-01

333

Role of porosity in filtration. 12: Filtration with sedimentation  

SciTech Connect

Filtration on horizontal surfaces facing upward is accompanied by sedimentation. Materials balances that are based solely on the volume of filtrate and neglect sedimentation flux lead to an understatement of the solids deposited in the cake and potentially large errors in calculated values of the average specific resistance {alpha}{sub av} neglecting sedimentation was 3.75 times greater than the value including the effect of sedimentation. In addition to errors due to neglect of sedimentation, CATSCAN studies show that the slurry concentration above the cake increases with time, contrary to usual assumptions. In a manner similar to batch sedimentation in a closed cylinder, characteristics of constant composition arose from the cake surface. Approximate predictions based on a combination of traditional sedimentation and filtration theory were in accord with the CATSCAN data. Existing filtration theory must be substantially modified to account for the effect of sedimentation.

Tiller, F.M.; Hsyung, N.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cong, D.Z. [East China Univ. of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

1995-05-01

334

In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

1991-07-31

335

In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation  

SciTech Connect

Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.'' The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

1991-07-31

336

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-02-19

337

Water Treatment Sludge Filtration Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of various aspects of aluminum sulfate sludge and lime softening sludge filtration was conducted using specific resistance for filterability comparisons. The effects of solids concentration, aluminum sulfate coagulant dosage,...

F. C. Hawkins

1972-01-01

338

Health benefits of particle filtration.  

PubMed

The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air. PMID:23397961

Fisk, W J

2013-03-21

339

Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the particulate properties that determine the filtration performance of fabric filters, and to investigate methods for modifying these particulate properties to enhance filtration performance. Inherent in these objectives is the development of an experimental approach that will lead to full-scale implementation of beneficial conditioning processes identified during the project. The general approach has included a large number of laboratory evaluations to be followed by optional field tests of a new successful conditioning processes performed on a sidestream device. This project was divided into five tasks. The schedule followed for these tasks is shown in Figure 4. Tasks 2 and 3 each focus on one of the two complementary parts of the project. Task 2 Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, evaluates the degree to which ash properties and fabric design determine filtration performance. Task 3 Survey of Methods to Modify the Particle Filtration Properties, provides a literature review and laboratory study of techniques to modify ash properties. The results of these two tasks were used in Task 4 Proof-of-Concept Tests of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties to demonstrate the effects on filtration performance of modifying ash properties. The findings of all the tasks are summarized in this Final Report. 13 refs.

Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.; Robinson, M.S.

1990-06-01

340

Selective Particle Deposition in Crossflow Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the mechanism of particle deposition in crossflow filtration, hydrodynamic forces exerted on a spherical particle touching the surface of filter medium are analyzed to derive the critical selective cut-diameter of the deposited particles under various crossflow velocities and filtration rates in a crossflow filtration system. Experimental data of turbulent crossflow filtration of dilute light calcium carbonate suspension agree

Wei-Ming Lu; Shang-Chung Ju

1989-01-01

341

Comparative study of commercial 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide preparations with the Standard Methods membrane filtration fecal coliform test for the detection of Escherichia coli in water samples.  

PubMed Central

The performance capabilities of two commercial 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide preparations were evaluated for the detection of Escherichia coli from water samples. Eighty-three water samples were collected from a treated water reservoir, and 32 samples were collected from untreated surface water. There was a statistically significant difference between the two commercial preparations compared with the Standard Methods membrane filtration fecal coliform (MFC) method for the detection of E. coli from treated water samples. However, there was no difference between the two methods and the MFC test for E. coli detection from the untreated surface water samples. The disagreement between the two commercial products and the MFC method was primarily due to the occurrence of false-negative results with the two commercial products. The data indicate that the occurrence of false-negative samples could be attributed to impaired substrate specificity and sensitivity of the two tests for E. coli detection. There was no apparent relationship between the occurrence of false-negative results and heterotrophic plate counts in samples.

Clark, D L; Milner, B B; Stewart, M H; Wolfe, R L; Olson, B H

1991-01-01

342

Evaluation of the Filtration Performance of NIOSH-Approved N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators by Photometric and Number-Based Test Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

N95 particulate filtering facepiece respirators are certified by measuring penetration levels photometrically with a presumed severe case test method using charge neutralized NaCl aerosols at 85 L\\/min. However, penetration values obtained by photometric methods have not been compared with count-based methods using contemporary respirators composed of electrostatic filter media and challenged with both generated and ambient aerosols. To better understand

Samy Rengasamy; Adam Miller; Benjamin C. Eimer

2011-01-01

343

Comparison of Some Filtration Processes Appropriate for Giardia Cyst Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, and coagulation-filtration (including conventional treatment, direct filtration, and in-line filtration), have been evaluated for Giardia cyst removal at pilot plant and/or field scale. Properly de...

G. S. Logsdon

1987-01-01

344

Treatment of gasoline residuals by granular activated carbon based biological filtration  

SciTech Connect

The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) as a support medium in the treatment of gasoline residuals is investigated. A bench-scale column provided the experimental results and the system was operated using prehumidification of the incoming gas stream only. The average and maximum elimination capacities of the biofilter were high compared to published bench scale results for compost biofilters. Plate counts show that both bacterial and fungal numbers increased as the column operated. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Medina, V.F.; Webster, T.; Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ramaratnam, M. [Westates Carbon, City of Commerce, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

345

Treatment of discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Volume 4. Topical report, January 1989June 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents results developed from bench- and full-scale treatment testing conducted on discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Bench-scale testing examined sedimentation with and without chemical coagulants for reducing iron and total suspended solids, aeration for removal of volatile organics, and activated carbon adsorption for removal of organic constituents. Treatment results are provided for a full-scale

J. T. Tallon; P. B. Lee-Ryan; K. A. Volpi; J. P. Fillo

1992-01-01

346

Removal of pathogens using riverbank filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although more than hundred years old, in situ or Riverbank Filtration (RBF) has undergone a renewed interest in North America because of its potential as a surface water pre-treatment tool for removal of pathogenic microorganisms. A new RBF research field site has been constructed along the banks of the Grand River in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to assess factors influencing pathogen removal in the subsurface. Implementation of RBF and appropriate design of subsequent treatment (UV, chlorination, etc.) processes requires successful quantification of in situ removals of Cryptosporidium parvum or a reliable surrogate parameter. C.~parvum is often present in surface water at low indigenous concentrations and can be difficult to detect in well effluents. Since releases of inactivated C.~parvum at concentrations high enough for detection in well effluents are cost prohibitive, other approaches for demonstrating effective in situ filtration of C.~parvum must be considered; these include the use of other microbial species or microspheres as indicators of C.~parvum transport in the environment. Spores of Bacillus subtilis may be considered reasonable indicators of C.~parvum removal by in situ filtration because of their size (˜1 ?m in diameter), spherical shape, relatively high indigenous concentration is many surface waters, and relative ease of enumeration. Based on conventional particle filtration theory and assuming equivalent chemical interactions for all particle sizes, a 1 ?m B.~subtilis spore will be removed less readily than a larger C. parvum oocyst (4-6 ?m) in an ideal granular filter. Preliminary full-scale data obtained from a high rate RBF production well near the new RBF test site demonstrated greater than 1 log removal of B.~subtilis spores. This observed spore removal is higher than that prescribed by the proposed U.S. Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule for C.~parvum. To further investigate the removal relationship between C.~parvum, Giardia lamblia and proposed surrogates such as B.~subtilis, detailed characterization of site hydrogeology, geochemistry, and water quality (MPA, particles, TOC, ionic strength) are underway. Particle counts are being measured in the bank filtrate to compare particle breakthrough with breakthrough of B.~subtilis spores. Particle counting has been suggested by some regulatory bodies as a real-time measure of in situ filtration performance; however, particle counting is a limited tool for assessing the efficacy of pathogen removal by in situ filtration because it is incapable of identifying discrete particles and can fail to detect microorganisms with refraction indexes close to that of water. Preliminary B.~subtilis removal data from the full scale RBF well and preliminary site characterization, particle count, and B.~subtilis removal data from the RBF test site are presented.

Cote, M. M.; Emelko, M. B.; Thomson, N. R.

2003-04-01

347

Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom  

SciTech Connect

In an industrial cleanroom, significant energy savings were realized by implementing two types of demand controlled filtration (DCF) strategies, one based on particle counts and one on occupancy. With each strategy the speed of the recirculation fan filter units was reduced to save energy. When the control was based on particle counts, the energy use was 60% of the baseline configuration of continuous fan operation. With simple occupancy sensors, the energy usage was 63% of the baseline configuration. During the testing of DCF, no complaints were registered by the operator of the cleanroom concerning processes and products being affected by the DCF implementation.

Faulkner, David; DiBartolomeo, Dennis; Wang, Duo

2007-09-01

348

ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) at pilot scale. The pilot unit consisted of a conventional baghouse in parallel with an ESFF baghouse, allowing direct comparison. Reported results are for pulse-cl...

349

Middle Eastern filtration market focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from the oil and gas industry the Middle East has little in the way of heavy industry. However, it still offers a number of unique opportunities to the filtration and separation industry. Robert McIlvaine, president of The McIlvaine Co, USA, reports.

Robert McIlvaine

2001-01-01

350

Profit from more effective filtration  

SciTech Connect

Yesterday's fuel oil was plentiful and there was strong competition in the supply market. As a result, refiners and distributors were careful to keep out contaminants. Today, however, that has changed and fuel oil is no longer consistently delivered as pure as it used to be. The most practical answer is effective filtration of fuel oil before it gets to the burner.

Berg, J.

1984-10-01

351

Advances in Engine Filtration Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased demand for cleaner engines and longer times between replacement of engine filters has meant that the engine filtration market has never been more active. Robert Murphey, Hollingsworth & Vose, USA, discusses the issues facing the industry and highlights some of the developments in filter media that are helping to meet these requirements.

Robert Murphey

2000-01-01

352

Profit from more effective filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yesterday's fuel oil was plentiful and there was strong competition in the supply market. As a result, refiners and distributors were careful to keep out contaminants. Today, however, that has changed and fuel oil is no longer consistently delivered as pure as it used to be. The most practical answer is effective filtration of fuel oil before it gets to

1984-01-01

353

Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO[sub x] and particulate control  

SciTech Connect

The EERC approach to meeting the program objective involves the development of a catalytic fabric filter for simultaneous NO[sub x] and particulate control. The idea of applying either permanent or throwaway catalysts to a high-temperature fabric filter for NO[sub x] control is not new. However, advances at OCF have shown that a high-activity catalyst can be applied to a high-temperature woven glass cloth resulting in a fabric filter material that can operate at temperatures higher than the maximum operating temperatures of commercially available, coated glass fabric. The NO[sub x] is removed by catalytic reduction with ammonia to form nitrogen and water. The catalyst employed at this time is vanadium/titanium, but the exact catalyst composition and the unique method of applying the catalyst to high-temperature glass fabric are the property of OCF. Other catalyst options are being evaluated by OCF in order to improve catalyst performance and minimize catalyst cost. Bench-scale experimental results to date have shown that over 90% NO[sub x] removal can be achieved, the catalyst/fabric has promising self-abrasion characteristics, and the potential exists for substantially reduced cost when compared with conventional SCR/fabric filtration technology. However, development of the technology requires further evaluation of air-to-cloth ratio, ammonia slip, SO[sub 2] oxidation to SO[sub 3], temperature cycling, catalyst-coated fabric preparation, fuel impacts, fabric cleaning (reverse-gas versus pulse-jet), catalyst life (poisoning and resistance to erosion), and filter performance/life (particulate control, differential pressure, and durability).

Weber, G.F.; Ness, S.R.; Laudal, D.L.; Dunham, G.

1993-02-01

354

40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart H - Filtration and Disinfection] [Sec. 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS-- Filtration and Disinfection Sec....

2009-07-01

355

Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration.  

PubMed

Inhalation of indoor radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) decay products is the most important source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the human respiratory tract. Decreasing ventilation rates due to energy saving reasons in new buildings suggest additional active mitigation techniques to reduce the exposure in homes with high radon and thoron concentrations but poor ventilation. Filtration techniques with HEPA filters and simple surgical mask material have been tested for their potential to reduce the indoor exposure in terms of the total effective dose for mixed radon and thoron indoor atmospheres. The tests were performed inside an experimental room providing stable conditions. Filtration (at filtration rates of 0.2 h(-1) and larger) removes attached radon and thoron decay products effectively but indoor aerosol as well. Therefore the concentration of unattached decay products (which have a higher dose coefficient) may increase. The decrease of the attached decay product concentrations could be theoretically described by a slowly decreasing exponential process. For attached radon decay products, it exhibited a faster but weaker removal process compared to attached thoron decay products (-70% for attached radon decay products and -80% for attached thoron decay products at a filtration rate of 0.5 h(-1) with an HEPA filter). The concentration of unattached thoron decay products increased distinctly during the filtration process (+300%) while that of unattached radon decay products rose only slightly though at a much higher level (+17%). In the theoretical description these observed differences could be attributed to the different half-lives of the nuclides. Considering both effects, reduced attached and increased unattached decay product concentrations, filtration could significantly decrease the total effective dose from thoron whereas the overall effect on radon dose is small. A permanent filtration is recommended because of the slow decrease of the thoron decay product concentrations. PMID:21767867

Wang, Jin; Meisenberg, Oliver; Chen, Yongheng; Karg, Erwin; Tschiersch, Jochen

2011-07-20

356

Water Filtration for Asbestos Fiber Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a comprehensive review of data on removal of asbestos fibers by granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth filtration. It summarizes data obtained in pilot plant studies at Duluth and Seattle, in research program carried out at ...

G. S. Logsdon

1979-01-01

357

Monitoring bioremediation in creosote-contaminated soils using chemical analysis and toxicity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Three soils with a history of creosote contamination (designated NB, TI and AC) were treated in bench-scale microcosms using\\u000a conditions (nutrient amendment, moisture content and temperature) which had promoted mineralization of?14C-pyrene in a preliminary study. Bioremediation was monitored using the solid-phase Microtox test, seed germination and earthworm\\u000a survival assays, SOS-chromotest, Toxi-chromotest and a red blood cell (RBC) haemolysis assay. Contaminant

T M Phillips; D Liu; A G Seech; H Lee; J T Trevors

2000-01-01

358

Ceramic Foam For Molten metal Filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ceramic foam filters were used for the inductrial filtration of aluminum. Results are compared with laboratory experiments which are in good agreement with trajectory analyses of deep bed filtration for the early stage of filtration. The correlations between structural characteristics of the filter media, filtration parameters and filter efficiency are given. In addition, the most important parameters for the industrial use of filters are discussed.

Gauckler, L. J.; Waeber, M. M.; Conti, C.; Jacob-Duliere, M.

1985-09-01

359

The prognostic value of estimated glomerular filtration rate, amino-terminal portion of the pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide and parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of renal function in relation to amino-terminal portion of the pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in predicting mortality and morbidity in patients with moderate chronic heart failure (CHF). Sixty-one CHF patients were included in the study. Patients' characteristics were: age 64.3±11.6 years; New York Heart Association class I/II/III: 14/37/10; left ventricular ejection fraction: 0.30±0.13 (%); NT-proBNP: 252.2±348.0 (ng/L); estimated creatinine clearance (e-CC): 73.6±31.4 (mL/min); estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR): 66.1±24.6 (mL/min/1.73 m2); the highest O2 uptake during exercise (VO2-peak): 1.24±0.12 mL/kg/min; VO2/workload: 8.52±1.81 (mL/min/W)]. During follow up (59.5±4.0 months) there were 15 cardiac deaths and 16 patients were hospitalized due to progression of heart failure. NT-proBNP and VO2/workload were independently associated with cardiac death (P=0.007 and P=0.006, respectively). Hospitalization for progressive CHF was only associated with NT-proBNP (P=0.002). The combined cardiac events (cardiac death and hospitalization) were associated with NT-proBNP and VO2/ workload (P=0.007 and P=0.005, respectively). The addition of estimates of renal function (neither serum creatinine nor e-GFR) did not improve the prognostic value for any of the models.In conclusion, in patients with moderate CHF, increased NT-proBNP and reduced VO2/ work-load identify those with increased mortality and morbidity, irrespective of estimates of renal function.

Verberne, Hein J.; van der Spank, Aukje; Bresser, Paul; Somsen, G. Aernout

2012-01-01

360

WATER FILTRATION FOR ASBESTOS FIBER REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a comprehensive review of data on removal of asbestos fibers by granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth filtration. It summarizes data obtained in pilot plant studies at Duluth and Seattle, in research program carried out at Duluth's Lakewood filtrat...

361

Acoustically driven filtration of particulate suspensions in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of filtration of liquid suspensions containing micron to millimeter size particles has been developed. A resonant ultrasonic field, applied across a highly porous medium, has been used to trap fine particles inside the large pores (relative to the particle size) of the medium. Three types of porous media, unconsolidated bed of 3 mm glass beads, consolidated open pore aluminum mesh, and reticulated polyester polyurethane foam were investigated as the test media. Reasonable filtration efficiencies were achieved for model aqueous suspensions of 325 mesh polystyrene particles in all three porous media. The expected trends of filtration performance with respect to suspension flow rate, its concentration, and the acoustic field intensity were confirmed. The Filtration phenomena was found to be limited by non-physical saturation of porous media. At saturation, the particles collected inside the media were found to exhibit macroscopic vibrations which allows them to escape with the carrier fluid. The highly porous POLY foam (95% porosity) was found to be the best media for suspension studied in terms of the duration of particle retention and percentage filtration efficiencies. The aluminum mesh performed slightly poorer. The unconsolidated porous media collected the least amount of solids. A simple theoretical development based on particle trajectory around an infinitely long cylindrical fiber, in the presence of acoustic field, has been initiated. In principle, the new filtration method is similar to high gravity magnetic separation but the acoustic method has a wider scope due to inherent acoustic contrast present in most suspensions. The low pressure drop, ease of operation, amenability to large scale operation and reasonable filtration efficiency make the new method highly attractive and suitable for practical applications.

Gupta, Sanjay

1997-12-01

362

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

363

Approximate theory for radial filtration/consolidation  

SciTech Connect

Approximate solutions are developed for filtration and subsequent consolidation of compactible cakes on a cylindrical filter element. Darcy`s flow equation is coupled with equations for equilibrium stress under the conditions of plane strain and axial symmetry for radial flow inwards. The solutions are based on power function forms involving the relationships of the solidosity {epsilon}{sub s} (volume fraction of solids) and the permeability K to the solids effective stress p{sub s}. The solutions allow determination of the various parameters in the power functions and the ratio k{sub 0} of the lateral to radial effective stress (earth stress ratio). Measurements were made of liquid and effective pressures, flow rates, and cake thickness versus time. Experimental data are presented for a series of tests in a radial filtration cell with a central filter element. Slurries prepared from two materials (Microwate, which is mainly SrSO{sub 4}, and kaolin) were used in the experiments. Transient deposition of filter cakes was followed by static (i.e., no flow) conditions in the cake. The no-flow condition was accomplished by introducing bentonite which produced a nearly impermeable layer with negligible flow. Measurement of the pressure at the cake surface and the transmitted pressure on the central element permitted calculation of k{sub 0}.

Tiller, F.M. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Kirby, J.M. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra (Australia). Soils Div.; Nguyen, H.L. [Veteran`s Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

364

Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF. PMID:23190556

Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

2013-01-01

365

Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight-month period. Final statistical analyses of the nine months of data indicate up to a four-log particle reduction occurs through river bank filtration. Consequently, Missouri River sediments within the City's well field are very effective in water filtration. This information was submitted to the IDNR for review and approval. Subsequently, the IDNR approved 4.0 log removal for Giardia and 3.5 log removal for Cryptosporidium through the riverbank and treatment plant. The City and IDNR have agreed on subrogate parameters for monitoring purposes.

Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

2003-04-01

366

Membrane filters and membrane-filtration processes for health care.  

PubMed

The development of membrane-filtration processes is reviewed, and current types and uses of membrane filtration in health care is discussed. Development of adequate support structures for filters and of disposable filtration devices has facilitated development of filtration processes for pharmaceutical industry, manufacturing in hospital pharmacies, and direct patient care. Hydrophobic filters have also been developed; aqueous solutions cannot wet the pore structures of these filters and therefore cannot pass. Sterility-testing systems have also been developed. There are two types of filters: depth (constructed of compacted fibers) and membrane (which have a homogeneous internal structure). Depth filters retain only a portion of particles in a particular size range and are generally not acceptable for use in health care. Membrane filters retain all particles of a given size. Types of membrane filters are selected for specific uses based on needed flow rates, particulate load, and retention capability. Membrane filters may be validated using bacterial-passage, bubble-point, and diffusion tests. Most membrane filters used in health care are microporous filters that retain particles in the 0.1-10-micron size range. Applications are currently being developed for ultrafilters, which retain both particles and substances with large molecular structures such as proteins, and reverse-osmosis filter membranes, which allow only water or water-miscible solvents of very low molecular weights to pass. Experience in engineering designs, quality assurance, and test procedures has led to the development of many safe, reliable, and effective membrane products for health care. PMID:6650520

Eudailey, W A

1983-11-01

367

Electrospinning of nanofibers for filtration media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since particulate impurity is regarded as the primary cause of lung diseases, purification of air has been a crucial issue. Filtration is the most conventional method to obtain clean air, whereby particulate matter is collected on a fibrous media. The use of fibrous filters is prevalent because of their high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. Fibrous filters were fabricated via the electrospinning process which can be used to produce continuous submicron-diameter sized fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with a mean fiber diameter of 224 nm were electrospun to form fibermats. Filtration tests on fibermats of PAN were conducted to confirm that filters of thinner fibers result in higher collection efficiencies and lower pressure drops than that of thicker fibers as predicted by the theoretical filtration mechanism. Results showed that electrospun PAN nanofibermats had a superior quality factor of 0.067+/-0 compared to 0.031+/-0.001 by the current state-of-the-art microfiber-based high particulate air (HEPA) filtration media. The verified theory implies that nanofibermats of other types of materials could also be considered as promising filtration media since filtration performance is independent of the material used. As materials for advanced next-generation filtration media, ceramics are favored over polymeric materials due to their robustness against environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, abrasive particles, and high temperature all of which degrade and damage the fibrous structure. Amidst various ceramic materials, the anatase phase of TiO2 was selected due to its mechanical property and versatility as a photocatalyst and microwave-absorbing material. Anatase TiO2 fibers were fabricated by electrospinning followed by heat treatment at 500°C for 3 hours. However, early precipitation or gelation of the organic solvent-based TiO2 sol posed a practical challenge in the sample preparation. In order to enhance stability of the precursor sol, a novel aqueous sol with titanium alkoxide was developed. As the result, the time taken for gelation or precipitation was elongated from 4 hours for the organic solvent-based sol to 4 months with the novel aqueous sol. In seeking the proper chemical composition to attain electrospinnability and maximize the period for storage before gelation, the reaction paths of hydrolysis and condensation for one of the components of the aqueous sol were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. After hydrolysis and condensation reactions, Si-O-Ti bonds were validated to be formed by the reaction mechanism. TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers were successfully electrospun from the aqueous sol system by addition of a spinning agent followed by heat treatment. In contrast to TiO2 fibers in which anatase phase was observed after heat treatment at 500°C, anatase phase was formed at 1100°C in TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers. The formation of Ti-O-Ti bonds was retarded due to the formation of Si-O-Ti bonds, as evidenced by the NMR results. In regard to the microstructure of TiO2 fibers and TiO 2-SiO2 composite fibers with anatase phases, the TiO 2-SiO2 composite fibers were observed to have no voids or cleavages on the surface than TiO2 fibers which have coarse structures created upon crystallization at magnification of x330,000 by transmission electron microscopy. The coarse structure of TiO2 fibers characterized as having cleavages at exposed surface grain boundaries is anticipated to adversely affect the mechanical stability by enhancing crack formation and propagation which will lead to failure of the fiber. In contrast, amorphous SiO2 fills in the spaces that have been created by the development of anatase phase for TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers. Smoother surfaces were observed as well in contrast with TiO2 fibers due to the amorphous SiO2 in the continuous phase of the composite material. Based on the observations, TiO2-SiO2 composite fibers are expected to have better mechanical stability by reducing the possibility of crack formation and blockage of crack propagation.

Park, Hyoungjun

368

Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

2011-06-01

369

Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Duncan, J.B.

1997-01-07

370

Establishment of design criteria for optimum burners for application to heavy-fuel-fired package boilers. Volume 2. Pilot scale tests. Final report, 1980-1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy-oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies that defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a conceptual two-stage low-NOx burner design. Volume II gives results of pilot-scale experiments conducted in two test facilities with

G.. England; D. W. Pershing; M. P. Heap

1986-01-01

371

Establishment of design criteria for optimum burners for application to heavy-fuel-fired package boilers. Volume 1. Laboratory scale tests. Final report, 1980-1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy-oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies that defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a conceptual two-stage low-NOx burner design. Volume II gives results of pilot-scale experiments conducted in two test facilities with

G. C. England; D. W. Pershing; M. P. Heap

1986-01-01

372

[Modern filtration surgery. An update].  

PubMed

Preoperative treatment with steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases the success of filtration surgery. Surgery with the patient under subconjunctival anesthesia is safe. Intraoperative application of mitomycin C is state of the art and enhances success rates. Perioperative use of bevacizumab seems to attenuate postoperative fibrosis. Postoperative hypotension is avoided by stable fixation of the scleral flap followed by stepwise controlled suturelysis or release. Transconjunctival flap suturing allows fast and simple treatment of overfiltration. The shorter the time lag between trabeculectomy and subsequent cataract surgery the higher the probability of bleb failure will be. The number of antiglaucomatous drugs and severity of glaucomatous damage before surgery correlate with the probability of failure and blindness. PMID:23519498

Klink, T; Grehn, F

2013-04-01

373

Tangential Flow Filtration of Hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells (bRBCs and hRBCs, respectively) via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P50), and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (?) and beta (?) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the ? and ? globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the ?-and ?-globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs).

Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R.

2009-01-01

374

APPLICATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION TO COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the application of fabric filtration to combustion sources, with emphasis on research and development efforts directed toward assessment and documentation of full-scale baghouse operation, better understanding of the filtration process, and ...

375

Controllability, zeros, and filtrations for singular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global zero module of a matrix pencil measures controllability and uncontrollability of an associated singular linear system. If the global zero module vanishes, then the polynomial filtration on the Wedderburn-Forney space of the pencil kernel corresponds to the global controllability filtration of the system. This correspondence gives a new structural interpretation of a matrix pencil's Kronecker indices

Cheryl B. Schrader; Bostwick F. Wyman; Steven J. Giust

1995-01-01

376

Filtration-drying of paper and board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filtration drying is one of the most promising methods of drying highly porous varieties of paper and board. This paper is aimed at improving the productivity of BP-46 paper-making machinery, improving the structural and filtration indexes of these materials, and reducing the specific power consumption. The aerodynamic characteristics of wet and dry specimens of filter materials were determined, the effect

E. M. Segal; V. A. Babinskii; V. B. Feigin; M. D. Lotvinov

1986-01-01

377

High Temperature Fabric Filtration of Industrial Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial application of fabric filtration of gases was limited for many years by the low thermal resistance of organic filter media; filtration temperatures were restricted to below about 275°F. The introduction of silicone finished glass fabrics just over 10 years ago effectively doubled this limit, and glass fiber material remains today the only commercially available fabric in general use

Paul W. Spaite; David G. Stephan; Andrew H. Rose Jr

1961-01-01

378

COMPARISON OF SOME FILTRATION PROCESSES APPROPRIATE FOR GIARDIA CYST REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, and coagulation-filtration (including conventional treatment, direct filtration, and in-line filtration), have been evaluated for Giardia cyst removal at pilot plant and/or field scale. Properly designed and operated, the ...

379

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

Cicero, C.A.

1996-05-08

380

Nocardia globerula NHB-2: Bench scale production of nicotinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular nitrilase of Nocardia globerula NHB-2 induced by propionitrile catalyses the hydrolysis of 3-cyanopyridine to nicotinic acid without detectable formation of nicotinamide. N. globerula NHB-2 showed highest conversion rate at 40mM 3-cyanopyridine, in 0.1M NaH2PO4\\/Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.5) containing 5mM 2-mercaptoethanol. In 1l fed-batch reaction, containing 0.1M NaH2PO4\\/Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.5), 4.2g resting cells (dry weight), at 35°C, 400rpm,

Nitya Nand Sharma; Monica Sharma; Harish Kumar; Tek Chand Bhalla

2006-01-01

381

BENCH SCALE STUDIES OF LIMESTONE INJECTION FOR SO2 CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of experiments in a boiler simulator furnace, indicating that the parameters of major importance to SO2 capture are thermal environment, calcium/sulfur ratio, and sorbent composition. Thermal environment (local temperature) had a strong effect on the util...

382

Bench-scale research in biomass direct liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass liquefaction and hydrotreatment studies of biomass derived liquids is discussed. Evaluation of the current research ongoing in the participating countries provided a focus on the areas of need and continuing cooperation and communication is proposed. Continuing hydrotreating research provided insights into techniques for converting the initial product of biomass liquefaction into a mixture of hydrocarbon liquids. This gasoline blending stock was produced from both distillate and whole product in the presence of commercially available catalysts and processing conditions.

Elliott, D. C.

1984-05-01

383

POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter, the installation, testing and shakedown phases of commissioning the TES unit were completed (Tasks 4, 5.1 and 5.2). A representative from Carpco Inc. was on site to provide training in the operation of the test unit and assist with the initial test runs. Problems have been encountered with the recycle conveyor generating dust that neutralizes the particle charge. Testing has continued by batch feeding the unit while the recycle conveying problem is being solved. Good separations have been achieved while operating in this mode. Comparison tests have also been carried out using a bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator in parallel with the POC Carpco unit.

R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; A.D. Walters

1999-10-01

384

Particle filtration in consolidated granular systems  

SciTech Connect

Grain-packing algorithms are used to model the mechanical trapping of dilute suspensions of particles by consolidated granular media. We study the distribution of filtrate particles, the formation of a damage zone (internal filter cake), and the transport properties of the host--filter-cake composite. At the early stages of filtration, our simulations suggest simple relationships between the structure of the internal filter cake and the characteristics of the underlying host matrix. These relationships are then used to describe the dynamics of the filtration process. Depending on the grain size and porosity of the host matrix, calculated filtration rates may either be greater than (spurt loss) or less than (due to internal clogging) those predicted by standard surface-filtration models.

Schwartz, L.M.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877-4108 (United States)); Bolsterli, M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Hammond, P. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OE (United Kingdom))

1993-03-01

385

The development of a high functional continuous filtration system for sericite powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cake-less continuous filtration equipment has been developed based on an evaluation of inorganic powder slurry characteristics\\u000a by many kinds of measurement methods, such as a sedimentation test under gravity and a hydrostatic pressure test. We have\\u000a been developing a high-performance cake-less filtration system in which a condensed inorganic powder slurry layer maintains\\u000a its fluidity. The development of this novel

Heekyu Choi; Ochirhuyag Bayanjargal; JunIchiro Tsubaki; Takamasa Mori; Tadamitsu Sugimoto; JungEun Lee

2008-01-01

386

New treatability tests  

SciTech Connect

EPA, under its Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, recently announced results from treatability tests on Thorneco Inc.'s (Payson, Ariz.) Enzyme-Activated Cellulose Technology. The technology relies on cellulose coated with a proprietary enzyme to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous solutions. Following enzyme treatment, cellulose is placed in one or more towers that operate in series. Contaminated water enters the towers from the bottom and flows upward through the enzyme-activated cellulose to a discharge pipe at the top. The technology can remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous solutions in the form of ions, particulates or colloidal compounds. The treatability study was conducted between Aug. 26 and Sept. 30, 1991, at the Engineering Science treatability lab in Atlanta. Contaminated groundwater came from Stream A at the Stringfellow Superfund site in Glen Avon, Calif. A bench-scale treatability study was performed because of a lack of complete background data and uncertainty concerning the technology's removal mechanisms.

Roy, K.A.

1993-01-01

387

Advanced treatment of WWTP effluent with filtration leading to a pretreatment technique for membrane filtration.  

PubMed

In 2000 the European Union introduced the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The aim of the WFD is having an ecological and chemical balance for all surface waters in Europe in 2015. The European Commission identified 33 priority substances and their maximum allowable concentrations, FHI-values (Fraunhofer Institute), which are specified in the Annex of the WFD. The objective of this research is to achieve the removal of suspended solids, nitrogen and total phosphorus together with priority substances. All these substances will be removed in one filter called a "One Step Total Effluent Polishing filter" i.e. 1-STEP(®) filter. For this purpose a filter pilot plant was tested at the WWTP Horstermeer. The results show that the filter can fulfil the target values in the filtrate water for total nitrogen (2.2 mg Ntotal/L) and total phosphorus (0.15 mg Ptotal/L). The majority of the priority (hazardous) substances in the WWTP effluent are already below the detection limit. Due to the low concentration ranges, the results on the removal of medicine and pesticides are only indicative. A decreasing tendency in the removal efficiency is shown for all measured compounds. The average specific ultrafiltration resistance (SUR) value decrease of the filter is 55% and the final value is always below 5·10(12) m(-2). This indicates that the filtrate water of the filter is very well filterable and can be used as ultrafiltration feedwater. PMID:21045335

Scherrenberg, S M; te Kloeze, A M; Janssen, A N; van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; Menkveld, H W H; Bechger, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

2010-01-01

388

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.174 Filtration sampling requirements. (a) Monitoring requirements for systems using filtration...

2012-07-01

389

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving...or More People § 141.174 Filtration sampling requirements....

2010-07-01

390

40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.71 Section 141.71 ...PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system...

2010-07-01

391

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS--] [Subpart P - Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection_Systems Serving 10,000 or] [Sec. 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.] 40...WATER REGULATIONS-- Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection_Systems...

2009-07-01

392

10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

393

12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

394

31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

395

32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

396

13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

397

4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

398

7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. Laboratory building is at center left of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

399

11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

400

1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded over facility. Armory Street appears in the foreground. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

401

8. Detail view of southwest corner of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail view of southwest corner of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

402

Development of a centrifugal downhold separator with in-situ recycle of produced water (initial tests with 34.1 API gravity crude)  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently developing a Centrifugal Downhole Separator (CDHS) which will extend the application of remotely operated separations equipment developed for the nuclear industry to in-well recovery of oil with in-situ recycle of the produced water. These units have been successfully used for surface treatment of produced water and wastewater generated during environmental clean-up operations. Performance data has shown that centrifugal units are capable of separating stable emulsions into ``single-phase`` streams with generally less than 1% cross-phase contamination. Initial testing will be conducted with a bench-scale separator to determine the separation efficiency of various crude oils and to provide information necessary to scale up the separator. Information from the bench-scale unit will be used in the design of a larger prototype, which will have a much larger height/diameter ratio and will incorporate some of the components necessary for down-hole operations. The prototype separator will be operated in the lab to verify scale-up parameters and separation efficiencies, as well as to provide information necessary to design a full-scale system. The full-scale system will be fabricated, installed in the field, and operated to demonstrate the technology. This paper discusses the initial testing of the bench-scale separator with a crude oil having an API gravity of 34.06{degrees}.

Walker, J.F.; Jubin, R.T.; Robinson, S.M.

1998-11-01

403

Demonstration of hot gas filtration in advanced coal gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is an engineering scale demonstration of advanced coal–fired power systems and high–temperature, high pressure gas filtration systems. The PSDF was designed at sufficient scale so that advanced power systems and components can be tested in an integrated fashion to provide data for commercial scale–up. The PSDF is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy

Xiaofeng Guan; Ben Gardner; Ruth Ann Martin; Jack Spain

2008-01-01

404

Factors Influencing Pressure Drop through a Dust Cake during Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three kinds of dust materials, fly ash (MMAD : 6.28 ?m), limestone (MMAD : 2.53 ?m) and SAE fine dust (MMAD : 3.88 ?m), have been used to test the dust cake compaction and its influence on the specific dust cake resistance coefficient at filtration velocity ranging from 1 to 9 cm\\/sec. An accurate laser dispacement system was used to

Yu-Hsiang Cheng; Chuen-Jinn Tsai

1998-01-01

405

New high performance fabric for hot gas filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new filter media designed for reduced baghouse operating costs via increased filtration capacity and\\/or reduced pressure drop is discussed. The development steps from defining industry needs, product optimization through laboratory tests and industrial baghouse evaluations are reviewed. Results show a significant improvement in baghouse performance, i.e., reduced deltap and emissions and increased a\\/c ratio compared to incumbent

Shah

1984-01-01

406

Modeling of compressible cake filtration  

SciTech Connect

The transport of suspended solid particles in a liquid through porous media has importance from the viewpoint of engineering practice and industrial applications. Deposition of solid particles on a filter cloth or on a pervious porous medium forms the filter cakes. Following a literature survey, a governing equation for the cake thickness is obtained by considering an instantaneous material balance. In addition to the conservation of mass equations for the liquid, and for suspended and captured solid particles, functional relations among porosity, permeability, and pressure are obtained from literature and solved simultaneously. Later, numerical solutions for cake porosity, pore pressure, cake permeability, velocity of solid particles, concentration of suspended solid particles, and net rate of deposition are obtained. At each instant of time, the porosity decreases throughout the cake from the surface to the filter septum where it has the smallest value. As the cake thickness increases, the trends in pressure variation are similar to data obtained by other researchers. This comparison shows the validity of the theory and the associated solution presented. A sensitivity analysis shows higher pressure values at the filter septum for a less pervious membrane. Finally, a reduction in compressibility parameter provides a thicker cake, causes more particles to be captured inside the cake, and reduces the volumetric filtrate rate. The increase of solid velocity with the reduction in compressibility parameter shows that more rigid cakes compress less.

Abbound, N.M. (Univ. of Connecticut, Waterbury, CT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Corapcioglu, M.Y. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1993-10-15

407

Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

Yu, Zhimin

408

Recycling and reuse of wastewater from a new-developed community using sand filtration, ultrafiltration, and ozonation.  

PubMed

In this study, the pilot apparatus combined with sand filtration, ozonation and ultrafiltration was established. Wastewater from the secondary treatment effluent in the new-developed community was taken as the sample for looking into the feasibility of domestic wastewater reuse and recycling. The test results by sand filtration, sand filtration/ultrafiltration, sand filtration/ozonation, and sand filtration/ultrafiltration/ozonation were compared for looking for appropriate treatment processes applied in the domestic wastewater reuse and recycling. Finally, cost analysis was carried out and sand filtration/ozonation process was suggested to be one of the best processes. The total cost is about 0.1-0.32 USD dollars per cubic meter of produced water by considering the capital and operation cost for five years in the small domestic wastewater treatment plant (50-750 CMD). PMID:14524686

Ni, C H; Chen, J N; Tsai, Y C; Chen, T K; Chen, W B; Chen, C H

2003-01-01

409

Granular filtration in a fluidized bed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion system often requires reliable and efficient cleanup devices that can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature, high- pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept fo...

J. S. Mei P. C. Yue

1996-01-01

410

Water Treatment by Dendrimer Enhanced Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described herein are compositions and methods useful for the purification of water using dendritic macromolecules. The process involves using dendritic macromolecules (dendrimers) to bind to contaminants, and a filtration step to produce water from which ...

M. S. Diallo

2005-01-01

411

Advanced Filtration of Pulp Mill Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory and pilot plants studies of reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) and ultrafiltration of pulp mill wastes were performed by International Paper Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (subcontractor). Decker filtrates were treated with dynamicall...

J. T. McKinnon

1979-01-01

412

Water-Treatment-Sludge Filtration Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to examine the filtration characteristics of alum and lime-softening sludges. Hardness effects on filterability were examined. Crystal seeding was found to be effective in improving the filterability of both alum sludge and lime-sof...

J. F. Judkins

1973-01-01

413

Thermal depolymerization of plastics - PDU testing. Task 15. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The process development unit (PDU) test program is part of an ongoing effort at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to expand the base of knowledge for the thermal depolymerization of plastics process. This phase of the development effort, initiated after successful completion of a bench-scale program, has concentrated on maximizing liquid yield. The purposes of the PDU program were (1) to demonstrate the process on a commercially scalable unit, (2) to produce quantities of product that could be used to initiate discussions with potential end users, and (3) to gather engineering and yield data. Experimentation consisted of eleven test points on the PDU and seven on the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) bench-scale unit. Initial PDU tests (PO35-PO39) were carried out using a base blend, which consists of 60% high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 20% polypropylene (PP), and 20% polystyrene (PS) virgin resin pellets. Test PO39 used base blend with 5% polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The base blend decomposed to produce a flowable liquid, with liquid yields ranging from 33% to 45%. The next series of tests, PO40-PO44, used a postconsumer plastics feed. This material did not decompose as readily as the base blend and formed a very waxy, heavy liquid, with {open_quotes}liquid{close_quotes} yields ranging from 18% to 63% (low liquid yields are the result of using excess air in the natural gas burner in some tests in an attempt to increase gas residence time).

NONE

1996-01-01

414

By-pass lube oil filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of measurements to determine the effect of contaminant particle size on wear in lubricated systems, intended to increase understanding of the needs of lube-oil filtration systems for engines and transmissions. The results indicate that component wear rate is independent of contamination size when particles down to at least 3 ..mu..m are present. By-pass filtration theory

1986-01-01

415

Purification of lysozyme by multistage affinity filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistage affinity filtration process was developed for the purification of proteins. An affinity adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing Cibacron Blue 3GA to TSK gel HW-65F. Adsorption equilibrium experiments showed that the blue TSK gel had a high affinity for lysozyme, while its binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was weaker. Using a three-stage affinity filtration system, lysozyme was purified

L. He; Y. Sun

2002-01-01

416

Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL Inc. (United States)

1996-08-15

417

Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery  

SciTech Connect

Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

1995-04-01

418

POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal strearrts. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a jet processor. To meet the overall objective an eleven task work plan has been designed. The work ranges from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment.

None

1998-11-12

419

A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

2010-12-01

420

Effects of aluminum-copper alloy filtration on photon spectra, air kerma rate and image contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the performance of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, without the original aluminum filter, for dental radiography in terms of x-ray energy spectrum, air kerma rate and image quality. Comparisons of various thicknesses of aluminum-copper alloy in three different percentages were made with aluminum filtration. Tests were conducted on an intra-oral dental x-ray machine and were made on mandible phantom

Andréa Gonçalves; João Manuel; Domingos de Almeida ROLLO; Marcelo GONÇALVES; Francisco HAITER NETO

2004-01-01

421

Use of colloid filtration theory in modeling movement of bacteria through a contaminated sandy aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filtration model commonly used to describe removal of colloids during packed-bed filtration in water treatment applications was modified for describing downgradient transport of bacteria in sandy, aquifer sediments. The modified model was applied to the results of a small-scale (7 m), natural-gradient tracer test and to observations of an indigenous bacterial population moving downgradient within a plume of organically

Ronald W. Harvey; Stephen P. Garabedian

1991-01-01

422

Simultaneous hot desulfurization and improved filtration  

SciTech Connect

Coal reserves in the United States as well as abroad will remain unusable until technology is developed to meet both Clean Air Act mandates and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for particulate, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}, emissions effectively and economically. Recent breakthroughs in particulate control, specifically ceramic filtration technology, have shown that NSPS limits on particulates can be achieved at high process temperatures, thereby minimizing thermal losses and system complexity. While both calcium based and regenerable metal oxide sorbents are currently utilized for sulfur mitigation, problems such as sintering, temperature limitations, physical attrition, and cost have limited their success. This research suggests the use of waste metal oxide materials for the removal of sulfur in hot gas streams as an alternative to either traditional calcium based sorbents, or regenerable metal oxide sorbents. When classified to a desired particle size and injected into a high temperature coal utilization process, such a `once-through` sorbent can effectively remove sulfur and simultaneously increase the permeability of dust collected at a downstream ceramic filter station in a highly cost effective manner. Several waste metal oxides, including the oxides of iron, tin, and zinc, have been evaluated both individually and in combination to assess their capacity for sulfur capture in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Additionally, inert materials such as silica sand as well as more traditional materials such as dolomite and limestone, were evaluated as sorbents under identical test conditions to serve as reference data.

Eggerstedt, P.M.; Zievers, J.F.; Patel, P.C.; Zievers, E.C., Industrial Fiber & Pump Mfg. Co.

1998-01-01

423

Retention of granular sludge at high hydraulic loading rates in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor with immersed filtration.  

PubMed

This study shows the results of an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor with immersed filtration cartridges for granular biomass retention working at high hydraulic loading rates. Biomass retention capabilities, granular biomass structure and activity, filtration cartridges flux and organic material degradation performance were evaluated. Four reactors with a volume of 0.005 m3 were tested. Two different filtration cartridges were used (10 and 100 microm) with effective surface area of 0.05 m2. The filtration cartridges were submerged in the reactors for suction type filtration. Three organic loading rates were tested in the first two reactors and seven in the other two. Selective biomass washout and an increment in the biomass methanogenic activity was observed in the reactors at hydraulic loading rates between 1.2 and 4.5 m/h. Analyses of biomass granulometry showed an increase of larger size granular biomass. The immersed membrane anaerobic bioreactor maintain most of the advantages without biomass activity loss. PMID:12188539

Hernández, A E; Belalcazar, L C; Rodríguez, M S; Giraldo, E

2002-01-01

424

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: evaluation of cellulase culture filtrates under use conditions  

SciTech Connect

Culture filtrates from three mutant strains of Trichoderma reesei grown on lactose and on cellulose were compared under use conditions on four cellulose substrates. Cellulose culture filtrates contained five to six times as much cellulase as lactose culture filtrates. Unconcentrated cellulose culture filtrates produced up to 10% sugar solutions from 15% cellulose in 24 h. Specific activity in enzyme assays and efficiency in saccharification tests were low for enzymes from all the mutants. Over a wide range the percent saccharification of a substrate in a given time was directly proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of initial concentrations of enzyme and substrate. As a result of this, dilute enzyme is more efficient than concentrated enzyme.

Mandels, M.; Medeiros, J.E.; Andreotti, R.E.; Bissett, F.H.

1981-09-01

425

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: evaluation of cellulase culture filtrates under use conditions  

SciTech Connect

Culture filtrates from three mutant strains of Trichoderma reesei grown on lactose and on cellulose were compared under use conditions on four cellulose substrates. Cellulose culture filtrates contained five to six times as much cellulase as lactose culture filtrates. Unconcentrated cellulose culture filtrates produced up to 10% sugar solutions from 15% cellulose in 24 hours. Specific activity in enzyme assays and efficiency in saccharification tests were low for enzymes from all the mutants. Over a wide range the percent saccharification of a substrate in a given time was directly proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of initial concentrations of enzyme and substrate. As a result of this, dilute enzyme is more efficient than concentrated enzyme, but if high sugar concentrations are desired, very large quantities of enzyme are required. Since the slopes of these plots varied, the relative activity of cellulase on different substrates may be affected by enzyme concentration. (Refs. 28).

Mandels, M.; Medeiros, J.E.; Andreotti, R.E.; Bissett, F.H.

1981-09-01

426

A subcutaneous capillary filtrate collector for measurement of blood chemistries.  

PubMed

The capillary filtrate collector (CFC) contains 30,000 molecular weight cut-off, hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes that are placed below the skin. A transcutaneous tube leads to an evacuated glass tube that provides a vacuum to pull ultrafiltrate at 40-60 microliters/hr from blood, through the fibers, and past a sampling port to the glass tube. Long-term (1-6 months) animal and clinical studies have shown that the ultrafiltrate concentration of chemicals such as glucose and a variety of drugs is exactly the same as that of the blood plasma water when the ultrafiltrate is created. In this study, the device was placed in six home monitored diabetics and four in-center hemodialysis diabetic patients. Over the following month, blood glucose concentrations were compared to CFC glucose concentrations. In spite of difficulties in diluting and assaying small samples of filtrate, there was a good correlation between blood and CFC glucose levels. A flow-through enzymatic glucose sensor has been tested and shown to accurately measure glucose in CFC filtrate. When placed in the transcutaneous tubing near the skin, this should allow a small external device to continuously monitor glucose levels in brittle or out of control diabetes with high accuracy and little risk, discomfort, or cost. PMID:8268628

Ash, S R; Rainier, J B; Zopp, W E; Truitt, R B; Janle, E M; Kissinger, P T; Poulos, J T

427

FLOCCULATION, SUBSIDENCE AND FILTRATION OF PHOSPHATE SLIMES. VI. A QUANTITATIVE THEORY OF FILTRATION OF FLOCCULATED SUSPENSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative theory of filtration of suspensions flocculated with ; polymeric flocculants is developed. The theory, based upon a simple picture of ; the adsorption of the flocculant combined with considerations of floc geometry ; and the Kozeny-Carman permeability equation, explains the variations of ; filtration rate with flocculant concentration observed experimentally. (auth)

R. H. Jr. Smellie; V. K. La Mer

1958-01-01

428

Biological filtration of treated waste water by Daphnia: an alternative for technical filtration, or an addition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several years of research on the island of Texel proofed that Daphnia magna are very well capable to remove faecal coli bacteria effectively from treated wastewater by biological filtration. The Daphnia population, mainly Daphnia magna, is maintained by activated sludge particles and loose bacteria from the treated waste water. Because of the filtration by Daphnia the ponds fed with treated

Ruud Kampf; Lluis Sala; Joaquim Comas; Theo Claassen; Remmie Neef; Wilbert Menkveld

429

Dynamic filtration of invert-emulsion muds  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic-filtration experiments conducted on oil-based muds show that the dynamic-filtration rate is much higher than API filtration rates. The use of water-wet solids results in very poor-quality external mudcakes and high fluid-loss rates. Better external mudcakes are formed by mixing equal parts organophilic clay and mud. Filtration-loss-control additives (asphalt mineral pitches) do not reduce the equilibrium filtration rate, but do reduce spurt loss and limit solids invasion. In brine-saturated rocks, the invasion rate for oil-based muds is significantly smaller than for water-based muds because capillary pressure prevents the oil phase from entering the core in oil-based muds. Oil-based mudcakes are softer and more shear-sensitive than water-based mudcakes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs indicate that oil-based mudcakes consist of individual water droplets coated with clay particles. This cake structure gives rise to the low permeability and shear sensitivity of oil-based muds.

Jiao, D.; Sharma, M.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-09-01

430

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Volume 1, Final report, September 1987--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

A five-year Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) was awarded to Texaco on September 30, 1987 to develop and demonstrate hot gas clean-up for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The program targeted the development and demonstration of a high efficiency integrated power generating system on a pilot plant scale that includes coal-sorbent slurry preparation, Texaco coal gasification, high temperature in-situ and external sulfur removal, particulate removal, advanced instruction, and if available, a gas turbine. To accomplish these goals, a comprehensive research and demonstration program that included theoretical and bench scale experimental studies, pilot scale demonstration runs, and detailed process economic evaluations was coordinated. The pilot scale studies, which were performed in the 20 tpd gasifiers at Texaco`s Montebello Research Laboratory, integrated in-situ desulfurization, external desulfurization, high temperature filtration and advanced instrumentation. Using data from the bench scale experiments and pilot scale demonstrations, the process economics studies compared the overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant efficiencies and costs for eighteen hot gas cleanup configurations to the efficiencies and costs for two ``base cases`` using commercially available cold gas cleanup technology. Several promising configurations using hot gas cleanup were identified.

Robin, A.M.; Davis, L.A.; Leininger, T.F. [and others

1993-10-01

431

The Glomerular Filtration Barrier: Components and Crosstalk  

PubMed Central

The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized blood filtration interface that displays a high conductance to small and midsized solutes in plasma but retains relative impermeability to macromolecules. Its integrity is maintained by physicochemical and signalling interplay among its three core constituents—the glomerular endothelial cell, the basement membrane and visceral epithelial cell (podocyte). Understanding the pathomechanisms of inherited and acquired human diseases as well as experimental injury models of this barrier have helped to unravel this interdependence. Key among the consequences of interference with the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier is the appearance of significant amounts of proteins in the urine. Proteinuria correlates with kidney disease progression and cardiovascular mortality. With specific reference to proteinuria in human and animal disease phenotypes, the following review explores the roles of the endothelial cell, glomerular basement membrane, and the podocyte and attempts to highlight examples of essential crosstalk within this barrier.

Menon, Madhav C.; Chuang, Peter Y.; He, Cijiang John

2012-01-01

432

Particle Tracking for Membranes Including Filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle transport including filtration is an important phenomenon in many engineering and biological systems. Phenomenological modeling of a cross-flow filtration experiment has been performed to investigate the biofouling potential of a porous membrane. Spherical particles sized one micron and smaller are released into a steady flow field. The porous membrane is characterized by a Darcy number equal to 10^8. Forces include electric double layer (EDL), van der Waals (vdW), induced lift, and transverse and Stokes-corrected normal drag including near-wall effects. For the negatively charged particles investigated, the EDL and vdW forces become significant within only within one particle radius from the membrane and produce repulsive and attractive forces respectively. Results will be presented quantifying fouling performance as a function of particle sizes, and cross-flow and filtration velocities and compared with experimental data.

James, Darryl; Webb, Stephen

2008-11-01

433

CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6  

SciTech Connect

In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

2011-02-01

434

High-efficiency filtration meets IAQ goals  

SciTech Connect

This article describes multi-stage filtration system which provided initial cost savings and is expected to save even more in energy costs while fulfilling IAQ requirements. The use of high-efficiency filtration has enabled the city of Kansas City, Mo., to save an estimated $500,000 in initial HVAC system costs for its Bartle Hall expansion project, which is currently under construction. Once operational, the new HVAC system, with its high-efficiency filters, is expected to save thousands of dollars per week more in energy costs while also delivering superior indoor air quality (IAQ).

Aaronson, E.L. (Jorban-Riscoe Associates, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Fencl, F. (Farr Co., El Segundo, CA (United States))

1994-12-01

435

Task 9- Centrifugal Membrane Filtration. Semiannual report, November 1, 1996--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. This phase of work is a continuation of the Phase 1 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. Solids cake development was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 feet per second and resulted in a reduction of unobstructed membrane surface area of up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort is to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative designs of the turbulence promoters to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface that is sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities include the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-inch-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly. Development and fabrication of alternative designs to the existing turbulence promoters. *Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix Data reduction and analysis.

Stephan, Daniel J.; Grafsgaard, Michael E.

1997-12-31

436

The impact of industrial-scale cartridge filtration on the native microbial communities from groundwater.  

PubMed

Groundwater is a major source for bottled water, which is increasingly consumed all over the world. Some categories of bottled water can be subjected to treatments such as disinfection prior to bottling. In the current study, we present the quantitative impact of industrial-scale micro-filtration (0.22 microm pore size) on native microbial communities of groundwater and evaluate subsequent microbial growth after bottling. Two separate groundwater aquifers were tested. Flow-cytometric total cell concentration (TCC) and total adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis were used to quantify microbial abundance. The TCC of the native microbial community in both aquifers was in the range of 10(3)-10(4) cells/ml. Up to 10% of the native microbial community was able to pass through the cartridge filtration units installed at both aquifers. In addition, all samples (either with or without 0.22 microm filtration) showed significant growth after bottling and storage, reaching average final concentrations of 1-3 x 10(5) cells/ml. However, less growth was observed in carbon-free glassware than in standard polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Furthermore, our results showed that filtration and bottling can alter the microbial community patterns as observed with flow cytometry. The current study established that industrial-scale micro-filtration cannot serve as an absolute barrier for the native microbial community and provided significant insight to the impact of filtration and bottling on microbial concentrations in bottled water. PMID:18775553

Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik; Egli, Thomas

2008-07-30

437

On-sun test results from second-generation and advanced-concepts alkali-metal pool-boiler receivers  

SciTech Connect

Two 75-kW{sub t} alkali-metal pool-boiler solar receivers have been successfully tested at Sandia National Laboratories` National Solar Thermal Test Facility. The first one, Sandia`s `` second-generation pool-boiler receiver,`` was designed to address commercialization issues identified during post-test assessment of Sandia`s first-generation pool-boiler receiver. It was constructed from Haynes alloy 230 and contained the alkali-metal alloy NaK-78. The absorber`s wetted side had a brazed-on powder-metal coating to stabilize boiling. This receiver was evaluated for boiling stability, hot- and warm-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency. Boiling was stable under all conditions. All of the hot restarts were successful. Mild transient hot spots observed during some hot restarts were eliminated by the addition of 1/3 torr of xenon to the vapor space. All of the warm restarts were also successful. The heat-transfer crisis that damaged the first receiver did not recur. Thermal efficiency was 92.3% at 750{degrees}C with 69.6 kW{sub t} solar input. The second receiver tested, Sandia`s ``advanced-concepts receiver,`` was a replica of the first-generation receiver except that the cavities, which were electric-discharge-machined in the absorber for boiling stability, were eliminated. This step was motivated by bench-scale test results that showed that boiling stability improved with increased heated-surface area, tilt of the heated surface from vertical, and added xenon. The bench-scale results suggested that stable boiling might be possible without heated-surface modification in a 75-kW{sub t} receiver. Boiling in the advanced-concepts receiver with 1/3 torr of xenon added has been stable under all conditions, confirming the bench-scale tests.

Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Dudley, V.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-05-01

438

Demonstrate Feasibility of the Use of Ultrasonic Filtration in Treating the Overflows from Combines and/or Storm Sewers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility, both economic and technical, of using ultrasonic filtration as an aid to removing suspended impurities was investigated. Inputs to the test apparatus included drinking water, simulated sewage, primary and secondary sewage effluents, algae...

1967-01-01

439

Influence of Particle Shape on Filtration Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of particle shape on filtration processes was investigated. Two types of particles, including spherical polystyrene latex (PSL) and iron oxide, and perfect cubes of magnesium oxide, were examined. It was found that the removal efficiency of spherical particles on fibrous filters is very similar for corresponding sizes within the range of 50–300 nm, regardless of the fact that

Lucija Boskovic; Igor S. Altman; Igor E. Agranovski; Roger D. Braddock; Toshihiko Myojo; Mansoo Choi

2005-01-01

440

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: MEMBRANE FILTRATION - SBP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

SBP Technologies Inc. (SBP) has developed a membrane-based separation technology that can reduce the volume of contaminated groundwater requiring treatment. The SBP Filtration Unit consists of porous, sintered, stainless steel tubes arranged in a shell-and-tube module configurati...

441

LOADING AND FILTRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF FILTERING FACEPIECES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most filtering facepieces used today are made of electret material (material with significant electrical charges on the filter fibers). Because of the addition of this electrical removal force, the filtration efficiency can be significantly increased without increasing the air pressure drop inside the respirator; pressure drop is