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1

Bench-Scale Filtration Testing in Support of the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP testing program specifies that bench-scale testing is to be performed in support of specific operations, including filtration, caustic leaching, and oxidative leaching.

Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Peterson, Reid A.

2009-09-28

2

Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report  

SciTech Connect

A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

2000-12-06

3

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemicals compared to conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at IGT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select preferred operating conditions for chemicals production from high-sulfur Illinois coals.

Knight, R.A.

1991-01-01

4

Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant  

SciTech Connect

Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics.

Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

1996-10-01

5

Bench-scale crossflow filtration of Hanford tank C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110 sludge slurries  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has a bench-scale crossflow filter installed in a shielded hot cell for testing radioactive feeds. During FY97 experiments were conducted on slurries from radioactive Hanford waste from tanks C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110. Each tank was tested at three slurry concentrations (8, 1.5, and 0.05 wt% solids). A two-parameter central composite design which tested transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. Crossflow filtration was found to remove solids effectively, as judged by filtrate clarity and radiochemical analysis. If the filtrates from these tests were immobilized in a glass matrix, the resulting transuranic and ({sup 90}Sr) activity would not breach low activity waste glass limits of 100nCi/g (TRU) and 20 {mu}Ci/ml ({sup 90}Sr). Two exceptions were the transuranic activity in filtrates from processing 1.5 and 8 wt% C-106 tank waste. Subsequent analyses indicated that the source of the TRU activity in the filtrate was most likely due to soluble activity, but obviously proved ineffective at removing the soluble plutonium species. Re-testing of the C-106 supported this hypothesis. These data suggest the need to control carbonate and pH when processing tank wastes for immobilization.

Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

1997-09-01

6

Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing media and amendments in larger pilot- or full-scale rain garden installations. The bench-scale study conclude...

7

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-12-31

8

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-01-01

9

Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

The oral presentation will be at the EWRI International LID Conference in San Francisco, on April 11-14, 2010. The slides discuss the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing...

10

100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

1993-03-01

11

Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

2011-10-23

12

Bench-Scale Evaluation of Coagulants for Low Turbidity Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the conventional jar test is ineffective for determining optimal coagulant dosages for low turbidity waters, utilities employing rapid-rate filtration of such waters may fail to maximize treatment efficiency for lack of a simple bench-scale proced...

D. R. Brink S. I. Choi M. Al-Ani D. W. Hendricks

1988-01-01

13

Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the bench scale testing program is to offer the industry an excellent facility for development of promising processes/equipment which have been tested on laboratory scale. Continuous bench-scale testing is a prerequisite for design of larger scale process development or commercial demonstration units. The primary focus of the technology is on processing -28 mesh coal fines, usually a waste product of coal preparation-plants. This project is aimed at development of a process that can expand the application of heavy media by using ultra fine magnetite suspension. The technology to be evaluated is capable of making separations on coal finer than 28 mesh. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in conventional coal preparation plants and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. Micronized magnetite beneficiation has been effectively researched at PETC but it has not been studied in a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. Thus the primary goal of the proposed program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit, at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility study. Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following tasks: project and test planning; engineering and design; and installation and shakedown.

Anast, K.

1994-07-25

14

Fischer–Tropsch catalyst testing in a continuous bench-scale coal gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale oxygen-blown fluid-bed gasifier was coupled to a modular fixed-bed Fischer–Tropsch (FT) reactor system for testing an FT catalyst under syngas. Various blends of subbituminous coal, torrefied biomass, and untreated biomass were gasified at 22bar absolute, 800°–860°C, and 4kg\\/h. Syngas exiting the fluid bed passed through a cyclone, candle filter, and sulfur sorbent to reduce fine particulate and H2S

Joshua Strege; Michael Swanson; Bruce Folkedahl; Joshua Stanislowski; Jason Laumb

2011-01-01

15

Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Oxide Fuel – Bench-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests were performed to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent light water reactor fuel at bench-scale in a hot cell at the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex (formerly Argonne National Laboratory - West). The process involves the conversion of oxide fuel to metal by electrolytic means, which would then enable subsequent separation and recovery of actinides via existing electrometallurgical technologies, i.e., electrorefining. Four electrolytic reduction runs were performed at bench scale using ~500 ml of molten LiCl -- 1 wt% Li2O electrolyte at 650 ºC. In each run, ~50 g of crushed spent oxide fuel was loaded into a permeable stainless steel basket and immersed into the electrolyte as the cathode. A spiral wound platinum wire was immersed into the electrolyte as the anode. When a controlled electric current was conducted through the anode and cathode, the oxide fuel was reduced to metal in the basket and oxygen gas was evolved at the anode. Salt samples were extracted before and after each electrolytic reduction run and analyzed for fuel and fission product constituents. The fuel baskets following each run were sectioned and sampled, revealing an extent of uranium oxide reduction in excess of 98%.

S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li; M. F. Simpson

2005-10-01

16

100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

Field, J.G.

1994-06-10

17

Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with microcel. Final report  

SciTech Connect

It was the purpose of this investigation to test a new fine coal cleaning system, in which a coal is cleaned first by column flotation to remove primarily ash-forming minerals and then by an enhanced gravity separation technique to remove the pyrite remaining in the flotation product. Of the various column flotation technologies developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, the Microcel{sup TM} flotation column was chosen because it is being used commercially in the US coal industry, particularly by low-sulfur coal producers. Of the various enhanced gravity separation technologies used in minerals industry, Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS) was chosen because it shows promise for pyrite rejection from fine coal streams containing a wide range of particle sizes. The bench-scale tests were conducted using three different circuit configurations, i.e.; Microcel{sup TM} column alone; MGS alone; and Microcel{sup Tm} and MGS in series. In general, high ash-rejections were achieved using Microcel{sup TM} column and an MGS unit in series, both the ash and pyritic sulfur rejections exceeded what can be achieved using either the Microcel{sup TM} column or the MGS unit alone, demonstrating a synergistic effect.

Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1995-03-01

18

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF PHOTOLYSIS, CHEMICAL OXIDATION AND BIODEGRADATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS AND PHOTOLYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of bench-scale testing on degradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD using W photolysis, and PCB degradation using UV photolysis, chemical oxidation and biological treatment. Bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of a two-phase detoxifi...

19

Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz

Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

2008-01-01

20

Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description  

SciTech Connect

Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

2002-08-01

21

Crucible melts and bench-scale ISV (in situ vitrification) tests on simulated wastes in INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of eight crucible melt tests and three bench-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test that were performed on simulated metals\\/soils mixtures containing actual site soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The crucible melt and bench-scale ISV tests are a part of efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist the INEL in conducting

R. K. Farnsworth; K. H. Oma; M. A. H. Reimus

1990-01-01

22

SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford tank farms contain approximately 57 million gallons of wastes, most of which originated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to produce plutonium for defense purposes. DOE intends to pre-treat the tank waste to separate the waste into a high level fraction, that will be vitrified and disposed of in a national repository as high-level waste (HLW), and a low-activity waste (LAW) fraction that will be immobilized for on-site disposal at Hanford. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the focal point for the treatment of Hanford tank waste. However, the WTP lacks the capacity to process all of the LAW within the regulatory required timeframe. Consequently, a supplemental LAW immobilization process will be required to immobilize the remainder of the LAW. One promising supplemental technology is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) to produce a sodium-alumino-silicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is primarily composed of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Nas[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Semivolatile anions such as pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and volatiles such as iodine as iodide (I{sup -}) are expected to be entrapped within the mineral structures, thereby immobilizing them (Janzen 2008). Results from preliminary performance tests using surrogates, suggests that the release of semivolatile radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and volatile {sup 129}I from granular NAS waste form is limited by Nosean solubility. The predicted release of {sup 99}Tc from the NAS waste form at a 100 meters down gradient well from the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) was found to be comparable to immobilized low-activity waste glass waste form in the initial supplemental LAW treatment technology risk assessment (Mann 2003). To confirm this hypothesis, DOE is funding a treatability study where three actual Hanford tank waste samples (containing both {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}I) will be processed in Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) to form the mineral product, similar to the granular NAS waste form, that will then be subject to a number of waste form qualification tests. In previous tests, SRNL have demonstrated that the BSR product is chemically and physically equivalent to the FBSR product (Janzen 2005). The objective of this paper is to describe the sample selection, sample preparation, and environmental and regulatory considerations for treatability studies of the FBSR process using Hanford tank waste samples at the SNRL. The SNRL will process samples in its BSR. These samples will be decontaminated in the 222-S Laboratory to remove undissolved solids and selected radioisotopes to comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping regulations and to ensure worker safety by limiting radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). These decontamination levels will also meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) definition of low activity waste (LAW). After the SNRL has processed the tank samples to a granular mineral form, SRNL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will conduct waste form testing on both the granular material and monoliths prepared from the granular material. The tests being performed are outlined in Appendix A.

DUNCAN JB

2010-08-19

23

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemicals compared to conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at IGT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select preferred operating conditions for chemicals production from high-sulfur Illinois coals.

Knight, R.A.

1991-12-31

24

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results are presented from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle that verify the flow sheet design criteria for the specific subsections tested. Modifications were made involving simple component redesign to handle the required flows and to obtain compatibility with specific corrosive environments. The most notable change is the discovery of a potential solids nucleation problem in certain H2SO4 solutions carrying small quantities of I2 and H I. The problem is believed to be associated with the combined relatively long storage times of the synthetic feed solutions and the agitation of greatly oversized centrifugal pumps. These precursory studies have further proven the technical viability of this sulfur-iodine process flow sheet design.

Okeefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; Brown, L.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.; McCorkle, K.

25

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portions of a bench-scale model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle were operated at General Atomic Company as part of a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technology for hydrogen production from nonfossil sources. The bench-scale model consists of three subunits which can be operated separately or together and is capable of producing as much as 4 std liters\\/min of gaseous

D. Okeefe; C. Allen; G. Besenbruch; K. McCorkle; J. Norman; R. Sharp

1980-01-01

26

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI's Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI's KEN-FLOTE(trademark) Column Flotation Technology and PTI's On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-mo...

1993-01-01

27

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF PHOTOLYSIS, CHEMICAL OXIDATION, AND BIODEGRADATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOIL AND PHOTOLYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of a two phase detoxification process that would have application to the treatment of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). he first of the process w...

28

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce higher yields of liquids and valuable chemicals than conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been reported to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at ICT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under GH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select operating conditions for maximum production of PCX (phenol, cresols, and xylenols) from high-sulfur Illinois coals. During the third quarter, data from IGT and SIUC have been analyzed and compared, and these data suggest that increased coal conversion to liquids and to PCX requires a longer residence time of volatile precursors in contact with hot char than can be obtained in the fluidized bed. Consequently, we have decided to operate future tests in a moving-bed reactor.

Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-10-01

29

Pilot- and bench-scale testing of faecal indicator bacteria survival in marine beach sand near point sources  

PubMed Central

Aim Factors affecting faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogen survival/persistence in sand remain largely unstudied. This work elucidates how biological and physical factors affect die-off in beach sand following sewage spills. Methods and Results Solar disinfection with mechanical mixing was pilot-tested as a disinfection procedure after a large sewage spill in Los Angeles. Effects of solar exposure, mechanical mixing, predation and/or competition, season, and moisture were tested at bench scale. First-order decay constants for Escherichia coli ranged between ?0·23 and ?·102 per day, and for enterococci between ?0·5 and ?1·0 per day. Desiccation was a dominant factor for E. coli but not enterococci inactivation. Effects of season were investigated through a comparison of experimental results from winter, spring, and fall. Conclusions Moisture was the dominant factor controlling E. coli inactivation kinetics. Initial microbial community and sand temperature were also important factors. Mechanical mixing, common in beach grooming, did not consistently reduce bacterial levels. Significance and Impact of the Study Inactivation rates are mainly dependent on moisture and high sand temperature. Chlorination was an effective disinfection treatment in sand microcosms inoculated with raw influent.

Mika, K.B.; Imamura, G.; Chang, C.; Conway, V.; Fernandez, G.; Griffith, J.F.; Kampalath, R.A.; Lee, C.M.; Lin, C.-C.; Moreno, R.; Thompson, S.; Whitman, R.L.; Jay, J.A.

2014-01-01

30

Bench-scale testing of sorbent additives for trace metal capture and retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of six minerals; silica, diatomaceous earth, kaolin, bauxite, alumina and attapulgite clay, as potential sorbents for the capture and immobilization of trace metals was evaluated. The behavior of five trace metals; arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel was tested. The objective of the test program was to evaluate the candidate sorbents for their ability to limit vaporization by

S. Venkatesh; G. J. Carroll; L. R. Waterland

1995-01-01

31

Integrated low emissions cleanup system for coal fueled turbines Phase III bench-scale testing and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of coal-fired turbine technologies such as Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), coal Gasification Combined Cycles (GCC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbines (DCFT). A major technical development challenge remaining for coal-fired turbine systems is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental emissions standards, as well as to ensure acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, has evaluated an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept that has been configured to meet this technical challenge. This ceramic hot gas filter (HGF), ILEC concept controls particulate emissions, while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur and alkali vapor contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure, fuel gases or combustion gases. This document reports on the results of Phase III of the ILEC evaluation program, the final phase of the program. In Phase III, a bench-scale ILEC facility has been tested to (1) confirm the feasibility of the ILEC concept, and (2) to resolve some major filter cake behavior issues identified in PFBC, HGF applications.

Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M. [and others

1995-08-01

32

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portions of a bench-scale model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle were operated at General Atomic Company as part of a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technology for hydrogen production from nonfossil sources. The bench-scale model consists of three subunits which can be operated separately or together and is capable of producing as much as 4 std liters/min of gaseous hydrogen. The results of on-going parametric studies to determine the operating characteristics, performance, and capacity limitations of major components are presented.

Okeefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; McCorkle, K.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.

1980-07-01

33

Synthetic lightweight aggregate from cool water slag: Bench-scale confirmation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes the potential for production of synthetic lightweight aggregate (SLA) from a Texaco coal gasification solid residue. The objective of the project was to develop a replacement for conventional lightweight aggregates typically derived from expanded clays and shales or natural lightweight aggregates. The sequence of tests performed to develop SLA from slag began with the crushing of samples

V. Choudhry; S. R. Hadley

1990-01-01

34

Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} in a 97:3 mole ratio (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemical feedstocks, particularly phenols, cresols, and xylenols (PCX). The addition of magnesia, coal ash, or clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion to these chemicals. The goal of this two-year project was to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at IGT. Tests were conducted with IBC-101 and IBC-105 coals under N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends, with and without mineral additives, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degree}F and 200 psig. These tests have provided data valuable to further development efforts on the process. In the first year, fluidized-bed tests were conducted using inert bed diluents (coke and sand) to retard agglomeration. PCX yields of 0.99 wt% maf coal were achieved in CH{sub 4} atmosphere, tripling the yield in N, atmosphere, while overall liquid yields were 18--20 wt% maf in either atmosphere. However, control of caking was difficult in spite of a very high bed dilution ratio of 4.5:1. During the second year, agglomeration was controlled by slurry impregnation of the coal with coal ash, magnesia, or montmorillonite at levels as low as 10 wt%. Thirteen continuous tests were conducted in 2-inch fluidized-bed and moving-bed reactors at test conditions of 900{degree}--1000{degree}F and 120 psig.

Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

35

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

Not Available

1993-04-16

36

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis  

SciTech Connect

AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02

37

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

SciTech Connect

Portions of a bench-scale model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle have been operated at General Atomic Company as part of a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technology for hydrogen production from nonfossil sources. The hydrogen program is funded by the US Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, and General Atomic Company. The bench-scale model consists of three subunits which can be operated separately or together and is capable of producing as much as 4 std liters/min (6.7 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 3//s at standard conditions) of gaseous hydrogen. One subunit (main solution reaction) reacts liquid water, liquid iodine (I/sub 2/) and gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to form two separable liquid phases: 50 wt % sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) and a solution of iodine in hydriodic acid (HI/sub x/). Another subunit (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration and decomposition) concentrates the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ phase to the azeotropic composition, then decomposes it at high temperature over a catalyst to form gaseous SO/sub 2/ and oxygen. The third subunit (HI separation and decomposition) separates the HI from water and I/sub 2/ by extractive distillation with phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) and decomposes the HI in the vapor phase over a catalyst to form I/sub 2/ and product hydrogen. This paper presents the results of on-going parametric studies to determine the operating characteristics, performance, and capacity limitations of major components.

O'Keefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; McCorkle, K.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.

1980-07-01

38

Laboratory/bench-scale testing and evaluation of A. P. T. dry-plate scrubber. 10th quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

The A.P.T. Dry Plate Scrubber uses a shallow, dense mobile bed of solid collector granules which move across a perforated plate. The gas stream containing fine particles and vapors is moved upward through the perforations to form high velocity gas jets. The fine particles are removed by inertial deposition onto the collector granules or by direct interception. Electrostatic forces also can be used to improve the collection efficiency and increase the adhesive forces between the particles and collectors. The DPS column consists of a series of collection stages (perforated plates) with the collectors either passing sequentially over each stage or being fed separately to each stage. The stages can be designed so as to promote the collection of large particles on the lower stages and the collection of fine particles and alkali vapors on the upper stages. The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the DPS at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes. The project is divided into two phases and seven major tasks as listed.

Markel, K.

1982-09-17

39

Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

Not Available

1993-08-24

40

BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

2011-08-03

41

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1996-08-13

42

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project, which is scheduled to occur through January 1996, will be to install and test a 500{number_sign}/hr. fine coal-cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: continued purchasing small equipment and supplies for the circuit; procured a 46-ton sample of Lower Kittanning ``B`` Seam coal; completed eight primary integrated tests (PIT {number_sign}1--{number_sign}8) using the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam and the Grade-K and Grade-L magnetites; completed classifying cyclone tests using the Pittsburgh No. 8 and Lower Kittanning seams using a larger (0.5 inch) apex; completed data analysis on the four Grade-K magnetite ``closed-loop`` heavy-media cyclone tests; obtained a finer third grade of magnetite (Grade-M) with a MVD of approximately 3 microns; presented paper on the Micro- Mag project at the Coal Preparation, Utilization and Environmental Control Contractors Conference and a Poster Board Paper on the Micro- Mag Project at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference; and developed a method to modify all 5 Micro-Mag magnetic separators to approximately one third of their present size to better approximate commercial operation.

NONE

1995-10-11

43

High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup reactor.

Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

1981-04-01

44

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Second quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Micronized Magnetite Testing Project being performed at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). This second quarterly report covers the period from October, 1994 through December, 1994. The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: (1) Submitted all overdue project documents and kept up with routine reporting requirements; (2) Worked with CLI Corporation, the design subcontractor, and completed the circuit design and finalized all design drawings; (3) Specified and procured all of the process equipment for the circuit, as well as a number of ancillary equipment, instruments, and supplies; (4) Assisted Vangura Iron Inc. in detailing and constructing the structural and platework steel; (5) Subcontracted Rizzo & Sons to perform the circuit mechanical and electrical installation, and prepared for January 23rd installation start date; (6) Organized and prepared for coal and magnetite procurement; (7) Specified and organized an operating personnel plan for the commissioning and testing tasks in the project; (8) Assessed analytical challenges for project, and began to research problem areas. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the abovementioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1995-01-19

45

Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of the project, which is scheduled to occur through December 1995, will be to install and test a 500{number_sign}/hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The overall objectives of the project are to: Determine the effects of operating time on the characteristics of the recirculating medium in a continuous integrated processing circuit, and subsequently, the sensitivity of cyclone separation performance to the quality of the recirculating medium; and determine the technical and economic feasibility of various unit operations and systems in optimizing the separation and recovery of the micronized magnetite from the coal products. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

NONE

1995-04-29

46

100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg\\/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests

B. M. Peyton; K. R. Martin

1993-01-01

47

Laboratory/bench-scale testing and evaluation of the A. P. T. Dry-Plate Scrubber. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The A.P.T. Dry Plate Scrubber (DPS) uses a shallow, dense mobile bed of solid collector granules which move across a perforated plate. The gas stream containing fine particles and vapors is moved upward through the perforations to form high velocity gas jets. The fine particles are removed by inertial deposition onto the collector granules or by direct interception. Electrostatic forces also can be used to improve the collection efficiency and increase the adhesive forces between the particles and collectors. The DPS column consists of a series of collection stages (perforated plates) with the collectors either passing sequentially over each stage or being fed separately to each stage. The stages can be designed so as to promote the collection of large particles on the lower stages and the collection of fine particles and alkali vapors on the upper stages. The DPS is especially well suited for cleaning high temperature and pressure gases such as the effluent from a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) process. The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the DPS at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes.

None

1981-03-30

48

Bench-Scale Co-Processing  

SciTech Connect

This topical report is the first for the UOP Bench-Scale Co-processing contract. The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize the UOP single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. UOP co-processing uses a single-stage, slurry-catalyzed scheme in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active, well-dispersed catalyst permits operations at moderate- and high-severity reaction conditions with minimum detrimental thermal reactions. In this process, finely ground coal, petroleum resid, and catalyst are mixed, combined with hydrogen, and then directed to a single-stage reactor, where the simultaneous upgrading of the petroleum resid and coal occurs. The reactor effluent is directed to a series of separators, where a hydrogen-rich gas is recovered and recycled back to the reactor inlet. The balance of the material is sent to a series of separators, where the light gasses, light oil, vacuum gas on (VGO), catalyst, unconverted coal, ash, and residues are recovered. The catalyst is recycled back to the reactor. The UOP co-processing scheme is designed to be integrated into a conventional petroleum refinery. the hydrocarbon products from the co-processing unit will be sent to the refinery for final upgrading to finished products. A major focus of this contract is to investigate ways to reduce the catalyst and catalyst recovery costs and improve the overall economics of the process. This report documents the work completed under Task 2.0, Laboratory Support. The overall objective of Task 2.0 was to obtain and characterize the feedstocks for the contract and to provide a screening mechanism to test new catalyst systems prior to testing in the continuous pilot plant. The main elements of the experimental program for task 2.0 include: Feedstock procurement and analysis; catalyst improvements; and catalyst recycle screening.

Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Fullerton, H.E.

1993-11-08

49

COMPARING RBF WITH BENCH-SCALE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT FOR PRECURSOR REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors upon riverbank filtration (RBF) at three drinking water utilities in the mid-Western United States was compared with that obtained using a bench-scale conventional treatment train on the corresponding river waters. The riv...

50

BENCH-SCALE RECOVERY OF LEAD USING AND ELECTRO- MEMBRANE/CHELATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a bench-scale treatability test to investigate key process parameters influencing an innovative chelation electrodeposition process for recovery of lead from contaminated sons. thylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta...

51

BENCH-SCALE RECOVERY OF LEAD USING AN ELECTROMEMBRANE/CHELATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a bench-scale treatability test to investigate key process parameters influencing an innovative chelation electrodeposition process for recovery of lead from contaminated sons. thylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta...

52

Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-10-16

53

EVALUATION OF A BENCH-SCALE DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM FOR SCREENING POTENTIAL REAGENTS AND OPERATING CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two series of bench-scale dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) laboratory tests, the primary objective of which was to evaluate the ability of a bench-scale dry FGD system to screen potential reagents and operating conditions in support of testing at larger pilo...

54

Evaluation of a Bench-Scale Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization System for Screening Potential Reagents and Operating Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses two series of bench-scale dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) laboratory tests, the primary objective of which was to evaluate the ability of a bench-scale dry FGD system to screen potential reagents and operating conditions in support ...

L. A. Rohlack G. M. Blythe T. G. Brna R. G. Rhudy

1986-01-01

55

Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing relatively high concentrations of zirconium and aluminum, representative of the cladding material of the reprocessed fuel that generated the calcine. A separate study to define the CCIM testing needs of these other calcine classifications in currently being prepared under a separate work package (WP-0) and will be provided as a milestone report at the end of this fiscal year.

Vince Maio

2011-08-01

56

Bench-scale feasibility testing of pulsed-air technology for in-tank mixing of dry cementitious solids with tank liquids and settled solids  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of testing performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulsed-air mixing technology (equipment developed by Pulsair Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA) to mix cementitious dry solids with supernatant and settled solids within a horizontal tank. The mixing technology is being considered to provide in situ stabilization of the {open_quotes}V{close_quotes} tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The testing was performed in a vessel roughly 1/6 the scale of the INEEL tanks. The tests used a fine soil to simulate settled solids and water to simulate tank supernatants. The cementitious dry materials consisted of Portland cement and Aquaset-2H (a product of Fluid Tech Inc. consisting of clay and Portland cement). Two scoping tests were conducted to allow suitable mixing parameters to be selected. The scoping tests used only visual observations during grout disassembly to assess mixing performance. After the scoping tests indicated the approach may be feasible, an additional two mixing tests were conducted. In addition to visual observations during disassembly of the solidified grout, these tests included addition of chemical tracers and chemical analysis of samples to determine the degree of mixing uniformity achieved. The final two mixing tests demonstrated that the pulsed-air mixing technique is capable of producing slurries containing substantially more cementitious dry solids than indicated by the formulations suggested by INEEL staff. Including additional cement in the formulation may have benefits in terms of increasing mobilization of solids, reducing water separation during curing, and increasing the strength of the solidified product. During addition to the tank, the cementitious solids had a tendency to form clumps which broke down with continued mixing.

Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

1997-09-01

57

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

1995-11-21

58

Development of a bench scale biomass torrefier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cofiring biomass with coal has become very popular with power utilities to reduce fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. It is relatively easy to implement on most common pulverised coal plants. However, raw biomass is difficult to utilise and requires upgrading to a higher quality fuel to substitute coal. Upgrading by torrefaction can improve the properties of biomass close to low rank coals suitable for cofiring. In this study, a bench scale torrefier was developed to produce torrefied biomass samples for further studies of its properties and combustion behaviour. The torrefier was developed from a domestic 1600W electric oven. Biomass pellets was then torrefied at 250 °C for 1 hour using this torrefier. Proximate analysis and gross calorific value (GCV) of the torrefied biomass were carried out. The results showed that GCV of the torrefied biomass had increased when compared to raw. The moisture content and volatile matter had decreased, and ash content and fixed carbon had increased as expected.

Mohd Ja'afar, M. N.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

2013-06-01

59

Bench-scale co-processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

1992-02-19

60

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-01-01

61

Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing.

Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perona, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-01

62

Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update  

SciTech Connect

This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

2011-04-04

63

Approaching chlorpyrifos bioelimination at bench scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one of the most commonly applied insecticides for control of pests and insects. The inappropriate use of this kind of chemicals has caused heavy contamination of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems thus representing a great environmental and health risk. The main purpose of this work is to investigate novel microbial agents (Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously obtained consortium LB2) with the ability to degrade CP from polluted effluents. This goal was achieved by operating at different lab scales (flask and bioreactor) and operation modes (batch and fed-batch). Very low degradation and biomass levels were detected in cultures performed with the consortium LB2. In contrast, near complete CP degradation was reached by P. stutzeri at the optimal conditions in less than 1 month, showing a depletion rate of 0.054 h(-1). The scale-up at bench scale stirred tank bioreactor allowed improving the specific degradation rate in ten folds and total CP degradation was obtained after 2 days. Moreover, biomass and biodegradation profiles were modelled to reach a better characterization of the bioremediation process. PMID:23277272

Moscoso, F; Teijiz, I; Deive, F J; Sanromán, M A

2013-09-01

64

Solvent recovery from lube oil filtrates with a polyimide membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyimide membrane manufactured from a co-polymer of diaminophenylindane with benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride has been shown to have excellent chemical resistance and economically viable flux and rejection characteristics for the separation of light hydrocarbon solvents from lube oil filtrates. This asymmetric membrane was subjected to a series of bench scale hyperfiltration studies. After 2 months of continuous high pressure tests,

Lloyd S White; Albert R Nitsch

2000-01-01

65

MULTICOMPONENT AEROSOL DYNAMICS OF THE PB-O2 SYSTEM IN A BENCH SCALE FLAME INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was carried out to understand the formation and growth of lead particles in a flame incinerator. A bench scale flame incinerator was used to perform controlled experiments with lead acetate as a test compound. A dilution probe in conjunction with real-time aerosol instrum...

66

Constitutive model to predict flow of cohesive powders in bench scale hoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication empirically correlates flow in two systems; an instrumented rotating drum (GDR) and a set of bench scale hoppers. A flow index obtained from measurements in the GDR is directly correlated to the flow through hoppers, providing a predictive method for hopper design and a convenient experimental test for screening materials and determining their suitability for specific hopper systems.

AbdulMobeen N. Faqih; Bodhisattwa Chaudhuri; Amit Mehrotra; M. Silvina Tomassone; Fernando Muzzio

2010-01-01

67

Data Quality Objectives for Selecting Waste Samples for Bench-Scale Reformer Treatability Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testi...

D. L. Banning

2011-01-01

68

Bench-Scale Evaluation Of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Technology To Stabilize Mercury Waste Mixtures  

EPA Science Inventory

This bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization of mercury (Hg) and mercuric chloride-containing surrogate test materials by the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics technology. This study was performed as part of a U.S. EPA program to evaluate treatment and d...

69

100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

1993-05-01

70

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

SciTech Connect

A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: (1) the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, (2) the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh [number sign]8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and (3) the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

1992-12-30

71

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1992-01-01

72

TESTS OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of filter fabrics. Tests were made on flat specimens and on bags. Fifteen styles of fabrics (made from cotton, polyester, aramid, or glass) were tested, using cement, coal, or talc dusts. Collection efficiencies and pressure...

73

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

SciTech Connect

A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois No. 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350[degrees]C, and pressures of 1800 psig, (2) analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run, and (3) correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

1993-01-15

74

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1993-01-01

75

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

BANNING DL

2011-02-11

76

MASCOT - A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen by the UT3 thermochemical decomposition cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen has been constructed on the basis of the thermochemical water-decomposition process, UT-3, consisting of Br, Ca and Fe compounds. This plant is named MASCOT (Model Apparatus for Studying Cyclic Operation in Tokyo) and is designed to be capable of producing 3 1\\/h of gaseous hydrogen at standard conditions. During several test runs, the continuous

T. Nakayama; H. Yoshioka; H. Furutani; H. Kameyama; K. Yoshida

1984-01-01

77

Treatment of Mine Water by a Microbial Mat: Bench-scale Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) by a blue-green algae-microbial consortium and substrate (containing powdered goat manure, wood chips, and soil) in 1 m3 bench scale biological treatment test cells. The microbial mat resulted from the interaction of bacteria and filamentous blue-green algae (predominantly Oscillatoria spp). The experiments were carried out for different water column heights, and

A. S. Sheoran; Sushil Bhandari

2005-01-01

78

Development of a bench-scale immersed ultrafiltration apparatus for coagulation pretreatment experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present results of a project that focused on developing a standardized bench-scale apparatus and operating procedures for immersed ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems to assess integrated process designs (e.g., coagulation-UF) under controlled laboratory conditions. The integrated test apparatus, termed Immersed Ultrafiltration Enhanced Coagulation (IUEC), was designed using a hollow-fiber, outside-in UF module immersed in

Margaret E. Walsh; Na Zhao; Graham A. Gagnon

2011-01-01

79

Bench-scale studies of in-duct mercury capture using cupric chloride-impregnated carbons  

SciTech Connect

A brominated activated carbon (Darco Hg-LH) and cupric chloride-impregnated activated carbon (CuCl{sub 2}-ACs) sorbent have been tested in a bench-scale entrained-flow reactor system which was developed for simulating in-flight mercury capture in ducts upstream of particulate matter control devices. The bench-scale experimental system has been operated with the conditions of a residence time of 0.75 s and a gas temperature of 140{sup o}C to simulate typical conditions in the duct of coal-fired exhaust gas. In addition, sorbent deposition on walls which can occur in a laboratory-scale system more than in a full-scale system was significantly reduced so that additional mercury capture by the deposited sorbent was minimized. In the entrained-flow system, CuCl{sub 2}-ACs demonstrated similar performance in Hg adsorption and better performance in Hg{sup 0} oxidation than Darco Hg-LH. In addition, the carbon content of those sorbents was found to determine their Hg adsorption capability in the entrained-flow system. The bench-scale entrained-flow system was able to demonstrate the important Hg adsorption and oxidation characteristics of the tested sorbents. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Sang-Sup Lee; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-04-15

80

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 16 weight percent CaCO{sub 3}. Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na{sub 2}S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na{sub 2}S, where it would be converted to Hg{sub 2}S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na{sub 2}S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.

1995-12-31

81

Quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts: Bench-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operations procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale. The organic material that remained after retorting was most effectively removed from the retort by the use of reverse combustion. The removal of the organic material in this manner cracked the oil on the unretorted shale and removed heat from the bottom of the retort. Both were then transported toward the top of the retort. Unretorted kerogen was coked as it emerged from the shale near the reverse-combustion front. The reverse-combustion technique had an additional benefit in that the carbon deposited on the spent shale in the combusted zone appeared to provide a barrier to rehydration of the shale on introduction of water into the retorts. A hot quench immediately following retorting was also relatively effective in removing organic material from the retort. However, the quench did leave some organic material on the unretorted shale. This material was not readily removed by water leaching during laboratory testing. A deluge of water on a cool retort did not efficiently remove the organic material from the unretorted shale nor did the addition of a biodegradable detergent.

Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

1991-04-01

82

Laboranlage zur Kohleverfluessigung fuer die VR China. Abschlussbericht. (Bench-scale unit for coal liquefaction for the Peoples Republic of China. Final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a research program to test the liquefaction properties of Chinese coals including brown coal a continuous bench-scale unit for coal hydrogenation on the basis of German hydrogenation technology in Beijing had been constructed. Cooperation partners are...

R. Beinhauer

1988-01-01

83

Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.  

PubMed

A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare. PMID:22442931

Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

2012-02-01

84

Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results  

SciTech Connect

Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

1990-09-28

85

Environmental Technology Verification--Baghouse Filtration Products: GE Energy QG061 Filtration Media (Tested September 2008)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report reviews the filtration and pressure drop performance of GE Energy's QG061 filtration media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests in September 2008. The objective of the ETV Program is to ...

86

Sustainable oil and grease removal from synthetic stormwater runoff using bench-scale bioretention studies.  

PubMed

One of the principal components of the contaminant load in urban stormwater runoff is oil and grease (O&G) pollution, resulting from vehicle emissions. A mulch layer was used as a contaminant trap to remove O&G (dissolved and particulate-associated naphthalene, dissolved toluene, and dissolved motor oil hydrocarbons) from a synthetic runoff during a bench-scale infiltration study. Approximately 80 to 95% removal of all contaminants from synthetic runoff was found via sorption and filtration. Subsequently, approximately 90% of the sorbed naphthalene, toluene, oil, and particulate-associated naphthalene was biodegraded within approximately 3, 4, 8, and 2 days after the event, respectively, based on decreases in contaminant concentrations coupled with increases of microbial populations. These results indicate the effectiveness and sustainability of placing a thin layer of mulch on the surface of a bioretention facility for reducing O&G pollution from urban stormwater runoff. PMID:16566522

Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P

2006-02-01

87

NMR Glomerular Filtration Test and Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of a patient is frequently requested by physicians to assess renal function. Accurate GFR determinations are important in the appropriate dosing of medication as well as for monitoring of drug induce...

P. Choyke J. Frank H. Austin

1990-01-01

88

Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1989-90, a 75-kW(sub t) sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include the following: (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium, and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750 C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/sq cm. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. Results of these studies are presented.

Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moss, T. A.

89

Mercury transformation behavior on a bench scale coal combustion furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mercury release behavior in bituminous coals, and the partitioning rate of mercury in solids and gaseous in flue gases have measured to develop technologies for evaluating the partitioning of mercury in coal combustion process and develop in-situ adsorption and removal technologies using three kinds of experiment equipments - a thermo-balance, a drop-tube furnace (DTF), a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion fumace. The results showed that about 20 to 60% of the mercury in coal was released between 573K and 673K, which was the range of temperature in which the release of the volatile matter of coal began. And more than 90% of the mercury was released at 773K, the temperature at which the release of the volatile matter was completed. The rate of mercury partitioned into bottom ash in a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace was the smallest irrespective of the type of coal. The rate of mercury partitioned into cyclone ash was also low for all types of coal with values generally below 10%. The rest of the mercury was partitioned into mercury in gaseous form, but the rate partitioned into dust, oxidized mercury and elemental mercury varied slightly depending on the flue gas temperature and the type of coal.

Fujiwara, N.; Fujita, Y.; Tomura, K.; Moritomi, H.; Murakami, E.; Akimoto, A.; Ikeda, S.; Tadakuma, Y.

2003-05-01

90

Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into filtration in which visitors review basic filtration concepts, construct gravity and vacuum filtration units, and record the procedures in a virtual lab notebook. At the end of the module, those who complete it successfully will get a certificate.

2013-08-05

91

Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier. Fourth quarterly report, July 1, 1985--September 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

1985-12-31

92

Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

2013-12-31

93

Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

94

Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated...

Edward R. Torak Peter J. Suardini

1997-01-01

95

Oxygen-controlled biosurfactant production in a bench scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process. PMID:18401751

Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Santa Anna, Lidia Maria Melo; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos de; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

2008-03-01

96

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

97

C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system`s ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF.

Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

1994-08-26

98

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

99

Determination of System Losses of Geosmin and MIB in Bench-Scale Filtration Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are two of the causative compounds responsible for the earthy\\/musty odour prob- lem in drinking water. They are a major concern for the water treatment industry because they are difficult to remove by conventional water treatment practices and are fairly resistant to chemical oxidation. Various studies have been conducted at both bench and full scale to

Sarah L. N. Elhadi; Peter M. Huck; Robin M. Slawson

2004-01-01

100

Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace  

SciTech Connect

Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

Freeman, C.J.

1997-05-01

101

76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of engineered-safety-feature (ESF) atmosphere...the design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of engineered-safety-feature (ESF)...

2011-12-30

102

Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

103

Radioactive Testing Results in Support of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility - Filtrate Test  

SciTech Connect

This report documents results investigating the decomposition of excess NaTPB in presence of filtrate from one of the Cycle I Demonstration tests, fulfilling a request by CST Engineering and the ITP Flow Sheet Team.

Hobbs, D.T.

1998-10-21

104

BENCH SCALE FIXATION OF SOILS FROM THE TACOMA TAR PITS SUPRFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the results of bench-scale soil fixation study conducted with materials from the Tacoma Tar Pits SuperfundSite. Chemical fixation (also called stabilization/solidification)is a relatively new technique for remediating contaminated soils. It entails both immo...

105

DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

106

BENCH SCALE EVALUATION OF RESINS AND ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR WATER PURIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms and bench scale column studies were used to compare the performance of five types of commercially available activated carbon and four types of resin for the removal of humic acids, fulvic acids, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and chloroform from water. For the ads...

107

SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

108

Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of {sup 137}Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including {sup 90}Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in {sup 90}Sr.

Brooks, K.P; Myers, R.L; Rappe, K.G.

1997-01-01

109

Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

1993-05-01

110

Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

2013-12-31

111

A bench-scale assessment of ozone pre-treatments for landfill leachates.  

PubMed

Leachate from stabilized landfill can pose unique challenges to conventional biological wastewater treatment. Ozone-based advanced oxidation processes have garnered recent consideration as an option to reduce the organic strength and recalcitrance of aged landfill leachate. With a bench-scale investigation, the reported work examines the potential for leachate conditioning for further biological treatment by treatment with low-mg/L doses of ozone (0-7.5 mg/L 03). While not sufficient for significant organics mineralization, the tested ozone doses could potentially produce both selective and non-selective oxidation of recalcitrant leachate organic compounds leaving bio-available products in the pre-treated leachate. Leachate conditioning by 03 or 03/H202 was assessed via monitoring of three anthropogenic organic leachate contaminants(tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris-(butoxyethyl)-phosphate and 17beta-estradiol (E2)) with ozonation, and ozonation followed by anaerobic incubation. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and BOD5 analysis of the ozonated leachate, and methane and total gas formation during the anaerobic incubation were used to assess the degree of leachate conditioning. When treated with O3 alone, 58% removal of E2 was observed with an ozone dose of 4.5-5.4mg/L. Direct oxidation of the three leachate contaminants was limited with O3/H202 pre-treatment. However, this pre-treatment was observed to have significantly improved degradation of E2 during anaerobic incubation of ozonated leachates (removal rate of E2 was 53.7% with 15 days of incubation), indicating the potential for ozone synthesized co-metabolism. However, overall anaerobic microbial activity was not significantly impacted by the applied ozone pre-treatments, as measured by methane formation, total gas formation, and COD removal during incubation. PMID:24600851

Qiao, Yu; Do, Anh; Yeh, Daniel; Watt, Michael J

2014-01-01

112

Degradation and detoxification of 4-nitrophenol by advanced oxidation technologies and bench-scale constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The degradation and detoxification towards the duckweed Lemna minor of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) was studied by means of bench-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), TiO(2)-photocatalysis and Fenton + photoFenton reactions. The main goal of this work was to compare the three treatment techniques to evaluate their possible combination for the efficient, low cost treatment of 4NP effluents. In CWs, adsorption on the substrate of 4NP was found to achieve 34-45%. Low concentrations (up to 100 ppm) of 4NP were successfully treated by CWs in 8-12 h. The microbial degradation of 4NP started after a lag phase which was longer with higher initial concentrations of the pollutant. The greatest degradation rate was found to occur at initial concentrations of 4NP between 60 and 90 ppm. Solar TiO(2)-photocatalysis was faster than the CWs. The greatest removals in terms of mass of 4NP removed after 6 h of irradiation were found to occur at 4NP concentrations of about 200 ppm. Fenton reaction provided complete 4NP degradation up to 500 ppm in only 30 min but TOC was removed by only about 40%. The resulting toxicities were below 20% for initial 4NP concentrations below 300 ppm. It was the Fenton + photoFenton combination (180 min in total) that provided TOC reductions up to 80% and negative L. minor growth inhibition for almost all the 4NP concentrations tested. The combination of solar TiO(2)-photocatalysis (6 h) with CWs (16 h) was able to completely treat and detoxify 4NP effluents with concentrations as high as 200 ppm of the organic. PMID:22525833

Herrera-Melián, J A; Martín-Rodríguez, A J; Ortega-Méndez, A; Araña, J; Doña-Rodríguez, J M; Pérez-Peña, J

2012-08-30

113

Pilot tests on the catalytic filtration of dioxins.  

PubMed

Tests were conducted to study the removal efficiencies (REs) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from flue gas during a test program involving a pilot-scale catalytic filter (CF) module and a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). The REs attained with the CF on a side stream and a conventional activated carbon (AC) injection and baghouse filtration system in the full-scale MSWI are evaluated via simultaneous sampling and analysis of both gas- and particle-phase PCDD/Fs. Flue gas without AC is supplied to the pilot-scale CF module for evaluating its RE capabilities. The REs achieved with the CF at 180 °C are 96.80 and 99.50%, respectively, for the gas phase and the particulate contained. The gas-phase PCDD/F RE rises significantly at 200 and 220 °C. The air/cloth (A/C) ratio defined as is the gas flow rate (m(3)/min) divided by the filtration area (m(2)) also affects the PCDD/F RE, especially in the gas phase. At 180 °C, a RE of gas-phase PCDD/Fs of 95.94% is attained with the CF at 0.8 m/min, yet it decreases at higher A/C ratios (1 and 1.2 m/min). A significantly lower toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration (0.71 ng I-TEQ/g) was measured in the filter dust of the CF module compared to that collected by the AC adsorption system (4.18 ng I-TEQ/g), apparently because of the destruction of gas-phase PCDD/Fs by the catalyst. PMID:24617498

Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Shu Hao; Lin, Syuan Hong; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo Been

2014-04-01

114

Bench-scale co-oxidative production of propylene oxide by methanotrophs  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the co-oxidative production of value-added chemicals using methanotrophs has been investigated by the authors. Several of these co-oxidative products have been evaluated for stereo- or regiospecific properties. Propylene oxide (1,2-epoxypropane) is one of the products that has been selected for further evaluation. This paper describes the first steps toward bench-scale production of propylene oxide. Propylene oxide has been produced stereospecifically (60% R-form, 40% S-form) in gram quantities in bench-scale liquid culture reactors. Several operational parameters and conditions have been determined for both a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and a packed-bed bubble-column reactor (PBR). The production phase of the propylene oxide has been significantly extended by intermittent addition of propylene and regeneration with methane. The paper also describes the performance of the CSTR and PBR for propylene oxide production.

Hill, A.H.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.; Akin, C.A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Hayes, T.D.; Frank, J.R. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1990-01-01

115

Engineering and bench-scale studies of the sulfur-iodine cycle at General Atomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress made on process engineering and bench-scale investigations of the General Atomic Company sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle is presented. A second generation process engineering flowsheet is under development. The results of this new flowsheeting effort not only represent a reiteration in the process engineering, but they also reflect the progress made in the laboratory; at the time of writing,

J. D. de Graaf; K. H. McCorkle; J. H. Norman; R. Sharp; G. B. Webb; T. Ohno

1978-01-01

116

Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Wahlquist, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

1996-07-01

117

Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

Schmidt, Andrew J.

2006-01-20

118

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, February--December 31, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is an annual progress report of DOE-sponsored process development work on the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The work consists of laboratory bench-scale investigations and process engineering design studies. A bench scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been planned to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The design of subunit I, which models the main

G. Caprioglio; J. D. de Graaf; K. H. McCorkle; J. H. Norman; T. Ohno; J. L. Russell; G. C. Webb

1978-01-01

119

Bone-Bound Glucoamylase as a Biocatalyst in Bench-Scale Production of Glucose Syrups from Liquefied Cassava Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assesses the bench-scale application of a non-conventional support, bone particles, for glucoamylase (GA) immobilization\\u000a and its subsequent use in cassava starch hydrolysis. Upon determining the appropriate conditions to immobilize GA onto chicken\\u000a bone particles, such as pH, ionic strength, particle size, and enzyme load, bench-scale immobilization of commercial GA without\\u000a further purification was performed. Under the selected conditions,

Cecilia Carpio; Fabricio Escobar; Francisco Batista-Viera; Jenny Ruales

2011-01-01

120

Bench-Scale System Design to Screen Catalyst-Coated Fabric Filters for Simultaneous NoX and Particulate Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale system was constructed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to screen performance of various types of V\\/Ti catalyst-coated, high-temperature, fabric filters manufactured at Owens-Corning, Inc.(OCF). This product is targeted for use in utility and industrial facilities for simultaneous NOx and particulate control. Described in this paper are the bench-scale system design, operation, and validation of the

S. R. Ness; D. K. Ludlow

1995-01-01

121

Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives  

SciTech Connect

ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

Durham, M.D.

1993-08-13

122

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Parker, R.J. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

1991-12-01

123

Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology  

SciTech Connect

Co-Processing of coal with petroleum derived residual oil was first demonstrated at the bench-scale in 1974, and HRI has been working on bench-scale development continuously since 1985. Scale-up of the co-processing technology from the 50 lb/day bench-scale to the 3 TPD PDU-scale was successfully demonstrated in 1989. In coal/oil co-processing, coal is slurried with petroleum derived oil. Petroleum derived oils which can be used include atmospheric and vacuum residue, FCC slurry oils, heavy crudes, tar sands bitumen or shale oil. HRI has evaluated both single and two-stage (in series) reactor configurations. A two-stage configuration is preferred to obtain high conversions, high distillate yields and good product quality. The effluent from the first-stage reactor flows directly to the second-stage reactor, without interstage separation. Both reactors use commercially available NiMo or CoMo extrudate hydroprocessing catalysts. The unconverted residual oil, unconverted coal and ash is rejected via simple vacuum distillation. The resulting vacuum bottoms slurry is limited to a maximum solids content of about 50 W%, to maintain a pumpable slurry. Typically, co-processing operations are performed on a once-through basis, with a maximum dry coal concentration in the feed slurry of about 40 W%. Higher coal concentrations (up to 67 W% dry coal) have been demonstrated with the addition of a small amount of process-derived atmospheric bottoms recycle to the feed slurry.

Duddy, J.E.; Panvelker, S.V.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A. (Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Parker, R.J. (Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada))

1991-12-01

124

Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

1982-07-01

125

EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to dissolve solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct steam injection to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

2009-08-14

126

Design of Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

The major goal of the project is to design and optimize a bench-scale process for novel silicone CO{sub 2}-capture solvents and establish scalability and potential for commercialization of post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. This system should be capable of 90% capture efficiency and demonstrate that less than 35% increase in the cost of energy services can be achieved upon scale-up. Experiments were conducted to obtain data required for design of the major unit operations. The bench-scale system design has been completed, including sizing of major unit operations and the development of a detailed Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID). The system has been designed to be able to operate over a wide range of process conditions so that the effect of various process variables on performance can be determined. To facilitate flexibility in operation, the absorption column has been designed in a modular manner, so that the height of the column can be varied. The desorber has also been designed to allow for a range of residence times, temperatures, and pressures. The system will be fabricated at Techniserv Inc.

Wood, Benjamin

2012-06-30

127

Inactivation of Escherichia coli by ozone under bench-scale plug flow and full-scale hydraulic conditions.  

PubMed

To determine the disinfection efficacy of ozonation, water companies can apply several disinfection calculation methods. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of the T10 and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) method to extrapolate inactivation rates of ozone sensitive microorganisms observed in laboratory tests to full-scale ozonation in drinking water treatment. The inactivation efficacy of the ozonation at the Amsterdam water treatment works was assessed by determining Escherichia coli concentrations in large volume samples before and after ozonation over a period of 1 year. The inactivation of dosed E. coli WR1 was tested in a bench-scale dissolved ozone plug flow reactor (DOPFR) on the same feed water as the full-scale ozonation in which a concentrated ozone solution in Milli-Q water was dosed. Applying the T10 method on the inactivation rates observed in the DOPFR strongly overestimated the inactivation capacity of the full-scale ozonation. The expected inactivation based on the CSTR method (LT2ESWTR) approached the observed inactivation at full-scale. Therefore, the CSTR method should be preferred to calculate inactivation of ozone sensitive organisms such as E. coli, viruses, Giardia and Campylobacter by full-scale ozonation. PMID:16938335

Smeets, P W M H; van der Helm, A W C; Dullemont, Y J; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C; Medema, G J

2006-10-01

128

Bench-scale bioethanol production from eucalyptus by high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose fermentation method.  

PubMed

In the bioethanol production process, high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation are important technologies for obtaining increased ethanol concentrations; however, bench-scale studies using combinations of these methods are limited. In this study, we hydrolyzed high solid concentration of milled eucalyptus using commercial enzymes and obtained 138.4 g/L total monomeric sugar concentration. These sugars were fermented to 53.5 g/L of ethanol by a xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, MA-R4. These experiments were performed in bench scale (using 50 L scale solid mixer and 70 L scale fermenter). The results obtained in this study were comparable to our previous results in laboratory scale, indicating that we successfully achieved an efficient high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation system in bench scale. PMID:23917411

Fujii, Tatsuya; Murakami, Katsuji; Endo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Minowa, Tomoaki; Matsushika, Akinori; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

2014-04-01

129

Evaluation of the role of heterogeneities on transverse mixing in bench-scale tank experiments by numerical modeling.  

PubMed

In this work, numerical modeling is used to evaluate and interpret a series of detailed and well-controlled two-dimensional bench-scale conservative tracer tank experiments performed to investigate transverse mixing in porous media. The porous medium used consists of a fine matrix and a more permeable lens vertically aligned with the tracer source and the flow direction. A sensitivity analysis shows that the tracer distribution after passing the lens is only slightly sensitive to variations in transverse dispersivity, but strongly sensitive to the contrast of hydraulic conductivities. A unique parameter set could be calibrated to closely fit the experimental observations. On the basis of calibrated and validated model, synthetic experiments with different contrasts in hydraulic conductivity and more complex setups were performed and the efficiency of mixing evaluated. Flux-related dilution indices derived from these simulations show that the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between matrix and high-permeable lenses as well as the spatial configuration of tracer plumes and lenses dominate mixing, rather than the actual pore scale dispersivities. These results indicate that local material distributions, the magnitude of permeability contrasts, and their spatial and scale relation to solute plumes are more important for macro-scale transverse dispersion than the micro-scale dispersivities of individual materials. Local material characterization by thorough site investigation hence is of utmost importance for the evaluation of mixing-influenced or -governed problems in groundwater, such as tracer test evaluation or an assessment of contaminant natural attenuation. PMID:23675977

Ballarini, E; Bauer, S; Eberhardt, C; Beyer, C

2014-01-01

130

Temperature control of bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced control concept, Predictive Functional Control (PFC), is applied for temperature control of a bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with monofluid heating/cooling system. First principles process models are developed. Based on achieved models, significant process variables, which are difficult or impossible to measure online, are estimated from easily measured variables, and cascade PFC control strategy has been projected and implemented in Matlab R14. The dynamics of individual subunits is explicitly taken into consideration by internal model in the control algorithms, and model uncertainty, various process disturbances are compensated by modification of internal model. The experimental results present an excellent capability of tracking the set point, and the success of PFC technique as a process control paradigm is illustratively demonstrated.

Teng, Hai-peng; Song, Yi-ming

2014-04-01

131

Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

1992-02-19

132

MFO induction in fish by filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching of wood pulp.  

PubMed

Spent bleaching liquors from pulp bleached with chlorine dioxide were assessed for their potency to induce hepatic mixed function oxygenase enzymes (MFO) in rainbow trout, as indicated by activity of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethyase (EROD). Filtrates were collected from two kraft mills in Central Canada to assess the potency of filtrates from hardwood and softwood bleaching. All mill-scale bleaching filtrates induced MFO activity, and filtrates from softwood pulp bleaching appeared more potent than filtrates from hardwood bleaching. Filtrates from the final bleaching stage were most potent, and filtrates from the first stage were the least potent. In laboratory bench-scale bleaching experiments, pulp from softwood and hardwood kraft mills in Eastern Canada was bleached via an industry-standard 5-stage chlorine dioxide bleaching sequence. The filtrates were collected and used in fish bioassays to assess EROD-inducing potency. Potency of bench-scale filtrates varied depending on wood furnish (i.e. softwood vs. hardwood) and the bleaching stage, with all bench-scale filtrates being much weaker EROD inducers than mill-scale filtrates. Recycled paper mill washwater is a possible source of compounds causing increased potency of the mill-scale filtrates. PMID:11235887

Coakley, J; Hodson, P V; Van Heiningen, A; Cross, T

2001-03-01

133

Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

2006-01-01

134

BENCH-SCALE STUDIES ON THE SIMULTANEOUS FORMATION OF PCBS AND PCDDS/FS FROM COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports on a bench-scale experimental study to characterize a newly built reactor system that was built to: produce levels and distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) production similar to those achieved by previous re...

135

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02

136

Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part I: effect of operational conditions on product gas characteristics.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted within the framework of R&D activities on the development of gasification and reforming technologies for energy and chemical recovery from biomass resources. Gasification of the Japanese cedar wood has been investigated under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Parametric tests by varying the residence times, gasification temperatures, equivalence ratios (ERs) and steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios were performed to determine their effects on the product gas characteristics. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were preformed to predict the equilibrium gas composition and compared with the experimental value. We found that the product gas characteristics in terms of the H(2)/CO ratio, CO(2)/CO ratio, and CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons concentrations are significantly affected by the operating conditions used. Increasing the residence time decreased the CO(2)/CO ratio; however, a nominal effect was noticed on H(2) concentration as a function of the residence time. At sufficient residence time, increasing the temperature led to higher H(2) yields, CO efficiency and higher heating value (HHV) of the product gas. The presence of steam during gasification effectively enhanced the proportion of H(2) in the product gas. However, higher S/C ratio reduced the HHV of the product gas. Increasing the ER from 0 to 0.3 increased the H(2) yields and CO efficiency and decreased the HHV of the product gas. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at low gasification temperatures was relatively higher than that at high temperature gasification. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at high gasification temperatures hardly varied over the investigated operating conditions. PMID:22980961

Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

2013-01-01

137

Probabilistic inversion of electrical resistivity data from bench-scale experiments: On model parameterization for CO2 sequestration monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a well-established method for geophysical characterization and has shown potential for monitoring geologic CO2 sequestration, due to its sensitivity to electrical resistivity contrasts generated by liquid/gas saturation variability. In contrast to deterministic ERT inversion approaches, probabilistic inversion provides not only a single saturation model but a full posterior probability density function for each model parameter. Furthermore, the uncertainty inherent in the underlying petrophysics (e.g., Archie's Law) can be incorporated in a straightforward manner. In this study, the data are from bench-scale ERT experiments conducted during gas injection into a quasi-2D (1 cm thick), translucent, brine-saturated sand chamber with a packing that mimics a simple anticlinal geological reservoir. We estimate saturation fields by Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling with the MT-DREAM(ZS) algorithm and compare them quantitatively to independent saturation measurements from a light transmission technique, as well as results from deterministic inversions. Different model parameterizations are evaluated in terms of the recovered saturation fields and petrophysical parameters. The saturation field is parameterized (1) in cartesian coordinates, (2) by means of its discrete cosine transform coefficients, and (3) by fixed saturation values and gradients in structural elements defined by a gaussian bell of arbitrary shape and location. Synthetic tests reveal that a priori knowledge about the expected geologic structures (as in parameterization (3)) markedly improves the parameter estimates. The number of degrees of freedom thus strongly affects the inversion results. In an additional step, we explore the effects of assuming that the total volume of injected gas is known a priori and that no gas has migrated away from the monitored region.

Breen, S. J.; Lochbuehler, T.; Detwiler, R. L.; Linde, N.

2013-12-01

138

Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor.  

PubMed

A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG, (HOC(2)H(4))2S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion. PMID:17239533

Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol

2007-08-17

139

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2009-02-28

140

Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-20

141

The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval. PMID:24645468

Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

2014-01-01

142

Bench-scale biofilter for removing ammonia from poultry house exhaust.  

PubMed

A bench-scale biofilter was evaluated for removing ammonia (NH3) from poultry house exhaust. The biofilter system was equipped with a compost filter to remove NH3 and calcium oxide (CaO) filter to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Removal of NH3 and CO2 from poultry house exhaust could allow treated air with residual heat to be recirculated back into the poultry house to conserve energy during winter months. Apart from its use as a plant nutrient, NH3 removal from poultry house exhaust could lessen the adverse environmental impacts of NH3 emissions. Ammonia and CO2 were measured daily with gas detector tubes while temperatures in the poultry pen and compost filter were monitored to evaluate the thermal impact of the biofilter on treated air. During the first 37 days of the 54-day study, exhaust air from 33 birds housed in a pen was treated in the biofilter; for the final 17 days, NH3-laden exhaust, obtained by applying urea to the empty pen was treated in the biofilter. The biofilter system provided near-complete attenuation of a maximum short-term NH3 concentration of 73 ppm. During the last 17 days, with a mean influent NH3 concentration of 26 ppm, the biofilter provided 97% attenuation. The CaO filter was effective in attenuating CO2. Compared with a biofilter sized only for NH3 removal, an oversized biofilter would be required to provide supplemental heat to the treated air through exothermic biochemical reactions in the compost. The biofilter could conserve energy in poultry production and capture NH3 for use as plant nutrient. Based on this study, a house for 27,000 broilers would require a compost filter with a volume of approximately 34 m3. PMID:12602826

Shah, S B; Basden, T J; Bhumbla, D K

2003-01-01

143

Recycling of fibre-reinforced polymeric waste by pyrolysis: thermo-gravimetric and bench-scale investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of composite wastes were pyrolysed in a bench-scale, static-bed reactor at 350–800°C. The samples under investigation included composites of polyesters, phenolic and epoxy resins, and polypropylene, reinforced with glass and\\/or carbon fibre. Both the product mass balance and gas composition were dependent on the polymer matrix, pyrolysis temperature and, at the higher temperatures studied, the decomposition of thermally

Adrian M Cunliffe; Nicola Jones; Paul T Williams

2003-01-01

144

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978September 30, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and

G. Caprioglio; K. H. McCorkle; G. E. Besenbruch; J. S. Rode

1980-01-01

145

Engineering and bench-scale studies on the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress made on process engineering and bench-scale investigations of the General Atomic Company sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle is presented. A second generation process engineering flowsheet is under development. The results of this new flowsheeting effort not only represent a reiteration in the process engineering, but they also reflect the progress made in the laboratory; at the time of writing,

J. D. de Graaf; K. M. McCorkle; J. H. Norman; R. Sharp; G. B. Webb; T. Ohno

1978-01-01

146

Bench Scale Evaluation of a Chemo-biochemical Process for Desulphurization of Gaseous Streams Containing Hydrogen Sulphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Chemo-biochemical process for desulphurization of a gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) with concomitant recovery of elemental sulphur was investigated on bench scale. The process operates in two stages. In the first stage, H2S present in a gas stream is oxidized to elemental sulphur by ferric sulphate. In the second stage, ferrous sulphate produced in the process, after separation

R. A. Pandey; S. Malhotra; A. S. Rajvaidya; S. Sharma; S. Peshwe; V. K. Raman; A. S. Bal

2003-01-01

147

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

148

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

149

SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford tank farms contain approximately 57 million gallons of wastes, most of which originated during the

DUNCAN JB

2010-01-01

150

BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF SORBENT ADDITIVES FOR TRACE METAL CAPTURE AND RETENTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The suitability of six minerals; silica, diatomaceous earth, kaolin, bauxite, alumina and attapulgite clay, as potential sorbents for the capture and immobilization of trace metals was evaluated. he behavior of five trace metals; arsenic, cadmium, chromium,, lead and nickel was t...

151

Summary Plan for Bench-Scale Reformer and Product Testing Treatability Studies Using Hanford Tank Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pa...

J. B. Duncan

2010-01-01

152

Summary Plan for Bench-Scale Reformer and Product Testing Treatability Studies Using Hanford Tank Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pa...

R. A. Robbins

2011-01-01

153

SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

ROBBINS RA

2011-02-11

154

BENCH-SCALE PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ECONOMIC ANALYSES OF ELECTROSTATIC DRY COAL CLEANING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of preliminary performance evaluations and economic analyses of the Advanced Energy Dynamics (AED) electrostatic dry coal-cleaning process. Grab samples of coal feed product coals were obtained from 25 operating physical coal cleaning (PCC) plants. These ...

155

Bench scale testing - Phase I, Task 4. Topical progress report, September 1994--January 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment.

NONE

1995-07-01

156

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCP- AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: SOLID-PHASE BIOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. urface s...

157

Bench-scale study on zero excess activated sludge production process coupled with ozonation unit in membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this bench-scale study, two promising processes for minimizing excess activated sludge (EAS) production, i.e., membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sludge ozonation (SO), were coupled in this study into the MBR-SO process to treat domestic wastewater for 80 days, and the vital related operational factors were also investigated. Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the actually operational effects of these parameters on the performance of MBR-SO process. As a consequence, the ratio of flow-rate draining to ozonation unit (q) to influent wastewater flow-rate (Q) was the mainly operational parameter, which was significantly affected by the sludge lysing ratio in ozonation unit (xi), produced COD per unit mass lysed MLSS (eta), observed sludge yield coefficient for wastewater (Y(obs)) and intrinsic yield coefficient for COD produced by lysed sludge (Y(2)). To keep the mixed liquid suspended solid concentration (MLSS) in MBR around 8,000 mg/L, the ratio of q/Q and xi for each batch ozonation was set at 0.0067 and 0.72, respectively. The generated EAS was continuously drained into ozonation unit at a frequency of 2 batch/d for lysing cells, and almost constant MLSS concentration with zero observed sludge yield coefficient (Y(obs)) and excellent effluent quality could be achieved in MBR except for TP concentration (only approximately 3.62% TP removal efficiency rate obtained in Test stage). The calculation of sludge disintegration number (SDN) and the maximum SDN (SDN(max)) indicated that the higher xi could reduce apparently the sludge amount needed for ozonation. The low input ozone gas concentration and high flow-rate could enhance the sludge lysing effects at same ozone dosage, and therefore lower energy consumption of 0.041Yuan (USD 0.0053)/m(3) wastewater was obtained. Overall, mass balance showed that the preset value of operation parameters listed in mathematical models matched well with trends of sludge reduction found in this experimental result. PMID:18642157

Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bao Z; Jiang, Yi F; Liu, Shuo

2008-09-01

158

Bench-scale system design to screen catalyst-coated fabric filters for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale system was constructed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to screen performance of various types of V/Ti catalyst-coated, high-temperature, fabric filters manufactured at Owens-Corning, Inc. (OCF). This product is targeted for use in utility and industrial facilities for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Described in this paper are the bench-scale system design, operation, and validation of the data produced. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Ness, S.R.; Ludlow, D.K. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31

159

Bench scale development of the TRW process for cleaning coal (Gravimelt process). Quarterly technical progress report, May 1985-July 1985  

SciTech Connect

The major sections of the 20 lb/h modular test plant were designed and the necessary equipment specifications were prepared. A competitive procurement was initiated for the reaction section, a rotary kiln with coal and caustic feed capability. Two kiln tests were performed at a vendor test facility to provide design data, demonstrate continuous around the clock operation and to provide coal and spent caustic feed for regeneration and filtration equipment tests. The first two objectives were successful and accomplishment of the second objective will be assessed next month. Experimentation for scale-up and verification testing of the regeneration section was performed. A description of the modular test plant and the detailed engineering and test results are presented in five sections entitled: Modular Test Plant; Rotary Kiln Tests; Rotary Kiln Specifications; Regeneration Verification Tests and Regeneration Section Design. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1985-08-01

160

Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. In the zinc titanate approach, sulfur dioxide is the produced and must be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. In the DSRP, elemental sulfur is the catalytic product.

Dorchak, T.P.

1994-07-01

161

Bench-scale experiments for the development of a unified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the in vitro diagnosis of Leishmania species' promastigotes.  

PubMed

SUMMARY We developed, in bench-scale experiments, a unified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis using DNA of cultivated promastigotes. Two primer sets for the LAMP assay were designed based on the 18S rRNA gene, and their sensitivity and specificity were tested and compared. Both of them were specific for Leishmania as the DNA of all ten Leishmania species tested was amplified, whereas the DNA of other parasites, including that of Trypanosoma, was not. The detection limit for primer set 1 ranged between 30 pg and 3·6 fg, depending on which Leishmania species tested. Primer set 2 showed high sensitivity, but was less sensitive than primer set 1. Our findings lead to the conclusion that the LAMP assay with primer set 1 is a promising and effective assay for the successful detection of a wide range of Leishmania infections using only a unified multiplex LAMP test. PMID:24168822

Karani, M; Sotiriadou, I; Plutzer, J; Karanis, P

2014-08-01

162

Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

1980-03-01

163

Removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in a bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to investigate the removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in both bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactors. The enzyme used in this application was a fungal tyrosinase [E.C. 1.14.18.1] immobilized in a system of chitosan and alginate. The immobilization matrix consisted of a chitosan matrix cross-linked with glutaraldehyde with an aliginate-filled pore space. This support matrix showed superior mechanical properties along with retaining the unique adsorptive characteristics of the chitosan. Adsorption of the o-quinone product by the chitosan reduced tyrosinase inactivation that is normally observed for this enzyme under these conditions. This approach allowed reuse of the enzyme in repeated batch applications. For the bench scale reactor (1.2-l capacity) more than 92% of the phenol could be removed from the feed water using an immobilized enzyme volume of 18.5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 150 min. Removal rates decreased with subsequent batch runs. For the pilot scale fluidized bed (60 l), 60% phenol removal was observed with an immobilized enzyme volume of 5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 7 h. Removal decreased to 45% with a repeat batch run with the same immobilized enzyme. PMID:15765216

Ensuncho, Lucila; Alvarez-Cuenca, Manuel; Legge, Raymond L

2005-05-01

164

Test Plan for Simulated Saltcake Retrieval Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the plan for a bench-scale laboratory test to evaluate physical and chemical parameters associated with dissolution of a simulated saltcake waste. Parameters to be measured during the test include water addition rate, liquid draina...

D. L. Herting J. C. Person

2000-01-01

165

In situ encapsulation bench-scale demonstration report FY-94 (for TTP-ID 142012).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the test objectives, procedures, and results of the laboratory-scale tests of in situ waste encapsulation of buried waste using a synthetic analogue of natural cement. The products of the reaction FeSO(sub 4) (center dot) 7H(sub 2)O ...

J. R. Weidner P. G. Shaw

1995-01-01

166

Field tested milliliter-scale blood filtration device for point-of-care applications.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a low cost and equipment-free blood filtration device capable of producing plasma from blood samples with mL-scale capacity and demonstrate its clinical application for hepatitis B diagnosis. We report the results of in-field testing of the device with 0.8-1?ml of undiluted, anticoagulated human whole blood samples from patients at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam. Blood cell counts demonstrate that the device is capable of filtering out 99.9% of red and 96.9% of white blood cells, and the plasma collected from the device contains lower red blood cell counts than plasma obtained from a centrifuge. Biochemistry and immunology testing establish the suitability of the device as a sample preparation unit for testing alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), urea, hepatitis B "e" antigen (HBeAg), hepatitis B "e" antibody (HBe Ab), and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs Ab). The device provides a simple and practical front-end sample processing method for point-of-care microfluidic diagnostics, enabling sufficient volumes for multiplexed downstream tests. PMID:24404044

Gong, Max M; Macdonald, Brendan D; Vu Nguyen, Trung; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Sinton, David

2013-01-01

167

Co-Firing of Sewage Sludge with Bark in A Bench-Scale Bubbling Fluidized BED — A Study of Deposits and Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that addition of either sulfur and/or aluminosilicates such as kaolinite may reduce alkali induced deposit formation when firing biomass fuels. Sewage sludge is a fuel containing substantial amounts of sulfur and aluminosilicates, such as zeolites. In this work different amounts of sewage sludge (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%en) were co-fired with bark in a bench-scale BFB. SO2 and HCl emissions were measured and deposits were sampled during 3 hrs with an air-cooled probe with a surface temperature of 500°C at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 850°C and 650°C, respectively. The test results showed that an increase of the share of sewage sludge to the fuel mixture increased theformation of HCl and simultaneously decreased the Cl-content in the deposits. Usually this is considered to be a sign of sulfation of alkali chlorides. However, the increase of HCl canalso be caused by AI-silicates capturing alkali, thus releasing Cl as HCl to the gas phase. AIthough, sulfur increased in the fuel input with an increased share of sewage sludge, this was not reflected in the gaseous emissions as may be expected. Up to 4%en sewage sludge was fired together with bark without increasing the sulfur content in theemissions. At higher shares of sewage sludge the sulfur emissions increased linearly with an increase of sewage sludge. The amount of water soluble potassium fed into the boiler remained relatively constant in the different tests. This potassium is usually released as volatile salts. Nevertheless, the amount found in deposits decreased with an increase in sludge feeding. In this paper it was shown that interaction of potassium with AI-silicates in the bed is a probable cause for the decrease of potassium in the deposits, while both the sulfation of potassium chlorides and possibly also, the alkali capture by AI-silicates can weaken the deposition of Cl.

Yrjas, Patrik; Aho, Martti; Zevenhoven, Maria; Taipale, Raili; Silvennoinen, Jaani; Hupa, Mikko

168

EVALUATING BENCH-SCALE NANOFILTRATION STUDIES FOR PREDICTING FULL-SCALE PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Information Collection Rule (ICR) requires water utilities of a certain size and water quality to conduct bench or pilot testing of either granular activated carbon or membranes for the control of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors. his paper evaluates the effectiveness ...

169

SCREENING/FLOTATION TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. VOLUME I. BENCH SCALE AND PILOT PLANT INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A four-layer sinusoidal sandwich plate structure, reinforced with micro concrete grout next to the skin faces and hydrostatically pressurized with hydraulic fluid internally is subjected to transverse load tests. The plate is simply supported on all four sides, and its stiffness ...

170

WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for measurements. All of the cured grouts were measured for bleed and set. All of the cured grouts satisfied the bleed and set requirements, where no bleed water was observed on any of the grout samples after one day and all had set within 3 days of curing. This data indicates, for a well mixed product, bleed and set requirement are satisfied for the range of acidic feeds tested in this task. The yield stress measurements provide both an indication on the mixability of the salt solution with dry materials and an indication of how quickly the grout is starting to form structure. The inability to properly mix these two streams into a well mixed grout product will lead to a non-homogeneous mixture that will impact product quality. Product quality issues could be unmixed regions of dry material and hot spots having high concentrations of americium 241. Mixes that were more difficult to incorporate typically resulted in grouts with higher yield stresses. The mixability from these tests will provide Waste Solidification Building (WSB) an indication of which grouts will be more challenging to mix. The first yield stress measurements were statistically compared to a list of variables, specifically the batched chemicals used to make the acidic solutions. The first yield stress was also compared to the physical properties of the acidic solutions, physical and pH properties of the neutralized/pH adjusted solutions, and chemical and physical properties of the grout.

Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

2009-03-20

171

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test design and initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Fool boilers offer simplicity in desip and fabrication. Pool-boiler solar receiver operation has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, in order to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate without significant

C. E. Andraka; S. A. Jones; J. B. Moreno; T. A. Moss

1993-01-01

172

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without

C. E. Andraka; S. H. Goods; R. W. Bradshaw; J. B. Moreno; T. A. Moss; S. A. Jones

1994-01-01

173

Bench-scale co-processing, Technical progress report No. 21, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to establish a database for optimizing the co-processing concept by improving the effectiveness of the co-processing catalyst system. Two major mechanisms for improving the catalyst system are to be investigated: more effective catalysts (subtask 3.2.1) and improved catalytic environments (3.2.2). During this period, work on 3.2.2 was carried out and the bench-scale co-processing pilot plant was operated in the counter-current mode. The counter-current process in presence and absence of a packing material under different operating conditions was evaluated. Project objective of achieving 90+% conversion of the 510 C nondistillate at 2000 psig was not met due to plant limitations. Because of reactor size and throughput, flow regime within the reactor is laminar. It is believed that without turbulent flow, there was insufficient mixing to keep the catalyst in solution; it probably attaches to the reactor walls, forming a restriction which causes all material entering the reactor to immediately exit through the reactor outlet. No additional counter- current co-processing experiments are planned, and the pilot plant will be reconfigured to operate in the co-current mode.

Duttlinger, M.L.M.; Commissaris, S.E.; Davis, L.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Roemisch, R.; Yurek, R.W.

1995-12-31

174

Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.  

PubMed

The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. PMID:22133839

Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

2012-02-01

175

Computational fluid dynamics assessment. Volume 2: Isothermal simulations of the METC bench-scale coal-water slurry combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isothermal turbulent, swirling flow inside the METC pressurized bench scale combustor was simulated using ISOPCGC-2. The effects of the swirl numbers, the momentum ratio of the primary to secondary streams, the annular wall thickness, and the quarl angle on the flow and mixing patterns were investigated. The results that with the present configuration of the combustor, an annular recirculation zone is present up to secondary swirl number of four. A central (on axis) recirculation zone can be obtained by increasing the momentum of the secondary stream by decreasing the annular area at the reactor inlet. The mixing of the primary (fuel carrier) air with the secondary air improves only slightly due to swirl unless a central recirculation zone is present. Good mixing is achieved in the quarl region when a central recirculation zone is present. A preliminary investigation of the influence of placing flow regulators inside the combustor shows that they influence the flow field significantly and that there is a potential of obtaining optimum flow conditions using these flow regulators.

Celik, Ismail; Chattree, Mayank

1988-09-01

176

15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

Thorn, K. A.; Pennington, J. C.; Hayes, C. A.

2002-01-01

177

Membrane Filtration Test for Rapid Presumptive Differentiation of Four Candida Species  

PubMed Central

A rapid enzymatic two-step test for the presumptive differentiation of four Candida species commonly occurring in various clinical samples is described. The technique involves membrane filtration of a liquid sample, followed by preincubation of the membrane filter on Sabouraud glucose agar supplemented with ticarcillin-clavulanic acid to yield microcolonies. In a separate assay step, parts of the filter are placed on absorbent pads impregnated with fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU) enzyme substrates (4-MU-N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminide, 4-MU-phosphate, 4-MU-pyrophosphate, and 4-MU-?-d-galactoside) in combination with 0.1% digitonin acting as a membrane permeabilizer. The membrane filter in contact with the assay medium is incubated to allow cleavage of the enzyme substrate, resulting in fluorescent microcolonies under long-wavelength UV light. This approach, tested on 301 clinical samples, is able to presumptively differentiate C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and to distinguish them from other Candida spp. in about 9 to 11 h. Overall agreement with the conventional methods of 94.4% (one Candida species present in the sample) to 83.8% (multiple Candida spp. present) was obtained. The false-negative rates with reference to identification by traditional methods were 1.3% (single species) and 3.8% (multiple species).

Bauters, T. G.; Peleman, R.; Moerman, M.; Vermeersch, H.; de Looze, D.; Noens, L.; Nelis, H. J.

1999-01-01

178

Effect of sludge age on the bacterial diversity of bench scale sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

Sludge age or mean cell residence time (MCRT) plays a crucial role in design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. The change in performance, for example micropollutant removal, associated with changes in MCRT is often attributed to changes in microbial diversity. We operated four identical laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (two test and two control) in parallel for 212 days. Sludge age was decreased gradually (from 10.4to 2.6 days) in experimental reactors whereas it was kept constant (10.4 days) in control reactors. The reactor performance and biomass changed in a manner consistent with our understanding of the effect of sludge age on a reactors performance: the effluent quality and biomass declined with decreasing MCRT. The composition of the bacterial and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in four reactors was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and similarities in band patterns were measured using the Dice coefficient. The overall similarity between the communities in reactors run at different sludge ages was indistinguishable from the similarity in communities in reactors run at identical sludge ages. This was true for both the general bacterial communities and putative AOB communities. The number of detectable bands in DGGE profiles was also unaffected by sludge age (p approximately 0.5 in both cases). Initially, the detectable diversity of activated sludge communities in all four reactors clustered with time, regardless of their designation or sludge age; however, these clusters were only weakly supported by bootstrap analysis. However, after 135 days, a sludge age specific clustering was observed in the bacterial community but not the putative ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community. The mean self-similarity of each reactor decreased, variance increased, and the number of detectable bands in DGGE profiles decreased over time in all reactors. The changes observed with time are consistent with ecological drift. Sludge age has a subtler and slower effect than we anticipated. However, we postulate that sludge age may be more evident in the taxa occurring below the detection limit of DGGE. New sequencing technology may help us address this hypothesis. PMID:19475976

Akarsubasi, Alper Tunga; Eyice, Ozge; Miskin, Ian; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P

2009-04-15

179

Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography applied to a metal-walled filtration test platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first true three-dimensional image reconstructions from a metal-walled vessel using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) are presented. Two image reconstruction techniques have been applied via relatively sophisticated FEM modelling of a bespoke laboratory test vessel from which data have been obtained using an EIT instrument designed to intrinsically safe requirements. A generalized Tikhonov regularization method is compared with the linear back-projection (LBP) technique. Subsequent image reconstructions strongly suggest that the LBP method when applied to a metal-walled vessel is highly sensitive to the level of detail within the FEM model. By comparison, the regularized technique is far less sensitive to the complexity of the modelled geometry. Additionally, unlike the LBP method, the regularization technique has been successful in accurately reconstructing multiple inhomogeneities within an aqueous system. A further experiment has shown similar sensitivity in a wetted powder-based system. It is concluded that EIT via a regularized difference imaging approach has significant potential for detecting 3D malformations and non-uniformities in industrial pressure filtration systems.

Davidson, J. L.; Ruffino, L. S.; Stephenson, D. R.; Mann, R.; Grieve, B. D.; York, T. A.

2004-11-01

180

Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation and Crossflow Filtration of 241-AN-102 Large C  

SciTech Connect

This work provides an important confirmation of the new strontium/permanganate precipitation process to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C (Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107) wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. As a bench-scale demonstration, a series of seven precipitation batches and crossflow filtration campaigns were performed to remove strontium-90 and transuranics from 16.5 liters of Tank 241-AN-102 ''Large C'' supernatant liquid containing entrained solids.

Nash, C.A.

2001-05-21

181

Electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for monitoring CO2 injection: Demonstration of leakage detection during bench-scale experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring infiltration events in the near subsurface. ERT also shows potential for monitoring CO2 injections, despite deployment challenges in the deep subsurface. We present results from analog bench-scale experiments aimed at evaluating the ability of ERT to quantify the volume and spatial distribution of a gas injected into a brine-saturated porous medium. We injected measured volumes of gas into translucent chambers filled with quartz sand, lined with electrodes, and saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. Between injections, a CCD camera captured high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scanned the chamber. Using the CCD images, quantitative visualization techniques resulted in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution and saturation of the injected gas. Direct comparison to inverted resistivity fields then provided a quantitative measure of the ability of ERT to estimate the total volume of injected gas and its spatial distribution within the chamber. We present results from two experiments designed to represent different injection scenarios: (A) low injection rate and strong capillary barrier, and (B) high injection rate and weaker capillary barrier. Results show that ERT provides good estimates of the shape, size and location of the primary gas plume, but underestimates gas content and does not detect thin pathways of gas from the injection port or within the overlying capillary barrier. However, ERT measurements did detect a change in saturation within the primary plume caused by leakage through the capillary barrier in (B), demonstrating the potential utility of ERT as a leakage-monitoring tool. Repeated ERT scans during our experiments led to degradation in data quality that corresponded with an increase in measured contact resistance. Decreased data quality over time is clearly a concern for ERT implementation as a long-term monitoring strategy and deserves further study to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the loss of data quality.

Breen, S. J.; Carrigan, C. R.; LaBrecque, D. J.; Detwiler, R. L.

2011-12-01

182

Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.  

PubMed

Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature. PMID:22980959

Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

2013-01-01

183

Molecular indicators of Nitrobacter spp. population and growth activity during an induced inhibition event in a bench scale nitrification reactor.  

PubMed

The Nitrobacter spp. ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and transcript (rRNAt) abundance were quantified in a bench scale nitrification reactor during baseline periods of high nitrification efficiency and an intervening staged inhibition event. The transcript to gene ratio (rRNAt/rDNA) was highly sensitive to changes in the reactor nitrite oxidation rate. During high nitrification efficiency, the rRNAt/rDNA metric displayed a range from 0.68 to 2.01 with one-sided (?=0.10) lower and upper prediction intervals of 0.70 and 1.78, respectively. When nitrification was inhibited by disabling the reactor pH control system, this activity metric declined an order of magnitude to ? 0.05, well below the lower prediction interval reflecting high nitrification efficiency. The decline was rapid (2h) and preceded a significant drop in reactor nitrification performance, which occurred as ammonia accumulated. The rRNAt/rDNA ratio remained low (? 0.05) for several days after the pH control system was re-enabled at a setpoint of 8.0, which otherwise induced rapid oxidation of accumulated ammonia and produced high free ammonia concentrations. The timing of a subsequent increase in the rRNAt/rDNA ratio, which transiently exceeded the upper prediction interval established during the baseline period of high nitrification efficiency, was not coincidental with resumption of pH control at 7.2 that lowered free ammonia concentrations to non-inhibitory levels. Rather, nitrite oxidation resumed and the rRNAt/rDNA ratio increased only after oxidation of accumulated ammonia was complete, which was coincidental with reduced reactor oxygen demand. In summary, the Nitrobacter rRNAt/rDNA activity metric reflected timely and easily recognizable changes in nitrite oxidation activity, illustrating that molecular data can be used to diagnose poor biological wastewater treatment performance. PMID:22289677

Hawkins, Shawn; Robinson, Kevin; Layton, Alice; Sayler, Gary

2012-04-15

184

Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Slurry-phase bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. Aqueous slurries, containing 0.05% Triton X-100 to facilitate the soil washing process and to help stabilize the suspensions, were prepared from sediment and surface soil freshly obtained from the American Creosote Works Superfund site at Pensacola, Florida. Excluding PCP, benzo(b)fluoranthene,

James G. Mueller; Suzanne E. Lantz; Beat O. Blattmann; Peter J. Chapman

1991-01-01

185

Active carbon production from used tire in two-stage procedure: industrial pyrolysis and bench scale activation with H 2O–CO 2 mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study active carbons have been prepared from used tires and their characteristics were investigated. A two-stage activation procedure (pyrolysis at 800°C in N2 atmosphere during 45min in an industrial pyrolyser with a capacity of 1t\\/h, followed by CBp activation with steam in the presence of CO2 at 970°C in a bench scale reactor) was used for the

A. Zabaniotou; P. Madau; P. D. Oudenne; C. G. Jung; M.-P. Delplancke; A. Fontana

2004-01-01

186

Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system  

SciTech Connect

Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation. The oxidant, or mediator, is a multivalent transition metal ion which is cleanly recycled in a number of charge transfer steps in an electrochemical cell. The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70{degrees}C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques. Although the oxidation of organics and the dissolution of transuranics by higher valency metal ions has been known for some time, applying the MEO technology to waste treatment is a relatively recent development. Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results from several other mediator/acid combinations will be included. Data obtained on the chemical, electrochemical, and engineering aspects will be presented. The topics of organics destruction, transuranic recovery, and some of the ancillary systems will be addressed, and areas requiring further study will be mentioned.

Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

1997-02-01

187

Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

Francis, C. W.

1993-09-01

188

Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media to Support Exposure Assessment: Bench-Scale Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sampling efficiency is essential in exposure assessments of contaminants in air, as well as other matrices. In the measurement of airborne contaminants, it is critical to collect a sample of air containing representative contaminants in the air of concern...

D. A. Vallero J. R. Kominsky M. E. Beard O. Crankshaw

2008-01-01

189

TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6000 DISEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is on testing of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and closed crankcase filtration system for diesel trucks. It verified the emissions for these systems using low sufur and ultra low sulfur fuel....

190

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. First quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: (1) the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, (2) the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and (3) the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

1992-12-30

191

Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Solid-phase bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. Surface soil and sediment were contaminated with approximately 1 and 7% (weight basis) organic pollutants, respectively, but the more recalcitrant creosote constituents (i.e., high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were proportionately higher in the surface soil indicative of creosote weathering. Data suggest that full-scale site remediation employing solid-phase bioremediation strategies may not effectively meet acceptable treatment standards in the time defining these studies.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattmann, B.O.; Chapman, P.J.

1991-01-01

192

Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin  

SciTech Connect

The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

2007-07-31

193

Liquid filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid filtration is a fundamental unit operation practiced extensively throughout the chemical process, petroleum, and allied industries. This book is a state-of-the-art review of this operation. The text reviews specific design and selection criteria, both theoretical and practical. There are many actual industrial problems given as a means of further elucidating the principles of filtration that are presented. All of

N. P. Cheremisinoff; D. S. Azbel

1983-01-01

194

Smart Application of Direct Gas Injection using a new conceptual model on Coherent and Incoherent Flow: From Bench Scale to Field Scale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the OXYWALL field experiment we developed the direct gas injection (DGI) of oxygen as a remediation technology, which allows the cost-efficient and large-scale cleaning of groundwater contaminated with organic contaminants. That technology can be used as wide-banded, unselective remediation method for complex contaminant mixtures. Particularly, it could be proofed in field experiments that mineral oil hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), the rather persistent gasoline component Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), and chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, like Trichloroethene and Monochlorobenzene, can be aerobically metabolized by autochthon microorganisms. Over the last 8 years the field site was investigated and a dense monitoring network was installed using Geoprobe direct- push technology and standard hydrogeological investigations were conducted, like EC-Logs, Injections-Logs, Gamma-Logs, TDR-probes, oxygen measurements with in-situ optodes, and tracer test with test gases SF6, Ar, and Oxygen. The key parameter for controling and regulating the DGI is the spatial and temporal distribution of the gas phase. High-resolution optical bench scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate local gas flow pattern and integral flow properties caused by point-like gas injection into water-saturated glass beads and natural sands. We observed a grain-size (dk)- and flow-rate (Q) dependent transition from incoherent to coherent flow. Conceptualizing the stationary tortuous gas flow as core-annulus flow and applying Hagen- Poiseuille flow for a straight capillary, we propose a flow-rate- and grain-size dependent stability criterion that could describe our experimental results and was used for classifying the experiments in a dk-Q-diagram (flow chart). Since DGI simulations are mainly based on continuum models, we also test the validity of the continuum approach for two-fluid flow in macroscopic homogeneous media by comparing our experimental flow pattern with the theoretical ones. It was found that a pulse-like function yields the best fit for the lateral gas saturation profile. This strange behaviour of a relatively sharp saturation transition is in contradiction to the widely anticipated picture of a smooth Gaussian-like transition, which is obtained by the continuum approach. Based on lab experiments, the proposed flow chart, and computer simulations the DGI-technology will be advanced and optimized at the field scale. A proper application of continuum models to direct gas injection should check, whether stable coherent flow is achieved; estimate the coherence length, and account for the channelized flow pattern by a realistic capillary pressure - saturation relationship. Further research is needed for modeling of direct gas injection to include appropriate stability criteria, the transition from coherent to incoherent flow, and bubble trapping. Geistlinger, H., Krauss, G., Lazik, D., and Luckner, L. (2006) Direct gas injection into saturated glass beads: transition from incoherent to coherent gas flow pattern. Water Resour. Res., 42 (7) W07403. Lazik, D., G. Krauss, H. Geistlinger, and H.-J. Vogel (2008) Multi-scale optical analyses of dynamic gas saturation during air sparging into glass beads, Transp. Porous Media. 74, 87-104.

Geistlinger, H.; Samani, S.; Pohlert, M.; Martienssen, M.; Engelmann, F.; Hüttmann, S.

2008-12-01

195

An overview of glomerular filtration rate testing in dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

Determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a valuable, yet underused, diagnostic tool for evaluating renal function in dogs and cats. This article first reviews the hormonal and hemodynamic factors which contribute to GFR, followed by a description of considerations when selecting a pharmacokinetic model and methods of animal-to-animal standardization. The best-characterized existing GFR markers, including creatinine, radiolabeled markers, and iohexol, are reviewed in depth, as well as alternative but lesser-used techniques. A weighted means analysis of reported GFR measurements in healthy dogs and cats and a review of selected studies that have examined GFR alterations in animals with naturally-occurring and experimental diseases provide the reader with preliminary guidelines on expected GFR results in these species and disease conditions.

Von Hendy-Willson, Vanessa E.; Pressler, Barrak M.

2010-01-01

196

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Second quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois No. 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350{degrees}C, and pressures of 1800 psig, (2) analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run, and (3) correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

1993-01-15

197

77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirements from ASME-N509, ``Nuclear Power Plant Air Cleaning Units...ASME-N510, ``Testing of Nuclear Air-Treatment Systems...Inservice Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating Ventilation...standard provides comprehensive test and inspection...

2012-06-29

198

Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Slurry-phase bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. Aqueous slurries, containing 0.05% Triton X-100 to facilitate the soil washing process and to help stabilize the suspensions, were prepared from sediment and surface soil freshly obtained from the American Creosote Works Superfund site at Pensacola, Florida. Excluding PCP, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene and indeno(123-cd)pyrene, slurry-phase bioremediation of highly contaminated sediment (pH adjusted) resulted in rapid and extensive biodegradation (3-5 days to biodegrade > 50% of targeted compounds) of monitored constituents. Data suggest that slurry-phase bioremediation strategies can be effectively employed to remediate creosote-contaminated materials.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattmann, B.O.; Chapman, P.J.

1991-01-01

199

Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that

Rick W. Shimskey; Justin M. Billing; Edgar C. Buck; Richard C. Daniel; Kathryn E. Draper; Matthew K. Edwards; John GH Geeting; Richard T. Hallen; Evan D. Jenson; Anne E. Kozelisky; Paul J. MacFarlan; Reid A. Peterson; Lanee A. Snow; Robert G. Swoboda

2009-01-01

200

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according

Rick W. Shimskey; Justin M. Billing; Edgar C. Buck; Amanda J. Casella; Jarrod V. Crum; Richard C. Daniel; Kathryn E. Draper; Matthew K. Edwards; Richard T. Hallen; Anne E. Kozelisky; Paul J. MacFarlan; Reid A. Peterson; Robert G. Swoboda

2009-01-01

201

Design of a Test Kit for Determining Polyelectrolyte Dosages Prior to Direct Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a test kit which could be used for on-site prediction of the polymer dosage required for direct filtrtion of water sources such as streams and rivers. Criteria established for the test kit are that it be simple, ru...

R. C. Scholz M. L. Holcomb

1981-01-01

202

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

.A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-09

203

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS CENTER TECHNOLOGY SPECIFIC TEST PLAN: REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICL AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS BY MEMBRANE FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is the Environmental technology Verification (ETV) Technology Specific test Plan (TSTP) for evaluation of water treatment equipment for removal of microbiological and particulate contaminants using membrane filtration. This TSTP is to be used as a guide in the dev...

204

[Leukocyte filtration].  

PubMed

The adverse clinical potential of leucozytes in red cell and platelet transfusion became more widely recognized. Therefore, it is preferable to remove as many white cells as possible to avoid all these risks. The new filtration methods offer improved removal efficiency and leave a quantity of leucocytes that is below the threshold for induction of a febrile reaction in most sensitized patients and close to the threshold to avoidance of alloimmunization. A selective white cell removal from platelet concentrates using new filters, in which fibers were coated with a particular polymer, increases the efficiency of trapping white cells and also prevents platelet adhesion. These filters are capable of remove more than 95% of the leucocytes with minimal platelet loss, normal morphology and in vitro function. These filters can be used in bag-to-bag as well as in bedside filtration and greatly reduce the side effects caused by white cells in blood products. PMID:2481544

Müller, N

1989-01-01

205

Filtration Efficiencies of Boothbay Depressor Trawls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The note reports tests on the filtration efficiencies of the Boothbay Depressor Trawls. The depressor blade and the hanging of the liner within a larger net did not affect filtration efficiency. The efficiencies were independent of the velocity of towing ...

J. J. Graham

1972-01-01

206

Dynasand Filtratie (Dynasand Filtration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to draw up the necessary design rules for using the filter in the preparation of drinking water. The Dynasand filter has one additional process variable: the sand circulation rate. Test results show that the filtration procedur...

J. P. Kramers J. W. Wouters J. H. Kop

1989-01-01

207

Material Balance in Bench-Scale Coal Liquefaction Experiments. Second Quarterly Technical Progress Report, November 1, 1983-January 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two proedures for the work-up of the coal experiments were devised and tested. It must be recalled that our process involves coal materials in three separate fractions: toluene extractant, liquid clathrate layer, and coal residue. The difficulty in obtain...

1984-01-01

208

Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

2009-11-20

209

Bench-scale and field-scale evaluation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase specific primers for monitoring BTX bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to test a molecular genetic method for in situ monitoring of aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) biodegrading microorganisms. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23DO) genes occur in bacteria that biodegrade benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, biphenyl, and naphthalene. A competitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) technique using a single set of primers specific for an entire subfamily

Matthew B. Mesarch; Cindy H. Nakatsu; Loring Nies

2004-01-01

210

Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Solid-phase bioremediation. [Pentachlorophenol  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate the potential for using a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol-(PCP-) and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, FL. The effects of tilling and fertilization on the rate and extent of biodegradation of PCP and 42 targeted creosote constituents by indigenous microflora were monitored by gas chromatographic analysis of organic extracts of soil and sediment; changes in microbial populations were also recorded. Specially designed landfarming chambers allowed for the quantitative analysis of targeted pollutants lost through abiotic processes. In general, solid-phase bioremediation resulted in slow and predictable losses of targeted pollutants (i.e., low molecular weight creosote constituents were more readily biodegraded than higher molecular weight contaminants), and the more recalcitrant pollutants (e.g., PCP) tended to persist. Performance data from these studies suggest that full-scale site remediation employing solid-phase bioremediation strategies in the time defining these studies. (90 days).

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E. (Southern Bio Products, Inc., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)); Blattmann, B.O. (Technical Resources, Inc., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)); Chapman, P.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States))

1991-06-01

211

Rate and reaction probability of the surface reaction between ozone and dihydromyrcenol measured in a bench scale reactor and a room-sized chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low volatility terpenoids emitted from consumer products can react with ozone on surfaces and may significantly alter concentrations of ozone, terpenoids and reaction products in indoor air. We measured the reaction probability and a second-order surface-specific reaction rate for the ozonation of dihydromyrcenol, a representative indoor terpenoid, adsorbed onto polyvinylchloride (PVC), glass, and latex paint coated spheres. The reaction probability ranged from (0.06-8.97) × 10 -5 and was very sensitive to humidity, substrate and mass adsorbed. The average surface reaction probability is about 10 times greater than that for the gas-phase reaction. The second-order surface-specific rate coefficient ranged from (0.32-7.05) × 10 -15 cm 4 s -1 molecule -1and was much less sensitive to humidity, substrate, or mass adsorbed. We also measured the ozone deposition velocity due to adsorbed dihydromyrcenol on painted drywall in a room-sized chamber, Based on that, we calculated the rate coefficient ((0.42-1.6) × 10 -15 cm 4 molecule -1 s -1), which was consistent with that derived from bench-scale experiments for the latex paint under similar conditions. We predict that more than 95% of dihydromyrcenol oxidation takes place on indoor surfaces, rather than in building air.

Shu, Shi; Morrison, Glenn C.

2012-02-01

212

Model based evaluation of a contaminant plume development under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in 2D bench-scale tank experiments.  

PubMed

The influence of transverse mixing on competitive aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume was investigated using a two-dimensional, bench-scale flow-through laboratory tank experiment. In the first part of the experiment aerobic degradation of increasing toluene concentrations was carried out by the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1. Successively, ethylbenzene (injected as a mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopologues) substituted toluene; nitrate was added as additional electron acceptor and the anaerobic denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was inoculated to study competitive degradation under aerobic /anaerobic conditions. The spatial distribution of anaerobic degradation was resolved by measurements of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation induced by the anaerobic strain as well as compound concentrations. A fully transient numerical reactive transport model was employed and calibrated using measurements of electron donors, acceptors and isotope fractionation. The aerobic phases of the experiment were successfully reproduced using a double Monod kinetic growth model and assuming an initial homogeneous distribution of P. putida F1. Investigation of the competitive degradation phase shows that the observed isotopic pattern cannot be explained by transverse mixing driven biodegradation only, but also depends on the inoculation process of the anaerobic strain. Transient concentrations of electron acceptors and donors are well reproduced by the model, showing its ability to simulate transient competitive biodegradation. PMID:24122285

Ballarini, E; Beyer, C; Bauer, R D; Griebler, C; Bauer, S

2014-06-01

213

Development of a simultaneous partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) bench scale process for removal of ammonia from effluent of a fertilizer industry.  

PubMed

A simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was developed for the treatment of ammonia laden effluent of a fertilizer industry. Autotrophic aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing biomass was enriched and their ammonia removal ability was confirmed in synthetic effluent system. Seed consortium developed from these was applied in the treatment of effluent in an oxygen limited bench scale SNAD type (1L) reactor run at ambient temperature (?30°C). Around 98.9% ammonia removal was achieved with ammonia loading rate 0.35kgNH(4)(+)-N/m(3)day in the presence of 46.6mg/L COD at 2.31days hydraulic retention time. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biomass from upper and lower zone of the reactor revealed presence of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Planctomycetes and denitrifiers as the dominant bacteria carrying out anoxic oxidation of ammonia in the reactor. Physiological and molecular studies strongly indicate presence of anammox bacteria in the anoxic zone of the SNAD reactor. PMID:23313684

Keluskar, Radhika; Nerurkar, Anuradha; Desai, Anjana

2013-02-01

214

Use of lysis and recycle to control excess sludge production in activated sludge treatment: bench scale study and effect of chlorinated organic compounds.  

PubMed

The most widely used treatment system in the pulp and paper industry--the activated sludge--produces high quantities of sludge which need proper disposal. In this paper a modified activated sludge process is presented. A synthetic wastewater, prepared to simulate the effluent of bleached and unbleached pulp and paper plant wastewater, was submitted to treatment in a bench scale aerobic reactor. The excess sludge was lysed in a mechanical mill--Kaddy mill--and totally recycled to the aeration tank. In the first phase the synthetic wastewater, without the chlorinated compounds, was fed to the reactor. In the second phase increasing dosages of the chlorinated compounds were used. Total recycle of excess sludge after disintegration did not produce adverse effects. During the first phase average COD removal efficiency was 65% for the control unit, which operated in a conventional way, and 63% for the treatment unit, which operated with total recycle. During the second phase the COD removal efficiency increased to 77% in the control unit and 75% in the treatment unit. Chlorinated organics removal was 85% in the treatment unit and 86% for the control unit. These differences are not significant. PMID:12479453

Nolasco, M A; Campos, A L O; Springer, A M; Pires, E C

2002-01-01

215

Bench-scale and field-scale evaluation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase specific primers for monitoring BTX bioremediation.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to test a molecular genetic method for in situ monitoring of aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) biodegrading microorganisms. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23DO) genes occur in bacteria that biodegrade benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, biphenyl, and naphthalene. A competitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) technique using a single set of primers specific for an entire subfamily of C23DO genes was recently developed. To determine whether bacteria containing these C23DO genes actually exist in environments contaminated by BTX, aerobic microcosms containing previously uncontaminated soil were amended with different aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA extracts were analyzed by QC-PCR for C23DO genes. Anaerobic microcosms were established to confirm that oxygen was also necessary for the enrichment of C23DO genes. Field testing was done at two sites undergoing monitored natural attenuation. In microcosm experiments naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-xylene strongly enriched for C23DO genes while benzene, toluene, and o-xylene produced only transient, weakly detectable genes. In the field study, C23DO genes were detected in groundwater samples contaminated with either xylenes or naphthalene. The results of this study demonstrated that molecular genetic techniques can provide an accurate and rapid method to detect microorganisms capable of aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation. Such a technique would be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of aeration technologies and for documenting microbial processes for monitored natural attenuation. PMID:14975661

Mesarch, Matthew B; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Nies, Loring

2004-03-01

216

Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A phase 11 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of, quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the third quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs and related analysis with Illinois {number_sign}6 coal at a processing temperature of 375{degree}C, and pressures of 1800 and 1500 psig, (2) completion and analysis of two autoclave reactor runs to observe the synergistic effect of the surfactant and an iron catalyst, and (3) setting up a subcontract with HRI Inc. to test the surfactant enhanced liquefaction process in a continuous flow reactor.

Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

1993-04-20

217

Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester.  

PubMed

Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-? Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-?, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-? models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). PMID:23624047

Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A

2013-06-01

218

Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study  

SciTech Connect

Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-10-01

219

Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNOs) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monito...

A. J. Schmidt C. H. Delegard K. L. Silvers C. D. Carlson

1999-01-01

220

Evaluating Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution and Chemical Oxidation in a three-dimensional, bench-scale fracture network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) present in fractured bedrock settings at residual saturation introduces remediation challenges that are dramatically different from porous media settings. Evaluating DNAPL distribution in a field-scale setting is generally impractical, yet DNAPL distribution plays a critical role in the DNAPL dissolution kinetics. This research uses a three-dimensional (3-D), bench-scale network comprised of low-porosity, fractured sandstone to evaluate the dissolution kinetics of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) DNAPL at residual saturation. DNAPL dissolution kinetics were evaluated during ambient groundwater conditions as well as during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in the 3-D fractured sandstone experiment. DNAPL dissolution in the fracture network was evaluated and described using an effective parameter, the bulk mass transfer coefficient (KL). Results from dissolution experiments revealed a positive, statistically significant correlation between KL with DNAPL-water interfacial area and KL with DNAPL saturation. Results of ISCO experiments with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) determined that the formation of reaction products (manganese dioxides and carbon dioxide) likely altered the primary flow paths and decreased effectiveness of the ISCO application in the fracture network. The formation of reaction products was believed to cause flow bypassing and reduce the DNAPL-oxidant contact, which reduced mass transfer rates. The effectiveness of ISCO was improved (over dissolution alone) if the ISCO application was discontinued after an initial period of effective mass removal. The findings of this research indicate that DNAPL dissolution and oxidation effectiveness in a fracture network setting are not directly correlated to aperture size, which was unexpected, but appear to be primarily impacted by flow path variability and heterogeneous DNAPL distribution.

Christensen, K.; McCray, J. E.; Schaefer, C.

2011-12-01

221

Practical-scale tests of cryogenic molecular sieve for separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earlier bench-scale work at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory examined a number of adsorbents for their suitability for separating low-concentration hydrogen (no tritium) from helium. One of the effective adsorbent...

R. S. Willms D. J. Taylor M. Enoeda K. Okuno

1994-01-01

222

Bond strength to root dentin and fluid filtration test of AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the bond strength and seal ability produced by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems to root canal dentin. Material and Methods Sixty extracted single-root human teeth, instrumented manually to size 40, were divided into three groups (n=20) according to the sealer used; G1: AH Plus, G2: EndoREZ, and G3: RealSeal sealers. After filling using the lateral condensation technique, each sealer group was randomly divided into two subgroups according to the tests applied (n=10 for µPush-out test and n=10 for fluid filtration test). A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of apical leakage. Four 1-mm-thick slices (cervical and medium level) were obtained from each root sample and a µPush-out test was performed. Failure modes were examined under microscopy at 40x, and a one-way ANOVA was applied to analyze the permeability. Non-parametrical statistics for related (Friedman's and Wilcoxon's rank tests) or unrelated samples (Kruskal-Wallis' and Mann-Whitney's tests) allowed for comparisons of µPush-out strength values among materials at the different levels. Statistical significance was accepted for p values <.05. Results There are no significant differences among fluid filtration of the three sealers. The sealer/core material does not significantly influence the µPush-out bond strength values (F=2.49; p=0.10), although statistically significant differences were detected with regard to root level (Chi2=23.93; p<0.001). AH Plus and RealSeal obtained higher bond strength to intraradicular dentin in the medium root slices. Conclusions There are no significant differences between the permeability and global µPush-out bond strength to root canal dentin achieved by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems.

MAHDI, Alaa Abdul; BOLANOS-CARMONA, Victoria; GONZALEZ-LOPEZ, Santiago

2013-01-01

223

Novel procedures accurately measure drilling mud dynamic filtration  

SciTech Connect

New equipment and test procedures can determine dynamic mud cake properties such as equilibrium cake thickness, porosity, permeability, compressibility, and erosion resistance. The following were developed to study dynamic filtration: a dynamic filtration cell; a recommended filtration medium; a mud cake thickness device; mud cake porosity determination method; calculation methods for shear rate determination beneath a rotating cone; determination of equilibrium cake thickness, erosion resistance, and compressibility; and preferred filtration display techniques. The article describes the equipment, test procedures, and typical filtration results.

Chenevert, M.E.; Al-Abri, S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Jin, L. (Stim-Labs Inc., Duncan, OK (United States))

1994-04-25

224

In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, MeHg levels decreased on the time scale of days to weeks. • Capping materials should sequester MeHg produced and not contribute to the production of MeHg.

Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)] [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)] [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

2013-08-15

225

Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

Duignan, M.R.

2000-07-27

226

Cesium Removal from Tanks 241-AN-103, -SX-105, and -AZ-101/102 Composite for Testing in Bench Scale Steam Reformer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereaf...

H. J. Huber J. B. Duncan

2011-01-01

227

Cesium Removal from Tanks 241-AN-103, -SX-105, and -AZ-101/102 Composite for Testing in Bench Scale Steam Reformer, Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereaf...

H. J. Huber J. B. Duncan

2011-01-01

228

Melt Purification via Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background on the mechanisms and kinetics of filtration is discussed and the Drexel mathematical model is further elaborated and updated to encompass filtration at the higher temperatures encountered in steels and superalloys. A novel mathematical analysi...

D. Apelian R. Mutharasan C. Romanowski

1981-01-01

229

RIVERBANK FILTRATION EFFECTIVENESS IN AN ARID ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This experiment is a field test of bank filtration at a site where water level and salinity vary on an annual basis, as they do in many arid and semi-arid streams. No other studies of bank filtration have been performed in this kind of setting. Along the border with Mexico, shall...

230

Rotary filtration system  

DOEpatents

A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

Herman, David T. (Aiken, SC); Maxwell, David N. (Aiken, SC)

2011-04-19

231

Some observations on air filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. A method has been developed for testing the filtration efficiency of some filter materials. For each of the materials investigated — cotton wool, stillite and carbon — a suitable filter has been devised.2. The filtered air was analyzed as to its germ content with the aid of a set of 3 capillary impingers.3. The cotton wool filter gave on

A. J. Kluyver; J. Visser

1950-01-01

232

Comparison of Enterococcus density estimates in marine beach and bay samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, membrane filtration and defined substrate testing.  

PubMed

Currently, densities of Enterococcus in marine bathing beach samples are performed using conventional methods which require 24 h to obtain results. Real-time PCR methods are available which can measure results in as little as 3 h. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a more rapid test method for the determination of bacterial contamination in marine bathing beaches to better protect human health. The geometric mean of Enterococcus densities using Enterolert® defined substrate testing and membrane filtration ranged from 5.2 to 150 MPN or CFU/100mL and corresponding qPCR results ranged from 6.6 to 1785 CCE/100 mL. The regression analysis of these results showed a positive correlation between qPCR and conventional tests with an overall correlation (r) of 0.71. qPCR was found to provide accurate and sensitive estimate of Enterococcus densities and has the potential to be used as a rapid test method for the quantification of Enterococcus in marine waters. PMID:21440266

Ferretti, James A; Tran, Hiep V; Cosgrove, Elizabeth; Protonentis, John; Loftin, Virginia; Conklin, Carol S; Grant, Robert N

2011-05-01

233

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

234

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

235

The testing of metal-ceramic porous filters for the sterile filtration of air with the aid of a dichromate aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stringent requirements are imposed for filtration material used for the sterilization of air from the point of view of effectiveness in trapping particles, mechanical sturdiness, and thermal stability while maintaining a low resistance to the stream. Fibrous, porous, and membranous materials are used as filtration materials. As a rule high effectiveness is possessed by materials with a small distinguishing size,

G. L. Motina; V. A. Eremina; D. M. Zhuravlev; V. A. Yakovlev; E. S. Bylinkina

1973-01-01

236

DEVELOPMENT OF A CROSSFLOW FILTER TO REMOVE SOLIDS FROM RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE: COMPARISON OF TEST DATA WITH OPERATING EXPERIENCE - 9119  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the Savannah River Site (SRS) began treatment of liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farms. To treat waste streams containing {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts the waste with monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and select actinides. After MST contact, the process filters the resulting slurry to remove the MST (with sorbed strontium and actinides) and any entrained sludge. The filtrate is transported to the MCU to remove cesium. The solid particle removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the concentration of dissolved sodium, and transported to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. The authors conducted tests with 0.5 {micro} and 0.1 {micro} Mott sintered stainless steel crossflow filter at bench-scale (0.19 ft{sup 2} surface area) and pilot-scale (11.2 ft{sup 2}). The collected data supported design of the filter for the process and identified preferred operating conditions for the full-scale process (230 ft{sup 2}). The testing investigated the influence of operating parameters, such as filter pore size, axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, and solids loading, on filter flux, and validated the simulant used for pilot-scale testing. The conclusions from this work follow: (1) The 0.1 {micro} Mott sintered stainless steel filter produced higher flux than the 0.5 {micro} filter. (2) The filtrate samples collected showed no visible solids. (3) The filter flux with actual waste is comparable to the filter flux with simulated waste, with the simulated waste being conservative. This result shows the simulated sludge is representative of the actual sludge. (4) When the data is adjusted for differences in transmembrane pressure, the filter flux in the Actinide Removal Process is comparable to the filter flux in the bench-scale and pilot-scale testing. (5) Filter flux increased with transmembrane pressure, increased with axial velocity, and decreased with concentration in agreement with classical crossflow filtration theories.

Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S; Julius Lacerna, J

2009-03-01

237

Development and preliminary validation of an antibody filtration-assisted single-dilution chemiluminometric immunoassay for potency testing of Piscirickettsia salmonis vaccines.  

PubMed

Challenge with live pathogens could be substituted by serology for many veterinary diseases, however little progress has been made in the development of alternative batch vaccine potency tests for fish. This study reports the development and preliminary validation of a single-dilution filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (SD FAL-ELISA) applied to measure anti Piscirickettsia salmonis IgM in individual or pooled serum and mucus samples. The assay was set up to test a single-dilution of the sample. Serum SD FAL-ELISA yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 96%. SD FAL-ELISA was applied to evaluate pooled and individual samples from P. salmonis challenge assessments. Relative-light units values (RLU) obtained by SD FAL-ELISA were proportional to antibody levels in serum. RLU values obtained from pooled and individual serum samples increased with the observed relative percent survival (RPS) values, indicating a correlation between protection and specific IgM levels. Results obtained for specific IgM in mucus samples was not related to the RPS, but discriminated the vaccine that yielded high RPS (86.4%) from the others (40.9 and 54.5%). This is the first report on the development of an indirect high-throughput serological assessment for P. salmonis vaccine potency testing using both pooled or individual serum and cutaneous mucus samples. PMID:23040097

Wilda, Maximiliano; Lavoria, María Ángeles; Giráldez, Adrián; Franco-Mahecha, Olga Lucía; Mansilla, Florencia; Érguiz, Matías; Iglesias, Marcela Elvira; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

2012-11-01

238

Synthesis, characterization, and testing of carbon nanofibers for coalescence filtration of oil from compressed air and adsorption of chloroform from air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanofibers typically have diameters ranging from 100 nanometers to a few microns. Because of their smaller diameter, nanofibers provide a larger surface area for the same mass as larger diameter fibers. The primary purpose of this research is two-fold. The first is to test the effectiveness of carbon nanofibers for coalescence filtration of oil from compressed air streams. Theory predicts the particle capture efficiency to improve by using small diameter fibers. It was however observed that the effectiveness of capture depends on the surface properties of the nanofibers added to the glass fiber media. An attractive force between the small (0.3 to 0.8 micron sized) particles and nanofibers is required to overcome the suspected aerodynamic slip effects that cause particles to slip past the nanofibers and penetrate the media. The other purpose of the work is to activate the carbon nanofibers to increase their internal surface area and test their adsorption capacities of chloroform from air, in comparison with a larger diameter activated carbon fiber (ACF). By making maximum use of the available surface area, the economics of the process could be considerably reduced. This work supports theory that the effectiveness factor for molecular access to the surface area is higher in case of nanofibers. This has not been experimentally proved earlier as nanofibers are a relatively novel material. The carbon nanofibers activated to 1100°C have good adsorption capacities under certain conditions.

Nemmara, Harihara Narayanan Venkatasubramaniam

239

7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

240

WATER FILTRATION AT DULUTH  

EPA Science Inventory

After partial completion of the Lakewood Filtration Plant at Duluth, studies were begun with funding provided by the demonstration grant. Research covered a variety of topics and was done with a 10 gpm pilot plant located at the filtration plant, with the full scale plant operati...

241

Pilot-scale testing of refining process for decontaminating lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of 1989--1990 pilot-scale tests of a refining process for decontaminating radioactively contaminated lead. Bench-scale tests in 1988 had been successful, and the pilot-scale tests were needed to determine whether the proc...

M. V. Davis

1990-01-01

242

Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal test plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford DSSF supernatant liquor from tank 241-AW-101 in a bench-scale column. Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate.

Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-31

243

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF R3f GARNET BEAD FILTRATION AND MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION SYSTEMS; FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of tests conducted to date at the EPA T&E Facility on the R3f filtration system utilizing fine beads (such as garnet beads or glass beads) and a conventional multimedia filtration system. Both systems have been designed and built by Enprotec, a...

244

Coagulation-membrane filtration of Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

Filtration-based separation of Chlorella vulgaris, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was investigated using a surface-modified hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) attained maximum turbidity removal at 200 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3). The membrane filtration flux at 1 bar increased as the PACl dose increased, regardless of overdosing in the coagulation stage. The filtered cake at the end of filtration tests peaked in solid content at 10 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3), reaching 34% w/w, roughly two times that of the original suspension. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests demonstrate that the cake with minimum water-solid binding strength produced the driest filter cake. Coagulation using 10 mg L(-1) PACl as Al(2)O(3), followed by PTFE membrane filtration at 1 bar, is an effective process for harvesting C. vulgaris from algal froth. PMID:22261659

Lee, Duu-Jong; Liao, Guan-Yu; Chang, Yin-Ru; Chang, Jo-Shu

2012-03-01

245

Ceramic Membrane Water Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for combined ozone degradation and filtration using a multi-layered, nanocrystalline, sintered ceramic, metal oxide catalyst and ceramic membrane filter is described. The process reduces fouling of the membrane and degrades ozone remaining in th...

B. Karnik M. Baumann S. H. R. Davies S. J. Masten

2005-01-01

246

Water Filtration Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

1986-01-01

247

Monosodium Titanate Sludge Filtration  

SciTech Connect

Good filterability of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurry is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of crystalline organic TPB that forms a firm but porous filter cake, allowing salt solution to pass through without unduly compressing the cake. Addition of inorganic sludge or monosodium titanate (MST) has an adverse effect on filtration, but the overall filtration rate with TPB is satisfactory. Poor cross-flow filtration performance for the Salt Disposition Alternatives requiring MST filtration is attributed primarily to the difficulty in filtering the residual inorganic sludge rich in iron and aluminum precipitates. Ferric hydrolysis products and colloids form a bulky and sticky filter cake significantly reducing filtration rate. Similarly poor filtration rates were observed in the BNFL ferric/ferrous precipitation process, necessitating a change to permanganate precipitation. This report, based on a few sludge settling observations, does not resolve the MST/Sludge filterability issue. However, it does identify the need for a change in emphasis from cross-flow optimization to understanding and controlling the chemistry and physics of alkaline inorganic particle suspensions and filterability. Promising potential exists to identify or develop surfactants or flocculants to enhance filterability of SRS sludge and monosodium titanate. Additional work is needed to provide a basic understanding of the nature of caustic sludge filter cake formation.

Dworjanyn, L.O.

2000-11-07

248

COMPARISONS OF VARIOUS FILTRATION MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews use of filtering materials in diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, slow sand filtration, and coagulation-rapid rate filtration. For DE filtration, increased effluent clarity (lower turbidity) is generally attained at the expense of increased rates of head loss i...

249

TOXICITY BIOASSAY AND ELUATE HEAVY METALS ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE BENCH SCALE STABILIZATION STUDY OF SOILS FROM THE UNITED CHROME SUPERFUND NFL SITE CORVALLIS, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

In support of Environmental Protection Agency Region 10 and their United Chrome studies the staff at Environmental Research Laboratory-Corvallis performed toxicity bioassays and selected chemical analyses. Direct toxicity tests (i.e. using soil as the medium) and indirect toxicit...

250

Hot gas filtration technical issues  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research has been to provide an understanding of factors pertinent to the development of an effective filtration system for removing particles from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams in advanced power generation systems under development by the Department of Energy. Information used to define the filtration system issues was compiled from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) Contractors Conferences, specific tasks assigned to Southern Research Institute, meetings with METC personnel and contractors, and other conferences and workshops organized by METC. Initial research and pilot scale installations have shown that there are some potential problem areas. Thick ash deposits have formed, bridging from passive surfaces to the filter material and between filter candles. A great number of ceramic filters have broken in various experimental and demonstration devices, especially during long-term testing. This paper reviews particulate characteristics (effects on filtration processes, conventional fly ash, gasifier char, PFBC ash, and detailed studies of PFBC ash) and ceramic filter materials (general issues, thermal stress, clay-bonded SiC filter materials, and monolithic ceramic materials).

Pontius, D.H.

1995-11-01

251

Filtration of A Hanford AN-104 Sample  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter.Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

Poirier, MichaelR

2004-03-01

252

Filtration of a Hanford AN-104 Sample  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's 241-AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter. Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

POIRIER, MICHAEL

2004-04-19

253

Biophysics of glomerular filtration.  

PubMed

Enlightened by William Bowman's depiction of the anatomy in 1842, Carl Ludwig immediately proposed glomerular filtration as a physical process. Nuances of this process have come to light in a rather orderly progression over the past 150 years with essential contributions from clearance methods, renal micropuncture, physical theories of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and electrical double layers, morphometry, and mathematics. Herein, we describe that progression of knowledge. Ongoing work pertains to the nature, location, and efficiency of the barrier to protein sieving, induction of endothelial fenestrae by growth factors from the podocyte, and potential resistance faced by filtrate exiting the subpodocyte space. PMID:23723020

Thomson, Scott C; Blantz, Roland C

2012-07-01

254

FILTRATION PARAMETERS FOR DUST CLEANING FABRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of bag filter fabrics. Filtration performance data and mathematical modeling parameters are given for four Polish fabrics tested with cement dust, coal dust, flyash, and talc. Conclusions include: (1) The process of clean ai...

255

RO filtration of biologically treated textile and dyeing effluents using ozonation as a pre-treatment.  

PubMed

Bench-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the application of ozonation pre-treatment for biologically treated textile and dyeing wastewater to improve performance of the RO process. Based on ozonation experiments, four specific ozone consumptions (SOC), 0, 0.3, 0.6, 4.0 mg O?/mg DOC? were chosen for study of the effects of ozonation on the reverse osmosis (RO) process. Membrane flux was recorded. Also, the permeate water quality parameters such as TOC, conductivity were analyzed. In addition, fouled membrane cleaning was studied. The study further examined the nature and mechanisms of membrane fouling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The effect of ozonation on RO filtration was found to depend on SOC. The study revealed that significant improvement can be achieved in the efficiency of RO filtration by employing ozonation with 0.6 mg O?/mg DOC? SOC. Although the product water purity slightly decreased, the ozonation pre-treatment showed advantages at 0.6 mg O?/mg DOC? SOC for the following: (i) mitigation of flux decline due to membrane fouling; (ii) improvement in foulants cleanability. In addition, hypotheses were put forward to explain the reasons from the aspect of organic matter characteristics changed by ozonation, such as changing on functional groups and molecular weight of organic matter. PMID:20729575

Wang, H Y; Guan, Y T; Mizuno, T; Tsuno, H

2010-01-01

256

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

2003-05-21

257

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

2003-05-01

258

Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), uniquely combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was initially demonstrated on a laboratory scale and was subsequently scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 sq m/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO2 produced by RTDS are included.

Buehler, M. F.; Darab, J. G.; Matson, D. W.; Linehan, J. C.

1994-01-01

259

Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest

AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

1999-01-01

260

Mechanisms in Compressible Cake Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic mechanisms influencing filtration dewatering of compressible water and wastewater sludges were examined. Results revealed many hitherto unappreciated aspects of filtration dewatering and pointed out the lack of reliability of present means for chara...

R. I. Dick

1989-01-01

261

POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter, several modifications were made to the TES unit and the materials handling system. The cylindrical electrodes were replaced by a set of screen electrodes to provide a more uniform electrostatic field. The problem with the recycle conveyor neutralizing the particle charge was also corrected by replacing it with a bucket elevator. In addition, problems with the turbocharger were corrected by increasing the number of charging stages from one to two. These modifications have significantly improved the separation performance and have permitted the POC-scale unit to achieve results in line with those obtained by the bench-scale separator. The testing phase of the project was continued at a rapid pace during this quarter. The test work showed that the modifications to the TES unit and the reduction in feed size from 28 mesh to 35 mesh resulted in significant overall improvement in yield and combustible recovery compared to the data reported in the last quarter. At that time, there was a significant discrepancy between the bench-scale and the pilot-scale results. The pilot-scale test work is now approaching the bench scale test results. However, further pilot-scale test work is required to further improve the results and duplicate the bench-scale test work.

R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; A.D. Walters

2000-01-01

262

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

1974-01-01

263

Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, discusses the principles, processes and requirements of activated carbon filtration systems for the domestic (household) user. The site addresses contaminants removed, those not removed, water testing, principals of treatment and the equipment used in this treatment.

Divorak, Bruce I.; Skipton, Sharon

2008-10-21

264

Contamination control through filtration of microorganisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the various kinds of gas and liquid filters used in decontamination and sterilization procedures. Also discussed are filtration mechanisms, characteristics of filter materials, and the factors affecting filter performance. Summaries are included for filter testing and evaluation techniques and the possible application of the filters to spacecraft sterilization.

Stabekis, P. D.; Lyle, R. G.

1972-01-01

265

Effect of Filtration Velocity and Filtration Pressure Drop on the Bag-Cleaning Performance of a Pulse-Jet Baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the filtration velocity and filtration pressure drop at the beginning of bag cleaning were used as experimental parameters to evaluate the bag-cleaning performance of a pulse-jet baghouse. The effective residual pressure loss was used to indicate the cleaning performance after bag cleaning. Two different test dusts, fly ash and limestone, were used. The critical cleaning indices under

CHUEN-JINN TSAI; MING-LUN TSAI; HSIN-CHUNG LU

2000-01-01

266

Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver solutions as a function of reaction (dissolution) time, by analyzing offgas generation rate and composition, and by analyzing intermittent and final acid-insoluble solids at the end of the dissolution. The testing was conducted in a system designed to assess parameters that can influence sludge dissolution and provide information that can be used to determine operating conditions for the actual system.

AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

1999-03-24

267

Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO(sub 3)) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process ...

A. J. Schmidt C. H. Delegard K. L. Silvers P. R. Bredt C. D. Carlson E. W. Hoppe J. C. Hayes D. E. Rinehart S. R. Gano B. M. Thornton

1999-01-01

268

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

269

Magnetic flocculation and filtration  

SciTech Connect

A model is available in predicting flocculation frequencies between particles of various properties under the influence of a magnetic field. This model provides a basic understanding of fundamental phenomena, such as particle-particle and particle-collector interactions, occurring in HGMF (high gradient magnetic field), and will be extended to describe experimental data of particle flocculation and filtration and predict the performance of high- gradient magnetic filters. It is also expected that this model will eventually lead to a tool for design and optimization of magnetic filters for environmental, metallurgical, biochemical, and other applications.

Yiacoumi, Sotira; Chin, Ching-Ju; Yin, Tung-Yu [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Tsouris, C., DePaoli, D.W.; Chattin, M.R.; Spurrier, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

270

Dynamic Optical Filtration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

271

Dynamic optical filtration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

272

Application of granular media filtration in wastewater reclamation and reuse.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted at room temperature (20-25 degrees C) using four identical filter columns made of Plexiglas, each of 1 m height and 15 cm internal diameter, packed with granular media of 70 cm depth. Each filter was operated at a constant filtration rate, thus four rates were tested in the range of 2-15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). Mono-media (sand) and dual-media (sand and anthracite) were tested and three types of municipal wastewaters, namely raw, primary and secondary-treated effluents were applied. The results obtained indicate that considerable improvements in effluent quality could be attained by tertiary sand filtration. Removal of solids, organics and bacteria was not significantly affected by the increase in filtration rate from 2 to 15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). The highest removal efficiency was obtained at low filtration rate of 2 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), but higher filtration rates achieved acceptable removal efficiencies and provided effluents of good quality to satisfy the irrigation water quality standards. Since the conventional sand filters in wastewater treatment plants operate at a rate in the range of 2-5 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), utilization of high rate filtration is advantageous and would result in significant cost savings. However, with high filtration rates the filters require more frequent backwashing. Dual-media filters achieved 50% reductions in BOD suggesting that filtration could be used to treat primary effluents in emergency cases. PMID:15027822

Hamoda, M F; Al-Ghusain, I; Al-Jasem, D M

2004-01-01

273

Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance  

SciTech Connect

The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite dissolution kinetics and filter fouling are reported elsewhere (see Table S.1). The primary goal of scale-up testing was to examine how filter length influenced permeate flux rates. To accomplish this, the existing cells unit filter system, which employs a 2-ft-long, 0.5-in. (inner) diameter sintered stainless steel filter element, was redesigned to accommodate an 8-ft. sintered stainless steel filter element of the same diameter. Testing was then performed to evaluate the filtration performance of waste simulant slurries. Scale-up testing consisted of two separate series of filtration tests: 1) scale-up axial velocity (AV)/transmembrane pressure (TMP) matrix tests and 2) scale-up temperature tests. The AV/TMP matrix tests examined filtration performance of two different waste simulant slurries in the 8-ft. cells unit filter system. Waste simulant slurry formulations for the 8-ft. scale-up test was selected to match simulant slurries for which filtration performance had been characterized on the 2-ft CUF. For the scale-up temperature tests, the filtration performance at three test temperatures (i.e., 25°C, 40°C, and 60°C) was determined to evaluate if filter flux versus temperature correlations developed using the 2-ft filters were also valid for the 8-ft filters.

Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

2009-03-09

274

Reaction-to-Fire of Wood Products and Other Building Materials: Part II, Cone Calorimeter Tests and Fire Growth Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Part II work evaluated results from the bench-scale cone calorimeter tests (ISO 5660-1) for 11 different un-treated wood products, three different fire-retardant-treated (FRT) plywood materials, Type X gypsum board, and FRT polyurethane foam, which w...

M. A. Dietenberger O. Grexa R. H. White

2012-01-01

275

Rotary Precoat Filtration of Sludge From Acid Mine Drainage Neutralization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two year study was conducted at 4 locations in Pennsylvania to test the effect of various alkalies and filter aids on rotary vacuum precoat filtration for dewatering of lime neutralization sludge. The process consisted of neutralization, aeration, sedim...

T. S. Brown

1971-01-01

276

Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.  

PubMed

The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2?m) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more. PMID:24561630

Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

2014-04-01

277

A PERSPECTIVE OF RIVERBANK FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Riverbank filtration is a process in which pumping of wells located along riverbanks induce a portion of the river water to flow toward the pumping wells. The process has many similarities to the slow sand filtration process. River water contaminants are attenuated due to a combi...

278

Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

1986-01-01

279

Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-01-08

280

Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-31

281

Treatment efficiency and filtration rate of a horizontal sand filtration system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to establish acceptable criteria for a horizontal sand filtration (HSF) system that are suitable for the design of community water supply units in rural areas. Two laboratory scales of HSF were constructed and tested for their filtration rates and treatment efficiency in Visetchaicharn District of Angthong Province, Thailand. The main structure of both models was the same except for the lengths of the filtration column, i.e., 80 cm. in Model 1 and 100 cm. in Model 2. The results of treatment efficiency of both models were very satisfactory. The physical and chemical quality of the filtered water was within the standards for drinking water except for bacteria quality. The rates of filtration of Model 1 were slightly faster than those of Model 2 for both one and two meters of water level in the raw water column. The rates for both models were higher than the lower limit standards of the slow sand filtration system throughout the study. PMID:2130853

Kompayak, U; Dejthai, T

1990-01-01

282

PILOT PLANT EXPLORATION OF SLOW RATE FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternatives to conventional coagulation water filtration plants (those that utilize coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration) may be appropriate for some small water utilities. One such alternative is slow rate filtration. This paper describes pilot plant studies ...

283

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS-- Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection_Systems... Sec. 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the...or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water system may use a...

2009-07-01

284

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems...People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to...or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water system may use a...

2010-07-01

285

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that uses a surface...1). (d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a...

2010-07-01

286

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart H - Filtration and Disinfection...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS-- Filtration and Disinfection Sec. 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that uses...

2009-07-01

287

Filtration Technologies in the Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filtration in the automotive industry is diverse. Many filters are used either for the filtration of air or liquid in\\u000a the tank, engine or cabine. This paper will focus on air filtration and more specifically on engine air filtration. After\\u000a a brief presentation of the basic filtration principles, the filtration technologies used in this field of the automotive\\u000a industry

E. Jandos; M. Lebrun; C. Brzezinski; S. Canizares

288

Role of porosity in filtration. 12: Filtration with sedimentation  

SciTech Connect

Filtration on horizontal surfaces facing upward is accompanied by sedimentation. Materials balances that are based solely on the volume of filtrate and neglect sedimentation flux lead to an understatement of the solids deposited in the cake and potentially large errors in calculated values of the average specific resistance {alpha}{sub av} neglecting sedimentation was 3.75 times greater than the value including the effect of sedimentation. In addition to errors due to neglect of sedimentation, CATSCAN studies show that the slurry concentration above the cake increases with time, contrary to usual assumptions. In a manner similar to batch sedimentation in a closed cylinder, characteristics of constant composition arose from the cake surface. Approximate predictions based on a combination of traditional sedimentation and filtration theory were in accord with the CATSCAN data. Existing filtration theory must be substantially modified to account for the effect of sedimentation.

Tiller, F.M.; Hsyung, N.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cong, D.Z. [East China Univ. of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)] [East China Univ. of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

1995-05-01

289

MGP soil remediation in a slurry-phase system: A pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

An overall protocol for remediating manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils generally includes bench-scale evaluation of the technology, pilot-scale demonstration, and full-scale implementation. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale and pilot-scale study for treating an MGP soil with IGT`s integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) or Manufactured Gas Plant Remediation (MGP-REM) process in the slurry-phase mode of application. MGP soils are contaminated primarily with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An MGP site in New Jersey was the subject of this study. Soils from the site were used for the bench-scale evaluation of the integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment. The bench-scale study started with biological pre-treatment followed by chemical treatment and biological polishing. Results of the bench-scale study showed that this process was effective in degrading EPA Total as well as EPA Carcinogenic PAHs. A test matrix was developed to assess this technology at a pilot-scale facility. The test matrix consisted of at least eight semi-continuous runs designed to evaluate the effects of PAH concentration, total solids concentration, residence time, and a number of chemical reagent additions. An operating permit for 14 days was obtained to evaluate the process primarily for air emission data and secondarily for PAH degradation data. The PAH data showed that the MGP-REM process was very effective in degrading carcinogenic PAHs even under sub-optimal operating conditions. The field data also showed that the emissions of volatile organic compounds were well below the regulatory limits.

Liu, Bill Y.; Srivastava, V.J.; Paterek, J.R.; Pradhan, S.P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pope, J.R. [Elizabethtown Gas Co., Union, NJ (United States); Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Jerger, D.E. [OHM Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

290

Filtration: An investment in IAQ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air filtration is a forgotten component in the resiliency engineering equation. This under-utilized asset is becoming more understandable and user-friendly, bringing about giant strides in application technology in commercial buildings for IAQ resiliency. Filtration and air cleaning are highly developed and well-established technologies in industrial and specialized application areas. These include a variety of clean room applications as well as

H. E. B

1997-01-01

291

Measuring of filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles in volume from scattered light by seeding particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the method which calculates a filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles from scattered light intensity by seeding particles. Thefiltration efficiency is commonly measured by particle counters. Samples of liquid or gas are taken during a test in front of and behind a filtration material. The concentration of particles is measured and the filtration efficiency is calculated. The filtration efficiency does not have to be uniform in itswhole surface. The uniformity of filtration is another indicator of a quality of filtration materials. Measurements described in this article were performed on a water filtration setup which enables optical access to the place where the filtration material is mounted. Pictures of illuminated seeding particles are made by a laser sheet and a camera. Visualisation of the filtration process enables measuring of the efficiency of separation versus time and also versus two-dimensional position in case of use of a traverse mechanism. The filtration textiles were tested by 1 ?m seeding particles. Mean value of light intensity and number of bright pixels in evaluative areas during image analysis were obtained. On the basis of these data, the filtration efficiency iscalculated. The best image analysis method was chosen.

Bilek, P.; Sidlof, P.

2013-04-01

292

Impact of Dual Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Coagulation on Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process of treating drinking water with a combination of alum and polyaluminum chloride (dual coagulant) has been performed by at least one utility along the Colorado Front Range since the early 199Os. Previous bench- scale research with water contain...

M. G. Haines

2003-01-01

293

Nanofiber filter media for air filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofibers have higher capture efficiencies in comparison to microfibers in the submicron particle size range of 100-500 nm because of small fiber diameter and increased surface area of the fibers. Pressure drop across the filter increases tremendously with decrease in fiber diameter in the continuum flow regime. Nanofibers with fiber diameter less than 300 nm are in the slip flow regime as a consequence of which steep increase in pressure drop is considerably reduced due to slip effect. The outlet or inlet gases have broad range of particle size distribution varying from few micrometers to nanometers. The economic benefits include capture of a wide range of particle sizes in the gas streams using compact filters composed of nanofibers and microfibers. Electrospinning technique was used to successfully fabricate polymeric and ceramic nanofibers. The nanofibers were long, continuous, and flexible with diameters in the range of 200--300 nm. Nanofibers were added to the filter medium either by mixing microfibers and nanofibers or by directly electrospinning nanofibers as thin layer on the surface of the microfiber filter medium. Experimental results showed that either by mixing Nylon 6 nanofibers with B glass fibers or by electrospinning Nylon 6 nanofibers as a thin layer on the surface of the microfiber medium in the surface area ratio of 1 which is 0.06 g of nanofibers for 2 g of microfibers performed better than microfiber filter media in air filtration tests. This improved performance is consistent with numerical modeling. The particle loading on a microfibrous filter were studied for air filtration tests. The experimental and modeling results showed that both pressure drop and capture efficiency increased with loading time. Nanofiber filter media has potential applications in many filtration applications and one of them being hot gas filtration. Ceramic nanofibers made of alumina and titania nanofibers can withstand in the range of 1000°C. Ceramic nanofibers filter media were fabricated by mixing alumina microfibers (SAFFIL) and alumina nanofibers. The appropriate binders were tested for ceramic filter media. The ceramic filter media were tested for aerosol filtration.

Raghavan, Bharath Kumar

294

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-02-19

295

In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation  

SciTech Connect

Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.'' The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

1991-07-31

296

In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

1991-07-31

297

Granular bed filtration of high temperature biomass gasification gas.  

PubMed

High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550 degrees C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification producer gas. The relatively low pressure drop over the filter during filtration is comparable to those of bag filters. The granular filter can operate with high filtration velocities compared to bag filters and maintain high efficiency and a low residual pressure. This work is a part of the BioSOFC-up project that has a goal of utilizing the producer gas from the gasification plant in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The BioSOFC-up project will continue to the end of 2007. PMID:17337119

Stanghelle, Daniel; Slungaard, Torbjørn; Sønju, Otto K

2007-06-18

298

Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a manner that is not otherwise accomplished through conventional processes of drinking water treatment (e.g. coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation). 3. Evaluate changes in the character of NOM upon ground passage from the river to the wells. The experimental approach entailed monitoring the performance of three different RBF systems along the Ohio, Wabash, and Missouri Rivers in the Midwestern United States and involved a cooperative effort between the American Water Works Company, Inc. and Johns Hopkins University. Samples of the river source waters and the bank-filtered well waters were analyzed for a range of water quality parameters including TOC, DOC, UV-absorbance at 254-nm (UV-254), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), biologically assimilable organic carbon (AOC), inorganic species, DBP formation potential, and microorganisms. In the second year of the project, river waters were subjected to a bench-scale conventional treatment train consisting of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, glass-fiber filtration, and ozonation. The treated river waters were compared with the bank-filtered waters in terms of TOC, DOC, UV-254, and DBP formation potential. In the third and fourth years of the project, NOM from the river and well waters was characterized using the XAD-8 resin adsorption fractionation method (Leenheer, 1981; Thurman &Malcolm, 1981). XAD-8 adsorbing (hydrophobic) and non-adsorbing (hydrophilic) fractions of the river and well waters were compared with respect to DOC, UV-254, and DBP formation potential to determine whether RBF alters the character of the source water NOM upon ground passage and if so, which fractions are preferentially removed. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of RBF at removing the organic precursors to potentially carcinogenic DBPs. When compared to a bench-scale conventional treatment train optimized for turbidity removal, RBF performed as well as the treatment at one of the sites and significantly better than the treatment at the other two sites in terms of removal of organic carbon and DBP precursor ma

Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

2003-04-01

299

Coal Technology Program Progress Report for May 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Hydrocarbonization project, two successful experiments were completed in the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer. In the Solids-Liquid Separations project, initial filtration runs on the bench-scale filter employed a 40- mu metal disc filter. Filtration ra...

1976-01-01

300

Solids formation on filtrate neutralization  

SciTech Connect

The Separations Technology Laboratory was requested to study what happens when a filtrate solution, which will be a F B-Line product, is neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The primary concern was the formation of solids that could cause damage in pump seals, resulting in their failure. The results of these experiments indicate that under process conditions, granular, crystalline sodium fluoride will be produced by rapid neutralization of the filtrate solution with 50% NaOH plus a 25 volume percent excess. Postprecipitation of sodium oxalate-sodium fluoride and its accumulation can occur over a three-week storage period of the neutralized filtrate. Such solids could pose operational problems from pump seal abrasion and potential failure caused by them.

Holcomb, H.P.

1988-05-26

301

Behaviour of heavy metals during tertiary bio-filtration.  

PubMed

More stringent water quality parameters in the Annex of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC led to the introduction of "Maximum Tolerable Risk concentrations" (MTR-values) in the national legislation in The Netherlands (Vierde Nota Waterhuishouding). The MTR-values give limitations for the concentrations of e.g. heavy metals (HM's) but also for nutrients: Ntot < 2.2 mg/l, Ptot <0.15 mg/l. Investigations of HM removal during denitrifying flocculation filtration are conducted on the effluent of a typical modern Dutch WWTP. Because of low concentrations of HM's in the feed water, a cocktail of copper, nickel and zinc chloride (approximately equal 150-200 microg/l) is dosed before filtration. Preliminary jar tests and filtration tests with media filtration in pilot-scale and lab-scale are conducted. The results show high removal of nickel and zinc during jar tests with dosing of powdered activated carbon. During filtration tests at pilot-scale the bounded fraction of copper and zinc is highly removed. All three HM's are removed in the lab-scale activated carbon filter. After dosing, nickel is found mainly in the dissolved form, but it is removed in the lab-scale activated carbon filter. The removal of HM's via adsorption subsequently leads to a discussion on the toxicity of HM's and their bio-availability. PMID:17165465

Miska, V; Gorter, K; Menkveld, H W H; Neef, R; van der Graaf, J H J M

2006-01-01

302

Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration  

SciTech Connect

Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

2011-07-01

303

Removal of pathogens using riverbank filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although more than hundred years old, in situ or Riverbank Filtration (RBF) has undergone a renewed interest in North America because of its potential as a surface water pre-treatment tool for removal of pathogenic microorganisms. A new RBF research field site has been constructed along the banks of the Grand River in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to assess factors influencing pathogen removal in the subsurface. Implementation of RBF and appropriate design of subsequent treatment (UV, chlorination, etc.) processes requires successful quantification of in situ removals of Cryptosporidium parvum or a reliable surrogate parameter. C.~parvum is often present in surface water at low indigenous concentrations and can be difficult to detect in well effluents. Since releases of inactivated C.~parvum at concentrations high enough for detection in well effluents are cost prohibitive, other approaches for demonstrating effective in situ filtration of C.~parvum must be considered; these include the use of other microbial species or microspheres as indicators of C.~parvum transport in the environment. Spores of Bacillus subtilis may be considered reasonable indicators of C.~parvum removal by in situ filtration because of their size (˜1 ?m in diameter), spherical shape, relatively high indigenous concentration is many surface waters, and relative ease of enumeration. Based on conventional particle filtration theory and assuming equivalent chemical interactions for all particle sizes, a 1 ?m B.~subtilis spore will be removed less readily than a larger C. parvum oocyst (4-6 ?m) in an ideal granular filter. Preliminary full-scale data obtained from a high rate RBF production well near the new RBF test site demonstrated greater than 1 log removal of B.~subtilis spores. This observed spore removal is higher than that prescribed by the proposed U.S. Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule for C.~parvum. To further investigate the removal relationship between C.~parvum, Giardia lamblia and proposed surrogates such as B.~subtilis, detailed characterization of site hydrogeology, geochemistry, and water quality (MPA, particles, TOC, ionic strength) are underway. Particle counts are being measured in the bank filtrate to compare particle breakthrough with breakthrough of B.~subtilis spores. Particle counting has been suggested by some regulatory bodies as a real-time measure of in situ filtration performance; however, particle counting is a limited tool for assessing the efficacy of pathogen removal by in situ filtration because it is incapable of identifying discrete particles and can fail to detect microorganisms with refraction indexes close to that of water. Preliminary B.~subtilis removal data from the full scale RBF well and preliminary site characterization, particle count, and B.~subtilis removal data from the RBF test site are presented.

Cote, M. M.; Emelko, M. B.; Thomson, N. R.

2003-04-01

304

Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom  

SciTech Connect

In an industrial cleanroom, significant energy savings were realized by implementing two types of demand controlled filtration (DCF) strategies, one based on particle counts and one on occupancy. With each strategy the speed of the recirculation fan filter units was reduced to save energy. When the control was based on particle counts, the energy use was 60% of the baseline configuration of continuous fan operation. With simple occupancy sensors, the energy usage was 63% of the baseline configuration. During the testing of DCF, no complaints were registered by the operator of the cleanroom concerning processes and products being affected by the DCF implementation.

Faulkner, David; DiBartolomeo, Dennis; Wang, Duo

2007-09-01

305

STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

306

Baghouse filtration products verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces EPA`s Air Pollution Control Technology Verification (APCT) program and then focuses on the immediate objective of the program: laboratory performance verification of cleanable filter media intended for the control of fine particulate emissions. Data collected during the laboratory verification testing, which simulates operation in full-scale fabric filters, will be used to show expected performance for collection of

J. C. Mycock; J. H. Turner; D. W. VanOsdell; J. R. Farmer; T. G. Brna

1998-01-01

307

METC/Shell Cooperative Agreement CRADA 93-011 high temperature high pressure filtration and sorbent test program. Volume 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the results of activities of the particulate monitoring group in support of the METC/Shell CRADA 93-011. Online particulate monitoring began in August 1993 and ended in October 1994. The particulate monitoring group participated in six MGCR runs (No. 5 through No. 10). The instrument used in measuring the particle loadings (particle counts and size distribution) is the Particle Measuring Systems Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe High Temperature and High Pressure (PMS Model CSASP-100-HTHP). This PMS unit is rated to operate at temperatures up to 540{degree}C and gage pressures up to 2.07 MPa. Gas stream conditions, temperature at 540{degree}C, gage pressure at 2.93 MPa, and gas flowrate at 0.0157 SCM per second, precluded the direct measurement of particulate loadings in the gas stream with the PMS unit. A side stream was extracted from the gas stream after it came over to the MGCR, (Modular Gas Cleanup Rig), from the FBG, pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier, but before it entered the filter testing vessel. A sampling probe of 0.635 cm O.D. thin wall stainless steel tubing was used for extracting the sample gas isokinetically based on the expected flowrate. The sample gas stream was further split into two streams; one was directed to the PMS unit and the other to the alkali monitor unit.

NONE

1995-06-01

308

MICROBIOLOGICAL REMOVAL BY FILTRATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Filtration ws originally used to remove contaminants that affect the appearance, odor, and taste of drinking water. Later it was demonstrated that bacteria in drinking water were causative agents of disease. Water treatment technology improved with the addition of disinfection, c...

309

ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) at pilot scale. The pilot unit consisted of a conventional baghouse in parallel with an ESFF baghouse, allowing direct comparison. Reported results are for pulse-cl...

310

Particle-in-gas filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filter assembly for particle-in-gas filtration comprises ducts leading to a filter housing which is removable from the ducts and is provided with covers to prevent egress of material from the housing during transport. Covers may be also provided for the ducts. The surfaces of the duct cover and housing cover which are exposed to the environment when the housing

Hackney

1981-01-01

311

Health benefits of particle filtration  

EPA Science Inventory

This product was developed under an interagency agreement between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews o...

312

Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

Matkowsky, Bernard J.

1995-01-01

313

Emulsions for interfacial filtration.  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

2006-11-01

314

40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More...provide treatment consisting of both disinfection, as specified in § 141.72(b...filtration technology, in combination with disinfection treatment that meets the...

2013-07-01

315

40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. ...provide treatment consisting of both disinfection, as specified in § 141.72...is no significant interference with disinfection at a higher turbidity level, the...

2013-07-01

316

Organics, Polymers, and Performance in Direct Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of raw water quality, chemical variables, and physical filter variables on direct filtration performance are examined. Cationic polyelectrolytes as sole coagulants are effective in treating low turbidity, colored waters by direct filtration. C...

J. K. Edzwald M. Asce W. C. Becker A. M. Asce S. J. Tambini

1987-01-01

317

WATER FILTRATION FOR ASBESTOS FIBER REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a comprehensive review of data on removal of asbestos fibers by granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth filtration. It summarizes data obtained in pilot plant studies at Duluth and Seattle, in research program carried out at Duluth's Lakewood filtrat...

318

Filtration of solid and liquid aerosol mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust and droplet filtration is an essential process step in many industries. Although many studies have been dedicated to the mechanisms of dust filtration, little is known about the behaviour of an air filter when challenged with solid and liquid particles at the same time. This research article answers questions about the pressure drop during the filtration of a solid\\/liquid

T Frising; V Gujisaite; D Thomas; S Callé; D Bémer; P Contal; D Leclerc

2004-01-01

319

Microfluidic blood filtration device.  

PubMed

Rapid decentralized biomedical diagnostics have become increasingly necessary in a medical environment of growing costs and mounting demands on healthcare personnel and infrastructure. Such diagnostics require low-cost novel devices that can operate at bedside or in doctor offices using small amounts of sample that can be extracted and processed on the spot. Thus, point-of-care sample preparation is an important component of the necessary diagnostic paradigm shift. We therefore introduce a microfluidic device which produces plasma from whole blood. The device is inexpensive, reliable, easy to fabricate, and requires only 3.5 kPa pressure to operate. The device is fully compatible with microfluidic diagnostic chips. The output 23-gauge microtube of the former can be directly plugged into the input ports of the latter allowing immediate applicability in practice as a sample-prep pre-stage to a variety of emergent microfluidic diagnostic devices. In addition, the shown approach of filter encapsulation in elastomer has principle importance as it is compatible with and applicable to microfluidic sample-prep integration with analytical stages within the same elastomeric chip. This can eventually lead to finger-prick blood tests in point-of-care settings. PMID:21053083

Maltezos, George; Lee, John; Rajagopal, Aditya; Scholten, Kee; Kartalov, Emil; Scherer, Axel

2011-02-01

320

Granular filtration in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion system often requires reliable and efficient cleanup devices that can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature, high- pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the in-flowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer are stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. The granular filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based, in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solid feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.

1996-12-31

321

Acoustically driven filtration of particulate suspensions in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of filtration of liquid suspensions containing micron to millimeter size particles has been developed. A resonant ultrasonic field, applied across a highly porous medium, has been used to trap fine particles inside the large pores (relative to the particle size) of the medium. Three types of porous media, unconsolidated bed of 3 mm glass beads, consolidated open pore aluminum mesh, and reticulated polyester polyurethane foam were investigated as the test media. Reasonable filtration efficiencies were achieved for model aqueous suspensions of 325 mesh polystyrene particles in all three porous media. The expected trends of filtration performance with respect to suspension flow rate, its concentration, and the acoustic field intensity were confirmed. The Filtration phenomena was found to be limited by non-physical saturation of porous media. At saturation, the particles collected inside the media were found to exhibit macroscopic vibrations which allows them to escape with the carrier fluid. The highly porous POLY foam (95% porosity) was found to be the best media for suspension studied in terms of the duration of particle retention and percentage filtration efficiencies. The aluminum mesh performed slightly poorer. The unconsolidated porous media collected the least amount of solids. A simple theoretical development based on particle trajectory around an infinitely long cylindrical fiber, in the presence of acoustic field, has been initiated. In principle, the new filtration method is similar to high gravity magnetic separation but the acoustic method has a wider scope due to inherent acoustic contrast present in most suspensions. The low pressure drop, ease of operation, amenability to large scale operation and reasonable filtration efficiency make the new method highly attractive and suitable for practical applications.

Gupta, Sanjay

1997-12-01

322

Nuclear power reactor applications of high gradient magnetic filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the present status and future prospects for applications of high gradient magnetic filters to water-cooled nuclear power plants. A brief summary of tests performed at installations world-wide in support of nuclear applications and specifically the author's work at the United States Department of Energy's N Reactor is presented. Filtration of both the primary and secondary coolant circuits

B. Emory

1982-01-01

323

Development of Micro-Scale Laboratory Filtration Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need exists for developing micro-scale techniques in order to investigate vacuum filtration in the laboratory to provide design parameters for full-scale plant use. The results of tests conducted indicate that similar values for the mean specific resi...

J. C. Burdick W. A. Drewry

1974-01-01

324

Dissemination, resuspension, and filtration of carbon fibers. [aircraft fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon fiber transport was studied using mathematical models established for other pollution problems. It was demonstrated that resuspension is not a major factor contributing to the risk. Filtration and fragmentation tests revealed that fiber fragmentation shifts the fiber spectrum to shorter mean lengths in high velocity air handling systems.

Elber, W.

1980-01-01

325

Monitoring bioremediation in creosote-contaminated soils using chemical analysis and toxicity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Three soils with a history of creosote contamination (designated NB, TI and AC) were treated in bench-scale microcosms using\\u000a conditions (nutrient amendment, moisture content and temperature) which had promoted mineralization of?14C-pyrene in a preliminary study. Bioremediation was monitored using the solid-phase Microtox test, seed germination and earthworm\\u000a survival assays, SOS-chromotest, Toxi-chromotest and a red blood cell (RBC) haemolysis assay. Contaminant

T M Phillips; D Liu; A G Seech; H Lee; J T Trevors

2000-01-01

326

[Leukocyte depletion by in-line-filtration].  

PubMed

Leukocyte depletion was tested in 30 red cell concentrates (RCC) using a new 450-ml triple U blood-bag system (Optipac, Baxter) with an integrated polyester filter (Sepacell R 2000). Centrifugation at 3,600 rpm was well tolerated by all filters. RCC were filtered 48 h after preparation (mean time 25-30 min). Filtration loss of red blood cells was about 7%. Prefiltration leukocyte concentration averaged 3 x 10(9) leukocytes/l (Coulter). After filtration 6 x 10(5) leukocytes/l (median) were counted in the Nageotte chamber (NC). 1.5 x 10(5)/RCC leukozytes (WBC) per filtered RCC were calculated (median). 29/30 (97%) RCC contained less than 5 x 10(6) WBC, in 4 cases no WBC were detectable in the NC, but 6.62 x 10(6) WBC remained in 1 RCC. The rate of hemolysis (8/30) averaged 0.4% on day 42. Handling was easy, allowing routine use. Quality controls are necessary. PMID:9480158

Krandick, E; Vornwald, A; Gossrau, E

1994-01-01

327

Removal of particle-associated bacteriophages by dual-media filtration at different filter cycle stages and impacts on subsequent UV disinfection.  

PubMed

This bench-scale study investigated the passage of particle-associated bacteriophage through a dual-media (anthracite-sand) filter over a complete filter cycle and the effect on subsequent ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Two model viruses, bacteriophages MS2 and T4, were considered. The water matrix was de-chlorinated tap water with either kaolin or Aldrich humic acid (AHA) added and coagulated with alum to form floc before filtration. The turbidity of the influent flocculated water was 6.4+/-1.5 NTU. Influent and filter effluent turbidity and particle counts were measured as well as headloss across the filter media. Filter effluent samples were collected for phage enumeration during three filter cycle stages: (i) filter ripening; (ii) stable operation; and (iii) end of filter cycle. Stable filter operation was defined according to a filter effluent turbidity goal of <0.3 NTU. Influent and filter effluent samples were subsequently exposed to UV light (254 nm) at 40 mJ/cm(2) using a low pressure UV collimated beam. The study found statistically significant differences (alpha=0.05) in the quantity of particle-associated phage present in the filter effluent during the three stages of filtration. There was reduced UV disinfection efficiency due to the presence of particle-associated phage in the filter effluent in trials with bacteriophage MS2 and humic acid floc. Unfiltered influent water samples also resulted in reduced UV inactivation of phage relative to particle-free control conditions for both phages. Trends in filter effluent turbidity corresponded with breakthrough of particle-associated phage in the filter effluent. The results therefore suggest that maintenance of optimum filtration conditions upstream of UV disinfection is a critical barrier to particle-associated viruses. PMID:17433406

Templeton, Michael R; Andrews, Robert C; Hofmann, Ron

2007-06-01

328

Closed carbon dioxide filtration revisited.  

PubMed

There are compelling reasons why the closed carbon dioxide filtration method for inhalation anaesthesia deserves serious reconsideration. Use of the closed absorption system today can provide all the benefits recognised by those who introduced it seventy to eighty years ago. A most important benefit is the increased opportunity of learning afforded the user, which leads either neophyte or senior clinician to improvement of both concept and clinical skills. The current resurgence of interest is fully appropriate for all physicians who aspire to be true specialists in the care of patients during clinical anaesthesia. PMID:7978194

Morris, L E

1994-08-01

329

Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid Ping Yang 1,2, Min-hui Wu2, Xue-wen Zhu2, Tao Deng2, Xue-qing Sun2 1. Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China 2. Department of Geotechnical Engineering,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China Abstract The process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was tested by changing the polyanionic cellulose content in low-solids drilling fluid. The effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was analyzed. The test results showed that when time of filtration is same, the volume of filtrate loss decreases linearly with increasing polyanionic cellulose content. When polyanionic cellulose content is same, the rate of filtrate loss decreases nonlinearly with increasing time and the rate of filtrate loss will reach a stable value.The volume of filtrate loss in 7 to 8 minutes can reaches half of the total volume of filtrate loss. At the same time, the rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid decreases nonlinearly with increasing viscosity.When the apparent viscosity is between 3.5~4.15 MPa.s, decrease speed of rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid is quick. The results are helpful for characteristics evaluation of filtrate loss of drilling fluid and control of filtrate loss. Keyword Polyanionic Cellulose,Drilling Fluid,Process of Filtrate Loss Acknowledgments This investigation was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (projects No. 41002093 and 41072205); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (project No. B308), Tongji University; and the Program for Young Excellent Talents, Tongji University. The authors are extremely grateful for the financial support from these five organizations.

yang, P.

2013-12-01

330

Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

2011-06-01

331

Membrane filtration of food suspensions.  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images

Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Dudas, I

1979-01-01

332

Rapid and Slow Sand Filtration Techniques and Their Efficacy at Filtering Triactinomyxons of Myxobolus cerebralis from Contaminated Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow and rapid sand filtration methods were tested for their ability to remove triactinomyxon actinospores (Tams), the waterborne infective stage of the salmonid parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, from contaminated water. Within the rapid sand filtration treatments, two backflush protocols were tested. The first consisted of extended backflush duration, and the second consisted of diverted flow past the aquaria with fish for

Ronney E. Arndt; Eric J. Wagner

2004-01-01

333

COMPARISON OF SOME FILTRATION PROCESSES APPROPRIATE FOR GIARDIA CYST REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, and coagulation-filtration (including conventional treatment, direct filtration, and in-line filtration), have been evaluated for Giardia cyst removal at pilot plant and/or field scale. Properly designed and operated, the ...

334

Loading and filtration characteristics of filtering facepieces.  

PubMed

Most filtering facepieces used today are made of electret material (material with significant electrical charges on the filter fibers). Because of the addition of this electrical removal force, the filtration efficiency can be significantly increased without increasing the air pressure drop inside the respirator; pressure drop is closely related to physiological load. However, the removal by electrical forces is reduced in time, as aerosols deposit on the filter fibers. We have studied the contribution of this electrical removal and its change in time as a function of aerosol loading. To prove the change in aerosol penetration is due to the reduction of electrical force, the electrical charges were removed from new facepieces by the application of appropriate chemicals. The dust-mist filtering facepieces tested have similar fiber diameters and packing densities, as determined by scanning electron microscopy and pressure drop data. At a face velocity of 10 cm/s (corresponding to 100 L/min through a complete filtering facepiece) and an aerosol size of 0.16 microns, electrical force removal accounts for 69% of the total filtration for the respirator found to have the best filter quality but only 25% for the respirator (from a different manufacturer) found to have the worst filter quality. Our experimental data show that the removal efficiency of these facepieces is reduced in time by as much as this amount. However, under normal wear conditions, the total aerosol particle load is not as high as shown and the filtering facepieces are likely to be discarded before the fiber charges (i.e., the electrostatic attractions) are significantly diminished. PMID:8452097

Chen, C C; Lehtimäki, M; Willeke, K

1993-02-01

335

A scalable approach for high throughput branch flow filtration.  

PubMed

Microfluidic continuous flow filtration methods have the potential for very high size resolution using minimum feature sizes that are larger than the separation size, thereby circumventing the problem of clogging. Branch flow filtration is particularly promising because it has an unlimited dynamic range (ratio of largest passable particle to the smallest separated particle) but suffers from very poor volume throughput because when many branches are used, they cannot be identical if each is to have the same size cut-off. We describe a new iterative approach to the design of branch filtration devices able to overcome this limitation without large dead volumes. This is demonstrated by numerical modelling, fabrication and testing of devices with 20 branches, with dynamic ranges up to 6.9, and high filtration ratios (14-29%) on beads and fungal spores. The filters have a sharp size cutoff (10× depletion for 12% size difference), with large particle rejection equivalent to a 20th order Butterworth low pass filter. The devices are fully scalable, enabling higher throughput and smaller cutoff sizes and they are compatible with ultra low cost fabrication. PMID:23493870

Inglis, David W; Herman, Nick

2013-05-01

336

APPLICATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION TO COMBUSTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the application of fabric filtration to combustion sources, with emphasis on research and development efforts directed toward assessment and documentation of full-scale baghouse operation, better understanding of the filtration process, and ...

337

Dielectrophoretically intensified cross-flow membrane filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is applied for the first time in cross-flow membrane filtration process to enhance the membrane performance and service life. The DEP force allows moving particles independently of their charge in an inhomogeneous electric field. Here a traction of particles opposite to the permeate flow direction was realized alleviating particle fouling and concentration polarization, thereby intensifying the filtration process.

F. Du; A. Hawari; M. Baune; J. Thöming

2009-01-01

338

POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. First quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. During the past quarter, a number of project tasks have been initiated. All documents required for project startup (i.e., work plans, management plans, etc.) have been submitted to DOE for approval. A bench-scale TES unit and an apparatus for studying tribocharging mechanisms have been designed and are currently being fabricated. One of the three coal samples to be used for bench-scale testing has been acquired.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

1995-12-31

339

Tertiary filtration in small wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Tertiary filtration can be proposed in small wastewater treatment plants with impact on protected water bodies. Rotating disk filters may be adopted, in respect to conventional sand filters, when low availability of space and low investment costs are the prevailing conditions. The overall objective of this research was to evaluate the filtration efficiency of rotating disk filters; to compare effectiveness with traditional sand filters; to analyse thoroughly the importance of particle size distribution in wastewater tertiary filtration. In the experimental activity, conventional wastewater quality parameters were investigated and particle size distribution (PSD) was characterized to discuss the filter effectiveness. The effect of design and operation parameters of tertiary filters were discussed related to particle removal curves derived from particles counts. Analysis of particle size distribution can be very useful to help comprehension of filtration processes, design of filtration treatments and to decide the best measures to improve filter performance. PMID:17506441

Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

2007-01-01

340

1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded over facility. Armory Street appears in the foreground. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

341

PILOT-PLANT STUDIES OF SLOW-RATE FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternatives to conventional coagulation water filtration plants (those that utilize coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration) may be appropriate for some small water utilities. One such alternative is slow rate filtration. This paper describes pilot plant studies ...

342

40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart H - Filtration and Disinfection...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS-- Filtration and Disinfection...Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses...

2009-07-01

343

40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection ...Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a...C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses...

2010-07-01

344

14. View of damage to southeast corner of filtration building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of damage to southeast corner of filtration building. Note construction of concrete over brick. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

345

Advanced treatment of WWTP effluent with filtration leading to a pretreatment technique for membrane filtration.  

PubMed

In 2000 the European Union introduced the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The aim of the WFD is having an ecological and chemical balance for all surface waters in Europe in 2015. The European Commission identified 33 priority substances and their maximum allowable concentrations, FHI-values (Fraunhofer Institute), which are specified in the Annex of the WFD. The objective of this research is to achieve the removal of suspended solids, nitrogen and total phosphorus together with priority substances. All these substances will be removed in one filter called a "One Step Total Effluent Polishing filter" i.e. 1-STEP(®) filter. For this purpose a filter pilot plant was tested at the WWTP Horstermeer. The results show that the filter can fulfil the target values in the filtrate water for total nitrogen (2.2 mg Ntotal/L) and total phosphorus (0.15 mg Ptotal/L). The majority of the priority (hazardous) substances in the WWTP effluent are already below the detection limit. Due to the low concentration ranges, the results on the removal of medicine and pesticides are only indicative. A decreasing tendency in the removal efficiency is shown for all measured compounds. The average specific ultrafiltration resistance (SUR) value decrease of the filter is 55% and the final value is always below 5·10(12) m(-2). This indicates that the filtrate water of the filter is very well filterable and can be used as ultrafiltration feedwater. PMID:21045335

Scherrenberg, S M; te Kloeze, A M; Janssen, A N; van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; Menkveld, H W H; Bechger, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

2010-01-01

346

Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Duncan, J.B.

1997-01-07

347

Understanding Deep Bed Filtration by Direct Micro-scale Particulate Flow Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filtration of suspensions through porous beds occurs in a variety of applications such as drilling mud infiltration into rock formations and waste water treatment. Accurate modelling of filtration through porous media on macroscopic scale often requires a precise estimate of the filtration coefficient, which reflects the fraction of particles that get retained in the filter medium. A large number of deep bed filtration models assume a constant entrapment rate without taking into account the rate of particle release back into the flow. In addition, the available models often assume instantaneous entrapment, which ignores particle rolling. These assumptions lead to an almost static description of filtration phenomenon, which is in fact highly dynamic in nature. In this study we used a micro-scale simulation approach to understand the filtration of suspensions through a sphere pack. We applied a semi-coupled CFD-DEM method to directly model the fluid and particulate flow through the extracted pore space. The accuracy of the geometrical description of the flow domain was tested by calculating its porosity and permeability and comparing those to measured values. The results of the simulation provide the distribution of particle and fluid velocities throughout the filtration process. These velocity distributions show that under our simulation conditions, a significant portion of particles travel with a velocity 4 to 5 orders of magnitude slower than the average fluid velocity, which indicates that particle rolling is not negligible. Based on these results we propose a modified definition of filtration coefficient and estimate its values. Overall, this study provides an improved insight into deep bed filtration and reveals the absence of a granular phase flow equation in the existing deep bed filtration formulation. Finally, while we worked with sphere packing for this initial study, the simulation can take any pore space described by a binary (segmented) image and is thus capable of modelling both soils and real (imaged) rocks.

Mirabolghasemi, M.; Prodanovic, M.

2013-12-01

348

Modeling of particle removal in the first coarse media of direct horizontal-flow roughing filtration.  

PubMed

Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) is an alternative pretreatment method e.g. prior to Slow Sand Filtration (SSF). However, some of its limitations are that the effluent quality drops drastically at higher turbidity (>200NTU) and at higher filtration rate (>1 m h(-1)). To overcome these drawbacks, we suggested Direct Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (DHRF), which is a modified system of Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) by addition of a low dose of coagulant prior to filtration. To optimize the DHRF configuration, a conceptual and mathematical model for the coarse compartment has been developed in analogy with multi-plate settler. Data from simple column settling test can be used in the model to predict the filter performance. Furthermore, the model developed herein has been validated by successive experiments. The conventional column settling test has been found to be handy and useful to predict the performance of DHRF for different raw water characteristics (e.g. coagulated or uncoagulated water, different amounts of organic matter, etc.) and different initial process conditions (e.g. coagulant dose, mixing time and intensity, etc.). An optimum filter design for the coarse compartment (grain size 20 mm) has been found to be of 3m h(-1) filtration rate with filter length of 4-4.5 m. PMID:17432386

Ahn, H W; Park, N S; Kim, S; Park, S Y; Wang, C K

2007-03-01

349

Detection of damage of a filter by visualization of filtration process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with testing of filters on the basis of visualization of filtration process. A filtration material can be damaged by flow of the filtered medium, high pressure drop and long-term adverse conditions. These negative effects can cause extensive damage of the filtration textile and filtration efficiency decreases. The filter can be also fractured during manufacturing, processing or by improper manipulation. A testing of a purposely damaged filtration textile is described in the article. Experiments were performed on the filtration setup which permits an optical entrance to the position where a sample of filter is placed. A laser sheet is directed into this place. Scattered light from seeding particles in front of and behind the filter is captured by a digital camera. Images from the camera are analyzed and the filtration efficiency versus time and also versus position can be obtained. Measuring chain including light scattering theory and measuring of light intensity by a digital camera are also discussed in the article.

Bílek, P.; Šidlof, P.

2014-03-01

350

Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

2000-06-09

351

Bench-scale processing of amaranth seed for oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaranth seed (Amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. K432) was processed to obtain oil, reported to be a promising source of squalene. The amaranth seed was ground using\\u000a a stone mill, then separated into oil-rich embryonic tissue (or “bran”) and starchy perisperm. Amaranth bran was much more\\u000a stable than rice bran when free fatty acid (FFA) content and peroxide value were monitored. Milling

H. Sun; D. Wiesenborn; P. Rayas-Duarte; A. Mohamed; K. Hagen

1995-01-01

352

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

Cicero, C.A.

1996-05-08

353

BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

354

Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 to the -6 power) to that of a remediation site (1...

A. B. Cunningham B. M. Peyton

1995-01-01

355

Factors Influencing Pressure Drop through a Dust Cake during Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three kinds of dust materials, fly ash (MMAD : 6.28 ?m), limestone (MMAD : 2.53 ?m) and SAE fine dust (MMAD : 3.88 ?m), have been used to test the dust cake compaction and its influence on the specific dust cake resistance coefficient at filtration velocity ranging from 1 to 9 cm\\/sec. An accurate laser dispacement system was used to

Yu-Hsiang Cheng; Chuen-Jinn Tsai

1998-01-01

356

Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

Yu, Zhimin

357

40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart P - Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS-- Enhanced Filtration and...

2009-07-01

358

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart P - Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS-- Enhanced Filtration and...

2009-07-01

359

Modeling of compressible cake filtration  

SciTech Connect

The transport of suspended solid particles in a liquid through porous media has importance from the viewpoint of engineering practice and industrial applications. Deposition of solid particles on a filter cloth or on a pervious porous medium forms the filter cakes. Following a literature survey, a governing equation for the cake thickness is obtained by considering an instantaneous material balance. In addition to the conservation of mass equations for the liquid, and for suspended and captured solid particles, functional relations among porosity, permeability, and pressure are obtained from literature and solved simultaneously. Later, numerical solutions for cake porosity, pore pressure, cake permeability, velocity of solid particles, concentration of suspended solid particles, and net rate of deposition are obtained. At each instant of time, the porosity decreases throughout the cake from the surface to the filter septum where it has the smallest value. As the cake thickness increases, the trends in pressure variation are similar to data obtained by other researchers. This comparison shows the validity of the theory and the associated solution presented. A sensitivity analysis shows higher pressure values at the filter septum for a less pervious membrane. Finally, a reduction in compressibility parameter provides a thicker cake, causes more particles to be captured inside the cake, and reduces the volumetric filtrate rate. The increase of solid velocity with the reduction in compressibility parameter shows that more rigid cakes compress less.

Abbound, N.M. (Univ. of Connecticut, Waterbury, CT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Corapcioglu, M.Y. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1993-10-15

360

Leukocyte filtration in cardiac surgery: a review.  

PubMed

Leukocyte filtration has evolved as an important technique in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent pathogenic effector functions mediated by activated leukocytes. The underlying mechanisms that result in an improvement of laboratory variables as well as clinical outcome are not resolved yet. Moreover, the optimum strategy for the use of current filtration technology has not been systematically evaluated. This paper, therefore, reviews how activated leukocytes may lead to tissue damage, summarizes the known effects of leukocyte filtration on clinical outcome and laboratory parameters, and deals with current experimental and clinical efforts to further limit the pathogenic effects of leukocytes in cardiac surgery. PMID:11565891

Matheis, G; Scholz, M; Simon, A; Dzemali, O; Moritz, A

2001-09-01

361

POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter, the installation, testing and shakedown phases of commissioning the TES unit were completed (Tasks 4, 5.1 and 5.2). A representative from Carpco Inc. was on site to provide training in the operation of the test unit and assist with the initial test runs. Problems have been encountered with the recycle conveyor generating dust that neutralizes the particle charge. Testing has continued by batch feeding the unit while the recycle conveying problem is being solved. Good separations have been achieved while operating in this mode. Comparison tests have also been carried out using a bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator in parallel with the POC Carpco unit.

R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; A.D. Walters

1999-10-01

362

Filtration effects on ball bearing life and condition in a contaminated lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball bearings were fatigue tested with a noncontaminated lubricant and with a contaminated lubricant under four levels of filtration. The test filters had absolute particle removal ratings of 3, 30, 49, and 105 microns. Aircraft turbine engine contaminants were injected into the filter's supply line at a constant rate of 125 milligrams per bearing hour. Bearing life and running track condition generally improved with finer filtration. The experimental lives of 3 and 30 micron filter bearings were statistically equivalent, approaching those obtained with the noncontaminated lubricant bearings. Compared to these bearings, the lives of the 49 micron bearings were statistically lower. The 105 micron bearings experienced gross wear. The degree of surface distress, weight loss, and probable failure mode were dependent on filtration level, with finer filtration being clearly beneficial.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Moyer, D. W.

1978-01-01

363

Filtration and regeneration behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene membrane for dusty gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With micron talcum particles and nano-CaCO3 powder as test dust, a series of experiments have been carried out to systematically study the gas filtration and regeneration\\u000a behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene membrane, and some comparisons were made with common filter media. The experimental results\\u000a showed that the PTFE membrane had a filtration efficiency of above 99.99% for micron particles, and excellent regeneration

Deqiang Jiang; Weidong Zhang; Junteng Liu; Wang Geng; Zhongqi Ren

2008-01-01

364

Water filtration performance of a lyotropic liquid crystal polymer membrane with uniform, sub-1-nm pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water filtration performance of a supported, nanostructured, lyotropic (i.e., surfactant) liquid crystal (LLC) polymer membrane containing uniform, sub-1-nm pores was examined in more detail using more extensive aqueous filtration tests and a more structurally representative nanopore model. This nanoporous membrane material is based on the radical cross-linking of an ionic, LLC monomer that forms a type I bicontinuous cubic

Evan S. Hatakeyama; Christopher J. Gabriel; Brian R. Wiesenauer; Jenny L. Lohr; Meijuan Zhou; Richard D. Noble; Douglas L. Gin

2011-01-01

365

Water-Treatment-Sludge Filtration Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to examine the filtration characteristics of alum and lime-softening sludges. Hardness effects on filterability were examined. Crystal seeding was found to be effective in improving the filterability of both alum sludge and lime-sof...

J. F. Judkins

1973-01-01

366

ADVANCED FILTRATION OF PULP MILL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory and pilot plants studies of reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) and ultrafiltration of pulp mill wastes were performed by International Paper Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (subcontractor). Decker filtrates were treated with dynamically formed reverse osmosis ...

367

MICROBIAL PATHOGEN REMOVAL DURING BANK FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Our incomplete understanding of processes and properties affecting pathogenic microbe transport during riverbank filtration is currently limiting our ability to predict the effectiveness of this water treatment option. We propose a series of fundamental experiments designed to...

368

Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL Inc. (United States)

1996-08-15

369

Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery  

SciTech Connect

Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

1995-04-01

370

The Hodge Filtration and Cyclic Homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We relate the ‘Hodge filtration’ of the cohomology of a complex algebraic variety X to the ‘Hodge decomposition’ of its cyclic homology. If X is smooth and projective,\\u000a$$HC_n^{(i)} (X) $$\\u000a is the quotient of the Betti cohomology\\u000a$$H^{2i - n} (X(\\\\mathbb{C});\\\\mathbb{C}) $$\\u000a by the \\u000a$$(i + 1)^{st} $$\\u000a piece of the Hodge filtration.

Charles Weibel

1997-01-01

371

Coal filtration process and dewatering aids therefore  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a method for dewatering an aqueous slurry of solid coal particulates wherein the aqueous slurry contains between about 10 and 60 percent of solid coal particulates and a dewatering aid is added to the slurry followed by vacuum filtration thereof to produce a filter cake of the coal particulates. The improvement for lowering the water content of the filter cake comprises adding to the slurry prior to filtration an effective amount of a dewatering aid selected.

Keys, R.O.

1990-01-09

372

Development of a centrifugal downhold separator with in-situ recycle of produced water (initial tests with 34.1 API gravity crude)  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently developing a Centrifugal Downhole Separator (CDHS) which will extend the application of remotely operated separations equipment developed for the nuclear industry to in-well recovery of oil with in-situ recycle of the produced water. These units have been successfully used for surface treatment of produced water and wastewater generated during environmental clean-up operations. Performance data has shown that centrifugal units are capable of separating stable emulsions into ``single-phase`` streams with generally less than 1% cross-phase contamination. Initial testing will be conducted with a bench-scale separator to determine the separation efficiency of various crude oils and to provide information necessary to scale up the separator. Information from the bench-scale unit will be used in the design of a larger prototype, which will have a much larger height/diameter ratio and will incorporate some of the components necessary for down-hole operations. The prototype separator will be operated in the lab to verify scale-up parameters and separation efficiencies, as well as to provide information necessary to design a full-scale system. The full-scale system will be fabricated, installed in the field, and operated to demonstrate the technology. This paper discusses the initial testing of the bench-scale separator with a crude oil having an API gravity of 34.06{degrees}.

Walker, J.F.; Jubin, R.T.; Robinson, S.M.

1998-11-01

373

Simultaneous hot desulfurization and improved filtration  

SciTech Connect

Coal reserves in the United States as well as abroad will remain unusable until technology is developed to meet both Clean Air Act mandates and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for particulate, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}, emissions effectively and economically. Recent breakthroughs in particulate control, specifically ceramic filtration technology, have shown that NSPS limits on particulates can be achieved at high process temperatures, thereby minimizing thermal losses and system complexity. While both calcium based and regenerable metal oxide sorbents are currently utilized for sulfur mitigation, problems such as sintering, temperature limitations, physical attrition, and cost have limited their success. This research suggests the use of waste metal oxide materials for the removal of sulfur in hot gas streams as an alternative to either traditional calcium based sorbents, or regenerable metal oxide sorbents. When classified to a desired particle size and injected into a high temperature coal utilization process, such a `once-through` sorbent can effectively remove sulfur and simultaneously increase the permeability of dust collected at a downstream ceramic filter station in a highly cost effective manner. Several waste metal oxides, including the oxides of iron, tin, and zinc, have been evaluated both individually and in combination to assess their capacity for sulfur capture in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Additionally, inert materials such as silica sand as well as more traditional materials such as dolomite and limestone, were evaluated as sorbents under identical test conditions to serve as reference data.

Eggerstedt, P.M.; Zievers, J.F.; Patel, P.C.; Zievers, E.C., Industrial Fiber & Pump Mfg. Co.

1998-01-01

374

Space shuttle maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program. Task 11: Stability analyses and acoustic model testing data dump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion stability characteristics of engines applicable to the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System and the adequacy of acoustic cavities as a means of assuring stability in these engines were investigated. The study comprised full-scale stability rating tests, bench-scale acoustic model tests and analysis. Two series of stability rating tests were made. Acoustic model tests were made to determine the resonance characteristics and effects of acoustic cavities. Analytical studies were done to aid design of the cavity configurations to be tested and, also, to aid evaluation of the effectiveness of acoustic cavities from available test results.

Oberg, C. L.

1974-01-01

375

6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

376

5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

377

10. View west of east entry to filtration beds. Note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View west of east entry to filtration beds. Note monitor roof and clerestory windows over central corridor. Laboratory building is sited over the center of the filtration bed building at extreme left center of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

378

Effect of filtration on rolling-element-bearing life in contaminated lubricant environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue tests were conducted on groups of 65 millimeter-bore ball bearings under four levels of filtration with and without a contaminated MIL-L-23699 lubricant. The baseline series used noncontaminated oil with 49 micron absolute filtration. In the remaining tests contaminants of the composition found in aircraft engine filters were injected into the filter's supply line at a constant rate of 125 milligrams per bearing-hour. The test filters had absolute particle removal ratings of 3, 30, 49, and 105 microns (0.45, 10, 30, and 70 microns nominal), respectively. Bearings were tested at 15,000 rpm under 4580 newtons radial load. Bearing life and running tract condition generally improved with finer filtration. The 3 and 30 micron filter bearings in a contaminated lubricant had statistically equivalent lives, approaching those from the baseline tests. The experimental lives of 49 micron bearings were approximately half the baseline bearing's lives. Bearings tested with the 105 micron filter experienced wear failures. The degree of surface distress, weight loss, and probable failure mode were found to be dependent on filtration level, with finer filtration being clearly beneficial.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Moyer, D. W.; Sherlock, J. J.

1978-01-01

379

GPS Data Filtration Method for Drive Cycle Analysis Applications  

SciTech Connect

When employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the raw data samples, such as sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive-cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software. Without reliable speed and time information, the validity of derived metrics for drive cycles, such as acceleration, power, and distance, become questionable. This study explores some of the common sources of error present in raw onboard GPS data and presents a detailed filtering process designed to correct for these issues. Test data from both light and medium/heavy duty applications are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtration process across the range of vehicle vocations. Graphical comparisons of raw and filtered cycles are presented, and statistical analyses are performed to determine the effects of the proposed filtration process on raw data. Finally, an evaluation of the overall benefits of data filtration on raw GPS data and present potential areas for continued research is presented.

Duran, A.; Earleywine, M.

2013-02-01

380

FLOCCULATION, SUBSIDENCE AND FILTRATION OF PHOSPHATE SLIMES. VI. A QUANTITATIVE THEORY OF FILTRATION OF FLOCCULATED SUSPENSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative theory of filtration of suspensions flocculated with ; polymeric flocculants is developed. The theory, based upon a simple picture of ; the adsorption of the flocculant combined with considerations of floc geometry ; and the Kozeny-Carman permeability equation, explains the variations of ; filtration rate with flocculant concentration observed experimentally. (auth)

R. H. Jr. Smellie; V. K. La Mer

1958-01-01

381

CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6  

SciTech Connect

In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

2011-02-01

382

Advanced electrostatic enhancement of fabric filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and pilot plant studies of a modification of the U.S. EPA's Electrically Stimulated Fabric Filtration (ESFF) method in which corona voltage on a center-wire electrode replaces the subcorona electrodes at the bag surface are discussed. The electric field which affects enhancement results from the high potential maintained on the center wire. The mechanism that supports the observed increase in gas flow consistent with the theoretical model involves the nonuniform deposition of the charged dust as a result of forces exerted on the particles in the electric field perpendicular to the bag. Laboratory results show an extremely low rate of pressure drop increase during the filtration cycle, only 10 to 30% of the rate associated with conventional reverse-air fabric filtration. Pilot plant data indicate a corresponding increase in flow through electrified bags. The rudiments of a mathematical model for describing the electrical deposition of the dust are presented.

Mosley, R. B.; Hovis, L. S.; Plaks, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Viner, A. S.

1985-10-01

383

Couette membrane filtration with constant shear stress.  

PubMed

Recent developments in the field of blood component separation have revealed the usefulness of membrane filtration using couette type configurations and Taylor vortices as an efficient and effective method. The authors have analyzed in detail the physical and chemical effects on whole blood separated into protein rich plasma, and concentrated red blood cell suspensions, using this technique. The authors also have calculated and demonstrated the technical specifications required to provide laminar flow with Taylor Vortex formation throughout the device, as well as those required to retain constant shear stress on the blood components as viscosity changes. By maintaining constant shear stress below a critical level, it is possible to avoid shear induced hemolysis and to maintain maximal separation efficiency throughout the procedure. The device has further been designed to alter the filtration velocity along the membrane so that the critical filtration velocity is nowhere exceeded, i.e., concentration polarization effects are prevented. PMID:3196536

Fischel, R J; Fischel, H; Shatzel, A; Lange, W P; Cahill, D; Gervais, D; Ascher, N L

1988-01-01

384

Paradoxical glomerular filtration of carbon nanotubes  

PubMed Central

The molecular weight cutoff for glomerular filtration is thought to be 30–50 kDa. Here we report rapid and efficient filtration of molecules 10–20 times that mass and a model for the mechanism of this filtration. We conducted multimodal imaging studies in mice to investigate renal clearance of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) construct covalently appended with ligands allowing simultaneous dynamic positron emission tomography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging, and microscopy. These SWCNTs have a length distribution ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The average length was determined to be 200–300 nm, which would yield a functionalized construct with a molecular weight of ?350–500 kDa. The construct was rapidly (t1/2 ? 6 min) renally cleared intact by glomerular filtration, with partial tubular reabsorption and transient translocation into the proximal tubular cell nuclei. Directional absorption was confirmed in vitro using polarized renal cells. Active secretion via transporters was not involved. Mathematical modeling of the rotational diffusivity showed the tendency of flow to orient SWCNTs of this size to allow clearance via the glomerular pores. Surprisingly, these results raise questions about the rules for renal filtration, given that these large molecules (with aspect ratios ranging from 100:1 to 500:1) were cleared similarly to small molecules. SWCNTs and other novel nanomaterials are being actively investigated for potential biomedical applications, and these observations—that high aspect ratio as well as large molecular size have an impact on glomerular filtration—will allow the design of novel nanoscale-based therapeutics with unusual pharmacologic characteristics.

Ruggiero, Alessandro; Villa, Carlos H.; Bander, Evan; Rey, Diego A.; Bergkvist, Magnus; Batt, Carl A.; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Deen, William M.; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

2010-01-01

385

Filtration performance of microporous ceramic supports.  

PubMed

The use of inorganic membranes in pollution treatment is actually limited by the cost of such membranes. Advantages of inorganic membranes are their chemical, thermal and pH properties. The purpose of this work was the development of microporous ceramic materials based on clay for liquid waste processing. The supports or ceramic filters having various compositions were prepared and thermally treated at 1100 degrees C. The results show that, at the temperature studied, porosity varied according to the support composition from 12% for the double-layered (ceramic) support to 47% for the activated carbon- filled support with a mean pore diameter between 0.8 and 1.3 microm, respectively. Volumes of 5 l of distilled water were filtered tangentially for 3 h under an applied pressure of 3.5 and 5.5 bar. The retention of tubular supports prepared was tested with molecules of varying size (Evans blue, NaCl and Sacharose). The study of the liquid filtration and flow through these supports showed that the retention rate depends on support composition and pore diameter, and solute molecular weight. The S1 support (mixture of barbotine and 1% (w/w) activated carbon) gave a flux for distilled water of 68 L/m2 h while the double-layered support resulted in a flux of 8 L/m2 h for the same solution at the pressure of 3.5 bar. At a pressure of 5.5 bar an increase in the distilled water flux through the various supports was observed. It was significant for the S1 support (230 L/m h). PMID:17904640

Belouatek, Aissa; Ouagued, Abdellah; Belhakem, Mustapha; Addou, Ahmed

2008-04-24

386

Task 9- Centrifugal Membrane Filtration. Semiannual report, November 1, 1996--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. This phase of work is a continuation of the Phase 1 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. Solids cake development was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 feet per second and resulted in a reduction of unobstructed membrane surface area of up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort is to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative designs of the turbulence promoters to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface that is sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities include the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-inch-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly. Development and fabrication of alternative designs to the existing turbulence promoters. *Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix Data reduction and analysis.

Stephan, Daniel J.; Grafsgaard, Michael E.

1997-12-31

387

Equivariant Poincaré series of filtrations and topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier, for an action of a finite group G on a germ of an analytic variety, an equivariant G-Poincaré series of a multi-index filtration in the ring of germs of functions on the variety was defined as an element of the Grothendieck ring of G-sets with an additional structure. We discuss to which extent the G-Poincaré series of a filtration defined by a set of curve or divisorial valuations on the ring of germs of analytic functions in two variables determines the (equivariant) topology of the curve or of the set of divisors.

Campillo, Antonio; Delgado, Félix; Gusein-Zade, Sabir M.

2014-04-01

388

Development and validation of a low cost blood filtration element separating plasma from undiluted whole blood  

PubMed Central

Clinical point of care testing often needs plasma instead of whole blood. As centrifugation is labor intensive and not always accessible, filtration is a more appropriate separation technique. The complexity of whole blood is such that there is still no commercially available filtration system capable of separating small sample volumes (10-100??l) at the point of care. The microfluidics research in blood filtration is very active but to date nobody has validated a low cost device that simultaneously filtrates small samples of whole blood and reproducibly recovers clinically relevant biomarkers, and all this in a limited amount of time with undiluted raw samples. In this paper, we show first that plasma filtration from undiluted whole blood is feasible and reproducible in a low-cost microfluidic device. This novel microfluidic blood filtration element (BFE) extracts 12??l of plasma from 100??l of whole blood in less than 10?min. Then, we demonstrate that our device is valid for clinical studies by measuring the adsorption of interleukins through our system. This adsorption is reproducible for interleukins IL6, IL8, and IL10 but not for TNF?. Hence, our BFE is valid for clinical diagnostics with simple calibration prior to performing any measurement.

Homsy, Alexandra; van der Wal, Peter D.; Doll, Werner; Schaller, Roland; Korsatko, Stefan; Ratzer, Maria; Ellmerer, Martin; Pieber, Thomas R.; Nicol, Andreas; de Rooij, Nico F.

2012-01-01

389

Dynamic and static filtrate-loss techniques for monitoring filter-cake quality improves drilling-fluid performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes properties that are desirable in a water-based filter cake and test methods that can be used to measure these properties. One method uses a dynamic filtrate-loss apparatus that stirs the fluid mechanically during filtration. Test results show that the initial dynamic filter-cake formation is very important in controlling all future filtration properties and cake quality. The various factors affecting filter-cake quality and how they can be controlled to give better field performance are discussed.

Chesser, B.G.; Clark, D.E.; Wise, W.V.

1994-09-01

390

Demonstrate Feasibility of the Use of Ultrasonic Filtration in Treating the Overflows from Combines and/or Storm Sewers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility, both economic and technical, of using ultrasonic filtration as an aid to removing suspended impurities was investigated. Inputs to the test apparatus included drinking water, simulated sewage, primary and secondary sewage effluents, algae...

1967-01-01

391

Evaluation of dust cake filtration at high temperature with effluence from an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Technical note.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the spring of 1989, two separate test series were simultaneously conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to examine applied and fundamental behavior of dust cake filtration under high temperature an...

R. A. Dennis

1990-01-01

392

FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 µm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

393

Optimization of Sodium Removal in Paired Filtration Dialysis by Single Pool Sodium and Conductivity Kinetic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium removal is one of the main factors affecting intradialytic cardiovascular stability and interdialytic hypertension, and its removal should therefore be individualized. The aims of this study were: (1) to test the ability of a single-pool variable volume (SPVV) sodium kinetic model (NaKM) to optimize sodium removal in paired filtration dialysis (PFD), and (2) to test a SPVV conductivity kinetic

Salvatore Di Filippo; Mauro Corti; Simeone Andrulli; Giuseppe Pontoriero; Celestina Manzoni; Francesco Locatelli

1997-01-01

394

Dot immunogold filtration assay for rapid detection of Sudan I residue in chili powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of Dot immunogold filtration assay for rapid detection of Sudan I residue in food was developed. Sudan I derivate-gelatin immunogen has been synthesized using the mixed anhydride method. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the immunogen in rabbits. The purified antibody was immobilised on the nitrocellulose membrane as the test reagent. When the sample was added into the test

Liu Zhiguo; Fu Yunjie; Li Qi; Li Kui; Chen Jiangyuan; Zhou Guoping; Li Rui; Liu Lieju

2011-01-01

395

BACTERICIDAL ELECTRICALLY ENHANCED FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR CLEANROOMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ionizing electrically enhanced filter (EEF) for clean rooms is described. The electrical enhancement process results in a) increased filtration efficiency at lower pressure drop and b) bactericidal effects. The EEF system enables higher flow, lower weight and smaller package filters, as compared to Fan Filter Units (FFUs). The bactericidal effect has been demonstrated using Staphylococcus epidermidis. Almost all the

Rajan Jaisinghani; Thomas Inzana; Gretchen Glindemann

396

Sorghum Genome Sequencing by Methylation Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged,

Joseph A. Bedell; Muhammad A. Budiman; Andrew Nunberg; Robert W. Citek; Dan Robbins; Joshua Jones; Elizabeth Flick; Theresa Rohlfing; Jason Fries; Kourtney Bradford; Jennifer McMenamy; Michael Smith; Heather Holeman; Bruce A. Roe; Graham Wiley; Ian F. Korf; Pablo D. Rabinowicz; Nathan Lakey; W. Richard McCombie; Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh; Robert A. Martienssen

2005-01-01

397

MgO (Magnesium Oxide) Filtration Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has completed 4 yr of deep-bed filtration research comparing the efficiencies of granular magnesium oxide (MgO) and conventional filter sand in single- and dual-medium filters when filtering mineral-processing and mine waters. Bench an...

D. N. Tallman J. E. Pahlman

1987-01-01

398

ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION - AN UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) on a slipstream of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler using reverse-air-cleaned woven fiberglass filter bags. Operation was demonstrated using ESFF at a glass-to-cloth ...

399

ADVANCED ELECTROSTATIC ENHANCEMENT OF FABRIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses laboratory and pilot plant studies of a modification of the U.S. EPA's Electrically Stimulated Fabric Filtration (ESFF) method in which corona voltage on a center-wire electrode replaces the subcorona electrodes at the bag surface. The electric field which aff...

400

Plasma filtration in Couette flow membrane devices.  

PubMed

This report investigates the effects of transmembrane pressure (ptm), rotation speed, and membrane characteristics on the performance of a rotating membrane device for separating plasma from whole blood. This device consists of 58 cm2 polymeric membrane rotating at high speed (3,000-4,000 r/min) inside a concentric cylinder and produces a Couette type flow in a gap 0.9 mm thick. Blood enters tangentially at the top, exits tangentially at bottom, and plasma is collected by an axial duct. It is found that this device yields maximum filtration velocities (plasma filtration flux per unit area) in the range of 0.5-0.8 cm/min, which are 10-20 times larger than those obtained by using hollow fiber plasma filters. This high performance is not due to the effect of centrifugal forces on red blood cells but rather to the very high shear rates, on the order of 20,000 sec-1, generated in the gap by toroidal flow instabilities (Taylor vortices). When a 0.8 micron pore size Nuclepore (polycarbonate) membrane is used, the filtration velocity presents a narrow peak of 0.6 cm/min at ptm = 10 mm Hg at 3,000 r/min and decreases to 0.35 cm/min at larger ptm. With a 0.5-micron pore nylon membrane the filtration speed increases continuously with ptm and reaches a plateau of 0.5 cm/min. PMID:2712736

Beaudoin, G; Jaffrin, M Y

1989-02-01

401

Attenuation of groundwater pollution by bank filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bank filtration, either natural or induced through the river bed by pumping from a system of connected lateral or vertical wells, provides a means of obtaining public water supplies. The success of such schemes is dependent on the microbial activity and chemical transformations that are commonly enhanced in the colmation layer within the river bed compared to those that take

K. M. Hiscock; T. Grischek

2002-01-01

402

Hierarchical analysis of filtration. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The original proposal for this work suggested two lines Of analysis that could be used to develop an hierarchical analysis of filtration. The first of these was semi-empirical and required the use of an angle-dependent rate coefficient to model the effect...

M. Quintard S. Whitaker

1993-01-01

403

Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Schwille, John A.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M.

2002-01-01

404

Filtration characteristics of polysulfone membrane filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysulfone (PSF) membrane filters are employed as thermoplastic material in fabricating membranes for use in water ultrafiltration systems and gas separation. However, PSF membrane filters have seldom been used in aerosol filtration. Therefore, this work clarifies the effects of PSF membrane filters on aerosol penetration. Three concentrations of casting solutions (10%, 15%, and 20%) were used to form membranes with

Hsiao-Lin Huang; Shinhao Yang

2006-01-01

405

High Rate Filtration of Combined Sewer Overflows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pilot plant studies were conducted to develop and demonstrate the capabilities of the deep bed, dual media, high rate filtrate treatment process for storm caused combined sewer overflows. The treatment system is comprised of a drum screen with a 40 mesh s...

R. Nebolsine P. J. Harvey C. Y. Fan

1972-01-01

406

Solute partitioning and filtration by extracellular matrices  

PubMed Central

The physiology of glomerular filtration remains mechanistically obscure despite its importance in disease. The correspondence between proteinuria and foot process effacement suggests podocytes as the locus of the filtration barrier. If so, retained macromolecules ought to accumulate at the filtration barrier, an effect called concentration polarization. Literature data indicate macromolecule concentrations decrease from subendothelial to subepithelial glomerular basement membrane (GBM), as would be expected if the GBM were itself the filter. The objective of this study was to obtain insights into the possible role of the GBM in protein retention by performing fundamental experimental and theoretical studies on the properties of three model gels. Solute partitioning and filtration through thin gels of a commercially available laminin-rich extracellular matrix, Matrigel, were measured using a polydisperse polysaccharide tracer molecule, Ficoll 70. Solute partitioning into laminin gels and lens basement membrane (LBM) were measured using Ficoll 70. A novel model of a laminin gel was numerically simulated, as well as a mixed structure-random-fiber model for LBM. Experimental partitioning was predicted by numerical simulations. Sieving coefficients through thin gels of Matrigel were size dependent and strongly flux dependent. The observed flux dependence arose from compression of the gel in response to the applied pressure. Gel compression may alter solute partitioning into extracellular matrix at physiologic pressures present in the glomerular capillary. This suggests a physical mechanism coupling podocyte structure to permeability characteristics of the GBM.

Hofmann, Christina L.; Ferrell, Nicholas; Schnell, Lisa; Dubnisheva, Anna; Zydney, Andrew L.; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Roy, Shuvo

2009-01-01

407

Nanoparticles filtration by leaked fibrous filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is first to measured nanoparticles penetration through three different fiberglass filters intentionally-pierced with calibrated needles at different filtration velocity. Then a semi-empirical model based on the air flow resistances of the new and perforated filter media and on the mechanism of Brownian diffusion for the collection of ultrafine particles by the media enables to well

Guillaume Mouret; Sandrine Calle-Chazelet; Dominique Thomas; Denis Bemer; Jean-Christophe Appert-Collin

2009-01-01

408

Gel Filtration Chromatography: A Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography. The procedure separates two highly colored proteins of different molecular weights on a Sephadex G-75 in 45 minutes. This time includes packing the column as well. Background information, reagents needed, procedures used, and results obtained are…

Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.

1984-01-01

409

Red Cell Apheresis with Automated In-Line Filtration  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to provide data on concurrent red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) apheresis with RBC in-line leukoreduction and automated addition of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) using the new version (V6.0) of Trima Accel®. Methods In this two-center paired study, each subject completed a test and a control procedure with an interval of 9 weeks between procedures. In the test arm, single RBC and PLT units were collected on the Trima Accel V6.0 (in-line leukofiltration and automated addition of SAGM). In the control arm, they were collected on Trima Accel V5.1/V5.2 (post-collection leukoreduction, manual SAGM addition). RBC percent hemolysis, potassium concentration and adenosine triphosphate over storage, hemoglobin (Hb) yield, and residual white blood cells (WBC) were determined. Results 34 subjects successfully completed both test and control procedures. Post-storage hemolysis was similar in both groups, and all values were less than 0.8% for both arms. Residual WBC counts in all RBC units were less than 1 × 106/unit. In-line processed RBC units (V6.0) have a significantly higher volume and more Hb/unit due to filtration recovery improvements. All procedures were well tolerated by the subjects. Conclusion In-line filtration and automated addition of storage solution on Trima Accel V6.0 allows collection of ready-to-use RBC units that meet EU requirements.

Matthes, Gert; Ingilizov, Marin; Dobao, Maria Luz; Marques, Susana; Callaert, Martine

2014-01-01

410

Laboratory measurements of the spatial distribution of gas velocities through seasoned baghouse fabrics throughout a simulated filtration cycle  

SciTech Connect

The spatial distribution of the gas velocity across seasoned filter bag samples was measured with high resolution throughout a simulated filtration cycle. The samples were obtained from utility baghouses employing shake/deflate and reverse-gas cleaning. The tests simulated a filtration cycle with a constant air to cloth ratio of 2 acfm/ft/sup 2/ for a two-hour period with a gas having a mass loading of 3 gr/ft/sup 3/. The spatial distribution of velocities was determined at selected times throughout the filtration cycle by measuring the amount of a fine fluorescent powder that was intermittently introduced as a tracer into the test aerosol. Results of these tests showed that the initial flow of gas was almost entirely through fractures in the dust cake resulting from the cleaning operation. As the filtration cycle progressed, the flow became more uniformly distributed over the filter surface.

Kistler, W.G.; Steele, W.J.; Pontius, D.H.; Albano, R.K.

1986-01-01

411

REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS BY DIRECT FILTRATION AND CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research examined direct filtration for the removal of trihalomethane (THM) precursors. Direct filtration pilot plant results were compared with the performance of two full scale conventional type water treatment plants. Two different water sources were studied - the Grasse ...

412

40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.171 Criteria for avoiding filtration. In addition to the...

2013-07-01

413

40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.174 Filtration sampling requirements. (a) Monitoring...

2013-07-01

414

7. WEYMOUTH FILTRATION PLANT, BUILDING 1 INTERIOR: LA VERNE CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. WEYMOUTH FILTRATION PLANT, BUILDING 1 INTERIOR: LA VERNE CONTROL ROOM, REGULATES DISTRIBUTION OF WATER, CONTROLS POWER HOUSES. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

415

Removal of Trihalomethane Precursors by Direct Filtration and Conventional Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examined direct filtration for the removal of trihalomethane (THM) precursors. Direct filtration pilot plant results were compared with the performance of two full scale conventional type water treatment plants. Two different water sources w...

J. K. Edzwald

1984-01-01

416

21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...d) Ultra-filtration membranes shall be maintained in... (e) Ultrafiltration membranes identified in paragraph (a)(4) may be used to filter aqueous or acidic foods...the ultra-filtration membranes, the label or...

2009-04-01

417

21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...d) Ultra-filtration membranes shall be maintained in... (e) Ultrafiltration membranes identified in paragraph (a)(4) may be used to filter aqueous or acidic foods...the ultra-filtration membranes, the label or...

2010-01-01

418

2. View east of filtration bed building. Access bridge to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View east of filtration bed building. Access bridge to earth covering over reinforced concrete roof is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

419

30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main flood valves is at left and crossover valve is a right. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

420

20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to remove schmutzdeck (top, dirty sand layer containing particulate contamination, dead microorganisms and debris) for cleaning and or disposal. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

421

Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients. To determine the reliability of creatinine as a measure of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we compared the simultaneous clearance of creatinine to that of three true filtration markers of graded size in 171 patients with various glomerular diseases. Using inulin (radius [rs] = 15 Å) as a reference marker,

Ovadia Shemesh; Helen Golbetz; Joseph P Kriss; Bryan D Myers

1985-01-01

422

Removal of antibiotics by coagulation and granular activated carbon filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of seven tetracycline classes of antibiotic (TAs) from raw waters (synthetic and river) was evaluated using coagulation and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration in this study. Both coagulation and GAC filtration were effective for removal of TAs, and the removal efficiency depended on the type of TAs. GAC filtration was relatively more effective for removal of tetracycline (TC), doxycycline-hyclate

Keun-Joo Choi; Sang-Goo Kim; Seung-Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

423

Electrochemically etched nanoporous silicon membrane for filtration of biological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biological fluids require filtration during its processing, either to separate the various components in the fluid or to remove unwanted or harmful contaminants from the medium. Challenges arise in the filtration process as the masses to be filtered appear in various sizes. Conventional filtration method requires lengthy and timely repeated processes. A simple solution to this problem is the

Azrul Azlan Hamzah; Jumril Yunas; Dee Chang Fu; Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis

2010-01-01

424

21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner of the bed, the pipes drain off any excess water and maintain a limit on water depth. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

425

Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The EERC approach to meeting the program objective involves the development of a CFF for simultaneous NO. and particulate control. The idea of applying either a permanent or throwaway catalyst to a high-temperature fabric filter for NO. control is not new (1--4). However, advances at OCF have shown that a high-activity catalyst can be applied to a high-temperature woven glass cloth, resulting in a fabric filter material that can operate at temperatures higher than commercially available, coated glass fabric. The NO. is removed by catalytic reduction with ammonia to form nitrogen and water. The catalyst employed at this time is vanadium-titanium, but the exact catalyst composition and the unique method of applying the catalyst to high-temperature glass fabric are the property of OCF (5). Other catalyst options are being evaluated by OCF in order to improve catalyst performance and minimize catalyst cost. Bench-scale experimental results have shown that over 90% NO. removal can be achieved, that the catalyst-coated fabric has promising self-abrasion characteristics, and that the potential exists for substantially reduced cost compared to conventional SCR and fabric filtration technologies (6,7). However, development of the technology required further evaluation of air-to-cloth ratio effects, ammonia slip, SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3}, temperature cycling, catalyst-coated fabric preparation, fuel impacts, fabric cleaning (reverse-gas versus pulse-jet), catalyst life (poisoning and resistance to erosion), and filter performance/life (particulate control, differential pressure, and durability).

Weber, G.F.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

1994-01-01

426

Testing and verification of granular-bed filters for the removal of particulate and alkalis. Eleventh quarterly project report, April 1, 1983-June 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation with Ducon, Inc. and Burns and Roe, Inc. are conducting a test and evaluation program of a Granular-Bed Filter (GBF) for gas-cleaning applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion processes. This work is funded by DOE PRDA for Exploratory Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation of Systems or Devices for Hot Gas Clean-up. This report describes the status of the testing of the subpilot scale GBF unit under simulated Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) conditions through Phase IV and the design of a bench-scale, single-bed cylindrical element that will be utilized in Test Phase V.

None

1983-01-01

427

Evaluation of Flocculation and Filtration Procedures Applied to WSRC Sludge: A Report from B. Yarar, Colorado School of Mines  

SciTech Connect

This report, addresses fundamentals of flocculation processes shedding light on why WSRC researchers have not been able to report the discovery of a successful flocculant and acceptable filtration rates. It also underscores the importance of applying an optimized flocculation-testing regime, which has not been adopted by these researchers. The final part of the report proposes a research scheme which should lead to a successful choice of flocculants, filtration aids (surfactants) and a filtration regime, as well recommendations for work that should be carried out to make up for the deficiencies of the limited WSRC work where a better performance should be the outcome.

Poirier, M.R.

2001-06-04

428

Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.  

PubMed

Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to <1 from 4000 NTU and high Biochemical Oxygen Demand/COD ratio of 0.3-0.5 that reflected highly biodegradable residual organics. The results showed synergistic oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided. PMID:23394956

Hong, P K Andy; Xiao, Ting

2013-04-01

429

SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

2007-07-16

430

Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected.

Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

1997-09-30

431

Filtration, Gravity (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Filtration, Gravity: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". Filtration is a technique used to separate a solid from a liquid. The solid is separated from the liquid phase by passing the mixture over a filtering media. The mixture can be forced through the filter by either gravity or reduced pressure on one side of the filter (by creating a vacuum). It is possible to separate a solid from a liquid by either technique, however there are advantages to each technique. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

432

Filtration, Vacuum (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Filtration, Vacuum: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". Filtration is a technique used to separate a solid from a liquid. The solid is separated from the liquid phase by passing the mixture over a filtering media. The mixture can be forced through the filter by either gravity or reduced pressure on one side of the filter (by creating a vacuum). It is possible to separate a solid from a liquid by either technique, however there are advantages to each technique. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

433

Human serum protein fractionation by gel filtration  

PubMed Central

The development of a quantitative immunological technique using polyvalent antiserum permits a more logical approach to the fractionation of complex protein mixtures. In this study whole serum was separated by conventional gel filtration and the fractions obtained were analysed. This demonstrates over 60 immunologically distinct serum proteins. Because the current terminology is inadequate to describe this number of proteins, a temporary numerical nomenclature has been used. ImagesPLATE 4PLATE 5PLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3

Freeman, T.; Smith, J.

1970-01-01

434

Environmental Technology Verification Report -- Baghouse filtration products, GE Energy QG061 filtration media ( tested May 2007)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center, a cente...

435

Granular filtration in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas stream. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the in-flowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. Batch mode filtration performance of the filter was first reported at the Ninth Annual Coal-Fueled Heat Engines, Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion, and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting.

Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

1995-12-31

436

Filtration behavior of slurries with varying compressibilities  

SciTech Connect

A novel filtration apparatus allows simultaneous measurements of filtrate volume, hydraulic pressure and cake thickness using slurry volumes on the order of 100 cm/sup 3/. Differences in interparticle interactions were studied by varying the barium chloride concentration of 0.38-..mu..m polystyrene latex and filtering at pressures between 2 and 100 psi. Cakes formed from these slurries are highly compressible for concentrations between 0.01M and 0.10M, moderately compressible for the 0.005M concentration, and incompressible for the 0.001M concentration. Plots of filtrate volume versus cake thickness were linear for the incompressible cakes, whereas the compressible cakes showed significant deviations, which were pressure dependent. The pressure distribution for the incompressible cake was found to be essentially linear as predicted from the resistance plots assuming constant ..cap alpha.. and epsilon. For the highly compressible cakes, most of the pressure drop appears to occur near the cake/medium interface with only small changes occurring at the top of the cake.

Massuda, M.; Bridger, K.; Harvey, M.; Tiller, F.M.

1988-10-01

437

Laboratory Measurements of the Spatial Distribution of Gas Velocities through Seasoned Baghouse Fabrics throughout a Simulated Filtration Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the spatial distribution of the gas velocity across seasoned filter bag samples was measured with high resolution throughout a simulated filtration cycle. The samples were obtained from utility baghouses employing shake\\/deflate and reverse-gas cleaning. The tests simulated a filtration cycle with a constant air to cloth ratio of 2 acfm\\/ft for a two-hour period with a gas

Wallace G. Kistler; William J. Steele; Duane H. Pontius; Richard K. Albano

1986-01-01

438

Filtration of bioaerosols using a granular metallic filter with micrometer-sized collectors  

SciTech Connect

Several experimental studies with granular bed filters composed of micrometer-sized spherical or sintered metallic granules have demonstrated their use in aerosol filtration. However, the effectiveness of these metallic membrane filters against bioaerosols has not been established. In this work, the filtration efficiency and filter quality of these filters against airborne B. subtilis endospore and MS2 virus were determined as a function of face velocity and loading time. In experiments, a physical removal efficiency greater than 99.9% and a viable removal efficiency of greater than 5-log were observed for both bacterial spore and viral aerosols. A lower face velocity produced both higher collection efficiency and filter quality for virus but was not statistically significant for spore filtration. Although the filter had high filtration efficiency of the test bioaerosols, the filter's high pressure drop resulted in a low filter quality (0.25-0.75 kPa- 1). Overall, filters with micrometer-sized collectors capture bioaerosols effectively but their applications in aerosol filtration may be limited by their high pressure drop.

Damit, Brian E [ORNL] [ORNL; Bischoff, Brian L [ORNL] [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL] [ORNL; Wu, Dr. Chang-Yu [University of Florida, Gainesville] [University of Florida, Gainesville; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

439

Analysis of cake growth in cake filtration: Effect of fine particle retention  

SciTech Connect

Equations were derived that describe the dynamics of cake growth in cake filtration, and methods for their solutions were developed. In deriving the equations, the moving boundary nature of the cake formation process and the effect of fine particle retention were considered. It was shown that fine particle retention may contribute significantly to the decrease of cake permeability and thus alters the performance of cake filtration even if the amount of fine particles involved is small. Through numerical examples, it was also demonstrated that fine particle retention in filter cakes may cause serious errors in determining the constitutive relationships from filter test data.

Tien, C.; Bai, R.; Ramarao, B.V. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-01-01

440

EPA FABRIC FILTRATION STUDIES: 1. PERFORMANCE OF NON-WOVEN NYLON FILTER BAGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the potential of various new fabrics as baghouse filters and to obtain data for their use, by the fabric filtration community. The testing consisted of simulating a baghouse operation in a carefully controlled laboratory setting...

441

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT--BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, W.L. GORE ASSOC., INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center evaluates the performance of baghouse filtration products used primarily to control PM2.5 emissions. This verification statement summarizes the test results for W.L. Gore & Assoc....

442

ELECTROSTATIC AUGMENTATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION: REVERSE-AIR PILOT UNIT EXPERIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the use of a pilot unit (consisting of two baghouses in a parallel-flow arrangement on a slipstream from an industrial pulverized-coal boiler house) to test electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) in a reverse-air cleaning mode. ESFF is character...

443

EPA RESEARCH IN FABRIC FILTRATION: ANNUAL REPORT ON IERL-RTP INHOUSE PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes EPA's inhouse research program in fabric filtration, involving investigations into the basic mechanisms of dust/fabric interaction in order to develop improved understanding of the process. Evaluation of new fabrics in laboratory tests that can be extrapolat...

444

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM: Stormwater Source Area Treatment Device - Arkal Pressurized Stormwater Filtration System  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance verification testing of the Arkal Pressurized Stormwater Filtration System was conducted under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program on a 5.5-acre parking lot and grounds of St. Mary's Hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The system consists of a water sto...

445

Refining Colloid Filtration Theory for Nanoparticle Transport in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical colloid filtration theory (CFT) was developed in the 1970's for predicting the rate of particle removal in deep-bed filtration water treatment systems. Over the past two decades CFT has been widely applied to address subsurface colloid transport research questions, but current concerns on the environmental risks of nanoparticles coupled with the uncertainties of CFT validity for nanoscale colloids calls for development of new constitutive theory for nanoparticle transport. The premise of CFT is that macroscopic transport can be inferred from a mechanistic analysis of particle transpor