Estimation of blade airloads from rotor blade bending moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bousman, William G.
1987-01-01
A method is developed to estimate the blade normal airloads by using measured flap bending moments; that is, the rotor blade is used as a force balance. The blade's rotation is calculated in vacuum modes and the airloads are then expressed as an algebraic sum of the mode shapes, modal amplitudes, mass distribution, and frequency properties. The modal amplitudes are identified from the blade bending moments using the Strain Pattern Analysis Method. The application of the method is examined using simulated flap bending moment data that have been calculated for measured airloads for a full-scale rotor in a wind tunnel. The estimated airloads are compared with the wind tunnel measurements. The effects of the number of measurements, the number of modes, and errors in the measurements and the blade properties are examined, and the method is shown to be robust.
Nonlinear Bending Stiffness of Plates Clamped by Bolted Joints under Bending Moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naruse, Tomohiro; Shibutani, Yoji
Equivalent stiffness of plates clamped by bolted joints for designing should be evaluated according to not only the strength of bolted joints but also the deformation and vibration characteristics of the structures. When the applied external axial load or the bending moment is sufficiently small, the contact surfaces of the bolted joint are stuck together, and thus both the bolt and the clamped plates deform linearly. Although the sophisticated VDI 2230 code gives the appropriate stiffness of clamped plates for the infinitesimal deformation, the stiffness may vary nonlinearly with increasing the loading because of changing the contact state. Therefore, the present paper focuses on the nonlinear behaviour of the bending stiffness of clamped plates by using Finite Element (FE) analyses, taking the contact condition on bearing surfaces and between the plates into account. The FE models of the plates with thicknesses of 3.2, 4.5, 6.0 and 9.0 mm tightened with M8, 10, 12 and 16 bolts were constructed. The relation between bending moment and bending compliance of clamped plates is found to be categorized into three regions, namely, (i) constant compliance with fully stuck contact surfaces, (ii) transition showing the nonlinear compliance, and (iii) constant compliance with one-side contact surfaces. The mechanical models for these three regions are proposed and compared with FEM solutions. The prediction on the bounds of three regions is in a fairly good agreement except the case with smaller bolts and thicker plates.
Estimation of blade airloads from rotor blade bending moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bousman, William G.
1987-01-01
This paper presents a method for the estimation of blade airloads, based on the measurements of flap bending moments. In this procedure, the blade rotation in vacuum modes is calculated, and the airloads are expressed as an algebraic sum of the mode shapes, modal amplitudes, mass distribution, and frequency properties. The method was validated by comparing the calculated airload distribution with the original wind tunnel measurements which were made using ten modes and twenty measurement stations. Good agreement between the predicted and the measured airloads was found up to 0.90 R, but the agreement degraded towards the blade tip. The method is shown to be quite robust to the type of experimental problems that could be expected to occur in the testing of full-scale and model-scale rotors.
Proposal of improvement of debonding bending moment for pre-stressed CFRP bonded steel member
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, Masaru; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Hattori, Atsushi; Kawano, Hirotaka
Recently, some research reports on the application of pre-stressed CFRP plate on steel members have been published. However, the shear and peeling stresses in adhesive at the end of CFRP plates are induced by releasing the pre-tension as well as bending moment. Therefore, in the strengthening of steel members with the pre-stressed CFRP plate, the CFRP plate tends to have debonding in the lower bending moment. In this study, to reduce the shear and peeling stresses in adhesive by releasing the pre-tension of CFRP plates, installation of non pre-stressed regions in CFRP plate was proposed. By installing the non pre-stressed regions in CFRP plate, dividing the locations of higher stresses in adhesive by releasing the pre-tension and bending moment were revealed. Additionally, the design equation of length of non pre-stressed regions was also presented.
Mechanical Model of Steel-concrete Composite Joint under Sagging Bending Moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pisarek, Zdzisław
2012-06-01
In buildings with steel-concrete composite floors, joints are designed to transmit mainly hogging bending moment. In case of the large horizontal loads due to wind, earthquake or accidental events, sagging bending moments in a joint can also occur. Additionally, large deformations of the structure cause tying and prying effects. In the paper, a mechanical model based on "component method" for evaluation of characteristics of the composite joint is presented. The influence of tying and prying actions on distribution of the internal forces in a joint is also analyzed. The procedure for calculation of the characteristics of the composite joint with bolted endplate connection is elaborated too.
Frictionless contact of an elastic punch subject to the normal load and bending moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, X.; Shao, G.; Zhu, L.
2016-03-01
A two-dimensional contact problem of a trapezium shaped punch pressed into a frictionless, elastically similar half-plane and subject sequentially to the normal load and bending moment is considered. The model of a tilted flat punch is used to evaluate the pressure distribution and the contact deformation within the contact zone. Comparisons of the results generated by the analytical technique to those computed by the finite element method demonstrate the high level of accuracy attained by both methods. The presented numerical results illustrate the effects of the normal load, bending moment, and internal angles of the punch geometry on the contact stresses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merten, Kenneth F; Beck, Edgar B
1951-01-01
A smooth-water-landing investigation was conducted with a small seaplane to obtain experimental wing-bending-moment time histories together with time histories of the various parameters necessary for the prediction of wing bending moments during hydrodynamic forcing functions. The experimental results were compared with calculated results which include inertia-load effects and the effects of air-load variation during impact. The responses of the fundamental mode were calculated with the use of the measured hydrodynamic forcing functions. From these responses, the wing bending moments due to the hydrodynamic load were calculated according to the procedure given in R.M. No. 2221. The comparison of the time histories of the experimental and calculated wing bending moments showed good agreement both in phase relationship of the oscillations and in numerical values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, H. J.
The load spectrum unposed upon a horizontal-axis wind turbine blade is typically decomposed into two primary bending moments; flap and edgewise bending. The critical fatigue loads (stress cycles) imposed on the blade may not be on one of these axes, especially if die two bending loads are in-phase with one another. To quantify the correlation of these two bending moments and determine the impact of this correlation on off-axis fatigue loads, an extensive data set for a typical wind turbine blade is examined. The results are compared using their respective cycle count matrices. These results illustrate that the harmonic components of die principal bending stresses are correlated, and that the random components are not. The analysis techniques described in the paper provide the turbine designer with a spectral technique for combining primary bending spectra into off-axis fatigue loads.
The Effect of Composite Patches on the Failure of Adhesively-Bonded Joints Under Bending Moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akpinar, Salih
2013-12-01
In this study, it was aimed to compare mechanical behavior of double-strap joints with aluminum (AA2024-T3) or 16-ply laminate of carbon/epoxy composite (T300/934) patches of different orientation angles at their overlap area subjected to bending moment. For this purpose, AA2024-T3 aluminum was used as adherend, while the adhesive was a two-part paste (DP 460). Six different types of joint samples were subjected to bending moment. The effect of patch material on failure load and stress distribution was examined experimentally and numerically. In the numerical analysis, the composite patches were assumed to behave linearly elastic, while adherend and adhesive layers were assumed to be nonlinear. It was found that the data obtained from 3-D finite element analysis were coherent with experimental results. Meanwhile, experiments showed that fiber orientation angles of the patches markedly affected the failure load of joints, failure mode and stress distributions appeared in adhesive and composite.
Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; LaCava, W.
2012-09-01
This computational work investigates planetary gear load sharing of three-mount suspension wind turbine gearboxes. A three dimensional multibody dynamic model is established, including gravity, bending moments, fluctuating mesh stiffness, nonlinear tooth contact, and bearing clearance. A flexible main shaft, planetary carrier, housing, and gear shafts are modeled using reduced degrees-of-freedom through modal compensation. This drivetrain model is validated against the experimental data of Gearbox Reliability Collaborative for gearbox internal loads. Planet load sharing is a combined effect of gravity, bending moment, bearing clearance, and input torque. Influences of each of these parameters and their combined effects on the resulting planet load sharing are investigated. Bending moments and gravity induce fundamental excitations in the rotating carrier frame, which can increase gearbox internal loads and disturb load sharing. Clearance in carrier bearings reduces the bearing load carrying capacity and thus the bending moment from the rotor can be transmitted into gear meshes. With bearing clearance, the bending moment can cause tooth micropitting and can induce planet bearing fatigue, leading to reduced gearbox life. Planet bearings are susceptible to skidding at low input torque.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T.
1950-01-01
The problem of the minimum induced drag of wings having a given lift and a given span is extended to include cases in which the bending moment to be supported by the wing is also given. The theory is limited to lifting surfaces traveling at subsonic speeds. It is found that the required shape of the downwash distribution can be obtained in an elementary way which is applicable to a variety of such problems. Expressions for the minimum drag and the corresponding spanwise load distributions are also given for the case in which the lift and the bending moment about the wing root are fixed while the span is allowed to vary. The results show a 15-percent reduction of the induced drag with a 15-percent increase in span as compared with results for an elliptically loaded wing having the same total lift and bending moment.
A two-dimensional stress analysis of single lap joints subjected to external bending moments
Sawa, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Katsuyuki; Toratani, Hiroshi
1995-11-01
The stress distribution of single lap adhesive joints subjected to external bending moments are analyzed as a three-body contact problem by using a two-dimensional theory of elasticity. In the analysis, two similar adherends and an adhesive are replaced by finite strips, respectively. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratio of Young;s modulus of adherends to that of adhesive and the adhesive thickness on the stress distribution at the interface are examined. As the results, it is seen that the stress singularity causes at the edges of the interfaces and the peel stress at the edges of the interface increases with a decrease of Young`s modulus of the adherends. In addition, photoelastic experiments are carried out. A fairly good agreement is seen between the analytical and the experimental results.
Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Corners Under Opening Bending Moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, N.; Kwatra, N.; Kanwar, V. S.
2013-03-01
In the past few years, there has been growing use of finite element method for analysis of RCC structures to eliminate the expensive testing. However, validations of numerical models are instrumental towards making models reliable, which is, fundamental towards truly predictive prototyping. Keeping this in view, paper presents the results of numerical study of Reinforced Concrete Corners under opening moments using general-purpose finite element analysis software (ANSYS) and the comparison of results to the experimental results available in the literature [Singh and Kaushik, J Inst Eng (India), 84:201-209, 2003]. The Load deflection behaviour obtained is compared with the results corresponding to four different reinforcement detailing investigated experimentally [Singh and Kaushik, J Inst Eng (India), 84:201-209, 2003]. Details of the FE modeling of Reinforced Concrete Corners with four different reinforcement detailing have been presented. The best reinforcement detailing of Reinforced Concrete Corners on the basis of load deflection behaviour has been judged and advocated further on the basis of finite element analysis. The second phase of the study, investigates the effect of diameter of main steel, grade of concrete and spacing of shear reinforcement on load deformation behavior of the corners under opening bending moments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, Floyd V.; Yntema, Robert T.
1959-01-01
Several approximate procedures for calculating the bending-moment response of flexible airplanes to continuous isotropic turbulence are presented and evaluated. The modal methods (the mode-displacement and force-summation methods) and a matrix method (segmented-wing method) are considered. These approximate procedures are applied to a simplified airplane for which an exact solution to the equation of motion can be obtained. The simplified airplane consists of a uniform beam with a concentrated fuselage mass at the center. Airplane motions are limited to vertical rigid-body translation and symmetrical wing bending deflections. Output power spectra of wing bending moments based on the exact transfer-function solutions are used as a basis for the evaluation of the approximate methods. It is shown that the force-summation and the matrix methods give satisfactory accuracy and that the mode-displacement method gives unsatisfactory accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCarty, John Locke; Brooks, George W.; Maglieri, Domenic J.
1959-01-01
A two-blade rotor having a diameter of 4 feet and a solidity of 0.037 was tested in the Langley 300-MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to obtain information on the effect of certain rotor variables on the blade periodic bending moments and flapping angles during the various stages of transformation between the helicopter and autogiro configuration. Variables studied included collective pitch angle, flapping-hinge offset, rotor angle of attack, and tip-speed ratio. The results show that the blade periodic bending moments generally increase with tip-speed ratio up into the transition region, diminish over a certain range of tip-speed ratio, and increase again at higher tip-speed ratios. Above the transition region, the bending moments increase with collective pitch angle and rotor angle of attack. The absence of a flapping hinge results in a significant amplification of the periodic bending moments, the magnitudes of which increase with tip-speed ratio. When the flapping hinge is used, an increase in flapping-hinge offset results in reduced period bending moments. The aforementioned trends exhibited by the bending moments for changes in the variables are essentially duplicated by the periodic flapping motions. The existence of substantial amounts of blade stall increased both the periodic bending moments and the flapping angles. Harmonic analysis of the bending moments shows significant contributions of the higher harmonics, particularly in the transition region.
Accurate Determination of Torsion and Pure Bending Moment for Viscoelastic Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yun-Che; Ko, Chih-Chin; Shiau, Li-Ming
Measurements of time-dependent material properties in the context of linear viscoelasticity, at a given frequency and temperature, require accurate determination of both loading and deformation that are subjected to the testing materials. A pendulum-type viscoelastic spectroscopy is developed to experimentally measure loss tangent and the magnitude of dynamic modulus of solid materials. The mechanical system of the device is based on the behavior of the cantilever beam, and torsion and pure bending moment are generated from the interaction between a permanent magnet and the Helmholtz coils. The strength of the magnetic interactions may be determined with a material with known mechanical properties, such as aluminum 6061T4 alloy. The sensitivity of the torque measurement is on the order of one micro N-m level. With the high accurate torque measurement and deformation detection from a laser-based displacement measurement system, viscoelastic properties of materials can be experimentally measured in different frequency regimes. Sinusoidal driving signals are adopted for measuring complex modulus in the sub-resonant regime, and dc bias driving for creep tests in the low frequency limit. At structural resonant frequencies, the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) method or Lorentzian curve fitting method is adopted to extract material properties. The completion of determining material properties in the wide frequency spectrum may help to identify the deformation mechanisms of the material and to create better models for simulation work.
Panagiotidou, A; Meswania, J; Osman, K; Bolland, B; Latham, J; Skinner, J; Haddad, F S; Hart, A; Blunn, G
2015-04-01
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of frictional torque and bending moment on fretting corrosion at the taper interface of a modular femoral component and to investigate whether different combinations of material also had an effect. The combinations we examined were 1) cobalt-chromium (CoCr) heads on CoCr stems 2) CoCr heads on titanium alloy (Ti) stems and 3) ceramic heads on CoCr stems. In test 1 increasing torque was imposed by offsetting the stem in the anteroposterior plane in increments of 0 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm when the torque generated was equivalent to 0 Nm, 9 Nm, 14 Nm and 18 Nm. In test 2 we investigated the effect of increasing the bending moment by offsetting the application of axial load from the midline in the mediolateral plane. Increments of offset equivalent to head + 0 mm, head + 7 mm and head + 14 mm were used. Significantly higher currents and amplitudes were seen with increasing torque for all combinations of material. However, Ti stems showed the highest corrosion currents. Increased bending moments associated with using larger offset heads produced more corrosion: Ti stems generally performed worse than CoCr stems. Using ceramic heads did not prevent corrosion, but reduced it significantly in all loading configurations. PMID:25820883
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichtenstein, J. H.
1978-01-01
An analytical method of computing the averaging effect of wing-span size on the loading of a wing induced by random turbulence was adapted for use on a digital electronic computer. The turbulence input was assumed to have a Dryden power spectral density. The computations were made for lift, rolling moment, and bending moment for two span load distributions, rectangular and elliptic. Data are presented to show the wing-span averaging effect for wing-span ratios encompassing current airplane sizes. The rectangular wing-span loading showed a slightly greater averaging effect than did the elliptic loading. In the frequency range most bothersome to airplane passengers, the wing-span averaging effect can reduce the normal lift load, and thus the acceleration, by about 7 percent for a typical medium-sized transport. Some calculations were made to evaluate the effect of using a Von Karman turbulence representation. These results showed that using the Von Karman representation generally resulted in a span averaging effect about 3 percent larger.
Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P
1991-10-01
Two methods can be used to determine aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade. The first is to make direct pressure measurements on the blade surface. This is a difficult process requiring costly pressure instrumentation. The second method uses measured flap bending moments in conjunction with analytical techniques to estimate airloads. This method, called ALEST, was originally developed for use on helicopter rotors and was modified for use on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. Estimating airloads using flap bending moments in much simpler and less costly because measurements can be made with conventional strain gages and equipment. This paper presents results of airload estimates obtained using both methods under a variety of operating conditions. Insights on the limitations and usefulness of the ALEST bending moment technique are also included. 10 refs., 6 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wollner, Bertram C
1948-01-01
Contains charts for use in determining preliminary values of the spanwise-load, shear, bending-moment, and accumulated-torque distributions of swept wings. The charts are based on strip theory and include four aerodynamic-load distributions, two section-moment distributions, and two inertia-load distributions. The taper ratios considered cover the range from 1.0 to 0 and the results are applicable to any angle of sweep.
Femur-bending properties as influenced by gravity. I - Ultimate load and moment for 3-G rats
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wunder, C. C.; Welch, R. C.; Glade, R.; Fleming, B. P.; Cook, K. M.
1977-01-01
Fresh experimental bones can withstand greater bending forces and moments after 1.0 to 2.5 weeks of 3-G exposure. This appears more attributable to a 50% greater strength of bone material than to effects upon size or shape, and is most measurable for animals of 5 to 8 weeks of age. Experimental bone material seems to grow to its mature level at a younger age rather then there being so marked an effect upon the mature level itself. We simulated 3.1 G by chronic centrifugation of 66 albino rats and compared them to 63 1-G controls. Extrapolation of the simplest mathematical description of the present results to weaker, zero-G bones could be tested by a total of 60 space-based control and experimental animals. A flight of only 15 animals would be necessary for comparison to ground-based control animals. This is consistent with reports of bone demineralization during space-flight. In light of the differences in bone histology, however, extrapolation of these results to humans would be premature and, if at all applicable, are most likely to be so for children rather than adults.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran
1946-01-01
This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by
Faber, G S; Chang, C C; Kingma, I; Dennerlein, J T; van Dieën, J H
2016-04-11
Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems have become increasingly popular for ambulatory movement analysis. However, few studies have attempted to use these measurement techniques to estimate kinetic variables, such as joint moments and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Therefore, we investigated the performance of a full-body ambulatory IMC system in estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and GRFs during symmetric, asymmetric and fast trunk bending, performed by nine male participants. Using an ambulatory IMC system (Xsens/MVN), L5/S1 moments were estimated based on the upper-body segment kinematics using a top-down inverse dynamics analysis, and GRFs were estimated based on full-body segment accelerations. As a reference, a laboratory measurement system was utilized: GRFs were measured with Kistler force plates (FPs), and L5/S1 moments were calculated using a bottom-up inverse dynamics model based on FP data and lower-body kinematics measured with an optical motion capture system (OMC). Correspondence between the OMC+FP and IMC systems was quantified by calculating root-mean-square errors (RMSerrors) of moment/force time series and the interclass correlation (ICC) of the absolute peak moments/forces. Averaged over subjects, L5/S1 moment RMSerrors remained below 10Nm (about 5% of the peak extension moment) and 3D GRF RMSerrors remained below 20N (about 2% of the peak vertical force). ICCs were high for the peak L5/S1 extension moment (0.971) and vertical GRF (0.998). Due to lower amplitudes, smaller ICCs were found for the peak asymmetric L5/S1 moments (0.690-0.781) and horizontal GRFs (0.559-0.948). In conclusion, close correspondence was found between the ambulatory IMC-based and laboratory-based estimates of back load. PMID:26795123
Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M
2016-09-14
Stimulated by new experiments from the Havenith group, we report IR spectra of the bend fundamentals of (H2O)n=3,4,5, using anharmonic, coupled-mode VSCF/VCI calculations, done in a subspace of modes consisting of all the monomer bends plus the hydrogen-bonded OH stretches. Double-harmonic spectra are also reported. All calculations employ a faster version of the ab initio WHBB potential and also a more accurate representation of the dipole moment surface, reported previously. Comparisons at the harmonic level are made with previous high-level ab initio calculations, notably those of Howard and Tschumper and also with harmonic frequencies from the semi-empirical TTM3-F potential, which have been reported previously by Howard and Tschumper. The calculations provide energies and intensities of the hydrogen-bonded OH stretches and these are also presented and briefly discussed. PMID:27523256
Reversal bending fatigue testing
Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting
2014-10-21
Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, M. T.; Mennell, R. C.
1974-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.015-scale representation of the integrated space shuttle launch vehicle in the trisonic wind tunnel. The primary test objective was to obtain subsonic and transonic elevon and bodyflap hinge moments and wing bending-torsion moments in the presence of the launch vehicle. Wing pressures were also recorded for the upper and lower right wing surfaces at two spanwise stations. The hinge moment, wing bending/torsion moments and wing pressure data were recorded over an angle-of-attack (alpha) range from -8 deg to +8 deg, and angle-of-sideslip (beta) range from -8 deg to +8 deg and at Mach numbers of 0.90, 1.12, 1.24 and 1.50. Tests were also conducted to determine the effects of the orbiter rear attach cross beam and the forward attach wedge and strut diameter. The orbiter alone was tested at 0.90 and 1.24 Mach number only.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Kate
2012-01-01
The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…
Controlled impact demonstration airframe bending bridges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soltis, S. J.
1986-01-01
The calibration of the KRASH and DYCAST models for transport aircraft is discussed. The FAA uses computer analysis techniques to predict the response of controlled impact demonstration (CID) during impact. The moment bridges can provide a direct correlation between the predictive loads or moments that the models will predict and what was experienced during the actual impact. Another goal is to examine structural failure mechanisms and correlate with analytical predictions. The bending bridges did achieve their goals and objectives. The data traces do provide some insight with respect to airframe loads and structural response. They demonstrate quite clearly what's happening to the airframe. A direct quantification of metal airframe loads was measured by the moment bridges. The measured moments can be correlated with the KRASH and DYCAST computer models. The bending bridge data support airframe failure mechanisms analysis and provide residual airframe strength estimation. It did not appear as if any of the bending bridges on the airframe exceeded limit loads. (The observed airframe fracture was due to the fuselage encounter with the tomahawk which tore out the keel beam.) The airframe bridges can be used to estimate the impact conditions and those estimates are correlating with some of the other data measurements. Structural response, frequency and structural damping are readily measured by the moment bridges.
Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining
2013-02-01
Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.
Microhole Tubing Bending Report
Oglesby, Ken
2012-01-01
A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Ann
2008-01-01
Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…
Dispersion suppressors with bending
Garren, A.
1985-10-01
Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.
Right-angle slot waveguide bends with high bending efficiency.
Ma, Changbao; Zhang, Qun; Van Keuren, Edward
2008-09-15
Two right-angle bends for nanoscale slot waveguides with high bending efficiency based on a corner mirror and different resonant cavities are presented, one with a triangular cavity and the other with a square cavity. Through two-dimensional parametric scanning of the position of the mirror and the dimension of the cavity, a maximum bending efficiency calculated using mode overlap integral (MOI) of 94.3% is achieved for the bend with the triangular cavity and 93.1% is achieved for the bend with the square cavity. Although they both have similar bending performance, the position of the mirror is different between the two cases. PMID:18794968
Bending properties of foamed aluminum panels and sandwiches
Simancik, F.; Kovacik, J.; Minarikova, N.
1998-12-31
The foamed panels and sandwiches were prepared by powder metallurgical route using various matrix alloys. The effect of the apparent density, geometry and structure of the foam on its bending stiffness was studied with respect to the results of the four-point-bending. It has been shown that the modulus of elasticity of the foam cannot be related only to its apparent density, because the distribution of the cell-wall material along the thickness of the foamed panel is not uniform. Therefore the real moment of inertia of the foam`s cross-section should be used for the calculation of bending stiffness. This moment can be determined from the square weight of the foamed sample.
Measuring graphene's bending stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blees, Melina; Barnard, Arthur; Roberts, Samantha; Kevek, Joshua W.; Ruyack, Alexander; Wardini, Jenna; Ong, Peijie; Zaretski, Aliaksandr; Wang, Siping; McEuen, Paul L.
2013-03-01
Graphene's unusual combination of in-plane strength and out-of-plane flexibility makes it promising for mechanical applications. A key value is the bending stiffness, which microscopic theories and measurements of phonon modes in graphite put at κ0 = 1.2 eV.1 However, theories of the effects of thermal fluctuations in 2D membranes predict that the bending stiffness at longer length scales could be orders of magnitude higher.2,3 This macroscopic value has not been measured. Here we present the first direct measurement of monolayer graphene's bending stiffness, made by mechanically lifting graphene off a surface in a liquid and observing both motion induced by thermal fluctuations and the deflection caused by gravity's effect on added weights. These experiments reveal a value κeff = 12 keV at room temperature -- four orders of magnitude higher than κ0. These results closely match theoretical predictions of the effects of thermally-induced fluctuations which effectively thicken the membrane, dramatically increasing its bending stiffness at macroscopic length scales.
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miloud, Abdelkrim; Aounallah, Mohammed; Belkadi, Mustapha; Adjlout, Lahouari; Imine, Omar; Imine, Bachir
2014-03-01
Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performances of standard k-ɛ and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Total Longitudinal Moment Calculation and Reliability Analysis of Yacht Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhi, Wenzheng; Lin, Shaofen
In order to check the reliability of the yacht in FRP (Fiber Reinforce Plastic) materials, in this paper, the vertical force and the calculation method of the overall longitudinal bending moment on yacht was analyzed. Specially, this paper focuses on the impact of speed on the still water bending moment on yacht. Then considering the mechanical properties of the cap type stiffeners in composite materials, the ultimate bearing capacity of the yacht has been worked out, finally the reliability of the yacht was calculated with using response surface methodology. The result can be used in yacht design and yacht driving.
Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney
2012-01-01
Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…
On the bending properties of porcine mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valve leaflets.
Brazile, Bryn; Wang, Bo; Wang, Guangjun; Bertucci, Robbin; Prabhu, Raj; Patnaik, Sourav S; Butler, J Ryan; Claude, Andrew; Brinkman-Ferguson, Erin; Williams, Lakiesha N; Liao, Jun
2015-01-01
The atrioventricular valve leaflets (mitral and tricuspid) are different from the semilunar valve leaflets (aortic and pulmonary) in layered structure, ultrastructural constitution and organization, and leaflet thickness. These differences warrant a comparative look at the bending properties of the four types of leaflets. We found that the moment-curvature relationships in atrioventricular valves were stiffer than in semilunar valves, and the moment-curvature relationships of the left-side valve leaflets were stiffer than their morphological analog of the right side. These trends were supported by the moment-curvature curves and the flexural rigidity analysis (EI value decreased from mitral, tricuspid, aortic, to pulmonary leaflets). However, after taking away the geometric effect (moment of inertia I), the instantaneous effective bending modulus E showed a reversed trend. The overall trend of flexural rigidity (EI: mitral > tricuspid > aortic > pulmonary) might be correlated with the thickness variations among the four types of leaflets (thickness: mitral > tricuspid > aortic > pulmonary). The overall trend of the instantaneous effective bending modulus (E: mitral < tricuspid < aortic < pulmonary) might be correlated to the layered fibrous ultrastructures of the four types of leaflets, of which the fibers in mitral and tricuspid leaflets were less aligned, and the fibers in aortic and pulmonary leaflets were highly aligned. We also found that, for all types of leaflets, moment-curvature relationships are stiffer in against-curvature (AC) bending than in with-curvature bending (WC), which implies that leaflets tend to flex toward their natural curvature and comply with blood flow. Lastly, we observed that the leaflets were stiffer in circumferential bending compared with radial bending, likely reflecting the physiological motion of the leaflets, i.e., more bending moment and movement were experienced in radial direction than circumferential direction. PMID:25955006
Solvents level dipole moments.
Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H; Eichinger, Bruce E
2011-11-01
The dipole moments of highly polar molecules measured in solution are usually smaller than the molecular dipole moments that are calculated with reaction field methods, whereas vacuum values are routinely calculated in good agreement with available vapor phase data. Whether from Onsager's theory (or variations thereof) or from quantum mechanical methods, the calculated molecular dipoles in solution are found to be larger than those measured. The reason, of course, is that experiments measure the net dipole moment of solute together with the polarized (perturbed) solvent "cloud" surrounding it. Here we show that the reaction field charges that are generated in the quantum mechanical self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method give a good estimate of the net dipole moment of the solute molecule together with the moment arising from the reaction field charges. This net dipole is a better description of experimental data than the vacuum dipole moment and certainly better than the bare dipole moment of the polarized solute molecule. PMID:21923185
Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.
Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.
1985-10-01
The phase shifting trombones considered up to now for SSC application consisted of sets of evenly spaced quadrupoles separated by drift spaces. One such trombone was placed between a dispersion suppressor and a crossing insertion, so that the trombone had zero dispersion. With such trombones, it is possible to change {beta}{sup *} at constant tune, or to change the tunes by several units without altering the cell phase advances in the arcs. An objection to the above type of phase trombone is that it adds to the circumference, since no bending is included. This objection may or may not be valid depending on the potential usefulness of the drift spaces in them. In this note the authors show an alternative trombone design in which dipoles are included between the quadrupoles as in the normal arc cells. Since these trombones have dispersion, they are placed at the ends of the arcs, to be followed in turn by the dispersion suppressors and crossing insertions.
Modeling bicortical screws under a cantilever bending load.
James, Thomas P; Andrade, Brendan A
2013-12-01
Cyclic loading of surgical plating constructs can precipitate bone screw failure. As the frictional contact between the plate and the bone is lost, cantilever bending loads are transferred from the plate to the head of the screw, which over time causes fatigue fracture from cyclic bending. In this research, analytical models using beam mechanics theory were developed to describe the elastic deflection of a bicortical screw under a statically applied load. Four analytical models were developed to simulate the various restraint conditions applicable to bicortical support of the screw. In three of the models, the cortical bone near the tip of the screw was simulated by classical beam constraints (1) simply supported, (2) cantilever, and (3) split distributed load. In the final analytical model, the cortices were treated as an elastic foundation, whereby the response of the constraint was proportional to screw deflection. To test the predictive ability of the new analytical models, 3.5 mm cortical bone screws were tested in a synthetic bone substitute. A novel instrument was developed to measure the bending deflection of screws under radial loads (225 N, 445 N, and 670 N) applied by a surrogate surgical plate at the head of the screw. Of the four cases considered, the analytical model utilizing an elastic foundation most accurately predicted deflection at the screw head, with an average difference of 19% between the measured and predicted results. Determination of the bending moments from the elastic foundation model revealed that a maximum moment of 2.3 N m occurred near the middle of the cortical wall closest to the plate. The location of the maximum bending moment along the screw axis was consistent with the fracture location commonly observed in clinical practice. PMID:24105350
Longitudinal-bending mode micromotor using multilayer piezoelectric actuator.
Yao, K; Koc, B; Uchino, K
2001-07-01
Longitudinal-bending mode ultrasonic motors with a diameter of 3 mm were fabricated using stacked multilayer piezoelectric actuators, which were self-developed from hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic. A bending vibration was converted from a longitudinal vibration with a longitudinal-bending coupler. The motors could be bidirectionally operated by changing driving frequency. Their starting and braking torque were analyzed based on the transient velocity response. With a load of moment of inertia 2.5 x 10(-7) kgm2, the motor showed a maximum starting torque of 127.5 microNm. The braking torque proved to be a constant independent on the motor's driving conditions and was roughly equivalent to the maximum starting torque achievable with our micromotors. PMID:11477764
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-03-29
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zichittella, Jack
1998-01-01
Discusses Henri Cartier-Bresson's notion of the "aesthetic of the decisive moment" and its role in photographic composition. Argues that recording spontaneous moments from real life can produce significant and complex photographs. Suggests that instilling this technique in photography students frees them to experiment without fear of failure. (DSK)
Valentine, Christine
2007-01-01
The "moment of death," once a dominant concept in preparing for a "good death", has been eclipsed by a focus on the wider concept of the "dying trajectory". However, findings from interviews with 25 bereaved individuals suggest that dying loved ones' final moments may still be experienced as highly significant in their own right. In some accounts the dying individual's final moments did not feature or made little impression, either because the survivor was not present, or there was no obviously definable moment, or because other, usually medical factors, such as whether to resuscitate the person, took precedence. However, in six cases such moments were constructed as profound, special, and memorable occasions. These constructions are explored in relation to achieving a good death, the dying trajectory as a whole, and making sense of the bereavement experience. Their implications for sociological theories of identity and embodiment are also considered. PMID:18214069
Buoyancy, bending, and seismic visibility in deep slab stagnation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bina, Craig R.; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Suetsugu, D.; Bina, C.; Inoue, T.; Wiens, D.; Jellinek, M.
2010-11-01
The petrological consequences of deep subhorizontal deflection ("stagnation") of subducting slabs should affect both apparent seismic velocity structures and slab morphology. We construct kinematic thermal models of stagnant slabs and perform thermodynamic modeling of the consequent perturbation of high-pressure phase transitions in mantle minerals, focusing upon Japan as our study area. We calculate associated thermo-petrological buoyancy forces and bending moments which (along with other factors such as viscosity variations and rollback dynamics) may contribute to slab deformation. We consider effects of variations in depth of stagnation, post-stagnation dip angle, phase transition sharpness, transition triplication due to multiple intersection of geotherms with phase boundaries, and potential persistence of metastable phases due to kinetic hindrance. We also estimate seismic velocity anomalies, as might be imaged by seismic tomography, and corresponding seismic velocity gradients, as might be imaged by receiver-function analysis. We find that buoyant bending moment gradients of petrological origin at the base of the transition zone may contribute to slab stagnation. Such buoyancy forces vary with the depth at which stagnation occurs, so that slabs may seek an equilibrium slab stagnation depth. Metastable phase bending moment gradients further enhance slab stagnation, but they thermally decay after ∱/4600•700 km of horizontal travel, potentially allowing stagnant slabs to descend into the lower mantle. Stagnant slabs superimpose zones of negative velocity gradient onto a depressed 660-km seismic discontinuity, affecting the seismological visibility of such features. Seismologically resolvable details should depend upon both stagnation depth and the nature of the imaging technique (travel-time tomography vs. boundary-interaction phases). While seismic tomography appears to yield images of stagnant slabs, discontinuity topography beneath Japan resolved by
Development of a new model for plane strain bending and springback analysis
Zhang, Z.T.; Lee, D.
1995-06-01
A new mathematical model is presented for plane strain bending and springback analysis in sheet metal forming. This model combines effects associated with bending and stretching, considers stress and strain distributions and different thickness variations in the thickness direction, and takes force equilibrium into account. An elastic-plastic material model and Hill`s nonquadratic yield function are incorporated in the model. The model is used to obtain force, bending moment, and springback curvature. A typical two-dimensional draw bending part is divided into five regions along the strip, and the forces and moments acting on each region and the deformation history of each region are examined. Three different methods are applied to the two-dimensional draw bending problems: the first using the new model, the second using the new model but also including a kinematic directional hardening material model to consider the bending and unbending deformation in the wall, and the third using membrane theory plus bending strain. Results from these methods, including those from the recent benchmark program, are compared.
Moment inference from tomograms
Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.
2007-01-01
Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system
Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.
2004-05-18
A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.
Chang, D. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL ); Senjanovic, G. . Dept. of Theoretical Physics)
1990-01-01
We review attempts to achieve a large neutrino magnetic moment ({mu}{sub {nu}} {le} 10{sup {minus}11}{mu}{sub B}), while keeping neutrino light or massless. The application to the solar neutrino puzzle is discussed. 24 refs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bock, G.
1946-01-01
When flying in a turn or pulling out of a dive, the airscrew exerts a gyroscopic moment on the aircraft, In the case of airscrews with three or more blades, arranged symmetrically, the value of the gyroscopic moment is J(sub x) omega(sub x) omega(sub y), where J(sub x) denotes the axial moment of inertia about the axis of rotation of the airscrew, omega(sub x) the angular upeed of the airscrew about its axis, and omega (sub Y) the rotary speed of the whole aircraft about an axis parallel to the plane of the airscrew (e.g., when pulling up, the transverse axis of the aircraft). The gyroscopic moment then tends to rotate the aircraft about an axis perpendicular to those of the two angular speeds and, in the came of airscrews with three or more blades, is constant during a revolution of the airscrew. With two-bladed airscrews, on the contrary, although the calculate gyroscopic moment represents the mean value in time, it fluctuates about this value with a frequency equal to twice the revolutions per minute. In addition, pulsating moments likewise occur about the other two axes. This fact is known from the theory of the asymmetrical gyro; the calculations that have been carried out for the determination of the various gyroscopic moments, however, mostly require an exact knowledge of the gyro theory. The problem will therefore be approached in another manner based on quite elementary considerations. The considerations are of importance, not only in connection with the gyroscopic moments exerted by the two-bladed airscrew on the aircraft, but also with the stressing of the blades of airscrews with an arbitrary number of blades.
Assessment of Local Wall Thinned Pipeline Under Combined Bending and Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shim, D. J.; Choi, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, C. Y.
Failure of a pipeline due to local wall thinning is getting more attention in the nuclear power plant industry. Although guidelines such as ANSI/ASME B31G are still useful for assessing the integrity of a wall thinned pipeline, there are some limitations in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines consider only pressure loading and thus neglect bending loading. However, most pipelines in nuclear power plants are subjected to internal pressure and bending moment due to dead-weight loads and seismic loads. Therefore, an assessment procedure for locally wall thinned pipeline subjected to combined loading is needed. In this paper, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were performed to simulate full-scale pipe tests conducted for various shapes of wall thinned area under internal pressure and bending moment. Maximum moments based on true ultimate stress (σu,t) were obtain from FE results to predict the failure of the pipe. These results were compared with test results, which showed good agreement. Additional finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effect of key parameters, such as wall thinned depth, wall thinned angle and wall thinned length, on maximum moment. Also, the effect of internal pressure on maximum moment was investigated. Change of internal pressure did not show significant effect on the maximum moment.
Bending fracture in carbon nanotubes.
Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Lu, Hsin-Fang
2008-12-10
A novel approach was adopted to incur bending fracture in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Expanded graphite (EG) was made by intercalating and exfoliating natural graphite flakes. The EG was deposited with nickel particles, from which CNTs were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The CNTs were tip-grown, and their roots were fixed on the EG flakes. The EG flakes were compressed, and many CNTs on the surface were fragmented due to the compression-induced bending. Two major modes of the bending fracture were observed: cone-shaped and shear-cut. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the crack growth within the graphene layers. The bending fracture is characterized by two-region crack growth. An opening crack first appears around the outer-tube due to the bending-induced tensile stress. The crack then branches to grow along an inclined direction toward the inner-tube due to the presence of the shear stress in between graphene layers. An inner-tube pullout with inclined side surface is formed. The onset and development of the crack in these two regions are discussed. PMID:21730690
Bending rules for animal propulsion.
Lucas, Kelsey N; Johnson, Nathan; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Cathcart, Eric; Tirrell, Gregory; Colin, Sean P; Gemmell, Brad J; Dabiri, John O; Costello, John H
2014-01-01
Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding of the role played by propulsor flexibility or, more fundamentally, how flexible propulsors should be designed for optimal performance. Here we demonstrate that during steady-state motion by a wide range of animals, from fruit flies to humpback whales, operating in either air or water, natural propulsors bend in similar ways within a highly predictable range of characteristic motions. By providing empirical design criteria derived from natural propulsors that have convergently arrived at a limited design space, these results provide a new framework from which to understand and design flexible propulsors. PMID:24548870
Method for uniformly bending conduits
Dekanich, S.J.
1984-04-27
The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.
Vibrational transitions of coupled stretching and bending overtones in chloroform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckmann, Kai; Gerhards, Markus; Kleist, Einhard; Bettermann, Hans
1995-08-01
The intensities and frequencies of Fermi-coupled stretching and bending overtone transitions in CHCl3 were calculated by means of a variational method. Symmetrized two-dimensional ab initio potential and dipole moment surfaces were determined at the MP2 level using the 6-31G** basis set. The Hamiltonian for the CH- stretching motion and the simultaneously excited twofold degenerate CH- bending vibration is expressed most easily in cylindrical coordinates. Absorption intensities up to the Δv=7 CH-stretching overtone above 16 300 cm-1 are calculated and are compared to former experimental values and theoretical results. New quantitative intracavity measurements for the N=6 polyad are presented. Relative errors between absolute experimental intensities and the calculated values are less than 30%.
Compaction managed mirror bend achromat
Douglas, David
2005-10-18
A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.
Characterization of bending EAP beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart
2004-01-01
Electroactive polymers are attractive actuation materials because of their large deformation, flexibility, and lightweight. A CCD camera system was constructed to record the curved shapes of bending during the activation of EAP films and image-processing software was developed to digitize the bending curves. A computer program was developed to solve the invese problem of cantilever EAP beams with tip position limiter. using the developed program and acquired curves without tip position limiter as well as the corresponding tip force, the EAP material properties of voltage-strain sensitivity and Young's modulus were determined.
Temporal Moments in Hydrogeophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollock, D.; Cirpka, O. A.
2007-12-01
Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been tested as monitoring tool for salt-tracer experiments by various authors. So far, the analysis of such experiments has been done by a two-step procedure [Kemna et al., 2002; Vanderborght et al., 2005; Singha and Gorelick, 2005]. In the first step, classical geophysical inversion methods have been used to infer the distribution of electrical conductivity, which is transferred to an estimated concentration distribution of the tracer. Subsequently, the inferred concentration images were analyzed to estimate hydraulic quantities such as the velocity distribution. This approach has two disadvantages: The concentration distribution is reconstructed with a high spatial resolution, but the estimate is uncertain, and the estimation uncertainty is spatially correlated. These correlated uncertainties should be accounted for in the estimation of hydraulic conductivity from concentration values. The latter, unfortunately, is not practical because the reconstructed data sets are very large. The geophysical inversion is not enforced to be in agreement with basic hydromechanical constraints. E.g., Singha and Gorelick [2005] observed an apparent loss of solute mass when using ERT as monitoring tool. We propose considering the temporal moments of potential-difference time series. These temporal moments depend on temporal moments of concentration, which have already been used in the inference of hydraulic- conductivity distributions (Cirpka and Kitanidis, 2000). In our contribution, we present the complete set of equations leading from hydraulic conductivity via hydraulic heads, velocities, temporal moments of concentrations to temporal moments of potential differences for given flow and transport boundary conditions and electrode configurations. We also present how the sensitivity of temporal moments of potential differences on the hydraulic conductivity field can be computed without the need of storing intermediate sensitivities
Bending stiffness of conical and standard external fixator pins.
Oni, O O; Capper, M; Soutis, C
1993-10-01
The bending stiffnesses of a conical and a standard external fixator pin have been compared. The pins were inserted into pilot holes in a piece of teak hardwood and loads of different magnitudes were applied at a fixed moment arm. Force-deflection curves were obtained for each pin, and stiffness (newtons per metre) and percentage stiffness reduction were calculated for each pilot hole size. The results show that deflection increased (i.e. stiffness decreased) with increasing force or diameter of pilot hole. This loss of stiffness was linear for the standard pin but was bimodal for the conical pin. PMID:8286671
Bending behavior of lapped plastic ehv cables
Morgan, G H; Muller, A C
1980-01-01
One of the factors delaying the development of lapped polymeric cables has been their reputed poor bending characteristics. Complementary programs were begun at BNL several years ago to mathematically model the bending of synthetic tape cables and to develop novel plastic tapes designed to have moduli more favorable to bending. A series of bend tests was recently completed to evaluate the bending performance of several tapes developed for use in experimental superconducting cables. The program is discussed and the results of the bend tests are summarized.
Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.
Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending
Membrane Bending by Protein Crowding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stachowiak, Jeanne
2014-03-01
From endosomes and synaptic vesicles to the cristae of the mitochondria and the annulus of the nuclear pore, highly curved membranes are fundamental to the structure and physiology of living cells. The established view is that specific families of proteins are able to bend membranes by binding to them. For example, inherently curved proteins are thought to impose their structure on the membrane surface, while membrane-binding proteins with hydrophobic motifs are thought to insert into the membrane like wedges, driving curvature. However, computational models have recently revealed that these mechanisms would require specialized membrane-bending proteins to occupy nearly 100% of a curved membrane surface, an improbable physiological situation given the immense density and diversity of membrane-bound proteins, and the low expression levels of these specialized proteins within curved regions of the membrane. How then does curvature arise within the complex and crowded environment of cellular membranes? Our recent work using proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as engineered protein-lipid interactions, has suggested a new hypothesis - that lateral pressure generated by collisions between membrane-bound proteins can drive membrane bending. Specifically, by correlating membrane bending with quantitative optical measurements of protein density on synthetic membrane surfaces and simple physical models of collisions among membrane-bound proteins, we have demonstrated that protein-protein steric interactions can drive membrane curvature. These findings suggest that a simple imbalance in the concentration of membrane-bound proteins across a membrane surface can drive a membrane to bend, providing an efficient mechanism by which essentially any protein can contribute to shaping membranes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terr, Lenore C.; McDermott, John F.; Benson, Ronald M.; Blos, Peter, Jr.; Deeney, John M.; Rogers, Rita R.; Zrull, Joel P.
2005-01-01
In the summer of 2004, a number of psychotherapists with old ties to the University of Michigan or UCLA decided to write 500-word vignettes that attempted to capture a turning point in one of their child patient's psychotherapies. What did the child and adolescent psychiatrist do to elicit such a moment? Upon receiving seven vignettes, one of us…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Child & Youth Services, 2004
2004-01-01
This chapter presents additional stories and interpretations by John Korsmo, Molly Weingrod, Joseph Stanley, Quinn Wilder, Amy Evans, Rick Flowers, Arcelia Martinez, and Pam Ramsey. The stories and interpretations are presented as teachable moments that are examples of how people are learning to understand youthwork and, as such, are open to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Chris
2014-01-01
In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodrow, Mary Ellen
2000-01-01
Details how an unplanned activity involving spinning wool presented a teachable moment for children in a family child care setting. Notes how activities related to farming, spinning wool, and using wool cloth resulted from following the children's lead. Concludes that everyday activities provide opportunities to listen to children, learn about…
Nonlinear bending models for beams and plates
Antipov, Y. A.
2014-01-01
A new nonlinear model for large deflections of a beam is proposed. It comprises the Euler–Bernoulli boundary value problem for the deflection and a nonlinear integral condition. When bending does not alter the beam length, this condition guarantees that the deflected beam has the original length and fixes the horizontal displacement of the free end. The numerical results are in good agreement with the ones provided by the elastica model. Dynamic and two-dimensional generalizations of this nonlinear one-dimensional static model are also discussed. The model problem for an inextensible rectangular Kirchhoff plate, when one side is clamped, the opposite one is subjected to a shear force, and the others are free of moments and forces, is reduced to a singular integral equation with two fixed singularities. The singularities of the unknown function are examined, and a series-form solution is derived by the collocation method in terms of the associated Jacobi polynomials. The procedure requires solving an infinite system of linear algebraic equations for the expansion coefficients subject to the inextensibility condition. PMID:25294960
Bend ductility of tungsten heavy alloys
Gurwell, W.E.; Garnich, M.R.; Dudder, G.B.; Lavender, C.A.
1992-11-01
A bend ductility test is used to indicate the formability of tungsten heavy alloys sheet. The primary test bends a notchless Charpy impact specimen to a bend angle of approximately 100C. This can be augmented by a bend-completion test. Finite element modeling as well as strain-gaged bend specimens elucidate the strain distribution in the specimen as a function of material thickness and bend angle. The bend ductilities of 70%W, 807.W and 90%W alloys are characterized. As expected, decreasing thickness or tungsten content enhances bend ductility. Oxidation is not detrimental; therefore, controlled atmosphere is not required for cooling. The potentially detrimental effects of mechanical working (e.g., rolling, roller-leveling, grit blasting, and peening) and machining (e.g., cutting and sanding) are illustrated.
Improved Method Of Bending Concentric Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schroeder, James E.
1995-01-01
Proposed method for bending two concentric pipes simultaneously while maintaining void between them replaces present tedious, messy, and labor-intensive method. Array of rubber tubes inserted in gap between concentric pipes. Tubes then inflated with relatively incompressible liquid to fill gap. Enables bending to be done faster and more cleanly, and amenable to automation of significant portion of bending process on computer numerically controlled (CNC) tube-bending machinery.
Bending Stiffness of Multiwall Sandwich
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blosser, M. L.
1983-01-01
An analytical and experimental study was carried out to understand the extensional and flexural behavior of multiwall sandwich, a metallic insulation composed of alternate layers of flat and dimpled foil. The multiwall sandwich was structurally analyzed by using several simplifying assumptions combined with a finite element analysis. The simplifying assumptions made in this analysis were evaluated by bending and tensile tests. Test results validate the assumption that flat sheets in compression do not significantly contribute to the flexural stiffness of multiwall sandwich for the multiwall geometry tested. However, calculations show that thicker flat sheets may contribute significantly to bending stiffness and cannot be ignored. Results of this analytical approach compare well with test data; both show that the extensional stiffness of the dimpled sheet in he 0 deg direction is about 30 percent of that for a flat sheet, and that in the 45 deg direction, it is about 10 percent. The analytical and experimental multiwall bending stiffness showed good agreement for the particular geometry tested.
How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets.
Pini, V; Ruz, J J; Kosaka, P M; Malvar, O; Calleja, M; Tamayo, J
2016-01-01
Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability. PMID:27403938
How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets
Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Malvar, O.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.
2016-01-01
Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability. PMID:27403938
Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension, bending, and torsion.
Drake, S R; Wayne, D M; Powers, J M; Asgar, K
1982-09-01
The mechanical properties of three sizes of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium (NT), and titanium-molybdenum (TM) orthodontic wires were studied in tension, bending, and torsion. The wires (0.016 inch, 0.017 by 0.025 inch, and 0.019 by 0.025 inch) were tested in the as-received condition. Tensile testing and stiffness testing machines along with a torsional instrument were used. Mean values and standard deviations of properties were computed. The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance using a factorial design. Means were ranked by a Tukey interval calculated at the 95 percent level of confidence. In tension, the stainless steel wires had the least maximum elastic strain or springback, whereas the titanium-molybdenum wires had the most. Higher values of springback indicate the capacity for an increased range of activation clinically. In bending and torsion, the stainless steel wires had the least stored energy at a fixed moment, whereas the nickel-titanium wires had the most. Spring rates in bending and torsion, however, were highest for stainless steel wires and lowest for nickel-titanium wires. A titanium-molybdenum teardrop closing loop delivered less than one half the force of a comparable stainless steel loop for similar activations. PMID:6961793
How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Malvar, O.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.
2016-07-01
Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability.
Ethnic Differences in Bending Stiffness of the Ulna and Tibia
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnaud, S. B.; Liang, M. T. C.; Bassin, S.; Braun, W.; Dutto, D.; Plesums, K.; Huvnh, H. T.; Cooper, D.; Wong, N.
2004-01-01
There is considerable information about the variations in bone mass associated with different opportunity to compare a mechanical property of bone in young college women of Caucasian, Hispanic and Asian descent who gave informed consent to participate in an exercise study. The subjects were sedentary, in good health, eumenorrheic, non-smokers and had body mass indices (BMI) less than 30. Measurements acquired were body weight, kg, and height, cm, calcaneal and wrist bone density, g/square cm (PIXI, Lunar GE) and bending stiffness (EI, Nm(exp 2)) in the ulna and tibia. E1 was determined non-invasively with an instrument called the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA) that delivers a vibratory stimulus to the center of the ulna or tibia and analyzes the response curve based on the equation E1 = k(sub b) L(exp 3)/48 where k, is lateral bending stiffness, L is the length of the bone, E is Young's modulus of elasticity and I, the bending moment of inertia. The error of the test (CV) based on measurements of an aluminum rod with a known E1 was 4.8%, of calcaneal BMD, 0.54%, and of wrist bone density, 3.45%.
Yoshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takeshi
2014-05-27
In order to investigate a relation between a bending stress and a characteristic frequency of a beam, 4-point loading which had constant moment region was conducted to a beam with H shape configuration experimentally and numerically. H-shaped beam has many characteristic deformation modes. Axial tensile stress in the beam made its characteristic frequency higher, and compressive stress lower. In the experiment, some characteristic frequencies got higher by a bending stress, and the others stayed in a small frequency fluctuation. The distinction is anticipated as a capability to measure a bending stress of a beam by its characteristic frequencies.
Giammanco, Chiara H; Kramer, Patrick L; Yamada, Steven A; Nishida, Jun; Tamimi, Amr; Fayer, Michael D
2016-01-28
The population relaxation of carbon dioxide dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EmimNTf2) was investigated using polarization-selective ultrafast infrared pump-probe spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy. Due to the coupling of the bend with the asymmetric stretch, excitation of the asymmetric stretch of a molecule with a thermally populated bend leads to an additional peak, a hot band, which is red-shifted from the main asymmetric absorption band by the combination band shift. This hot band peak exchanges population with the main peak through the gain and loss of bend excitation quanta. The isotropic pump-probe signal originating from the unexcited bend state displays a fast, relatively small amplitude, initial growth followed by a longer time scale exponential decay. The signal is analyzed over its full time range using a kinetic model to determine both the vibrational lifetime (the final decay) and rate constant for the loss of the bend energy. This bend relaxation manifests as the fast initial growth of the stretch/no bend signal because the hot band (stretch with bend) is "over pumped" relative to the ground state equilibrium. The nonequilibrium pumping occurs because the hot band has a larger transition dipole moment than the stretch/no bend peak. The system is then prepared, utilizing an acousto-optic mid-infrared pulse shaper to cut a hole in the excitation pulse spectrum, such that the hot band is not pumped. The isotropic pump-probe signal from the stretch/no bend state is altered because the initial excited state population ratio has changed. Instead of a growth due to relaxation of bend quanta, a fast initial decay is observed because of thermal excitation of the bend. Fitting this curve gives the rate constant for thermal excitation of the bend and the lifetime, which agree with those determined in the pump-probe experiments without frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khomenko, E.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Solanki, S. K.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Gandorfer, A.; Bonet, J. A.; Domingo, V.; Schmidt, W.; Barthol, P.; Knölker, M.
2010-11-01
Based on IMaX/SUNRISE data, we report on a previously undetected phenomenon in solar granulation. We show that in a very narrow region separating granules and intergranular lanes, the spectral line width of the Fe I 5250.2 Å line becomes extremely small. We offer an explanation of this observation with the help of magneto-convection simulations. These regions with extremely small line widths correspond to the places where the granular flows bend from upflow in granules to downflow in intergranular lanes. We show that the resolution and image stability achieved by IMaX/SUNRISE are important requisites to detect this interesting phenomenon.
Tension, compression, and bending of superelastic shape memory alloy tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reedlunn, Benjamin; Churchill, Christopher B.; Nelson, Emily E.; Shaw, John A.; Daly, Samantha H.
2014-02-01
traditional assumption of elementary beam theory, that plane sections remain plane, does not hold. Yet when the strain was averaged over a few diameters of axial length, the tensile and compressive responses input into elementary beam theory predicted the global bending response with reasonable accuracy. While it is encouraging that a simple model could predict the moment-curvature response, we recommend that beam theory be used with caution. The averaged strain field can under/over predict local strains by as much as two-fold due to the localized deformation morphology.
Fuzzy analysis of serviceability limit state of slender steel beam under bending
Kala, Zdeněk; Valeš, Jan
2015-03-10
In the present paper, deformations of a beam under equal end moments solved with influence of lateral buckling are studied. It has been found by numerical studies that the lateral deflection of slender beam under major axis bending can be relatively high.The acceptability of high values of lateral deflections within the framework of serviceability limit state is discussed. In the next part of the paper, the limit value of maximum deflection was introduced as a fuzzy number. The fuzzy analysis of the maximum moment which causes the maximum deflection was carried out. The slendernesses of beams for which the serviceability limit state is the limiting state for design were identified.
Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar
2015-11-01
The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.
Active control of bending vibrations in thick bars using PZT stack actuators
Redmond, J.; Parker, G.; Barney, P.; Rodeman, R.
1995-07-01
An experimental investigation into active control of bending vibrations in thick bar and plate-like structural elements is described. This work is motivated by vibration problems in machine tools and photolithography machines that require greater control authority than available from conventional surface mounted PZT patches or PVDF films. Focus of this experiment is a cantilevered circular steel bar in which PZT stacks are mounted in cutouts near the bar root. Axially aligned and offset from the neutral axis, these actuators control the bending vibrations by generating moments in the bar through their compressive loads. A Positive Feedback control law is used to significantly augment the damping in the first bending mode. Implications of the experimental results for machine tool stability enhancement are discussed.
Emittance growth from bend straight transitions for beams approaching thermal equilibrium
Barnard, J J; Losic, B
1998-08-19
In certain applications such as heavy ion fusion, intense beams with large space charge tune depressions will be transferred from linear transport sections into bent, transport, sections. In some. designs, such as recircutating induction accelerators, transport. through bends will occur over thousands of betatron periods and in some driver designs the final transports through a bend will occur over tens of betatron periods. Over such distances, non-linear space charge forces are expected to produce particle phase space distributions which are close to thermal equilibrium, especially with respect to lower order moments. Here we calculate the properties of thermal equilibrium beams in bends assuming uniform focusing, as a function of two dimensionless parameters. We also outline the calculation of the change in emittance for a beam that is initially in thermal equilibrium in a straight transport section. and that finally reaches thermal equilibrium in a bent system, using an energy conservation constrint to connect, the two states.
Characterization of Human Rib Biomechanical Responses due to Three-Point Bending.
Kalra, Anil; Saif, Tal; Shen, Ming; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Feng; Begeman, Paul; Yang, King H; Millis, Scott
2015-11-01
In the elderly population, rib fracture is one of the most common injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes. The current study was conducted to predict the biomechanical fracture responses of ribs with respect to age, gender, height, weight and percentage of ash content. Three-point bending experiments were conducted on 278 isolated rib samples extracted from 82 cadaver specimens (53 males and 29 females between the ages of 21 and 87 years) for 6th and 7th levels of ribs. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify differences based on age and gender. It was found that, in comparison to males, females had significantly lower values for maximum bending moments, slopes of bending moment-angle curves, and average cortical-bone thickness (p<0.05). Samples of ribs taken from elderly specimens failed at lower values of fracture moments than those from younger specimens, and had lower slopes of bending moment-angle curves, both in males and females (p<0.05). The generalized estimated equations were developed to predict the values of biomechanical response and average cortical thickness based on age, gender, height and weight of individual specimens. Results from the current study illustrate that biomechanical responses and rib cortical thicknesses are functions of age, gender, height and weight. However, the current study is limited to a quasi-static loading scheme, which is different from real crash conditions. Hence, rib-material properties, which are dependent on strain rate, and are needed for wholebody finite element models representing different populations, still require more research. PMID:26660742
Principal Effects of Axial Load on Moment-Distribution Analysis of Rigid Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Benjamin Wylie
1935-01-01
This thesis presents the method of moment distribution modified to include the effect of axial load upon the bending moments. This modification makes it possible to analyze accurately complex structures, such as rigid fuselage trusses, that heretofore had to be analyzed by approximate formulas and empirical rules. The method is simple enough to be practicable even for complex structures, and it gives a means of analysis for continuous beams that is simpler than the extended three-moment equation now in common use. When the effect of axial load is included, it is found that the basic principles of moment distribution remain unchanged, the only difference being that the factors used, instead of being constants for a given member, become functions of the axial load. Formulas have been developed for these factors, and curves plotted so that their applications requires no more work than moment distribution without axial load. Simple problems have been included to illustrate the use of the curves.
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haug, Berit S.
2014-01-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their…
Thermally-induced bending-torsion coupling vibration of large scale space structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Ming-De; Duan, Jin; Xiang, Zhi-Hai
2007-09-01
In this paper, a finite element scheme is developed to solve the problem of thermally-induced bending-torsion coupling vibration of large scale space structures, which are usually composed of thin-walled beams with open and closed cross-section. A two-noded finite element is proposed to analyze the transient temperature field over the longitudinal and circumferential direction of a beam. Since this temperature element can share the same mesh with the two-noded beam element of Euler-Bernoulli type, a unified finite element scheme is easily formulated to solve the thermal-structural coupling problem. This scheme is characterized with very strong nonlinear formulation, due to the consideration of the thermal radiation and the coupling effect between structural deformations and the incident normal heat flux. Moreover, because the warping is taken into account, not only the thermal axial force and thermal bending moments but also the thermal bi-moment are presented in the formulation. Consequently, the thermally-induced bending-torsion coupling vibration can be simulated. The performance of the proposed computational scheme is illustrated by the analysis of the well-known failure of Hubble space telescope solar arrays. The results reveal that the thermally-induced bending-torsion coupling vibration is obviously presented in that case and could be regarded as a cause of failure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, C. B.; Shuart, M. J.; Bains, N. J.; Rouse, M.
1993-01-01
Composite structures are used for a wide variety of aerospace applications. Practical structures contain cutouts and these structures are subjected to in-plane and out-of-plane loading conditions. Structurally efficient designs for composite structures require a thorough understanding of the effects of cutouts on the response of composite plates subjected to inplane or out-of-plane loadings. Most investigations of the behavior of composite plates with cutouts have considered in-plane loadings only. Out-of-plane loadings suchas bending or twisting have received very limited attention. The response of homogeneous plates (e.g., isotropic or orthotropic plates) subjected to bending or twisting moments has been studied analytically. These analyses are for infinite plates and neglect finite-plate effects. Recently, analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the effects of cutouts on the response of laminated composite plates subjected to bending moments. No analytical or experimental results are currently available for the effects of cutouts on the response of composite laminates subjected to twisting moments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
....1 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). This shall not prohibit the use of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will...
Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana
2015-12-01
Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).
Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method for Bending Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.
2002-01-01
Recent literature shows extensive research work on meshless or element-free methods as alternatives to the versatile Finite Element Method. One such meshless method is the Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method. In this report, the method is developed for bending of beams - C1 problems. A generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolation is used to construct the trial functions, and spline and power weight functions are used as the test functions. The method is applied to problems for which exact solutions are available to evaluate its effectiveness. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated for problems with load discontinuities and continuous beam problems. A Petrov-Galerkin implementation of the method is shown to greatly reduce computational time and effort and is thus preferable over the previously developed Galerkin approach. The MLPG method for beam problems yields very accurate deflections and slopes and continuous moment and shear forces without the need for elaborate post-processing techniques.
Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colozza, Anthony
2010-01-01
One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.
Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2010-06-01
We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term γr in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.
End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings. [PWR; BWR
Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.
1982-01-01
So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved.
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bending of pipe. 195.212 Section 195.212... PIPELINE Construction § 195.212 Bending of pipe. (a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend. (b) Each field bend must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2)...
Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hock, Bertold
Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank
Bend Properties of Sapphire Fibers at Elevated Temperatures. 1; Bend Survivability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.; Sayir, Haluk
1995-01-01
The effect of temperature on the bend radius that a c-axis-oriented sapphire fiber can withstand was determined for fibers of various diameter. Bend stress rupture tests were performed for times of 1-100 h and temperatures of 300-1700 C. Fibers would survive the bend test undeformed, would fracture or would deform. The bend survival radius was determined to be the radius above which no fibers fractured or deformed for a given time-temperature treatment. It was found that the ability of fibers to withstand curvature decreases substantially with time and increasing temperature and that fibers of smaller diameter (46-83 micron) withstood smaller bend radii than would be expected from just a difference in fiber diameter when compared with the bend results of the fibers of large diameter (144 micron). This was probably due to different flaw populations, causing high temperature bend failure for the tested sapphire fibers of different diameters.
Wing flapping with minimum energy. [minimize the drag for a bending moment at the wing root
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T.
1980-01-01
For slow flapping motions it is found that the minimum energy loss occurs when the vortex wake moves as a rigid surface that rotates about the wing root - a condition analogous to that determined for a slow-turning propeller. The optimum circulation distribution determined by this condition differs from the elliptic distribution, showing a greater concentration of lift toward the tips. It appears that very high propulsive efficiencies are obtained by flapping.
Degradation and buckling of metal tubes under cyclic bending and external pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corona, Edmundo
The response and stability of long tubular components under bending and external pressure were investigated. The behavior of the structure under monotonic as well as cyclic bending was examined through combined experimental and analytical efforts. The experiments involved metal seamless tubes with diameter-to-thickness ratios in the range of 17 to 35. Long specimens were tested under combined bending and pressure in a specially developed test facility. Bending-pressure interaction collapse envelopes were first generated for monotonically increasing loading histories. The two loads were found to interact strongly through the ovalization of the cross section and the collapse envelopes to depend on the loading history followed. Cyclic bending under various curvature controlled and moment controlled histories was considered. The factors influencing the rate of accumulation of ovalization and the resulting instabilities were studied parametrically. Buckling under cyclic loads occurred when the ovalization of the tubes reached a critical value approximately equal to the critical value developed under the corresponding monotonically applied loads. The problem was analyzed numerically using kinematics which capture the ovalization of the cross section. The predicted response was found to be very sensitive to the elastic-plastic constitutive models used. This sensitivity was carefully analyzed using state-of-the-art models. In the case of cyclic loading histories, the hardening rules used in such models were found to play a pivotal role in the accuracy of the predictions. The reasons for this sensitivity were studied through a parallel investigation of the behavior of the material under cyclic loads.
Point estimates for probability moments
Rosenblueth, Emilio
1975-01-01
Given a well-behaved real function Y of a real random variable X and the first two or three moments of X, expressions are derived for the moments of Y as linear combinations of powers of the point estimates y(x+) and y(x-), where x+ and x- are specific values of X. Higher-order approximations and approximations for discontinuous Y using more point estimates are also given. Second-moment approximations are generalized to the case when Y is a function of several variables. PMID:16578731
Spectral moments of fullerene cages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hongxing; Balasubramanian, K.
Based on the symmetric method, analytical expression or recursive relations for the spectral moments of the C20, C24, C26, C28, C30, C32, C36, C38, C40, C42, C44, C50 and C60 fullerene cage clusters are obtained by factoring the original graphs and the corresponding characteristic polynomials into their smaller subgraphs and subpolynomials. We also give numerical results for the spectral moments. It is demonstrated that the symmetric method is feasible in enumerating the moments as well as factoring the characteristic polynomials for fullerene cages.
Lithospheric bending at subduction zones based on depth soundings and satellite gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levitt, Daniel A.; Sandwell, David T.
1995-01-01
A global study of trench flexure was performed by simultaneously modeling 117 bathymetric profiles (original depth soundings) and satellite-derived gravity profiles. A thin, elastic plate flexure model was fit to each bathymetry/gravity profile by minimization of the L(sub 1) norm. The six model parameters were regional depth, regional gravity, trench axis location, flexural wavelength, flexural amplitude, and lithospheric density. A regional tilt parameter was not required after correcting for age-related trend using a new high-resolution age map. Estimates of the density parameter confirm that most outer rises are uncompensated. We find that flexural wavelength is not an accurate estimate of plate thickness because of the high curvatures observed at a majority of trenches. As in previous studies, we find that the gravity data favor a longer-wavelength flexure than the bathymetry data. A joint topography-gravity modeling scheme and fit criteria are used to limit acceptable parameter values to models for which topography and gravity yield consistent results. Even after the elastic thicknesses are converted to mechanical thicknesses using the yield strength envelope model, residual scatter obscures the systematic increase of mechanical thickness with age; perhaps this reflects the combination of uncertainties inherent in estimating flexural wavelength, such as extreme inelastic bending and accumulated thermoelastic stress. The bending moment needed to support the trench and outer rise topography increases by a factor of 10 as lithospheric age increases from 20 to 150 Ma; this reflects the increase in saturation bending moment that the lithosphere can maintain. Using a stiff, dry-olivine rheology, we find that the lithosphere of the GDH1 thermal model (Stein and Stein, 1992) is too hot and thin to maintain the observed bending moments. Moreover, the regional depth seaward of the oldest trenches (approximately 150 Ma) exceeds the GDH1 model depths by about 400 m.
Radiation reaction of multipole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, P. O.
2007-08-01
A Poincaré-invariant description is proposed for the effective dynamics of a localized system of charged particles in classical electrodynamics in terms of the intrinsic multipole moments of the system. A relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments of a system of charged particles is given. A new generally covariant action functional for a relativistic perfect fluid is proposed. In the case of relativistic charged dust, it is proven that the description of the problem of radiation reaction of multipole moments by the model of particles is equivalent to the description of this problem by a hydrodynamic model. An effective model is obtained for a pointlike neutral system of charged particles that possesses an intrinsic dipole moment, and the free dynamics of this system is described. The bound momentum of a point dipole is found.
Initial Ares I Bending Filter Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Robert; Norris, H. Lee; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark
2007-01-01
The Ares-I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for control system design. Software filtering of the inertial sensor output will be required to ensure control system stability and adequate performance. This paper presents a design methodology employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares-I bending filters. The filter design methodology was based on a numerical constrained optimization approach to maximize stability margins while meeting performance requirements. The resulting bending filter designs achieved stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency and hence phase stabilizing the first Ares-I flex mode. To minimize rigid body performance impacts, a priority was placed via constraints in the optimization algorithm to minimize bandwidth decrease with the addition of the bending filters. The bending filters provided here have been demonstrated to provide a stable first stage control system in both the frequency domain and the MSFC MAVERIC time domain simulation.
Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.
1973-01-01
Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.
Turbulent flow analysis on bend and downstream of the bend for different curvature ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, Rana Roy; Biswas, Suranjan; Alam, Md. Mahbubul; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul
2016-07-01
A CFD analysis on the bend and downstream of the bend has been carried out for turbulent flow through 90 degree bend pipe with different curvature ratios using standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with the existing experimental results, and then a detailed study has been performed to investigate the flow characteristics. For different curvature ratios, the static pressure distributions along inner, outer wall and pressure loss factor with different Reynolds number is analyzed. The obtained results show that pressure distribution and pressure loss factor are dependent for different Reynolds number and curvature ratio throughout the bend. Again, It is observed that the disturbance of the flow due to bend exists for a downstream distance of 50D from the central plane of the bend.
Second moments and rotational spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Robert K.; Montgomery, John A.; Michels, H. Harvey; Fournier, Joseph A.
2016-07-01
Although determining molecular structure using microwave spectroscopy is a mature technique, there are still simple but powerful insights to analysis of the data which are not generally appreciated. This paper summarizes three applications of second (or planar) moments which quickly and easily provide insights and conclusions about a molecule's structure not easily obtained from the molecule's rotational constants. If the molecule has a plane of symmetry, group second moments can verify that property and determine which groups are located on that plane. Common groups contribute predictable values to second moments. This study examines the contribution and transferability of CH2/CH3, CF2/CF3, isopropyl, and phenyl groups to molecular constants. Structures of related molecules can be critically compared using their second moments. A third application to any molecule, even those whose structures have only the identity symmetry element, determines bond lengths and angles which exactly reproduce experimentally determined 2nd moments, rotational constants, and moments of inertia. Approximate least squares methods are not needed.
Elliott, Mark A; Giersch, Anne
2015-01-01
There has been evidence for the very brief, temporal quantization of perceptual experience at regular intervals below 100 ms for several decades. We briefly describe how earlier studies led to the concept of "psychological moment" of between 50 and 60 ms duration. According to historical theories, within the psychological moment all events would be processed as co-temporal. More recently, a link with physiological mechanisms has been proposed, according to which the 50-60 ms psychological moment would be defined by the upper limit required by neural mechanisms to synchronize and thereby represent a snapshot of current perceptual event structure. However, our own experimental developments also identify a more fine-scaled, serialized process structure within the psychological moment. Our data suggests that not all events are processed as co-temporal within the psychological moment and instead, some are processed successively. This evidence questions the analog relationship between synchronized process and simultaneous experience and opens debate on the ontology and function of "moments" in psychological experience. PMID:26779059
Bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps.
Ikebe, K; Kibi, M; Ono, T; Nokubi, T
1993-12-01
The purpose of this study is to examine the bending profiles of composite resin coating cast clasps. The cobalt-chromium alloy cast clasps were made using tapered wax pattern. Silane coupling method (Silicoater MD, Kulzer Co.) was used to attach composite resin to metal surface. The breakage and the bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps were evaluated. Results were as follows: 1) After the repeated bending test to the tips of clasp arm at 10,000 times in 0.25 mm deflection, neither crack on composite resin surface nor separation at resin/metal interface was observed in any specimen. 2) There was no significant difference in the bending rigidity of clasp arms between before and after composite resin coating. From these results, it was demonstrated that the composite resin coating cast clasp was available in clinical cases and coating with composite resin had little influence on the bending rigidity of clasp arms. Therefore, it was suggested that our clasp designing and fabricating system to control the bending rigidity of clasp arms could be applied to composite resin coating clasps. PMID:8935086
A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao
2016-05-01
Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.
A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor.
Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao
2016-05-01
Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions. PMID:26809055
Second Moments (planar Moments) and Their Application in Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Robert K.; Montgomery, John A., Jr.; Michels, H. Harvey; Byrd, Jason N.
2013-06-01
Second moments, also called planar moments (P_{ii} = Σ m_{i}^{} x_{i}^{2}), are the spectroscopic parameters used to determine substitution structures (r_{s}) ) by Kraitchman''s method from spectra of a molecule and its isotopologs. They are also useful for discussing other molecular structural properties. Just as bond lengths and angles are considered transferable among similar molecules, second moments of many common groups are also transferable. This paper discusses applications of second moments of methylene/methyl groups, singly or multiply, isopropyl/tert-butyl groups, phenyl groups, per{f}{l}uoro methylene/methyl groups, combinations of any of them, and planarity of molecules, the historically most common application of second moments. The inertial defect is Δ = (I_{c} - I_{a} - I_{b}) or -2P_{cc}. Some authors err by assuming each isotopolog provides three independent rotational constants, but in some cases they are not all independent. J. Kraitchman, Am. J. Phys. {21 (17), 1953.}
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haug, Berit S.
2014-02-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their classrooms. In this curriculum, science inquiry implies that students search for evidence in order to make and revise explanations based on the evidence found and through critical and logical thinking. Furthermore, the curriculum material is designed to address science key concepts multiple times through multiple modalities (do it, say it, read it, write it). Two types of teachable moments were identified: planned and spontaneous. Results suggest that the consolidation phases of inquiry, when students reinforce new knowledge and connect their empirical findings to theory, can be considered as planned teachable moments. These are phases of inquiry during which the teacher should expect, and be prepared for, student utterances that create opportunities to further student learning. Spontaneous teachable moments are instances when the teacher must choose to either follow the pace of the curriculum or adapt to the students' need. One implication of the study is that more teacher support is required in terms of how to plan for and effectively utilize the consolidation phases of inquiry.
[2](1,3)Adamantano[2](2,7)pyrenophane: A Hydrocarbon with a Large Dipole Moment.
Kahl, Paul; Wagner, J Philipp; Balestrieri, Ciro; Becker, Jonathan; Hausmann, Heike; Bodwell, Graham J; Schreiner, Peter R
2016-08-01
The fusion of the sp(3) -hybridized parent diamondoid adamantane with the sp(2) -hybridized pyrene results in a hybrid structure with a very large dipole moment which arises from bending the pyrene moiety. Presented herein is the synthesis, study of the electronic and optical properties, as well as the dynamic behavior of this new hydrocarbon. PMID:27364983
Nuclear Electric Dipole Moment Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haxton, Wick
2010-11-01
One of the most important constraints on CP violation in the nucleon and NN interaction is provided by electric dipole moment (EDM) limits for neutral diamagnetic atoms, particularly 199Hg. To extract CP-violating couplings from experiment, one must relate the atomic EDM to the underlying nuclear CP-odd moments, a task complicated by the atomic response, which largely shields the nucleus from the applied external electric field. The residual response -- the Schiff moment -- depends on corrections such as the finite size of the nucleus. Conventional Schiff-moment calculations have largely ignored one consequence of the screening: the cancellation between direct and polarization diagrams, which yields an answer that is suppressed by two powers of RN/RA, where RN and RA are the nuclear and atomic sizes, requires one to identify all other terms that contribute to the same order in the RN/RA power counting. We show that such terms arise from nuclear excitations associated with the dipole charge and transverse electric multipole operators, and discuss the consequences. We also describe higher T-odd moments that contribute up to the same order in the counting, and point out interesting nuclear structure and experimental consequences.
Form of developing bends in reactivated sperm flagella.
Goldstein, S F
1976-02-01
1. Dark-field, multiple-exposure photographs of reactivated tritonated sea urchin sperm flagella swimming under a variety of conditions were analysed. 2. The length, radius and subtended angle of bends increased during bend development. The pattern of development was essentially the same under all conditions observed. 3. The angles of the two bends nearest the base tend to increase at the same rate, cancelling one another, so that the development of new bends causes little if any net microtubular sliding. 4. The direction of microtubular sliding within a bend is initially in the same direction as that within the preceding bend, and reverses as the bend develops. PMID:1270988
A Novel Circular TE01-Mode Bend
Tantawi, S
2004-04-19
Future Linear Colliders and Accelerators require rf systems and components that are capable of handling hundreds of megawatts power levels at x-band frequencies and higher. Standard rf components that have been in use for a long time such as waveguide bends, directional couplers and hybrids, can not be used because of peak field considerations. Indeed, one has to reinvent most of these components taking into account the constraints imposed by ultra-high-power operation. Here, we present a new design for circular waveguides bends propagating the low-loss TE{sub 01} mode. The bend has smooth walls and low field levels. We present a simple synthesis process for designing such device. The general philosophy of this technique can be applied to other components as well. We describe the detailed design of the bend and compare our design with finite element simulations and experimental data. The bend has very low ohmic losses, and the TE{sub 01} mode is transmitted with virtually perfect mode purity.
Sharp bends of phononic crystal surface modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Ulug, Bulent
2015-12-01
Sharp bending of surface waves at the interface of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PnC) of steel cylinders in air and the method of using a diagonally offset cylindrical scatterer are numerically demonstrated by finite-element method simulations. The radii of the diagonally offset scatterer and the cylinder at the PnC corner, along with the distance between them, are treated as optimization parameters in the genetic algorithm optimization of sharp bends. Surface wave transmittance of at most 5% for the unmodified sharp bend is significantly enhanced to approximately 75% as a result of optimization. A series of transmittance peaks whose maxima increase exponentially, as their widths reduce, with increasing frequency is observed for the optimized sharp bend. The transmittance peaks appear at frequencies corresponding to integer plus half-beat periods, depending on the finite surface length. The optimal parameters are such that the cylinder radius at the PnC corner is not significantly modified, whereas a diagonally offset scatterer having a diameter of almost two periods and a shortest distance of about 0.7 periods between them is required for the strongest transmittance peak. Utilization of PnC surface sharp bends as acoustic ring resonators is demonstrated.
Tunable thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang-Ning, Pan; Jun, He; Mao-Fa, Fang
2016-07-01
The ballistic thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are systematically investigated by using atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. We find that the electron resonant tunneling effect occurs in the metallic–semiconducting linked ZZ-GNRs (the bended GNRs with zigzag edge leads). The electron-wave quantum interference effect occurs in the metallic–metallic linked AA-GNRs (the bended GNRs with armchair edge leads). These different physical mechanisms lead to the large Seebeck coefficient S and high electron conductance in bended ZZ-GNRs/AA-GNRs. Combined with the reduced lattice thermal conduction, the significant enhancement of the figure of merit ZT is predicted. Moreover, we find that the ZTmax (the maximum peak of ZT) is sensitive to the structural parameters. It can be conveniently tuned by changing the interbend length of bended GNRs. The magnitude of ZT ranges from the 0.15 to 0.72. Geometry-controlled ballistic thermoelectric effect offers an effective way to design thermoelectric devices such as thermocouples based on graphene. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401153) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (Grant Nos. 2015JJ2050 and 14JJ3126).
Neutron star moments of inertia
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.
1994-01-01
An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanzon, Drew Wyatt
This work consists on the quantification of sheet metal uniaxial stress-strain reversals from pure bending tests. Bending strains to approximately 10% were measured by strain gages and interferometry. Bending-unbending moments and strains were modeled and compared closely to the experimental data. The reverse uniaxial stress-strains curves were determined from the optimal fit of the model. Bauschinger effects were described by the reverse uniaxial response at the elasto-plastic range, between the elastic and the large strain, power fit ranges. Arc and straight line fittings on the lnsigma-lnepsilon scale proved accurate to describe the elasto-plastic behavior. Reverse uniaxial data determined for DP590 and DP780 steels and two Aluminum alloys showed significant Bauschinger effects with distinct features. For the DP steels the magnitudes of the reverse compressive sigma-epsilon curves compared moderately higher, and merging to a power curve with parameters K, n previously defined by tension testing. Bauschinger effects at small reversed strains were less pronounced for the aluminum alloys. However, at higher strains the reverse elasto-plastic response softened considerably, and during the unbending span the magnitudes of the reverse compressive strains remained below the corresponding K, n tensile values. The results showed pure bending as an efficient, simple to use technique to generate sigma-epsilon data for sheet metal at large reverse strains without the complicating restraining hardware required by direct compression methods.
Mechanism of bending electrostriction in thermoplastic polyurethane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Y.; Wong, Y. W.; Shin, F. G.
2004-07-01
The mechanism of bending electrostriction in polyurethane films is discussed and elucidated through a numerical calculation. The simulations are carried out on a model in which charge carriers are assumed to be electrons injected from the cathode by the Schottky effect, and the positive charges are immobile. Under a dc field, our simulation results show that the electrons go out of the anode, leaving behind a large quantity of positive charge around the anode. As a result, the electric field near the anode eventually becomes much larger than that near the cathode. The asymmetrical electric field distribution leads to an asymmetrical stress distribution through the electrostriction effect and thus to bending of the polyurethane film under the application of a dc electric field. The results can also explain the gradual change in bending direction after reversing the polarity of the electric field.
Analysis and experiments for composite laminates with holes and subjected to 4-point bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuart, M. J.; Prasad, C. B.
1990-01-01
Analytical and experimental results are presented for composite laminates with a hole and subjected to four-point bending. A finite-plate analysis is used to predict moment and strain distributions for six-layer quasi-isotropic laminates and transverse-ply laminates. Experimental data are compared with the analytical results. Experimental and analytical strain results show good agreement for the quasi-isotropic laminates. Failure of the two types of composite laminates is described, and failure strain results are presented as a function of normalized hole diameter. The failure results suggest that the initial failure mechanism for laminates subjected to four-point bending are similar to the initial failure mechanisms for corresponding laminates subjected to uniaxial inplane loadings.
Dynamic Bending Tolerance and Elastic-Plastic Material Properties of the Human Femur
Funk, J. R.; Kerrigan, J. R.; Crandall, J. R.
2004-01-01
The objective of this study was to provide data on the structural tolerance and material properties of the human femur in dynamic bending. Fifteen (15) isolated femurs from eight (8) males were tested in either posterior-to-anterior or lateral-to-medial three-point bending. The failure moment was 458 ± 95 Nm and did not differ significantly with loading direction. A method was developed to estimate the elastic-plastic material properties of the bone using both force-deflection data and strain gauge measurements. The bone material appeared to yield at about one third of the ultimate strain level prior to fracture. It is hoped that these data will aid in the development of injury criteria and finite element models for predicting injuries to pedestrians and vehicle occupants. PMID:15319127
Verley, R.; Ness, O.B.
1995-12-31
This paper presents the results of full scale bending tests on 16 in. and 20 in. diameter, concrete coated pipes with polyethene and asphalt corrosion coatings. Constant moment, four-point bending was applied to a pipe string consisting of one pipe joint welded between two half-length joints. The strain concentration factor (SCF) at the field joints (FJ), expressing the ratio between the strain in the FJ and the average strain for the pipe joint, was investigated and compared to predictions using an analytical model presented in an accompanying paper (Ness and Verley, 1995). Material tests on the pipe steel, the corrosion coating and the concrete were conducted. The analytical model is found to give a good prediction of the strain distribution along the pipe joint, for both the steel and the concrete, and therefore also of the SCF. The sliding of the concrete over the steel is also predicted reasonably well.
Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.
2010-01-01
The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to
Elliott, Mark A.; Giersch, Anne
2016-01-01
There has been evidence for the very brief, temporal quantization of perceptual experience at regular intervals below 100 ms for several decades. We briefly describe how earlier studies led to the concept of “psychological moment” of between 50 and 60 ms duration. According to historical theories, within the psychological moment all events would be processed as co-temporal. More recently, a link with physiological mechanisms has been proposed, according to which the 50–60 ms psychological moment would be defined by the upper limit required by neural mechanisms to synchronize and thereby represent a snapshot of current perceptual event structure. However, our own experimental developments also identify a more fine-scaled, serialized process structure within the psychological moment. Our data suggests that not all events are processed as co-temporal within the psychological moment and instead, some are processed successively. This evidence questions the analog relationship between synchronized process and simultaneous experience and opens debate on the ontology and function of “moments” in psychological experience. PMID:26779059
[Great moments in renal transplantation].
Ghossain, Antoine
2015-01-01
A selective review of some great moments in renal transplantation experienced or witnessed with some of the great architects of this epic. The path was strewn with hazards, sometimes halts or changes of attitude that harmed or helped some patients. PMID:26591188
Measuring the Moment of Inertia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehmberg, George L.
1978-01-01
Two physics experiments are described, One, involving a laboratory cart accelerated along a level surface, examines the concept of inertial mass in translation and the other, using a solid cylinder, measures the moment of inertia of a wheel. Equations and illustrations are included. (MA)
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…
Brief, Amazing Moments of Inclusion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fialka, Janice
2005-01-01
"Real inclusion" of kinds with special needs occurs everywhere, inside the classroom as well as outside. This is a fairly basic principle, however, it is not always easy to achieve. In this article, the author describes how her family have had to "fight" for inclusive education and shares some amazing moments of inclusion with her son Micah.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marnette, Jascha; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter; Weiss, Matthias
2013-12-01
The common grades of steel used in roll forming are: hot rolled, high strength low alloy and recovery annealed cold rolled sheet. These steels are prone to ageing and are often skin passed and/or roller leveled to eliminate ageing as this can lead to problems in forming. Shape defects such as bow, twist and camber can be increased due to a change of the elastic-plastic transition point of the material. In consideration of this effect the knowledge of the material properties in the elastic plastic transition range is necessary if the processes are to be modelled accurately. Previous studies have indicated that residual stresses are not well identified in the standard tensile test, but were shown clearly in a bending test. The elastic plastic transition in bending and the moment curvature characteristic were changed significantly by a light cold rolling reduction. In this work the FEA package Abaqus is used to investigate the effect of residual stresses introduced through skin passing and/or roller leveling on the bending/yielding behaviour of mild steel. Therefore, a skin passing/ roller leveling process is simulated, followed by a subsequent bending test. Residual stress free sheet is compared in bending to just "skin passed", "roller leveled" and a combined "skin passed and roller leveled" strip. Skin passing significantly reduces the bending yield stress due to residual stresses. This has a softening effect on subsequent bending operations. A roller level process prior to roll forming can restore the bending yield stress by reducing the residual stress across the thickness. This has implications for forming aged material.
Bending analysis of a general cross-ply laminate using 3D elasticity solution and layerwise theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yazdani Sarvestani, H.; Naghashpour, A.; Heidari-Rarani, M.
2015-12-01
In this study, the analytical solution of interlaminar stresses near the free edges of a general (symmetric and unsymmetric layups) cross-ply composite laminate subjected to pure bending loading is presented based on Reddy's layerwise theory (LWT) for the first time. First, the reduced form of displacement field is obtained for a general cross-ply composite laminate subjected to a bending moment by elasticity theory. Then, first-order shear deformation theory of plates and LWT is utilized to determine the global and local deformation parameters appearing in the displacement fields, respectively. One of the main advantages of the developed solution based on the LWT is exact prediction of interlaminar stresses at the boundary layer regions. To show the accuracy of this solution, three-dimensional elasticity bending problem of a laminated composite is solved for special set of boundary conditions as well. Finally, LWT results are presented for edge-effect problems of several symmetric and unsymmetric cross-ply laminates under the bending moment. The obtained results indicate high stress gradients of interlaminar stresses near the edges of laminates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treyssède, Fabien
2010-04-01
This paper aims at proposing an analytical model for the vibration analysis of horizontal beams that are self-weighted and thermally stressed. Geometrical nonlinearities are taken into account on the basis of large displacement and small rotation. Natural frequencies are obtained from a linearization of equilibrium equations. Thermal force and thermal bending moment are both included in the analysis. Torsional and axial springs are considered at beam ends, allowing various boundary conditions. A dimensionless analysis is performed leading to only four parameters, respectively, related to the self-weight, thermal force, thermal bending moment and torsional spring stiffness. It is shown that the proposed model can be efficiently used for cable problems with small sag-to-span ratios (typically <{1}/{8}, as in Irvine's theory). For beam problems, the model is validated thanks to finite element solutions and a parametric study is conducted in order to highlight the combined effects of thermal loads and self-weight on natural frequencies. For cable problems, solutions are first compared with existing results in the literature obtained without thermal effects or bending stiffness. Good agreement is found. A parametric study combining the effects of sag-extensibility, thermal change and bending stiffness is finally given.
An adaptation of modal analysis to the computation of steady bending loads on a rotating beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corrigan, J.; Sadler, G.; Yuce, Mithat
Modal summation or modal displacement methods are not capable of computing the steady bending moments on a rotating beam. Even if it were possible to use an infinite number of blade modes, it would not be possible to obtain a correct solution. There is a way to circumvent this problem by properly combining a force integration formulation with a modal summation approach. At Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., modifications have been made in the blade loads methodology which allow for the computation of steady loads. The methodology was recently enhanced further to accommodate all types of rotor hubs.
Inelastic bending of a nickel beam at several temperatures: experiment and prediction
Mautz, J.A.; Hart, E.E.
1980-07-01
The results of an experiment on the bending response of a nickel prismatic beam under four point loading at 25/sup 0/C, 200/sup 0/C, and 300/sup 0/C are described. The specimens have been subjected to histories of steady applied moment with a sequence of step changes both positive and negative. The measured results are compared with predictions based on Hart's constitutive equations. The experimental conditions and procedures are described. The experiment and the predictions are compared with prior studies.
Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David
2012-01-01
Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…
Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow
McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B.
1997-08-01
The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending
Le, Tung T.; Kim, Harold D.
2014-01-01
Sharp bending of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays an essential role in genome structure and function. However, the elastic limit of dsDNA bending remains controversial. Here, we measured the opening rates of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths ranging between 40 and 200 bp using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. The relationship of loop lifetime to loop size revealed a critical transition in bending stress. Above the critical loop size, the loop lifetime changed with loop size in a manner consistent with elastic bending stress, but below it, became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softened dsDNA. The critical loop size increased from ∼60 bp to ∼100 bp with the addition of 5 mM magnesium. We show that our result is in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model, and furthermore, can reproduce previously reported looping probabilities of dsDNA over the range between 50 and 200 bp. Our findings shed new light on the energetics of sharply bent dsDNA. PMID:25122748
UV - BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK TX
Brewer 130 is located in Big Bend NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of...
The Hungarian-Americans of South Bend.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scherer, Darlene; Rasmussen, Karen, Ed.
Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Hungarian Americans in South Bend, Indiana, is intended to increase cultural awareness and appreciation. The document is divided into three sections. Section I offers a brief history of Hungary and describes the background of the three emigrant groups; lower…
Bending of skew plates of variable rigidity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willems, N.; Mahmood, S. S.
1972-01-01
Description of an analytical procedure for studying the bending of thin skew plates of a thickness varying in one direction, under arbitrary lateral loading. The analysis was programmed for execution on an electronic computer for various conditions and types of loading. The results obtained suggest that the proposed analytical procedure is more accurate than the finite-difference technique used in earlier investigations.
Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend
Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.
1976-01-01
40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.
Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments.
Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp
2015-12-11
Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds. PMID:26705649
Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp
2015-12-01
Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds.
Porsev, S. G.; Ginges, J. S. M.; Flambaum, V. V.
2011-04-15
We have considered a mechanism for inducing a time-reversal violating electric dipole moment (EDM) in atoms through the interaction of a nuclear EDM d{sub N} with the hyperfine interaction, the ''magnetic moment effect''. We have derived the operator for this interaction and presented analytical formulas for the matrix elements between atomic states. Induced EDMs in the diamagnetic atoms {sup 129}Xe, {sup 171}Yb, {sup 199}Hg, {sup 211}Rn, and {sup 225}Ra have been calculated numerically. From the experimental limits on the atomic EDMs of {sup 129}Xe and {sup 199}Hg we have placed the following constraints on the nuclear EDMs, |d{sub N}({sup 129}Xe)|<1.1x10{sup -21}|e|cm and |d{sub N}({sup 199}Hg)|<2.8x10{sup -24}|e|cm.
Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.
1950-06-23
Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.
Residual Field Correction of Pulsed Bending Magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, Junpei; Igarashi, Susumu; Kamikubota, Norihiko; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Kenichi; Shirakata, Masashi; Yamada, Shuei
The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) has an accelerator chain, Linac, Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), and Main Ring (MR). The RCS accelerates the proton beam up to 3 GeV every 40 msec. After the beam is extracted from the RCS, it is delivered to a beam transport line, which is 3NBT for the Material and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF). Some bunches of the proton beam are bended from the 3NBT to another beam transport line, which is 3-50BT for the MR, by using a pulsed bending magnet (PB) [1]. However, the beam orbit in the 3NBT is kicked by the residual magnetic field of the PB. In order to correct the residual magnetic field, additional coils had been wound on the PB poles. As a result of scanning the current pattern of the correction coils, the orbit distortion in the 3NBT has been reduced.
Monitoring thermoplastic composites under cyclic bending tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boccardi, Simone; Meola, Carosena; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Simeoli, Giorgio; Acierno, Domenico; Russo, Pietro
2016-05-01
This work is concerned with the use of infrared thermography to visualize temperature variations linked to thermo-elastic effects developing over the surface of a specimen undergoing deflection under bending tests. Several specimens are herein considered, which involve change of matrix and/or reinforcement. More specifically, the matrix is either a pure polypropylene, or a polypropylene added with a certain percentage of compatibilizing agent; the reinforcement is made of glass, or jute. Cyclic bending tests are carried out by the aid of an electromechanical actuator. Each specimen is viewed, during deflection, from one surface by an infrared imaging device. As main finding the different specimens display surface temperature variations which depend on the type of material in terms of both matrix and reinforcement.
Combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability. III
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Nolf, C. F., Jr.
1975-01-01
Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and 2.34, and Rockwell C hardness of 35/40 were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effects of the groove, and of the various combined bending-torsion loads, on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Two design applications are presented which illustrate the direct useability and value of the distributional failure governing strength and cycles-to-failure data in designing for specified levels of reliability and in predicting the reliability of given designs.
Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel
1951-01-01
The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.
Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending
Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.
1997-12-31
Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.
Effect of confinements: Bending in Paramecium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eddins, Aja; Yang, Sung; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan
2012-02-01
Paramecium is a unicellular eukaryote which by coordinated beating of cilia, generates metachronal waves which causes it to execute a helical trajectory. We investigate the swimming parameters of the organism in rectangular PDMS channels and try to quantify its behavior. Surprisingly a swimming Paramecium in certain width of channels executes a bend of its flexible body (and changes its direction of swimming) by generating forces using the cilia. Considering a simple model of beam constrained between two walls, we predict the bent shapes of the organism and the forces it exerts on the walls. Finally we try to explain how bending (by sensing) can occur in channels by conducting experiments in thin film of fluid and drawing analogy to swimming behavior observed in different cases.
Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo
Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir
2007-06-22
The behavior of the bending modulus {kappa} of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C{sub i}E{sub j} surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of {kappa} decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of {kappa} decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to {kappa}.
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Ober, Raymond; Waks, Marcel; Urbach, Wladimir
2007-06-01
The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic CiEj surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ
Defining moments in leadership character development.
Bleich, Michael R
2015-06-01
Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity. PMID:26057159
Nuclear moments in covariant density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, J.; Zhao, P. W.; Zhang, S. Q.; Hu, J. N.; Li, J.
2014-05-01
Recent progresses on microscopic and self-consistent description of the nuclear moments in covariant density functional theory based on a point-coupling interaction are briefly reviewed. In particular, the electric quadrupole moments of Cd isotopes and the magnetic moments of Pb isotopes are discussed.
Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.
Strain Engineering of Phosphorene via Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Deepti; Dumitrica, Traian
Phosphorene (PE) - the newly discovered 2D derivative of Phosphorus - has an inherent band gap and a high current on/off ratio. Manipulating strain in PE films - strain engineering (SE) - will offer the opportunity to further tailor its electronic properties. Using objective boundary conditions (OBC) coupled with density functional tight binding model (DFTB), we calculate bending rigidity of PE and its 2D allotropes by modeling bent PE as large diameter nanotubes (PNTs). OBCs not only allow for drastic reductions in the number of atoms in simulations but also enable simulations of chiral PNTs, which is impossible with periodic boundary conditions. At the same time, the method describes how bending influences the electronic structure. We establish a robust platform for achieving SE for anisotropic 2D films. Using results from our calculations and orthotropic thin shell model we develop equivalent continuum structure (ECS) for PE and its allotropes upon bending. The developed ECS can be used for performing finite element simulations of PE films on substrates.
Forming and Bending of Metal Foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven
2004-06-01
This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams.
Spore and the sociocultural moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, W. Max
2012-12-01
Analyses of the game Spore have centered on the important issues of accuracy of evolution content and engendering interest in science. This paper suggests that examination of the degree of scaffolding necessary to use the game in pedagogy is a missing part of the discussion, and then questions the longevity of the Spore discussion relative to the general dissatisfaction with the science presented in the game. The paper proposes that analysis of Spore and other technological tools in science education may be embedded in an historical moment which directs the discussion towards satisfying sociocultural and organizational needs and away from pedagogical ones.
Fermion dipole moment and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Rahman, Rakibur
2015-12-01
In the background of a charged AdS black hole, we consider a Dirac particle endowed with an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment. For non-zero charge and dipole coupling of the bulk fermion, we find that the dual boundary theory can be plagued with superluminal modes. Requiring consistency of the dual CFT amounts to constraining the strength of the dipole coupling by an upper bound. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the physics of holographic non-Fermi liquids.
Moments of catchment storm area
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eagleson, P. S.; Wang, Q.
1985-01-01
The portion of a catchment covered by a stationary rainstorm is modeled by the common area of two overlapping circles. Given that rain occurs within the catchment and conditioned by fixed storm and catchment sizes, the first two moments of the distribution of the common area are derived from purely geometrical considerations. The variance of the wetted fraction is shown to peak when the catchment size is equal to the size of the predominant storm. The conditioning on storm size is removed by assuming a probability distribution based upon the observed fractal behavior of cloud and rainstorm areas.
In vivo assessment of forearm bone mass and ulnar bending stiffness in healthy men
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myburgh, K. H.; Zhou, L. J.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.
1992-01-01
The cross-sectional bending stiffness EI of the ulna was measured in vivo by mechanical resistance tissue analysis (MRTA) in 90 men aged 19-89 years. MRTA measures the impedance response of low-frequency vibrations to determine EI, which is a reflection of elastic modulus E and moment of inertia I for the whole ulna. EI was compared to conventional estimates of bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW), and BMC/BW, which were all measured by single-photon absorptiometry. Results obtained from the nondominant ulna indicate that BW increases (r = 0.27, p = 0.01) and ulnar BMC/BW decreases (r = -0.31, p < or = 0.005) with age. Neither BMC nor EI declined with age. The single best predictor of EI was BW (r2 = 0.47, p = 0.0001), and further small but significant contributions were made by BMC (r2 = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and grip strength (r2 = 0.55, p = 0.0001). These results suggest that the resistance of older men to forearm fracture is related to age-associated changes in the moment of inertia achieved by redistributing bone mineral farther from the bending axis. We conclude that the in vivo assessment of bone geometry offers important insights to the comprehensive evaluation of bone strength.
Layer model for long-term deflection analysis of cracked reinforced concrete bending members
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacinskas, Darius; Kaklauskas, Gintaris; Gribniak, Viktor; Sung, Wen-Pei; Shih, Ming-Hsiang
2012-05-01
A numerical technique has been proposed for the long-term deformation analysis of reinforced concrete members subjected to a bending moment. The technique based on the layer approach in a simple and rational way deals with such complex issues as concrete cracking and tension-stiffening as well as creep and shrinkage. The approach uses the material stress-strain relationships for compressive concrete, cracked tensile concrete and steel. Such effects as linear and nonlinear creep, cracking, tension-stiffening as well as the reduction in concrete tension strength due to sustained loading have been taken into account. The shrinkage effect has been modeled by means of adequate actions of axial force and bending moment. A statistical deflection calculation analysis has been carried out for 322 experimental reinforced concrete beams reported in the literature. The comparative analysis of the experimental and the modeling results has shown that the proposed technique has well captured the time-deflection behavior of reinforced concrete flexural members. The results of the predictions by ACI 318 and Eurocode 2 design codes have been also discussed.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-12-29
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...
Olender, Gavin; Pfeifer, Ronny; Müller, Christian W; Gösling, Thomas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Hurschler, Christof
2011-05-01
Nitinol is a promising biomaterial based on its remarkable shape changing capacity, biocompatibility, and resilient mechanical properties. Until now, very limited applications have been tested for the use of Nitinol plates for fracture fixation in orthopaedics. Newly designed fracture-fixation plates are tested by four-point bending to examine a change in equivalent bending stiffness before and after shape transformation. The goal of stiffness alterable bone plates is to optimize the healing process during osteosynthesis in situ that is customized in time of onset, percent change as well as being performed non-invasively for the patient. The equivalent bending stiffness in plates of varying thicknesses changed before and after shape transformation in the range of 24-73% (p values <0.05 for all tests). Tests on a Nitinol plate of 3.0 mm increased in stiffness from 0.81 to 0.98 Nm² (corresponding standard deviation 0.08 and 0.05) and shared a good correlation to results from numerical calculation. The stiffness of the tested fracture-fixation plates can be altered in a consistent matter that would be predicted by determining the change of the cross-sectional area moment of inertia. PMID:21286815
Yielding and strain hardening in aluminium single-crystal foils subjected to tension and bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Masumi; Matsuki, Yuhei; Hayashi, Ichiro; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi
2012-09-01
A series of tensile and microbend tests were conducted on aluminium single-crystal foil specimens with different thicknesses ranging from 20 to 90 µm. Two different crystal orientations relative to the tensile direction were considered in the tests: one is an orientation that was excepted to activate at least four slip systems on four different slip planes, and the other is an orientation that was expected to activate only a single-slip system. In the tensile tests, typical size dependence of initial yield strength was observed. The microbend test method was extended to include a reversal of bending direction. Using the curves of bending moment normalized by the square of foil thickness versus surface strain, which were obtained from the reversed bending tests, the total amounts of strain hardening were divided into isotropic and kinematic hardening components. In the microbend tests, a pronounced size-dependent kinematic hardening behaviour was clearly observed; meanwhile, the amounts of isotropic hardening were very small, particularly for the single-slip orientation.
Third Elementary Dipole Moment: Toroidal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordrey, Vincent; Eshete, Amanuel; Majewski, Walerian
2015-04-01
In this paper we study the generally unknown characteristics of toroids, magnets without magnetic poles. Toroids have never seemed interesting enough to be studied for their physical features in labs due to the fact that they have no magnetic fields on the outside, but rather a very strong magnetic field trapped inside. Toroidal solenoids or magnets (rings magnetized circumferentially) interact with the external magnetic field only through its curl, which can be created either by an electric current, or by a time-dependent electric flux. We confirmed a theoretical prediction, that a toroid would not interact with the curl-less magnetic field of a current-carrying wire running outside of the torus's hole. We used our toroids as magnetic curlmeters, measuring the torque on the toroid, when the current-carrying wire runs through the toroid. From this torque we found the toroidal dipole moment. We are experimenting on detecting the escape of the inner magnetic field of the toroid outside of it, when magnetic toroid rotates or when electric toroid is driven by AC voltage. We also will discuss toroidal (or anapole) moments of fundamental particles, nuclei and atoms, and toroids' applications in metamaterials.
Top quark electromagnetic dipole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouzas, Antonio O.; Larios, F.
2015-11-01
The magnetic and electric dipole moments of the top quark are constrained indirectly by the Br(B → Xsγ) and the ACP(B → Xsγ) measurements. They can also be tested by top quark production and decay processes. The recent measurement of production by CDF are used to set direct constraints. The B → Xsγ measurements by themselves define an allowed parameter region that sets up stringent constraints on both dipole moments. The measurement by CDF has a ∼ 37% error that is too large to set any competitive bounds, for which a much lower 5% error would be required. For the LHC it is found that with its higher energy the same measurement could indeed further constrain the allowed parameter region given by the B → Xsγ measurement [1]. In addition, the proposed LHeC experiment (electron- proton) could provide even more stringent constraints than the LHC via the photoproduction channel [2].
A uniform parametrization of moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl
2015-09-01
A moment tensor is a 3 × 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parametrization of the 5-D space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parametrization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parametrization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parametrization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favour double couples.
Bending of beams of thin sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huber, Maximilian T
1936-01-01
The tendency toward economy of material and lightness of structure has long since led to the increased application of beams having large ratios of moment of area W to cross-sectional area F. This paper tries to provide an answer to how thin the beams can be.
Design of a 90{degree} overmoded waveguide bend
Nantista, C.; Kroll, N.M.; Nelson, E.M.
1993-04-01
A design for a 90{degree} bend for the TE{sub 01} mode in over-moded circular waveguide is presented. A pair of septa, symmetrically placed perpendicular to the plane of the bend, are adiabatically introduced into the waveguide before the bend and removed after it. Introduction of the curvature excites five propagating modes in the curved section. The finite element field solver YAP is used to calculate the propagation constants of these modes in the bend, and the guide diameter, septum depth, septum thickness, and bend radius are set so that the phase advances of all five modes through the bend are equal modulo 2{pi}. To a good approximation these modes are expected to recombine to form a pure mode at the end of the bend.
Characterization of bending loss in hollow flexible terahertz waveguides.
Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil S; Kumar, Jayant; Giles, Robert H
2012-08-13
Attenuation characteristics of hollow, flexible, metal and metal/dielectric coated polycarbonate waveguides were investigated using an optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser at 215 µm. The bending loss of silver coated polycarbonate waveguides were measured as a function of various bending angles, bending radii, and bore diameters. Minimal propagation losses of 1.77, 0.96 dB/m were achieved by coupling the lowest loss TE11 mode into the silver or gold coated waveguide, and HE11 mode into the silver/polystyrene coated waveguides respectively. The maximal bending loss was found to be less than 1 dB/m for waveguides of 2 to 4.1 mm bore diameters, with a 6.4 cm bend radius, and up to 150° bending angle. The investigation shows the preservation of single laser mode in smaller bore waveguides even at greater bending angles. PMID:23038558
Evolving efficiency of restraining bends within wet kaolin analog experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Madden, Elizabeth H.
2015-03-01
Restraining bends along strike-slip fault systems evolve by both propagation of new faults and abandonment of fault segments. Scaled analog modeling using wet kaolin allows for qualitative and quantitative observations of this evolution. To explore how bend geometry affects evolution, we model bends with a variety of initial angles, θ, from θ = 0° for a straight fault to θ = 30°. High-angle restraining bends (θ ≥ 20°) overcome initial inefficiencies by abandoning unfavorably oriented restraining segments and propagating multiple new, inwardly dipping, oblique-slip faults that are well oriented to accommodate convergence within the bend. Restraining bends with 0° < θ ≤ 15° maintain activity along the restraining bend segment and grow a single new oblique slip fault on one side of the bend. In all restraining bends, the first new fault propagates at ~5 mm of accumulated convergence. Particle Image Velocimetry analysis provides a complete velocity field throughout the experiments. From these data, we quantify the strike-slip efficiency of the system as the percentage of applied plate-parallel velocity accommodated as slip in the direction of plate motion along faults within the restraining bend. Bends with small θ initially have higher strike-slip efficiency compared to bends with large θ. Although they have different fault geometries, all systems with a 5 cm bend width reach a steady strike-slip efficiency of 80% after 50 mm of applied plate displacement. These experimental restraining bends resemble crustal faults in their asymmetric fault growth, asymmetric topographic gradient, and strike-slip efficiency.
Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.)
Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W.
2014-01-01
Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to “unfold” and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head. PMID:25018734
Contribution of Elasticity in Slab Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourel, L.; Goes, S. D. B.; Morra, G.
2014-12-01
Previous studies have shown that plate rheology exerts a dominant control on the shape and velocity of subducting plates. Here, we perform a systematic investigation of the, often disregarded, role of elasticity in slab bending at the trench, using simple, yet fully dynamic, set of 2.5D models where an elastic, visco-elastic or visco-elasto-plastic plate subducts freely into a purely viscous mantle. We derive a scaling relationship between the bending radius of visco-elastic slabs and the Deborah number, De, which is the ratio of Maxwell time over deformation time. We show that De controls the ratio of elastically stored energy over viscously dissipated energy and find that at De exceeding 10-2, it requires substantially less energy to bend a visco-elastic slab to the same shape as a purely viscous slab with the same viscosity (90% less for De=0.1). Elastically stored energy at higher De facilitates slab unbending and hence favours retreating modes of subduction, while trench advance only occurs for some cases with De<10-2. We use our scaling relation to estimate apparent Deborah numbers, Deapp, from a global compilation of subduction-zone parameters. Values range from 10-3 to >1, where most zones have low Deapp<10-2, but a few young plates have Deapp>0.1. Slabs with Deapp ≤ 10-2 either have very low viscosities, ≤10 times mantle viscosity, or they may be yielding, in which case our apparent Deborah number may underestimate actual De by up to an order of magnitude. If a significant portion of the low Deapp slabs yield, then elastically stored energy may actually be important in quite a large number of subduction zones. Interestingly, increasing Deapp correlates with increasing proportion of larger seismic events (b-value) in both instrumental and historic catalogues, indicating that increased contribution of elasticity may facilitate rupture in larger, less frequent earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yajun; Xu, Minglong; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Xinong
2015-03-01
With increasing of the geometry of various space structures, they easily bring low-frequency, longtime and more bending modal responses. Therefore, it is necessary to suppress effectually the vibration responses above. Adaptive structure design is a common method using the piezoelectric material. However, the conventional piezoelectric actuators hardly control effectually these responses owing to the inadequate actuated performance. This paper first introduces the design of a new dual-stack piezoelectric actuator, which has the bidirectional (can act in both push and pull directions) actuated advantage, using a pair of matching piezoelectric stacks within the actuator house. Two stacks are integrated in a mechanically opposing configuration and are electrically operated out of phase. Further, we design the piezoelectric bending actuator using two dual-stack piezoelectric actuators and a fixed device, and then a five-meter hoop truss can use it to perform the active vibration control. Here the truss is mainly applied to simulate a large hoop mesh antenna. Then, we set up the active control system based on the PD algorithm and build the simulation model by the Matlab/Simulink platform. The simulation results point out the PBA can produce enough actuated moment to suppress effectually the first-order modal response of the hoop truss. Finally, we perform three experiments including one uncontrolled case and two PD controlled cases. The two control cases mainly consider whether the driving voltages are offset or not. The experimental results of both control cases are in accordance with the better simulated analysis. The control ratios of the decay time of the first-order modal response are up to more than 30 percent in the simulations and experiments. That is, this bending actuator has good application foreground in controlling the bending modes of the spacecrafts with a larger size.
Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.
1977-01-01
Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.
Self-bending symmetric cusp beams
Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei; Ren, Yu-Xuan
2015-12-07
A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.
Self-bending symmetric cusp beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Ren, Yu-Xuan; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei
2015-12-01
A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.
Bending of light in quantum gravity.
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre
2015-02-13
We consider the scattering of lightlike matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the Sun or a Schwarzschild black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the nonanalytic components of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semiclassical computation of the bending angle for light rays grazing the Sun, including long-range ℏ contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular, the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle. PMID:25723201
Mixed-Mode-Bending Delamination Apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.
1991-01-01
Mixed-mode-bending delamination apparatus generates two types of delamination stress simultaneously in specimen from single externally applied point load. In technique, indivial mode I and mode II contributions to delamination in specimen analyzed by use of simple beam-theory equations, eliminating need for time-consuming, difficult numerical analysis. Allows wider range of mode I/mode II ratios than possible with many other methods. Mixed-mode delamination testing of interest in all fields utilizing composite materials, used mostly in aerospace field, but also used in automobiles, lightweight armored military vehicles, boats, and sporting equipment. Useful in general lumber, plywood, and adhesive industries, as well.
Bending and buckling of wet paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Minhee; Kim, Seungho; Kim, Ho-Young; Mahadevan, L.
2016-04-01
Flat paper stained with water buckles and wrinkles as it swells and deforms out of the original plane. Here we quantify the geometry and mechanics of a strip of paper that swells when it imbibes water from a narrow capillary. Characterizing the hygroexpansive nature of paper shows that thickness-wise swelling is much faster than in-plane water imbibition, leading to a simple picture for the process by which the strip of paper bends out of the plane. We model the out-of-plane deformation using a quasi-static theory and show that our results are consistent with quantitative experiments.
Multifiber optical bend sensor to aid colonoscope navigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesner, Jessica E.; Gavalis, Robb M.; Wong, Peter Y.; Cao, Caroline G. L.
2011-12-01
A colonoscopy's near-blind navigation process frequently causes disorientation for the scope operator, leading to harm for the patient. Navigation can be improved if real-time colonoscope shape, location, and orientation information is provided by a shape-tracking aid, such as a fiber optic bend sensor. Fiber optic bend sensors provide advantages over conventional electromechanical shape-trackers, including low cost and ease of integration. However, current fiber optic bend sensors lack either the ability to detect both bending direction and curvature, or the ability to detect multiple localized bends. An inexpensive multifiber bend sensor was developed to aid users in navigation during colonoscopy. The bend sensor employs active-cladding optical fibers modified with fluorescent quantum dots, bandpass filters, and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imager as key components. Results from three-fiber sensors demonstrate the bend sensor's ability to measure curvature (error of 0.01 mm), direction (100% accuracy), and location (predetermined distance) of a bend in the fiber bundle. Comparison with spectroscopy data further confirmed the accuracy of the bending direction measurement for a three-fiber sensor. Future work includes improvements in fiber manufacturing to increase sensor sensitivity and consistency. An expanded 31 fiber bundle would be needed to track the full length of a colonoscope.
The design of an agent to bend DNA.
Akiyama, T; Hogan, M E
1996-01-01
An artificial DNA bending agent has been designed to assess helix flexibility over regions as small as a protein binding site. Bending was obtained by linking a pair of 15-base-long triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) by an adjustable polymeric linker. By design, DNA bending was introduced into the double helix within a 10-bp spacer region positioned between the two sites of 15-base triple helix formation. The existence of this bend has been confirmed by circular permutation and phase-sensitive electrophoresis, and the directionality of the bend has been determined as a compression of the minor helix groove. The magnitude of the resulting duplex bend was found to be dependent on the length of the polymeric linker in a fashion consistent with a simple geometric model. Data suggested that a 50-70 degrees bend was achieved by binding of the TFO chimera with the shortest linker span (18 rotatable bonds). Equilibrium analysis showed that, relative to a chimera which did not bend the duplex, the stability of the triple helix possessing a 50-70 degrees bend was reduced by less than 1 kcal/mol of that of the unbent complex. Based upon this similarity, it is proposed that duplex DNA may be much more flexible with respect to minor groove compression than previously assumed. It is shown that this unusual flexibility is consistent with recent quantitation of protein-induced minor groove bending. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8901543
Relativistic corrections to the nuclear Schiff moment
Dmitriev, V.F.; Flambaum, V.V.
2005-06-01
Parity- and time-invariance-violating (P,T-odd) atomic electric dipole moments (EDM) are induced by the interaction between atomic electrons and nuclear P,T-odd moments, which are themselves produced by P,T-odd nuclear forces. The nuclear EDM is screened by atomic electrons. The EDM of a nonrelativistic atom with closed electron subshells is induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. For heavy relativistic atoms EDM is induced by the nuclear local dipole moments, which differ by 10-50% from the Schiff moments calculated previously. We calculate the local dipole moments for {sup 199}Hg and {sup 205}Tl where the most accurate atomic [Romalis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505 (2001)] and molecular [Cho et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2559 (1989); Phys. Rev. A 44, 2783 (1991)] EDM measurements have been performed.
Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography for Bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volker, Arno; Bloom, Joost
2011-06-01
The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method has been demonstrated for straight pipes. The extension of this method to bends is not straightforward because natural focusing occurs due to geometrical path differences. This yields a phase jump, which complicates travel time picking. Because ray-tracing is no longer sufficient to predict the travel times a recursive wave field extrapolation has been developed. The method uses a short spatial convolution operator to propagate a wave field through a bend. The method allows to calculate the wave field at the detector ring, including the phase jump as a consequence of the natural focusing. The recursive wave field extrapolation is done in the space-frequency domain. Therefore dispersion effects can be included easily in the forward modeling. Comparison with measurements shows the accuracy of the method.
Fox-Wolfram moments in Higgs physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernaciak, Catherine; Buschmann, Malte Seán Andreas; Butter, Anja; Plehn, Tilman
2013-04-01
Geometric correlations between jets as part of hard processes or in addition to hard processes are key ingredients to many LHC analyses. Fox-Wolfram moments systematically describe these correlations in terms of spherical harmonics. These moments, computed either from the tagging jets or from all jets in each event, can significantly improve Higgs searches in weak boson fusion. Applications of Fox-Wolfram moments in LHC analyses obviously surpass jets as analysis objects, as well as Higgs searches in terms of analyses.
Eggers, A.J.Jr.; Ashley, H.; Digumarthi, R.V. )
1993-08-01
Anticipating that composite materials will permit greater freedom when future VAWT rotor blades are configured, this paper further examines the benefits of adopting true Troposkien shapes for blades which do not use horizontal struts. Two parameters are identified which control blade geometry under combined rotational and gravitational loads. Representative zero-bending-moment shapes are calculated, both for constant mass distribution and for several new variable-mass families. The latter include one case whose mathematical solution proves remarkably simple. Steady design stresses are found to be severely affected by deviations from the ideal shape. The concept of aerodynamic Troposkien, ' which preserves zero bending moments in the presence of 1-P cyclic normal forces, is extended to account for gravity as well as inertial effects on blade shape. This concept is limited to unstalled flow and it is found to require unrealistic blade chord distributions near the tower when gravity effects are included. It is noted that both steady gravitational loads and nonsteady aerodynamic normal force loads will become increasingly important in achieving high-cycle fatigue life with larger-scale rotor blades. It is indicated that this achievement will depend primarily on configuring the rotor blades to minimize the cyclic flatwise bending moments and stresses due to the nonsteady normal forces.
A uniform parameterization of moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, C.; Tape, W.
2015-12-01
A moment tensor is a 3 x 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parameterization of the five-dimensional space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parameterization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parameterization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parameterization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favor double couples. An appropriate choice of a priori moment tensor probability is a prerequisite for parameter estimation. As a seemingly sensible choice, we consider the homogeneous probability, in which equal volumes of moment tensors are equally likely. We believe that it will lead to improved characterization of source processes.
L-moments under nuisance regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picek, Jan; Schindler, Martin
2016-06-01
The L-moments are analogues of the conventional moments and have similar interpretations. They are calculated using linear combinations of the expectation of ordered data. In practice, L-moments must usually be estimated from a random sample drawn from an unknown distribution as a linear combination of ordered statistics. Jureckova and Picek (2014) showed that averaged regression quantile is asymptotically equivalent to the location quantile. We therefore propose a generalization of L-moments in the model with nuisance regression using the averaged regression quantiles.
Gross shell structure of moments of inertia
Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.
2002-07-01
Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits.
Precision Small Angle Bending of Sheet Metals Using Shear Deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirota, Kenji; Mori, Yorifumi
This paper deals with a new method to bend sheet metals at a small angle precisely, in which a sheet metal is slightly bent by shear deformation at negative punch-die clearance. Deformation behavior and key factors affecting on the bend angle were studied in detail with pure aluminum sheets. It was proved that the bend angle was changed in proportion to both punch penetration and negative punch-die clearance within a certain range. The same was true for high-strength steel and phosphor bronze, which are difficult to bend precisely by conventional methods due to large springback after unloading. By using this relationship as a control law, four kinds of sheet metals were precisely bent within a few degrees. This method was applied to correct the angular errors in U-bend products of high-strength steel and to bend leaf springs of phosphor bronze at an arbitrary small angle.
Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.
2016-04-01
This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.
Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John
2016-07-20
We studied behavior of surrogate nuclear fuel rods made of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding with alumina pellets under reversed cyclic bending. Tests were performed under load or moment control at 5 Hz, and an empirical correlation was established between rod fatigue life and amplitude of the applied moment. Fatigue response of Zry-4 cladding was further characterized by using flexural rigidity. Degradation of flexural rigidity was shown to depend on the moment applied and the prefatigue condition of specimens. Pellet-to-pellet interface (PPI), pellet-to-cladding interface (PCI), and pellet condition all affect surrogate rod failure. Bonding/debonding of PPI/PCI and pellet fracturing contribute to surrogatemore » rod bending fatigue. Also, the effect of sensor spacing on curvature measurement using three-point deflections was studied; the method based on effective specimen gauge length is effective in sensor spacing correction. Finally, we developed the database and gained understanding in this study such that it will serve as input to analysis of SNF vibration integrity.« less
Wakeling; Johnston
1999-03-01
Fish fast-starts are rapid events caused by the simultaneous onset of muscle activity along one side of the body. Spine curvature and the strain and electromyographic activity in white muscle were measured for fast-starts in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The first bend of the fast-start was powered by muscle on the concave side: muscle fibres on this side were activated and began shortening simultaneously between the length-specific longitudinal sites 0.3L and 0.56L, where L is total body length. However, there was an increasing delay in the timing of the first peak in body curvature and muscle strain along the length of the body. Modelling studies related the rate of body bending to the muscle torque and hydrodynamic resistance of the fish. The muscle torque produced on the spine was greatest in the central region of the trunk, and this acted against the moments of inertia of the fish mass and added mass of water. It was concluded that a wave of body bending can be generated as a result of the hydrodynamic resistance of the fish despite the initiation of that bending being simultaneous along the length of the body. PMID:10021321
Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules.
Kent, Ian A; Rane, Parag S; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C; Lele, Tanmay P
2016-01-01
Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838
Bending response of single layer MoS2.
Xiong, Si; Cao, Guoxin
2016-03-11
Using molecular mechanics (or dynamics) simulations, three different approaches, including the targeted molecular mechanics, four-point bending and nanotube methods, are employed to investigate the bending response of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2), among which four-point bending is the most accurate approach to determine the bending stiffness according to the continuum theory. It is found that when the bending curvature radius is large enough (e.g. >4 nm), three approaches will give the same bending stiffness of SLMoS2 and the bending behavior is isotropic for SLMoS2, whereas the nanotube method with small tubes (e.g. <4 nm) cannot give the correct bending stiffness. Compared with the reported result from the MoS2 nanotube calculated by density functional theory, the revised Stillinger-Weber (SW) and reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potentials can give the reasonable bending stiffness of SLMoS2 (8.7-13.4 eV) as well as the effective deformed conformation. In addition, since the Mo-S bond deformation of SLMoS2 under bending is similar to that under in-plane tension/compression, the continuum bending theory can quite accurately predict the bending stiffness of SLMoS2 if a reasonable thickness of SLMoS2 is given. For SLMoS2, the reasonable thickness should be larger than the distance between its two S atomic planes and lower than the distance between two Mo atomic planes of bulk MoS2 crystal, e.g. 0.375-0.445 nm. PMID:26861930
The mechanics of gravitropic bending in leafy dicot stems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salisbury, F. B.; Mueller, W. J.; Blotter, P. T.; Harris, C. S.; White, R. G.; Gillespie, L. S.; Sliwinski, J. E.
1982-01-01
The mechanism of the gravitropic bending in stems of the cocklebur and castor bean are investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrate the quick stopping of growth and the increased tensions on the upper layer of a horizontal stem. It is suggested that bending apparently occurs as the resistance of the upper surface layers is extended to the inner cells below. A model of stem bending is developed which can explain the asymmetry of the stem-cell response.
Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules
Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.
2016-01-01
Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838
BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.
Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G
2015-01-01
Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581
Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.
1994-01-01
The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.
Bending response of single layer MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Si; Cao, Guoxin
2016-03-01
Using molecular mechanics (or dynamics) simulations, three different approaches, including the targeted molecular mechanics, four-point bending and nanotube methods, are employed to investigate the bending response of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2), among which four-point bending is the most accurate approach to determine the bending stiffness according to the continuum theory. It is found that when the bending curvature radius is large enough (e.g. >4 nm), three approaches will give the same bending stiffness of SLMoS2 and the bending behavior is isotropic for SLMoS2, whereas the nanotube method with small tubes (e.g. <4 nm) cannot give the correct bending stiffness. Compared with the reported result from the MoS2 nanotube calculated by density functional theory, the revised Stillinger-Weber (SW) and reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potentials can give the reasonable bending stiffness of SLMoS2 (8.7-13.4 eV) as well as the effective deformed conformation. In addition, since the Mo-S bond deformation of SLMoS2 under bending is similar to that under in-plane tension/compression, the continuum bending theory can quite accurately predict the bending stiffness of SLMoS2 if a reasonable thickness of SLMoS2 is given. For SLMoS2, the reasonable thickness should be larger than the distance between its two S atomic planes and lower than the distance between two Mo atomic planes of bulk MoS2 crystal, e.g. 0.375-0.445 nm.
Microwave spectrum, structure, dipole moment, and Coriolis coupling of 1,1-difluoroallene
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durig, J. R.; Li, Y. S.; Tong, C. C.; Zens, A. P.; Ellis, P. D.
1974-01-01
Microwave spectra from 12.4 to 40.0 GHz were recorded for five isotopic species of 1,1-difluoroallene. A-type transitions were observed and R-branch assignments were made for the ground state and two vibrationally excited states. Several structural parameters of the compounds were determined. The dipole moment value obtained from Stark splitting was 2.07 plus or minus 0.03 D. A Coriolis coupling was observed between the two-low-frequency C = C = C bending modes.
Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
Static Fatigue of Optical Fibers in Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, D.; Cuellar, E.; Middleman, L.; Zucker, J.
1987-02-01
While delayed fracture, or static fatigue, of optical fibers is well known, it is not well understood, and the prediction of the time to failure under a given set of conditions can be problematic. Unlike short term fracture, which is quite well understood and quantified in terms of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, the long term strength remains empirical. The goal of this study is to determine the design criteria for optical fibers subjected to long term applied mechanical loads. One difficulty in making lifetime predictions, as pointed out by Matthewson (Reference 1) and others, is that predictions made from data taken in tension and in bending do not agree. Another difficulty is the statistical nature of the fracture of glass. In making lifetime predictions it becomes important therefore that one (a) have ample data for statistical analysis and (b) have data for the loading configuration of interest. This is the purpose of our work. Since there is less data available in bending, and since several applications (such as wiring in aircraft and missiles) require bending, the data are taken in that configuration. The most significant finding in our work so far is the very large difference in static fatigue behavior between buffer coatings. Chandan and Kalish (Reference 2) and others have reported static fatigue curves, log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress), which are not linear, but rather bimodal. Our study confirms this result, but so far only for acrylate coated fibers. Silicone coated fibers show unimodal behavior. That is, the log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress) curve is linear, at least on the time scale studied so far. Data for acrylate coated fibers at 80°C in water are linear only for time scales of about one day, where a pronounced "knee" is observed. Data for silicone coated fibers under the same conditions are linear up to at least 6 months. Longer time scale tests and tests on fibers with other buffer materials
PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING
Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Vickie Williams, V
2008-01-30
One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for
Bending waves and the structure of Saturn's rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lissauer, J. J.
1985-01-01
The surface mass density profiles at four locations within Saturn's rings are calculated using Voyager spacecraft images of spiral bending waves. The identification of a feature in Saturn's outer B ring as Mimas's 4:2 bending waves is confirmed, and these 4:2 waves are analyzed to determine the surface density in Saturn's B ring. A fourth set of bending waves, the Mimas 7:4, located in the inner A ring, is identified and analyzed. Mimas's 5:3 and 8:5 bending waves, observed in the middle and outer A ring respectively, are reanalyzed.
GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...
GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR
Sorting of bed load sediment by flow in meander bends.
Parker, G.; Andrews, E.D.
1985-01-01
Equilibrium sorting of coarse mobile bed load sediment in meander bends is considered. A theory of two-dimensional bed load transport of graded material, including the effects of gravity on lateral slopes and secondary currents, is developed. This theory is coupled with a simple tratement of flow in bends, an analytically determined bend shape, and the condition of continuity of each grain size range in transport to describe sorting. The theory indicates that the locus of coarse sediment shifts from the inside bank to the outside bank near the bend apex, as is observed.-Authors
Adaptive waveguide bends with homogeneous, nonmagnetic, and isotropic materials.
Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Tang, Xiaohong
2011-01-15
We propose a method for adaptive waveguide bends using homogeneous, nonmagnetic, and isotropic materials, which simplifies the parameters of the bends to the utmost extent. The proposed bend has an adaptive and compact shape because of all the flat boundaries. The nonmagnetic property is realized by selecting OB'/OC = 0.5. Only two nonmagnetic isotropic dielectrics are needed throughout, and the transmission is not sensitive to nonmagnetic isotropic dielectrics. Results validate and illustrate these functionalities, which make the bend much easier to fabricate and apply, owing to its simple parameters, compact shape, and versatility in connecting different waveguides. PMID:21263493
Fatigue life prediction in bending from axial fatigue information
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manson, S. S.; Muralidharan, U.
1982-01-01
Bending fatigue in the low cyclic life range differs from axial fatigue due to the plastic flow which alters the linear stress-strain relation normally used to determine the nominal stresses. An approach is presented to take into account the plastic flow in calculating nominal bending stress (S sub bending) based on true surface stress. These functions are derived in closed form for rectangular and circular cross sections. The nominal bending stress and the axial fatigue stress are plotted as a function of life (N sub S) and these curves are shown for several materials of engineering interest.
SRI CAT Section 1 bending magnet beamline description
Srajer, G.; Rodricks, B.; Assoufid, L.; Mills, D.M.
1994-03-10
This report discusses: APS bending magnet source; beamline layout; beamline optical components; beamline operation; time-resolved studies station; polarization studies station; and commissioning and operational schedule.
Oni, O O; Capper, M; Soutis, C
1995-02-01
In an attempt to reduce pin loosening, a flanged external fixator pin has been designed and its bending stiffness has been compared with that of a standard pin. The pins were inserted into pilot holes previously drilled into a piece of teak hardwood. Loads of different magnitudes were applied at a fixed moment arm and force-deflection curves were obtained. Thereafter, percentage stiffness increase was calculated for each pilot hole size. The results show that the addition of a collar to the external fixator pin increases its stiffness and its ability to resist bending forces. In a parallel study, the stresses generated at the pin-bone interface by this pin and a standard pin were compared using finite element analysis techniques. The results show that the flange significantly reduced the stresses generated at the pin-bone interface. In addition, stresses were dissipated over a wider area. PMID:7714660
A Unified Methodology for Computing Accurate Quaternion Color Moments and Moment Invariants.
Karakasis, Evangelos G; Papakostas, George A; Koulouriotis, Dimitrios E; Tourassis, Vassilios D
2014-02-01
In this paper, a general framework for computing accurate quaternion color moments and their corresponding invariants is proposed. The proposed unified scheme arose by studying the characteristics of different orthogonal polynomials. These polynomials are used as kernels in order to form moments, the invariants of which can easily be derived. The resulted scheme permits the usage of any polynomial-like kernel in a unified and consistent way. The resulted moments and moment invariants demonstrate robustness to noisy conditions and high discriminative power. Additionally, in the case of continuous moments, accurate computations take place to avoid approximation errors. Based on this general methodology, the quaternion Tchebichef, Krawtchouk, Dual Hahn, Legendre, orthogonal Fourier-Mellin, pseudo Zernike and Zernike color moments, and their corresponding invariants are introduced. A selected paradigm presents the reconstruction capability of each moment family, whereas proper classification scenarios evaluate the performance of color moment invariants. PMID:24216719
Numerical and experimental investigation of the bending response of thin-walled composite cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuchs, J. P.; Hyer, M. W.; Starnes, J. H., Jr.
1993-01-01
A numerical and experimental investigation of the bending behavior of six eight-ply graphite-epoxy circular cylinders is presented. Bending is induced by applying a known end-rotation to each end of the cylinders, analogous to a beam in bending. The cylinders have a nominal radius of 6 inches, a length-to-radius ratio of 2 and 5, and a radius-to-thickness ratio of approximately 160. A (+/- 45/0/90)S quasi-isotropic layup and two orthotropic layups, (+/- 45/0 sub 2)S and (+/- 45/90 sub 2)S, are studied. A geometrically nonlinear special-purpose analysis, based on Donnell's nonlinear shell equations, is developed to study the prebuckling responses and gain insight into the effects of non-ideal boundary conditions and initial geometric imperfections. A geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis is utilized to compare with the prebuckling solutions of the special-purpose analysis and to study the buckling and post buckling responses of both geometrically perfect and imperfect cylinders. The imperfect cylinder geometries are represented by an analytical approximation of the measured shape imperfections. Extensive experimental data are obtained from quasi-static tests of the cylinders using a test fixture specifically designed for the present investigation. A description of the test fixture is included. The experimental data are compared to predictions for both perfect and imperfect cylinder geometries. Prebuckling results are presented in the form of displacement and strain profiles. Buckling end-rotations, moments, and strains are reported, and predicted mode shapes are presented. Observed and predicted moment vs. end-rotation relations, deflection patterns, and strain profiles are illustrated for the post buckling responses. It is found that a geometrically nonlinear boundary layer behavior characterizes the prebuckling responses. The boundary layer behavior is sensitive to laminate orthotropy, cylinder geometry, initial geometric imperfections, applied end
Predicting Robust Learning with the Visual Form of the Moment-by-Moment Learning Curve
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Ryan S.; Hershkovitz, Arnon; Rossi, Lisa M.; Goldstein, Adam B.; Gowda, Sujith M.
2013-01-01
We present a new method for analyzing a student's learning over time for a specific skill: analysis of the graph of the student's moment-by-moment learning over time. Moment-by-moment learning is calculated using a data-mined model that assesses the probability that a student learned a skill or concept at a specific time during learning…
Influence of mass moment of inertia on normal modes of preloaded solar array mast
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armand, Sasan C.; Lin, Paul
1992-01-01
Earth-orbiting spacecraft often contain solar arrays or antennas supported by a preloaded mast. Because of weight and cost considerations, the structures supporting the spacecraft appendages are extremely light and flexible; therefore, it is vital to investigate the influence of all physical and structural parameters that may influence the dynamic behavior of the overall structure. The study primarily focuses on the mast for the space station solar arrays, but the formulations and the techniques developed in this study apply to any large and flexible mast in zero gravity. Furthermore, to determine the influence on the circular frequencies, the mass moment of inertia of the mast was incorporated into the governing equation of motion for bending. A finite element technique (MSC/NASTRAN) was used to verify the formulation. Results indicate that when the mast is relatively flexible and long, the mass moment inertia influences the circular frequencies.
Separation of blood in microchannel bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang
2004-01-01
Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (μTBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.
Separation of blood in microchannel bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang
2003-12-01
Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (μTBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.
Bending the Cost Curve in Childhood Cancer.
Russell, Heidi; Bernhardt, M Brooke
2016-08-01
Healthcare for children with cancer costs significantly more than other children. Cost reduction efforts aimed toward relatively small populations of patients that use a disproportionate amount of care, like childhood cancer, could have a dramatic impact on healthcare spending. The aims of this review are to provide stakeholders with an overview of the drivers of financial costs of childhood cancer and to identify possible directions to curb or decrease these costs. Costs are incurred throughout the spectrum of care. Recent trends in pharmaceutical costs, evidence identifying the contribution of administration costs, and overuse of surveillance studies are described. Awareness of cost and value, i.e., the outcome achieved per dollar or burden spent, in delivery of care and research is necessary to bend the cost curve. Incorporation of these dimensions of care requires methodology development, prioritization, and ethical balance. PMID:27193602
A comparison of needle bending models.
Dehghan, Ehsan; Goksel, Orcun; Salcudean, Septimiu E
2006-01-01
Modeling the deflection of flexible needles is an essential part of needle insertion simulation and path planning. In this paper, three models are compared in terms of accuracy in simulating the bending of a prostate brachytherapy needle. The first two utilize the finite element method, one using geometric non-linearity and triangular plane elements, the other using non-linear beam elements. The third model uses angular springs to model cantilever deflection. The simulations are compared with the experimental bent needle configurations. The models are assessed in terms of geometric conformity using independently identified and pre-identified model parameters. The results show that the angular spring model, which is also the simplest, simulates the needle more accurately than the others. PMID:17354904
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renton, J. D.
1997-05-01
The problems of torsion, axial loading and shear of a solid cone were solved around the turn of the century by Michell and Föppl. Surprisingly, no solution to the problem of the elastic response of a cone to the only other possible resultant applied to its apex seems to have been published until now. The method used here is based on certain theoretical considerations related to the author's work on generalizing the engineering theory of beams. This means that the result is derived rather than being the result of a trial-and-error process. A comparison is made with the usual engineering theory as modified for variable bending stiffness. The two analyses give the same results at the limit as the cone angle tends to zero.
How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…
Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.
2015-01-01
In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…
Study of Nuclear Moments on Exotic Nuclei
Ishihara, Masayasu
2010-04-30
Nuclear moments have been measured for a few tens of light unstable nuclei located very far from the line of stability using beta-NMR methods and spin-polarized RI beams. The obtained values of those moments provided indispensable information to reveal/disentangle unique properties of exotic nuclei.
Moments from Cumulants and Vice Versa
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2009-01-01
Moments and cumulants are expressed in terms of each other using Bell polynomials. Inbuilt routines for the latter make these expressions amenable to use by algebraic manipulation programs. One of the four formulas given is an explicit version of Kendall's use of Faa di Bruno's chain rule to express cumulants in terms of moments.
Balancing Beams--For a Few Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kibble, Bob
2008-01-01
A 2 m long wooden beam provides an ideal demonstration tool for exploring moments. A class set is cheap and can be used at introductory and advanced levels. This article explores how such beams can be used to support learning about moments, equilibrium, vectors, and simultaneous equations. (Contains 7 figures.)
Joint moments of proper delay times
Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.
2014-08-15
We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2016-05-01
In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10‑1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chollacoop, Nuwong; Alur, Amruthavalli P.; Kumar, K. Sharvan
Deformation behavior in three-point bending test of Mo-Si-B alloy was investigated by recourse to finite element analysis (FEA) with microstructure incorporated. This Mo-Si-B alloy consists of hard, brittle T2 (Mo5SiB2) phase embedded in soft matrix of Mo solid solution. The sample contains pre-crack configuration at the middle in order to study the effect of the second phase (T2 particles) onto a crack tip during the bending test. Various optical micrographs were scanned, digitized and meshed for FEA. It was found that strain localization from the second phase at the crack tip was interfered with that from the loading pin in three-point bending test. Such interference could be reduced by replacement with end moment loading, in order to identify sole strain localization effect from the second phase at the crack tip.
Blurred image recognition by legendre moment invariants
Zhang, Hui; Shu, Huazhong; Han, Guo-Niu; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis
2010-01-01
Processing blurred images is a key problem in many image applications. Existing methods to obtain blur invariants which are invariant with respect to centrally symmetric blur are based on geometric moments or complex moments. In this paper, we propose a new method to construct a set of blur invariants using the orthogonal Legendre moments. Some important properties of Legendre moments for the blurred image are presented and proved. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various point-spread functions and different image noises. The comparison of the present approach with previous methods in terms of pattern recognition accuracy is also provided. The experimental results show that the proposed descriptors are more robust to noise and have better discriminative power than the methods based on geometric or complex moments. PMID:19933003
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Supratik
2009-12-01
Iron-gallium alloys (Galfenol) are structural magnetostrictive materials that exhibit high free-strain at low magnetic fields, high stress-sensitivity and useful thermo-mechanical properties. Galfenol, like smart materials in general, is attractive for use as a dynamic actuator and/or sensor material and can hence find use in active shape and vibration control, real-time structural health monitoring and energy harvesting applications. Galfenol possesses significantly higher yield strength and greater ductility than most smart materials, which are generally limited to use under compressive loads. The unique structural attributes of Galfenol introduce opportunities for use of a smart material in applications that involve tension, bending, shear or torsion. A principal motivation for the research presented in this dissertation is that bending and shear loads lead to development of non-uniform stress and magnetic fields in Galfenol which introduce significantly more complexity to the considerations to be modeled, compared to modeling of purely axial loads. This dissertation investigates the magnetostrictive response of Galfenol under different stress and magnetic field conditions which is essential for understanding and modeling Galfenol's behavior under bending, shear or torsion. Experimental data are used to calculate actuator and sensor figures of merit which can aid in design of adaptive structures. The research focuses on the bending behavior of Galfenol alloys as well as of laminated composites having Galfenol attached to other structural materials. A four-point bending test under magnetic field is designed, built and conducted on a Galfenol beam to understand its performance as a bending sensor. An extensive experimental study is conducted on Galfenol-Aluminum laminated composites to evaluate the effect of magnetic field, bending moment and Galfenol-Aluminum thickness ratio on actuation and sensing performance. A generalized recursive algorithm is presented for
Metamaterial-waveguide bends with effective bend radius < λ₀/2.
Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh
2015-12-15
We designed, fabricated, and characterized broadband, efficient, all-dielectric metamaterial-waveguide bends (MWBs) that redirect light by 180 deg. The footprint of each MWB is 3 μm×3 μm and redirection is achieved for single-mode waveguides spaced by 1.3 μm, which corresponds to an effective bend radius of 0.65 μm (<λ₀/2 for λ₀=1.55 μm). The designed and measured transmission efficiencies are >80% and ∼70%, respectively. Furthermore, the MWBs have an operating bandwidth >66 nm (design) and >56 nm (experiments). Our design methodology that incorporates fabrication constraints enables highly robust devices. The methodology can be extended to the general routing of light in tight spaces for large-scale photonic integration. PMID:26670503
36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...
COASTAL BEND BAYS & ESTUARIES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2004
The Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Inc. (CBBEP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)organization. The CBBEP project area encompasses 12 counties coincident with the Coastal Bend Council of Governments and extends from the Land-Cut in the Laguna Madre, through the Corpus Christi Bay s...
Regulation of transcription by synthetic DNA-bending agents.
Bednarski, David; Firestine, Steven M
2006-11-01
Gene expression is regulated by a complex interplay between binding and the three-dimensional arrangement of transcription factors with RNA polymerase and DNA. Previous studies have supported a direct role for DNA bending and conformation in gene expression, which suggests that agents that induce bends in DNA might be able to control gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of triple-helix-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) bending agents on the transcription of luciferase in an in vitro transcriptional/translational system. We find that transcription is regulated only by a TFO that induces a bend in the DNA. Related TFOs that do not induce bends in DNA have no effect on transcription. Reporter expression can be increased by as much as 80 % or decreased by as much as 50 % depending on the phasing of the upstream bend relative to the promoter. We interpret the results as follows: when the bend is positioned such that the upstream DNA is curved toward the RNA polymerase on the same DNA face, transcription is enhanced. When the upstream DNA is curved away, transcription is attenuated. These results support the hypothesis that DNA-bending agents might have the capability to regulate gene expression, thereby opening up a previously undervalued avenue in research on the artificial control of gene expression. PMID:17004274
General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 ...
General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 inches - 1 ft, March 13th 1893, drawing number 15384 (photograph of drawing of rail bending machine held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA
View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...
View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Observation and Modeling of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bend Junctions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jie; Anantram, M. P.; Jaffe, R. L.; Kong, J.; Dai, H.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bends, with diameters from approx. 1.0 to 2.5 nm and bend angles from 18 deg. to 34 deg., are observed in catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons at 600 - 1200 C. An algorithm using molecular dynamics simulation (MD) techniques is developed to model these structures that are considered to be SWNT junctions formed by topological defects (i.e. pentagon-heptagon pairs). The algorithm is used to predict the tube helicities and defect configurations for bend junctions using the observed tube diameters and bend angles. The number and arrangement of the defects at the junction interfaces are found to depend on the tube helicities and bend angle. The structural and energetic calculations using the Brenner potential show a number of stable junction configurations for each bend angle with the 34 deg. bends being more stable than the others. Tight binding calculations for local density of state (LDOS) and transmission coefficients are carried out to investigate electrical properties of the bend junctions.