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Sample records for beneficiation process water

  1. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. . Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  2. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  3. Process for beneficiating coal

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; Herman, D.E.; McGarry, P.E.

    1982-06-01

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water insoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal and particularly the iron pyrites remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. The carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry,'' or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  4. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and

  5. Process of beneficiating coal and product

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; McGarry, P.E.

    1981-12-08

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water unsoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal, particularly the iron pyrites, remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically, and the carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry'', or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  6. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  7. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, May 1, 1993--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to-CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS.

  8. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1996-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS.

  9. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS. Results on the rheological evaluation of CWS are presented.

  10. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  11. Potential beneficial uses of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) water.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K J; Whitman, Ashley J; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    The CBNG well water is typically managed by discharging into nearby disposal ponds. The CBNG well water could potentially be very useful in the water-limited regions (e.g., arid and semi-arid), but beneficial uses may be hindered by water quality problems. Objectives of this research were to: (1) examine trend analysis of nine years of CBNG well water at discharge (outfall) points and in corresponding disposal ponds, (2) evaluate geochemical processes, (3) identify potential water quality issues, and (4) find potential beneficial uses. The CBNG well water at discharge points and in corresponding disposal ponds was measured on-site for pH and electrical conductivity (EC). These water samples were also analyzed in the laboratory for calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and barium (Ba). Total dissolved solids (TDS) were calculated from EC measurements. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was calculated from Na, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Trend analyses of outfalls and disposal ponds were conducted separately so that the differences in trends could be compared. Trends in CBNG well water at discharge points are not always the same as trends in CBNG disposal ponds: environmental and geochemical processes play an important role in the water quality of these well waters. Overall trend analyses suggest that CBNG well water at discharge points in all basins of the Powder River Basin meets beneficial use criteria, except for SAR and to some extent EC, for aquatic life, livestock and wildlife watering, and irrigation. The CBNG well water in disposal ponds across all basins meets criteria for all beneficial uses except for As, pH, SAR, and to some extent EC for irrigation, aquatic life, and livestock and wildlife watering. PMID:24280972

  12. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of beneficiation

    PubMed Central

    Adushkin, Vitaly V; Golub', Anatoly P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations. Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated. Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier. PMID:24778972

  13. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

  14. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, R.D.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

  15. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  16. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  17. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, November 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1994-06-01

    The atomization study began with simulated fluids-(Mixtures of glycerine-water mixtures or corn syrup-water mixtures). This was done to minimize the experimental variables, optimize the experimental conditions for subsequent CWS atomization studies and also, simplify the analysis. The atomization data obtained for the simulated fluids are as shown in Table 1 and 2. The Air/Fuel ratio was varied from 0.12--0.40 in this study. variation of SMD as a Function of Viscosity. The SMD of glycerine-water mixtures at high Air/Fuel and low Air/Fuel data are plotted in Figures 5 and 6. The data show that at high Air/Fuel ratio, there is no significant change of the SMD as the viscosity is varied. However, at low Air/Fuel ratio the SMD shows a strong dependence on the viscosity. This is due to the fact that entrainment losses become more severe as A/F increases, In the high A/F regime, there is very little variation between the SMD and the viscosity of the glycerine-water solutions. This is probably due to the fact that the relative velocity between the droplets and the air is very high and this produces high pressure forces on the droplets to the same extent. Considerable dispersion of the droplets was also observed at high A/F ratios. This effect is minimized in the low A/F regime. Figures 5--8 show plots os SMD as a Function of Air/Fuel ratio. The plot show a linear dependence of SMD on the air to Fuel ratio. A fit of the experimental data to equation 1 in order to determine the necessary coefficients will be reported during the next quarter.

  18. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  19. BENEFICIAL USE OF INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER RUNOFF: NONPOTABLE WATER SUPPLY PURPOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As population and industry grow, water demand increases, and water supply becomes more of a problem. While reclamation of municipal wastewater for industry, subpotable domestic usage, and groundwater recharge has been practiced in the United States over the past several decades ...

  20. Is ultraviolet radiation on haemodialysis RO water beneficial?

    PubMed

    Stragier, A

    2005-01-01

    The quality of dialysis fluids has become increasingly important in the treatment of HD patients. Purified water represents over 95% of its volume. Bacterial and endotoxin content of Reverse Osmosis (RO) water is usually kept under control by bacterial filters, inserted in the distribution departure loop, and by monthly disinfection of the distribution circuit; the simpler the circuit, the better. This paper reports 12 years experience during which Ultraviolet Irradiation (UV) has replaced bacterial filters. To keep the bacterial growth under control in a complex RO water circuit (including a tank and multiple loops) a simple UV lamp was inserted in the departure line. It proved sufficient to keep bacterial count within AAMI norms. Failure of the UV lamp was associated with a rise of up to 500 cfu/ml in the last (fourth week) before routine disinfection. Normal levels were again obtained after replacement of the UV lamp. Six years later, a second UV lamp was added on the return loop. Bacterial counts and endotoxin levels in RO water promptly fell to <1 cfu/ml and <0.125 EU, till today. It is concluded that UV lamps should be favoured over bacterial filters in systems that are not disinfected daily, such as the RO water circuit. The principle of UV irradiation is explained and its advantage over bacterial filters is discussed. Future possible applications of UV are presented. PMID:16551024

  1. A combined physical/microbial process for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, K.S.; Glenn, A.W.; Stevens, C.J.; McAtee, N.B.; McIlwain, M.E.; Andrews, G.F.

    1993-11-01

    A combined physical/microbial process for the removal of pyritic sulfur from coal was demonstrated in a 200 L aerated trough slurry reactor. The reactor was divided into six sections, each of which acted as both a physical separator and a bioreactor. Settled solids from sections 2 through 6 were recycled to section 1 which acted as a rougher. The objective was physical removal of the larger pyritic inclusions, which would take many days to biodegrade, and biodegradation of the micropyrite, which is difficult to remove physically. The process was operated continuously for 8 months, treating two Illinois No. 6 coals (4 months each). Reduction of 90% in-pyritic sulfur with 90% energy recovery and 35% ash removal was obtained for a low pyrite Monterey coal at a 5 day coal retention time and 20% (w/w) slurry concentration. Increased coal loading reduced performance apparently due to losses of sulfur oxidizing bacteria. A low pyrite Consol coal gave 63--77% pyrite reduction with 23--30% ash removal and 77--90% heating value recovery. Product coal pyritic sulfur analysis indicated no differences between treatments of Consol coal. This suggests that the coal residence time could be further reduced and the slurry concentration increased in future work.

  2. Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

    2008-03-31

    Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the

  3. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  4. Separation and Purification of Mineral Salts from Spacecraft Wastewater Processing via Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, John D., II; Lunn, Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a class of material processing technologies commonly used for the sorting of coarse mixtures by means of electrical forces acting on charged or polarized particles. Most if not all of the existing tribo-electrostatic separators had been initially developed for mineral ores beneficiation. It is a well-known process that has been successfully used to separate coal from minerals. Potash (potassium) enrichment where underground salt mines containing large amounts of sodium is another use of this techno logy. Through modification this technology can be used for spacecraft wastewater brine beneficiation. This will add in closing the gap beeen traveling around Earth's Gravity well and long-term space explorations. Food has been brought on all man missions, which is why plant growth for food crops continues to be of interest to NASA. For long-term mission considerations food productions is one of the top priorities. Nutrient recovery is essential for surviving in or past low earth orbit. In our advance bio-regenerative process instead of nitrogen gas produced; soluble nitrate salts that can be recovered for plant fertilizer would be produced instead. The only part missing is the beneficiation of brine to separate the potassium from the sodium. The use of electrostatic beneficiation in this experiment utilizes the electrical charge differences between aluminum and dried brine by surface contact. The helixes within the aluminum tribocharger allows for more surface contact when being agitated. When two materials are in contact, the material with the highest affinity for electrons becomes negatively charged, while the other becomes positively charged. This contact exchange of charge may cause the particles to agglomerate depending on their residence time within the tribocharger, compromising the efficiency of separation. The aim of this experiment is to further the development in electrostatic beneficiation by optimizing the separation of ersatz and

  5. Application of water quality guidelines and water quantity calculations to decisions for beneficial use of treated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Minh Phung T.; Castle, James W.; Rodgers, John H.

    2011-12-01

    Water reuse guidelines were compiled as a decision-analysis screening tool for application to potential water reuse for irrigation, livestock watering, aquaculture, and drinking. Data compiled from the literature for water reuses yielded guideline values for over 50 water quality parameters, including concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents as well as general water chemistry parameters. These water quality guidelines can be used to identify constituents of concern in water, to determine the levels to which the constituents must be treated for water reuse applications, and assess the suitability of treated water for reuse. An example is provided to illustrate the application of water quality guidelines for decision analysis. Water quantity analysis was also investigated, and water volumes required for producing 16 different crops in 15 countries were estimated as an example of applying water quantity in the decision-making process regarding the potential of water reuse. For each of the countries investigated, the crop that produces the greatest yield in terms of weight per water volume is tomatoes in Australia, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, USA; sugarcane in Chad, India, Indonesia, Sudan; watermelons in China; lettuce in Egypt, Mexico; and onions (dry) in Russia.

  6. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    PubMed

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. PMID:24982000

  7. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed

  8. The influence of additives on coal-water mixtures prepared with beneficiated coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmann, J.M.; Wildman, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Use of coal-water mixtures (CWM) as fuels for utility and industrial applications is currently constrained by a number of factors, including the cost of compliance with environmental quality regulations. From a utilization standpoint, limiting ash and sulfur contents to levels comparable to those for residual fuel oil produces an attractive alternate fuel provided the unit cost is equal to that for the fuel oil. Reduction in the mineral matter content of the coal has been identified as a target for continued development of CWM. Changes in coal type or in the characteristics of a single coal have been shown to affect CWM properties. It appears worthwhile to examine the impact that beneficiation might have on CWM properties.

  9. Pyrolysis process for producing condensed stabilized hydrocarbons utilizing a beneficially reactive gas

    DOEpatents

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-01-01

    In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, the solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to pyrolysis, in the presence of a carbon containing solid particulate source of heat and a beneficially reactive transport gas in a transport flash pyrolysis reactor, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids. The solids are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially solids-free gaseous stream which comprises volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals newly formed by pyrolysis. Preferably the solid particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing part of the separated particulate solids. The beneficially reactive transport gas inhibits the reactivity of the char product and the carbon-containing solid particulate source of heat. Condensed stabilized hydrocarbons are obtained by quenching the gaseous mixture stream with a quench fluid which contains a capping agent for stabilizing and terminating newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals. The capping agent is partially depleted of hydrogen by the stabilization and termination reaction. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agent is hydrogenated to form a regenerated capping agent. At least a portion of the regenerated capping agent is recycled to the quench zone as the quench fluid. In another embodiment capping agent is produced by the process, separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

  10. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  11. A co-beneficial system using aquatic plants: bioethanol production from free-floating aquatic plants used for water purification.

    PubMed

    Soda, S; Mishima, D; Inoue, D; Ike, M

    2013-01-01

    A co-beneficial system using constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with aquatic plants is proposed for bioethanol production and nutrient removal from wastewater. The potential for bioethanol production from aquatic plant biomass was experimentally evaluated. Water hyacinth and water lettuce were selected because of their high growth rates and easy harvestability attributable to their free-floating vegetation form. The alkaline/oxidative pretreatment was selected for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of the aquatic plants. Ethanol was produced with yields of 0.14-0.17 g-ethanol/ g-biomass in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain or a typical yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, the combined benefits of the CWs planted with the aquatic plants for bioethanol production and nutrient removal were theoretically estimated. For treating domestic wastewater at 1,100 m(3)/d, it was inferred that the anoxic-oxic activated sludge process consumes energy at 3,200 MJ/d, whereas the conventional activated sludge process followed by the CW consumes only 1,800 MJ/d with ethanol production at 115 MJ/d. PMID:23752400

  12. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  13. Integrated continuous testing of the micronized-magnetite beneficiation process in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maronde, C.P.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Suardini, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Under a cost-shared Department of Energy contract, awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s High Efficiency Preparation subprogram, Custom Coals International will be installing and testing 227 kg/hr micronized-magnetite cycloning circuit in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. The project includes the design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully integrated circuit complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus-30-micron material, dense-medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using micronized magnetite (<10 microns), and medium recovery via drain and rinse screening and various stages and types of magnetic separation. This paper will describe the micronized-magnetite beneficiation technology and the scope of work for this project including an update on the status of the project, the circuit, and the proposed test plan.

  14. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  15. Water softening process

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, John D.; Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    This invention involves an improved process for softening hard water which comprises selectively precipitaing CaCO.sub.3 to form a thin layer thereof, increasing the pH of said water to precipitate magnesium as magnesium hydroxide and then filtering the resultant slurry through said layer. The CaCO.sub.3 layer serves as a thin permeable layer which has particularly useful application in cross-flow filtration applications.

  16. Assessments of Environmental Impacts and Beneficial Use of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Morris

    2009-03-15

    Impact on water quality and the beneficial use of the coal bed methane (CBM) produced water are imminent questions to be answered due to the rapidly growing CBM exploration in the Powder River Basin (PRB). The practice of discharging large volumes of water into drainage channels or using it to irrigate rangeland areas has the potential of causing serious problems. The elevated salinity and sodicity in the CBM water may be detrimental to soils, plants and the associated microbial communities. There are limited studies on CBM water characterization; however, a comprehensive understanding of CBM water influence on the local ecosystem is lacking. It is very important that the water applied to soils meets the favorable combination of salinity and sodicity that will allow the plants to grow at good production levels and that will maintain the structure of the soils. The purpose of this study was to access various CBM water treatment technologies and the influence of the treated water on local biogeochemical settings in order to evaluate and identify the proper technologies to treat the CBM produced water from CBM operations, and use it in an environmentally safe manner. Unfortunately, a suitable field site was not identified and the funds for this effort were moved to a different project.

  17. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  18. Managing urban biosolids: Beneficial uses

    SciTech Connect

    Forste, J.B.

    1998-07-01

    Biosolids (the primarily organic product produced by wastewater treatment processes that can be beneficially recycled) are becoming a significant challenge for operators of both small and large urban wastewater facilities. More stringent water quality standards, coupled with increasingly sensitive environmental and public health considerations, have made the treatment and use/disposal of solids from treatment processes a growing and complex field of environmental management.

  19. Demonstration of beneficial uses of warm water from condensers of electric-generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, L.L.; Ashley, G.C.; Hietala, J.S.; Stansfield, R.V.; Tonkinson, T.R.C.

    1980-05-01

    The report gives results of a project to demonstrate that warmed cooling water from condensers of electric generating plants can effectively and economically heat greenhouses. The 0.2-hectare demonstration greenhouse, at Northern States Power Co.'s Sherburne County (Sherco) Generating Plant, used 29.4 C water to heat both air and soil: finned-tube commercial heat exchangers were used to heat the air; and buried plastic pipes, the soil. Warm water from the Sherco 1 cooling tower was piped over 0.8 km to the greenhouse where it was cooled from 2.7 to 5.6 C before returning to the cooling tower basin. Roses and tomatoes were the principal crops in the 3-year test, although other flowers and vegetables, and conifer seedlings were also grown. The warm water heating system supplied all the greenhouse heating requirements, even at ambient temperatures as low as -40 C. Roses, snapdragons, geraniums, tomatoes, lettuce, and evergreen seedlings were grown successfully. The demonstration proved the concept to be both technically and economically feasible at Sherco, with an apparent saving of $4500/hectare in 1978 dollars over fuel oil heating, plus an annual oil savings of about 500 cu m/hectare. Privately financed commercial greenhouses heated with warm water were built at Sherco in 1977. The commercial greenhouses will expand from 0.48 to almost 1 hectare by late 1980.

  20. Regional Disparities in the Beneficial Effects of Rising CO2 Emissions on Crop Water Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.

  1. Regional disparities in the beneficial effects of rising CO2 concentrations on crop water productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-08-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated [CO2] and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find CO2 effects increase global CWP by 10[047]%-27[737]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rainfed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated [CO2] could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modelling the effects of rising [CO2] across crop and hydrological modelling communities.

  2. Beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the deposition process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating with cold spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Yang, Lijing; Li, Bo; Li, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating.

  3. A DEMONSTRATION OF BENEFICIAL USES OF WARM WATER FROM CONDENSERS OF ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to demonstrate that warmed cooling water from condensers of electric generating plants can effectively and economically heat greenhouses. The 0.2-hectare demonstration greenhouse, at Northern States Power Co.'s Sherburne County (Sherco) Gener...

  4. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. RESULTS: Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P < 0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83 ± 1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P < 0.001), meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake. PMID:22408352

  5. A combined physical/microbial process for the beneficiation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Stevens, C.J.; Noah, K.S.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    A large-laboratory scale physical/microbial process was demonstrated for the removal of pyritic sulfur from coal. The process took place in an aerated-trough slurry reactor with a total slurry volume of 150 L. The reactor was divided into six sections, each of which acted as a physical separator and a bioreactor. The process objective was to physically remove the larger pyritic inclusions and to biodegrade the small inclusions (micropyrite). The process was continuously operated for 120 days, treating approximately 1 ton of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal. Ninety percent pyrite removal was achieved at a 20% slurry concentration and a reactor residence time of 5 days. Additional research should be performed to find the optimum values for reactor residence time, slurry concentration, and process hydraulic residence time (or recycle ratio). Finding these optimum values will enable a process to be developed that will maximize the amount of coal that can be processed per unit reactor volume per unit time with the desired level of pyritic sulfur removal.

  6. Effect of processing techniques at industrial scale on orange juice antioxidant and beneficial health compounds.

    PubMed

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, Maria I; Ferreres, Federico

    2002-08-28

    Phenolic compounds, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid and L-dehydroascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in orange juices manufactured by different techniques. Five processes at industrial scale (squeezing, mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing) used in commercial orange juice manufacturing were studied. In addition, domestic squeezing (a hand processing technique) was compared with commercial squeezing (an industrial FMC single-strength extraction) to evaluate their influences on health components of orange juice. Whole orange juice was divided into soluble and cloud fractions after centrifugation. Total and individual phenolics were analyzed in both fractions by HPLC. Commercial squeezing extracted 22% more phenolics than hand squeezing. The freezing process caused a dramatic decrease in phenolics, whereas the concentration process caused a mild precipitation of these compounds to the juice cloud. In pulp, pasteurization led to degradation of several phenolic compounds, that is, caffeic acid derivatives, vicenin 2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside), and narirutin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside) with losses of 34.5, 30.7, and 28%, respectively. Regarding vitamin C, orange juice produced by commercial squeezing contained 25% more of this compound than domestic squeezing. Mild and standard pasteurization slightly increased the total vitamin C content as the contribution from the orange solids parts, whereas concentration and freezing did not show significant changes. The content of L-ascorbic acid provided 77-96% of the total antioxidant capacity of orange juice. Mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing did not affect the total antioxidant capacity of juice, but they did, however, in pulp, where it was reduced by 47%. PMID:12188615

  7. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

  8. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Adams, Jay W.; Lageraaen, Paul R.; Cooley, Carl R.

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  9. DUPoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Cooley, C.R.

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogeneous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  10. Development of a method for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from beneficiation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Seward, K.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A novel method was developed for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from sonication and other cleaning processes. This method employs a unique flow-cell to permit the dynamic measurement of dye adsorption on coal and mineral particle surfaces. The rates and extents of adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were found to be dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A significant correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to absorb significantly more of the dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite, or clean coal'' surfaces. By using dyes of differing adsorption selectivity, it is demonstrated that sonication reduces the apparent mineral content on the surface of coal. 9 refs., 7 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent. PMID:24615848

  12. Treatment Process Requirements for Waters Containing Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringfellow, W. T.; Camarillo, M. K.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Jordan, P. D.; Heberger, M. G.; Reagan, M. T.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of chemical additives are used as part of the hydraulic fracturing (HyF) process. There is concern that HyF chemicals will be released into the environment and contaminate drinking water, agricultural water, or other water used for beneficial purposes. There is also interest in using produced water (water extracted from the subsurface during oil and gas production) for irrigation and other beneficial purposes, especially in the arid Southwest US. Reuse of produced water is not speculative: produced water can be low in salts and is being used in California for irrigation after minimal treatment. In this study, we identified chemicals that are used for hydraulic fracturing in California and conducted an analysis to determine if those chemicals would be removed by a variety of technically available treatment processes, including oil/water separation, air stripping, a variety of sorption media, advanced oxidation, biological treatment, and a variety of membrane treatment systems. The approach taken was to establish major physiochemical properties for individual chemicals (log Koc, Henry's constant, biodegradability, etc.), group chemicals by function (e.g corrosion inhibition, biocides), and use those properties to predict the fate of chemical additives in a treatment process. Results from this analysis is interpreted in the context of what is known about existing systems for the treatment of produced water before beneficial reuse, which includes a range of treatment systems from oil/water separators (the most common treatment) to sophisticated treatment trains used for purifying produced water for groundwater recharge. The results show that most HyF chemical additives will not be removed in existing treatment systems, but that more sophisticated treatment trains can be designed to remove additives before beneficial reuse.

  13. Phosphoproteomic analysis of induced resistance reveals activation of signal transduction processes by beneficial and pathogenic interaction in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Perazzolli, Michele; Palmieri, Maria Cristina; Matafora, Vittoria; Bachi, Angela; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-05-20

    Protein phosphorylation regulates several key processes of the plant immune system. Protein kinases and phosphatases are pivotal regulators of defense mechanisms elicited by resistance inducers. However, the phosphorylation cascades that trigger the induced resistance mechanisms in plants have not yet been deeply investigated. The beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) induces resistance against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), but its efficacy could be further improved by a better understanding of the cellular regulations involved. We investigated quantitative changes in the grapevine phosphoproteome during T39-induced resistance to get an overview of regulatory mechanisms of downy mildew resistance. Immunodetection experiments revealed activation of the 45 and 49kDa kinases by T39 treatment both before and after pathogen inoculation, and the phosphoproteomic analysis identified 103 phosphopeptides that were significantly affected by the phosphorylation cascades during T39-induced resistance. Peptides affected by T39 treatment showed comparable phosphorylation levels after P. viticola inoculation, indicating activation of the microbial recognition machinery before pathogen infection. Phosphorylation profiles of proteins related to photosynthetic processes and protein ubiquitination indicated a partial overlap of cellular responses in T39-treated and control plants. However, phosphorylation changes of proteins involved in response to stimuli, signal transduction, hormone signaling, gene expression regulation, and RNA metabolism were exclusively elicited by P. viticola inoculation in T39-treated plants. These results highlighted the relevance of phosphorylation changes during T39-induced resistance and identified key regulator candidates of the grapevine defense against downy mildew. PMID:27010348

  14. Apparatus for beneficiating coal

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; Herman, D.E.; McGarry, P.E.

    1985-08-20

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water insoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal and particularly the iron pyrites remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. The carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry'', or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  15. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  16. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  17. Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in waste clay sediment discharged through the phosphate beneficiation process in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad Salem; Brumsack, Hans Jurgen; Schnetger, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metal contamination of clay waste through the phosphate beneficiation process is a serious problem faced by scientists and regulators worldwide. Through the beneficiation process, heavy metals naturally present in the phosphate rocks became concentrated in the clay waste. This study evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and their fractions in the clay waste in order to assess the risk of environmental contamination. A five-step sequential extraction method, the risk assessment code (RAC), effects range low (ERL), effects range medium (ERM), the lowest effect level (LEL), the severe effect level (SEL), the redistribution index (U tf), the reduced partition index (I), residual partition index (I R), and the Nemerow multi-factor index (PC) were used to assess for clay waste contamination. Heavy metals were analyzed using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Correlation analyses were carried out to better understand the relationships between the chemical characteristics and the contents of the different phase fractions. Concentrations of Cd and Cu confirmed that both were bound to the exchangeable fraction (F1) and the carbonate fraction (F2), presenting higher mobility, whereas Pb was most abundant in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) and organic matter fraction (F4). The residual fraction (F5) contained the highest concentrations (>60%) of As, Cr, Mo, V, and Zn, with lower mobility. Application of the RAC index showed that Cd and Cu should be considered a moderate risk, whereas As, Cr, Mo, Pb, and Zn presented a low risk. Cadmium and Cu contents in mobile fractions F1 and F2 were higher than ERL but lower than ERM. On the other hand, As, Pb, and Zn contents of mobile fractions F1 and F2 were lower than ERL and ERM guideline values. Moreover, total Pb concentrations in the clay waste were below the lowest effect level (LEL) threshold value period, Cr and

  18. Process for photosynthetically splitting water

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved process for producing gaseous hydrogen and oxygen from water. The process is conducted in a photolytic reactor which contains a water-suspension of a photoactive material containing a hydrogen-liberating catalyst. The reactor also includes a volume for receiving gaseous hydrogen and oxygen evolved from the liquid phase. To avoid oxygen-inactivation of the catalyst, the reactor is evacuated continuously by an external pump which circulates the evolved gases through means for selectively recovering hydrogen therefrom. The pump also cools the reactor by evaporating water from the liquid phase. Preferably, product recovery is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane, while maintaining across the membrane a magnetic field gradient which biases the oxygen away from the heated membrane. This promotes separation, minimizes the back-reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, and protects the membrane.

  19. Water extract of the fungi from Fuzhuan brick tea improves the beneficial function on inhibiting fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuxuan; Xiong, Zhe; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Teng, Cuiqin; Gong, Yushun; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) is traditionally consumed by the ethnic group in the border region of northwest China. The unique yellow fungal (Eurotium cristatum) growth phase is considered to be the key process point in the manufacture of the brick tea. The fungi from FBT are not only strongly correlated to the quality of brick tea, but also have the potential function of preventing obesity. The water extract of fungi (100 μg/mL) can significantly inhibit fat deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocyte and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, the inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte formation was not due to the suppression on cell viability. PMID:24634994

  20. Application of membrane-coupled sequencing batch reactor for oilfield produced water recycle and beneficial re-use.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash

    2010-09-01

    Oil and gas field wastewater or produced water is a significant waste stream in the oil and gas industries. In this study, the performance of a membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) and membrane sequencing batch reactor/reverse osmosis (MSBR/RO) process treating produced wastewater were investigated and compared. The MSBR was operated in different hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8, 20 and 44 h. Operation results showed that for a HRT of 20 h, the combined process effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O&G) removal efficiencies were 90.9%, 92% and 91.5%, respectively. The MSBR effluent concentration levels met the required standard for oil well re-injection. The RO treatment reduced the salt and organic contents to acceptable levels for irrigation and different industrial re-use. Foulant biopsy demonstrated that the fouling on the membrane surface was mainly due to inorganic (salts) and organic (microorganisms and their products, hydrocarbon constituents) matters. PMID:20434905

  1. Process for photosynthetically splitting water

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-01-28

    In one form of the invention, hydrogen is produced by providing a reactor containing a body of water. The water contains photolytic material, i.e., photoactive material containing a hydrogen-catalyst. The interior of the reactor is isolated from atmosphere and includes a volume for receiving gases evolved from the body of water. The photolytic material is exposed to light to effect photosynthetic splitting of the water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. The gas-receiving volume is continuously evacuated by pumping to promote evolution of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into that volume and to withdraw them therefrom. In another form of the invention, separation of the hydrogen and oxygen is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane in a separation zone while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient biasing the oxygen away from the membrane. In a third form of the invention, the withdrawn gas is contacted with a membrane blocking flow of water vapor to the region for effecting recovery of the hydrogen. In a fourth embodiment, the invention comprises a process for selectively recovering hydrogen from a gas mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen. The process is conducted in a separation zone and comprises contacting the mixture with a semipermeable membrane effecting selective diffusion of hydrogen while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient effecting movement of oxygen in a direction away from the membrane.

  2. Beneficiation of coal and metallic and non-metallic ores by froth flotation process using polyhydroxy alkyl xanthate depressants

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovich, V.

    1980-07-08

    In the concentration of metallic and non-metallic minerals by froth flotation with a high content of pyrite and the like iron sulfides, which includes the subjecting of such ores when finely ground and sized to substantially liberate particles of pyrite, to froth flotation process in the presence of any suitabl E and adeuqate collector and frother for desired metallic and non-metallic mineral for the recovery of the same, and in the presence of a polyhydroxy alkyl xanthate wetting and depressing agent for pyrite, the step of adding to a pulp of mineral slurry an amount of the order of 0.01 to 0.10 kg per metric ton of a non-collecting polyhydroxy alkyl xanthate, of which hydroxyl groups of said polyhydroxy alkyl xanthates contain from 3 to 4, and having the following general formula: HOCH/sub 2/(CHOH)mcH(CHO)OCSSK wherein M is an integer from 2 to 3; said polyhydroxy alkyl xanthates, react with pyrite and said iron sulfides of the pulp of mineral slurry to yield a water soluble or insoluble hydrophilic coating depressing the pyrite and said iron sulfides, said polyhydroxy alkyl xanthates being selected from the group consisting of potassium pentose, and potassium hexose xanthates, such as potassium arabinose xanthate, potassium xylose xanthate, potassium glucose xanthate, potassium fructose xanthate.

  3. Beneficial effects on water management of simple hydraulic structures in wetland systems: the Vallevecchia case study, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carrer, G M; Bonato, M; Smania, D; Barausse, A; Comis, C; Palmeri, L

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting water uses in coastal zones demand integrated approaches to achieve sustainable water resources management, protecting water quality while allowing those human activities which rely upon aquatic ecosystem services to thrive. This case study shows that the creation and simple management of hydraulic structures within constructed wetlands can markedly reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture and, simultaneously, benefit agricultural activities, particularly during hot and dry periods. The Vallevecchia wetland system is based on a reclaimed 900 ha-large drainage basin in Northern Italy, where droughts recently impacted agriculture causing water scarcity and saltwater intrusion. Rainwater and drained water are recirculated inside the system to limit saltwater intrusion, provide irrigation water during dry periods and reduce the agricultural nutrient loads discharged into the bordering, eutrophic Adriatic Sea. Monitoring (2003-2009) of water quality and flows highlights that the construction (ended in 2005) of a gated spillway to control the outflow, and of a 200,000 m3 basin for water storage, dramatically increased the removal of nutrients within the system. Strikingly, this improvement was achieved with a minimal management effort, e.g., each year the storage basin was filled once: a simple management of the hydraulic structures would greatly enhance the system efficiency, and store more water to irrigate and limit saltwater intrusion. PMID:22053478

  4. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  5. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  6. The Oxnard advanced water purification facility: combining indirect potable reuse with reverse osmosis concentrate beneficial use to ensure a California community's water sustainability and provide coastal wetlands restoration.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Jim; Ortega, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The City of Oxnard in California is implementing a strategic water resources program known as the Groundwater Recovery Enhancement and Treatment (GREAT) program, which includes an Advanced Water Purification Facility (AWPF) that will use a major portion of the secondary effluent from the City's existing Water Pollution Control Facility to produce high-quality treated water to be used for irrigation of edible food crops, landscape irrigation, injection into the groundwater basin to form a barrier to seawater intrusion, and other industrial uses. The AWPF, currently under design by CH2M HILL, will employ a multiple-barrier treatment train consisting of microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultravioletlightbased advanced oxidation processes to purify the secondary effluent to conform to California Department of Public Health Title 22 Recycled Water Criteria for groundwater recharge. The AWPF, which will have initial and build-out capacities of ca. 24,000 and ca 95,000 m(3)/day, respectively, was limited to a 1.8-hectare site, with 0.4 hectares dedicated to a Visitor's Center and administration building. Further, the depth below grade and height of the AWPF's structures were constrained because of the high groundwater table at the site, the high cost of excavation and dewatering, and local codes. To accommodate these various restrictions, an innovative design approach has been developed. This paper summarizes the design constraints and innovative solutions for the design of the AWPF. PMID:20220237

  7. Beneficial reuse of FGD material in the construction of low permeability liners: Impacts on inorganic water quality constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.M.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H.

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, we examine the water quality impacts associated with the reuse of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for agricultural applications. A 0.457-m-thick layer of fixated FGD material from a coal-fired power plant was utilized to create a 708 m{sup 2} swine manure pond at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Western Branch in South Charleston, Ohio. To assess the effects of the fixated FGD material liner, water quality samples were collected over a period of 5 years from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio nontoxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous constituents (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention of As, B, Cr, Cu, Zn, and ammonia was likely due to sorption to mineral components of the FGD liner, while Ca, Fe, and P retention were a result of both sorption and precipitation of Fe- and Ca-containing phosphate solids.

  8. Effects of temperature on cuticular lipids and water balance in a desert Drosophila: is thermal acclimation beneficial?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A G; Louie, A K; Ayala, J A

    1998-01-01

    The desert fruit fly Drosophila mojavensis experiences environmental conditions of high temperature and low humidity. To understand the physiological mechanisms allowing these small insects to survive in such stressful conditions, we studied the effects of thermal acclimation on cuticular lipids and rates of water loss of adult D. mojavensis. Mean hydrocarbon chain length increased at higher temperatures, but cuticular lipid melting temperature (Tm) did not. Lipid quantity doubled in the first 14 days of adult life, but was unaffected by acclimation temperature. Despite these changes in cuticular properties, organismal rates of water loss were unaffected by either acclimation temperature or age. Owing to the smaller body size of warm-acclimated flies, D. mojavensis reared for 14 days at 33 degrees C lost water more rapidly on a mass-specific basis than flies acclimated to 25 degrees C or 17 degrees C. Thus, apparently adaptive changes in cuticular lipids do not necessarily result in reduced rates of water loss. Avoidance of high temperatures and desiccating conditions is more likely to contribute to survival in nature than changes in water balance mediated by surface lipids. PMID:9390938

  9. Demonstration of beneficial uses of warm water from condensers of electric generating plants. Final report, May 1975-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, L.L.; Ashley, G.C.; Hietala, J.S.; Stansfield, R.V.; Tonkinson, T.R.C.

    1980-05-01

    The report gives results of a project to demonstrate that warmed cooling water from condensers of electric generating plants can effectively and economically heat greenhouses. The 0.2-hectare demonstration greenhouse, at Northern States Power Co.'s Sherburne County (Sherco) Generating Plant, used 29.4 C water to heat both air and soil: finned-tube commercial heat exchangers were used to heat the air; and buried plastic pipes, the soil. Warm water from the Sherco 1 cooling tower was piped over 0.8 km to the greenhouse where it was cooled from 2.7 to 5.6 C before returning to the cooling tower basin. Roses and tomatoes were the principal crops in the 3-year test, although other flowers and vegetables, and conifer seedlings were also grown. The warm water heating system supplied all the greenhouse heating requirements, even at ambient temperatures as low as -40 C. Roses, snapdragons, geraniums, tomatoes, lettuce, and evergreen seedlings were grown successfully.

  10. Toward delisting of the water quality beneficial use impairment in the St. Louis River, MN: A monitoring approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE), a great lakes area of concern (AOC), is improving. A significant leap forward followed the opening of the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District in 1978. However, desire for continued improvement throughout the estuary was the...

  11. Root elongation, water stress, and mechanical impedance: a review of limiting stresses and beneficial root tip traits.

    PubMed

    Bengough, A Glyn; McKenzie, B M; Hallett, P D; Valentine, T A

    2011-01-01

    Root elongation in drying soil is generally limited by a combination of mechanical impedance and water stress. Relationships between root elongation rate, water stress (matric potential), and mechanical impedance (penetration resistance) are reviewed, detailing the interactions between these closely related stresses. Root elongation is typically halved in repacked soils with penetrometer resistances >0.8-2 MPa, in the absence of water stress. Root elongation is halved by matric potentials drier than about -0.5 MPa in the absence of mechanical impedance. The likelihood of each stress limiting root elongation is discussed in relation to the soil strength characteristics of arable soils. A survey of 19 soils, with textures ranging from loamy sand to silty clay loam, found that ∼10% of penetration resistances were >2 MPa at a matric potential of -10 kPa, rising to nearly 50% >2 MPa at - 200 kPa. This suggests that mechanical impedance is often a major limitation to root elongation in these soils even under moderately wet conditions, and is important to consider in breeding programmes for drought-resistant crops. Root tip traits that may improve root penetration are considered with respect to overcoming the external (soil) and internal (cell wall) pressures resisting elongation. The potential role of root hairs in mechanically anchoring root tips is considered theoretically, and is judged particularly relevant to roots growing in biopores or from a loose seed bed into a compacted layer of soil. PMID:21118824

  12. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  13. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Fiona M.; Phillips, Michael; Jovic, Tom; Cassidy, John T; Cameron, Peter; Edgar, Dale W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort. Method The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost) outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed. Results Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction) (p = 0.014). The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction) (p<0.001) and hospital

  14. Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

  15. Volatile halocarbon compounds in process water and processed foods

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Diachenko, G.W.

    1987-10-01

    Volatile halocarbon compounds (VHCs) of low molecular weight are among the most abundant man-made industrial chemicals in the United States. Because of the physical properties of these compounds, in particular their high volatility, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has detected numerous VHCs in ground water and finished drinking water. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Division of Contaminants Chemistry, as well as other laboratories, have detected VHCs in foods. These findings of VHCs in foods, coupled with their frequent detection in ground waters, suggested that food contamination by VHCs could be occurring via polluted process waters. The objectives of this investigation were to determine if VHC contamination of food through contact with contaminated process water was widespread, and to ascertain the levels of contamination. The problem was addressed by collecting and analyzing process water and foods from processing plants situated in areas where contamination of the process water was most probable. Recent data from EPA were used to select food processing plants most likely to use VHC-contaminated process water. Processing plants were chosen for study only if they produced a high-fat content food that came in contact with water during processing, or produced a product that contained a high percentage of added water. Findings are reported here in process water and food product analysis from 15 food processing plants located in 9 different states (CA, FL, IL, MA, MI, NY, OH, PA, WI), representing a total of 39 food products.

  16. Nontarget effects of aerial mosquito adulticiding with water-based unsynergized pyrethroids on honey bees and other beneficial insects in an agricultural ecosystem of north Greece.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas; Goras, Georgios; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Latham, Mark D; Kashefi, Javid; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2014-05-01

    We assessed the nontarget effects of ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerial adulticiding with two new water-based, unsynergized pyrethroid formulations, Aqua-K-Othrine (FFAST antievaporant technology, 2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin). A helicopter with GPS navigation technology was used. One application rate was tested per formulation that corresponded to 1.00 g (AI)/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 g (AI)/ha of d-phenothrin. Three beneficial nontarget organisms were used: honey bees (domesticated hives), family Apidae (Apis mellifera L.); mealybug destroyers, family Coccinellidae (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant); and green lacewings, family Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)). No significant nontarget mortalities were observed. No bees exhibited signs of sublethal exposure to insecticides. Beehives exposed to the insecticidal applications remained healthy and productive, performed as well as the control hives and increased in weight (25-30%), in adult bee population (14-18%), and in brood population (15-19%). PMID:24897869

  17. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  18. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  19. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lindquist; K. B. Tennal; M. K. Mazumder

    1998-10-29

    It was suggested in the proposal that small particles, due to low inertia, may not impact on the surfaces of the tribocharger. They would, thus, not receive charge and would not be beneficiated in the electrostatic separation. A milling process was proposed in which the small particles are stirred together with larger carrier beads producing the desired contact charge exchange. A force is necessary for removing the coal particles from the carrier beads. In copying machines electrostatic force is used to pull toner particles away horn iron carrier particles which are held back by magnetic force. Aerodynamic force is used in test instruments for measuring the charge to mass ratio on toners. A similar system of milling and removal is desired for use with the small coal particles. The carrier beads need to be made of copper rather than iron. This complicates the separation process since copper is non-magnetic. We are working on coating of iron beads with a layer of copper. Dr. Robert Engleken of Arkansas State University has supplied us with several test batches of copper-coated iron in the size range of -40 +70 mesh. ` We are currently testing whether the milling process used with the copper coated iron beads produces the desired charge on the coal particles.

  20. Zero-discharge: An application of process water recovery technology in the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, S.; Moore, B.

    1999-07-01

    Water is a valuable natural resource and the food processing industry has been among the leading industrial water users in California. With support from a major northern California utility and the California Institute for Food and Agricultural Research, Tri Valley Growers (TVG) has successfully installed the first US energy-efficient zero-discharge process water reclamation system at its Oberti Olive processing facility in Madera, California. The advanced zero-discharge system is the largest application in the world of membrane filtration for recovering water from a food processing plant. Previously, the plant discharged an average of 1 million gallons of salty wastewater (brine) a day into 160 acres of evaporation ponds. However, new environmental regulations made the ponds obsolete. The cost of process water disposal using alternate biotreatment system was prohibitive and would make continued operation uneconomical with plant closure and job loss the likely outcome. Through comprehensive pilot testing and subsequent system design and operational optimization, the advance membrane filtration system with pre- and post-treatment now recovers about 80% of the process liquid in high priority form of water for subsequent reuse at the plant. The solids produced in olive processing, plus concentrated process liquids are used off-site as an animal feed component, thus achieving the plant zero-discharge scheme. The successful implementation of the zero discharge system at the Oberti Olive processing plant has produced energy saving of 3,500,000 kilowatthours and 244,000 therms of gas a year of power as compared to the alternate biotreatment system. It also prevented plant closure and job loss. In addition, water conservation and the discontinuation of evaporation pond use is beneficial to the environment. The project was applauded by the California Environmental Protection Agency as a positive step forward for environmental technology in the agricultural sector in

  1. Understanding the Effects of Multiscale Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions on Scott River Baseflow and Stream Temperature in Support of Beneficial Salmon Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, R.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Scott River watershed is one of only a handful of major watersheds in California that include a zone of adjudicated groundwater and that is not managed by a major reservoir. The Scott River is a major tributary in the Klamath River basin, providing habitat for cold water salmon fishery, including the migration, spawning, reproduction, and early development of cold water fish such as coho salmon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. The Scott Valley entertains extensive alfalfa and hay productions that provide the economic base for the agricultural valley. Due to the Mediterranean climate in the area, discharge rates in the river are highly seasonal. Almost all annual discharge occurs during the winter precipitation season and spring snowmelt. During the summer months (July through September), the main-stem river becomes disconnected from its tributaries throughout much of Scott Valley and relies primarily on baseflow from the Scott Valley aquifer. Summer baseflow in the Scott supports juvenile coho salmon that remain in the Valley until the following winter. Stream temperatures in the Scott River have increased to levels that are not considered sustainable for the native salmon population. Concurrently, late summer/early fall baseflow has decreased, possibly leading to substantial deterioration of habitat conditions. Increased temperature and decreased baseflow are thought to be due in part to groundwater pumping for irrigation and to increased solar radiation from lack of shade by riparian vegetation. Scott Valley agriculture relies on a combination of surface water and groundwater supplies for crop irrigation during April through September. Regional scale surface water - groundwater modeling is employed to investigate the benefits to mid-and late summer baseflow in the Scott River of various conjunctive use management alternatives, including increased spring irrigation recharge and deficit irrigation. Field measurements of stream temperature indicate that

  2. Ispra Mark-10 water splitting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A thermochemical water splitting process, the Ispra Mark-10 chemical reaction cycle, was chosen for examining the possibility of using water to produce hydrogen on a large scale for fuel and major industrial chemical uses. The assumed energy source for the process is an HTGR (helium cooled). A process flow diagram, a material balance, and an energy balance were developed for the thermochemical reaction cycle. Principal reactions which constitute the cycle are included.

  3. Phase change water processing for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdankiewicz, E. M.; Price, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a vapor compression distillation subsystem (VCDS) for water recovery on the Space Station is analyzed. The self-contained automated system can process waste water at a rate of 32.6 kg/day and requires only 115 W of electric power. The improvements in the mechanical components of VCDS are studied. The operation of VCDS in the normal mode is examined. The VCDS preprototype is evaluated based on water quality, water production rate, and specific energy. The relation between water production rate and fluids pump speed is investigated; it is concluded that a variable speed fluids pump will optimize water production. Components development and testing currently being conducted are described. The properties and operation of the proposed phase change water processing system for the Space Station, based on vapor compression distillation, are examined.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Probiotics Mixture on Hemato-Immunology and Cell Apoptosis of Labeo rohita Fingerlings Reared at Higher Water Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg−1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34–37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660

  5. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  6. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  7. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  8. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, John M.; Hancher, Charles M.; Hackett, Gail D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  9. Apparatus and process for water treatment

    DOEpatents

    Phifer, Mark A.; Nichols, Ralph L.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

  10. The Beneficiation of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senger, April J.

    2014-01-01

    When the challenge of adapting curriculum to meet the requirements of the Common Core State Standards were presented, this author immediately sought out the assistance of experts in another field: the school library staff. It was apparent that staff needed to practice the beneficiation of the current curriculum to meet the CCSS requirements.…

  11. Geoinformatics and water-erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoray, Tal; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2013-02-01

    Geomorphologists have commonly published conclusions about soil erosion and water movement based on experimental data obtained at the catchment scale. The underlying assumptions were that there exists little spatial variation in conditions at the hillslope scale (the fundamental unit) and that the catchments are representative of other catchments in the same region. These assumptions are unlikely to be tenable in practice. Indeed, we suggest that there is substantial spatial variation in geomorphological properties even at small distances when observed at fine spatial resolution and that modern geoinformatics approaches can be used to quantify and characterize this variation. This introduction reviews the ten papers that comprise this Special Issue on Studying Water-Erosion Processes with Geoinformatics, drawn from across the geomorphological sciences. The water erosion processes studied in these papers include sediment transport, fluvial processes, slope denudation, landsliding, bank erosion and bank line migration. The findings suggest that innovative measurement and modeling approaches such as GPS measurements, geostatistics, image processing techniques, and physically-based models deliver new data with which to study water erosion processes. These findings involve domains that are associated with fundamental aspects of geomorphology. Hence, there are strong grounds for claiming that geoinformatics can contribute to greater understanding of water erosion processes through characterization of space-time dynamics. We suggest that geomorphologists need to use more geoinformatics to collect more data relating to the outcomes of water erosion processes, to seek out and apply innovative processing methods and, finally, model the data to provide greater understanding of processes and to forecast and explore future scenarios.

  12. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  13. Chapter A5. Processing of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses methods to be used in processing water samples to be analyzed for inorganic and organic chemical substances, including the bottling of composite, pumped, and bailed samples and subsamples; sample filtration; solid-phase extraction for pesticide analyses; sample preservation; and sample handling and shipping. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http:/ /water.usgs.gov/lookup/get?newpubs.

  14. Hydrothermal carbonization: process water characterization and effects of water recirculation.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Putschew, Anke; Ziegler, Felix

    2013-09-01

    Poplar wood chips were treated hydrothermally and the increase of process efficiency by water recirculation was examined. About 15% of the carbon in the biomass was dissolved in the liquid phase when biomass was treated in de-ionized water at 220 °C for 4 h. The dissolved organic matter contained oxygen and was partly aerobically biodegradable. About 30-50% of the total organic carbon originated from organic acids. A polar and aromatic fraction was extracted and a major portion of the organic load was of higher molecular weight. By process water recirculation organic acids in the liquid phase concentrated and catalyzed dehydration reactions. As a consequence, functional groups in hydrothermally synthesized coal declined and dewaterability was enhanced. Recirculated reactive substances polymerized and formed additional solid substance. As a result, carbon and energetic yields of the produced coal rose to 84% and 82%, respectively. PMID:23792664

  15. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.; Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  16. Processing of water on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowle, A. A.

    1963-01-01

    The electrolytic dissociation of water into gaseous forms of hydrogen and oxygen is a well known process that can quickly be summarized in a series of illustrations. Table 1 presents some physical properties of hydrogen and oxygen for purposes of reference. Figure 1 illustrates the chemical process and the equipment used in the industrial production of hydrogen and oxygen by the electrolysis of water. Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of electrolytic H2-O2 cells used in industrial practice. It is of interest to note that substantial amounts of power are required for the process and that rather heavy equipments are common to the land-based systems now in use. Very little can be done to reduce the power requirements, for the process as now carried out is relatively efficient, but undoubtedly great savings in weight can be realized.

  17. RECYCLING OF WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry processing plant. The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. UV was used to control the microbial population. For this control to be effectiv...

  18. Biosolids management: Beneficial use comes of age

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.

    1996-12-01

    The most important issues facing the biosolids management industry today are costs, odors and public perception. Of these, public perception has the biggest effect on the industry -- in the way biosolids are generated, used, destroyed, transported and reused. Even in the way they have been named. Officially, sludge is a term affixed to the product that comes out of sewage treatment plants and biosolids is what the processed end product is called. Although it sounds like two different things, the terms are used interchangeably. Still called sludge by some environmental professionals in the water and wastewater industries, biosolids is the official term for sludge being marketed to the public. And apparently it`s working. After years of public misperceptions, biosolids education and public relations programs thrust the organics into the Age of Beneficial Use.

  19. A hybrid ED/RO process for TDS reduction of produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.; Datta, R.; Frank, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Large volumes of produced waters are generated from natural gas production. In the United States the prevailing management practice for produced waters is deep well injection, but this practice is costly. Therefore minimizing the need for deep well injection is desirable. A major treatment issue for produced waters is the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS), which consist mostly of inorganic salts. A hybrid electrodialysis/reverse-osmosis (ED/RO) treatment process is being developed to concentrate the salts in produced waters and thereby reduce the volume of brine that needs to be managed for disposal. The desalted water can be used beneficially or discharged. In this study, laboratory feasibility experiments were conducted by using produced waters from multiple sites. A novel-membrane configuration approach to prevent fouling and scale formation was developed and demonstrated. Results of laboratory experiments and plans for field demonstration are discussed.

  20. Process and system for treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  1. Highly tritiated water processing by isotopic exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, W.M.; Willms, R.S.; Glugla, M.; Cristescu, I.; Michling, R.; Demange, D.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) is produced in fusion machines and one of the promising technologies to process it is isotopic exchange. 3 kinds of Pt-catalyzed zeolite (13X-APG, CBV-100-CY and HiSiv-1000) were tested as candidates for isotopic exchange of highly tritiated water (HTW), and CBV-100-CY (Na-Y type with a SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio of ∼ 5.0) shows the best performance. Small-scale tritium testing indicates that this method is efficient for reaching an exchange factor (EF) of 100. Full-scale non-tritium testing implies that an EF of 300 can be achieved in 24 hours of operation if a temperature gradient is applied along the column. For the isotopic exchange, deuterium recycled from the Isotope Separation System (deuterium with 1% T and/or 200 ppm T) should be employed, and the tritiated water regenerated from the Pt-catalyzed zeolite bed after isotopic exchange should be transferred to Water Detritiation System (WDS) for further processing.

  2. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Captain, Janine; Arens, Ellen; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith is a method allowing refinement of specific minerals in the material for processing on the moon. The use of tribocharging the regolith prior to separation was investigated on the lunar simulant MLS-I by passing the dust through static mixers constructed from different materials; aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The amount of charge acquired by the simulant was dependent upon the difference in the work function of the dust and the charging material. XPS and SEM were used to characterize the simulant after it was sieved into five size fractions (> 100 pm, 75-100 pm, 50- 75 pm, 50-25 pm, and < 25 pm), where very little difference in surface composition was observed between the sizes. Samples of the smallest (< 25 pm) and largest (> 100 pm) size fractions were beneficiated through a charge separator using the aluminum (charged the simulant negatively) and PTFE (charged positively) mixers. The mass fractions of the separated simulant revealed that for the larger particle size, significant unipolar charging was observed for both mixers, whereas for the smaller particle sizes, more bipolar charging was observed, probably due to the finer simulant adhering to the inside of the mixers shielding the dust from the charging material. Subsequent XPS analysis of the beneficiated fractions showed the larger particle size fraction having some species differentiation, but very little difference for the smaller.size. Although MLS-1 was made to have similar chemistry to actual lunar dust, its mineralogy is quite different. On-going experiments are using NASA JSC-1 lunar simulant. A vacuum chamber has been constructed, and future experiments are planned in a simulated lunar environment.

  3. Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

  4. Beneficial uses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1991-10-01

    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  5. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  6. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    PubMed

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  7. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Varian, Bernard J.; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  8. Mining and beneficiation of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Giles, D.

    1979-01-01

    The beneficiation of lunar plagioclase and ilmenite ores to feedstock grade permits a rapid growth of the space manufacturing economy by maximizing the production rate of metals and oxygen. A beneficiation scheme based on electrostatic and magnetic separation is preferred over conventional schemes, but such a scheme cannot be completely modeled because beneficiation processes are empirical and because some properties of lunar minerals have not been measured. To meet anticipated shipping and processing needs, the peak lunar mining rate will exceed 1000 tons/hr by the fifth year of operation. Such capabilities will be best obtained by automated mining vehicles and conveyor systems rather than trucks. It may be possible to extract about 40 kg of volatiles (60 percent H2O) by thermally processing the less than 20 micron ilmenite concentrate extracted from 130 tons of ilmenite ore. A thermodynamic analysis of an extraction process is presented.

  9. Beneficial Biofilms: Wastewater and Other Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the use of beneficial biofilms for the production of industrial chemicals such as ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. It also emphasizes application of biofilm reactors for treatment of dairy industry wastewater, oily sea water...

  10. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vione, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter < 0.1 μm) account for the vast majority of 1O2 and triplet states photoproduction. In hydrophobic sites of particles, the formation rate of 1O2 is considerably lower than in the solution bulk [5], but the absence

  11. Diel biogeochemical processes in terrestrial waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compiled and Edited by Nimick, David A.; Gammons, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Many biogeochemical processes in rivers and lakes respond to the solar photocycle and produce persistent patterns of measureable phenomena that exhibit a day-night, or 24-h, cycle. Despite a large body of recent literature, the mechanisms responsible for these diel fluctuations are widely debated, with a growing consensus that combinations of physical, chemical, and biological processes are involved. These processes include streamflow variation, photosynthesis and respiration, plant assimilation, and reactions involving photochemistry, adsorption and desorption, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Diel changes in streamflow and water properties such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentration have been widely recognized, and recently, diel studies have focused more widely by considering other constituents such as dissolved and particulate trace metals, metalloids, rare earth elements, mercury, organic matter, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and nutrients. The details of many diel processes are being studied using stable isotopes, which also can exhibit diel cycles in response to microbial metabolism, photosynthesis and respiration, or changes in phase, speciation, or redox state. In addition, secondary effects that diel cycles might have, for example, on biota or in the hyporheic zone are beginning to be considered. This special issue is composed primarily of papers presented at the topical session "Diurnal Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers, Lakes, and Shallow Groundwater" held at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October 2009 in Portland, Oregon. This session was organized because many of the growing number of diel studies have addressed just a small part of the full range of diel cycling phenomena found in rivers and lakes. This limited focus is understandable because (1) fundamental aspects of many diel processes are poorly understood and require detailed study, (2) the interests and expertise of individual

  12. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes.

    PubMed

    Zamioudis, Christos; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2012-02-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and Rhizobium bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant. Several other types of beneficial soilborne microbes, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and fungi with biological control activity, can stimulate plant growth by directly suppressing deleterious soilborne pathogens or by priming aboveground plant parts for enhanced defense against foliar pathogens or insect herbivores. The establishment of beneficial associations requires mutual recognition and substantial coordination of plant and microbial responses. A growing body of evidence suggests that beneficial microbes are initially recognized as potential invaders, after which an immune response is triggered, whereas, at later stages of the interaction, mutualists are able to short-circuit plant defense responses to enable successful colonization of host roots. Here, we review our current understanding of how symbiotic and nonsymbiotic beneficial soil microbes modulate the plant immune system and discuss the role of local and systemic defense responses in establishing the delicate balance between the two partners. PMID:21995763

  13. Beneficiation and extraction of nonterrestrial materials, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    A review of options for processing extraterrestrial materials was dominated by industrial materials scientist who tried to identify which processes utilizing space materials could be implemented in the near term. The most practical process seem to us to be the extraction of lunar oxygen and the extraction of metals and ceramics from the residues of the reduction process. The growth of space activity will be accompanied by increased demand for liquid oxygen for each round trip to the Moon. The oxygen and the intermediary product water will be needed for the life support at the base. The reduced metals and ceramics may be considered byproducts or may develop into primary products. Some of the same processes would be directly applicable to recovery of products from asteroids. We also discussed other processes for directly utilizing asteroid metals. Some of the topics covered include beneficiation and oxygen extraction methods, metallurgy, and extraterrestrial cement.

  14. Systems for recycling water in poultry processing

    SciTech Connect

    Carawan, R.E.; Sheldon, B.W.

    1988-12-31

    The study was conducted to identify effective and economical water treatments, including disinfection, to meet the U.S. Department of Agriculture`s standards for the recycling of poultry chiller water. Reconditioned chiller water meeting these criteria was used to chill hot broiler carcasses, and the quality of the chilled carcasses was then evaluated.

  15. Study for Identification of Beneficial Uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 4: Development and business analysis of space processed surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary development plans, analysis of required R and D and production resources, the costs of such resources, and, finally, the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for the production of very high frequency surface acoustic wave devices are presented.

  16. Study for identification of beneficial uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 1: Development and business analysis of space processed isoenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A separation method to provide reasonable yields of high specificity isoenzymes for the purpose of large scale, early clinical diagnosis of diseases and organic damage such as, myocardial infarction, hepatoma, muscular dystrophy, and infectous disorders is presented. Preliminary development plans are summarized. An analysis of required research and development and production resources is included. The costs of such resources and the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for electrophoretic separation of high specificity isoenzymes are reviewed.

  17. Study for identification of beneficial Uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 3: Development and business analysis of space processed tungsten fox X-ray targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development plans, analysis of required R and D and production resources, the costs of such resources, and finally, the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for containerless melting and resolidification of tungsten are discussed. The aim is to obtain a form of tungsten which, when fabricated into targets for X-ray tubes, provides at least, a 50 percent increase in service life.

  18. CLOSED PROCESS WATER LOOP IN NSSC CORRUGATING MEDIUM MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last 5 years, the Green Bay Packaging corrugating medium mill has converted to an essentially closed process water system. The mill is a net consumer of water. This is due to the greater amount of water carried out of the system with the sheet compared to the lower water...

  19. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (< 30 %) in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and the highest values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global

  20. The Roles of Beneficiation in Lunar Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug L.

    2010-01-01

    Natural feedstocks used for any process are intrinsically variable. They may also contain deleterious components or low concentrations of desired fractions. For these three reasons it is standard industrial practice to beneficiate feedstocks. This is true across all industries which trans-form raw materials into standardized units. On the Moon there are three natural resources: vacuum, radiation and regolith. To utilize in situ resources on the Moon it is reasonable to presume some beneficiation of the regolith (ground rock) resource will be desirable if not essential. As on Earth, this will require fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the relevant processes, which are exceeding complex in detail. Further, simulants are essential test articles for evaluation of components and systems planned for lunar deployment. Simulants are of course made from geologic feedstocks. Therefore, there is variation, deleterious components and incorrect concentrations of desired fractions in the feedstocks used for simulants. Thus, simulant production can benefit from beneficiation of the input feedstocks. Beneficiation of geologic feedstocks is the subject of extractive metallurgy. Clearly, NASA has two discrete interests pertaining to the science and technology of extractive metallurgy.

  1. ENHANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SUBCRITICAL WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2000-07-01

    This project involved designing and performing preliminary electrochemical experiments in subcritical water. An electrochemical cell with substantially better performance characteristics than presently available was designed, built, and tested successfully. The electrochemical conductivity of subcritical water increased substantially with temperature, e.g., conductivities increased by a factor of 120 when the temperature was increased from 25 to 250 C. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with platinum and nickel demonstrated that the voltage required to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water can be dropped by a factor of three in subcritical water compared to the voltages required at ambient temperatures. However, no enhancement in the degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl was observed with applied potential in subcritical water.

  2. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOEpatents

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  3. Understanding Multiscale Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions on Scott River Watershed Temperatures with the use of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) in Support of the Coldwater Salmonid Fishery Beneficial Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, R. J.; Harter, T.; Tyler, S. W.; McFadin, B.; Yokel, E.

    2008-12-01

    river temperatures, groundwater accretion and other beneficial salmonid habitat indicators. Our work suggests that understanding of local-scale groundwater-stream interaction and analysis of corresponding local-scale geologic and riparian vegetation controls are critical to understanding the basin-scale groundwater-stream interactions. Preliminary data reviews indicate that groundwater discharge leads to distinct cold temperature pools near the streambed, while the remainder of the stream column is thermally well mixed. This local-scale, three-dimensional understanding is necessary if strategies are to be developed that aim for effective water resource management practices and improved beneficial use habitat. A multi-scale field reconnaissance and modeling approach is suggested to develop water management practices that lead to better habitat protection throughout the watershed.

  4. WATER CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and analyses are given for t...

  5. Beneficial uses of CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.J.; Cotton, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Coal-fired generation accounts for almost 55 percent of the electricity produced in the United States. It has been estimated that over 90 million tons of coal combustion waste by-products were generated in 1990. Currently, only 30% of coal combustion waste is recycled for various beneficial applications. The remaining waste is primarily managed in landfills and surface impoundments. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology will play an important role in supplying power for future load growth and Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments compliance. CFB ash by-products have many beneficial uses. This paper describes potential applications of CFB ashes based on the ash characteristics. The beneficial uses of CFB ash discussed in this study include agricultural applications, acidic waste stabilizer, ash rock, sludge stabilizer, strip mine reclamation, and structural fill.

  6. Quantitative Eatimation of Ground Water Recharge Process in Vadose Zone Beneath a Rice Paddy Field Using Cross-Borehole Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, S.; Shiina, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Takeutch, M.

    2005-12-01

    Wet Rice Paddy field is one of most important components of land uses in monsoon Asia. It is known to have some other beneficial functions than food production, for example ground water recharge, purification of surface and subsurface water, and alleviation of flood. Though ground water recharge process of paddy field is essential for those functions, the actual conditions of ground water recharge process beneath paddy field has not been clarified besides in the zone of about 1m depth from soil surface. Recently cross borehole radar is recognized as one of usefull methods for measurement of soil water distribution and its change. We applied cross borehole radar for monitoring of soil water in vadose zone beneath a paddy field to clarify the ground water recharge process. Cross borehole radar monitoring clarified the infiltration process into the vadose zone and shallow ground water aquifer beneath the paddy field. We estimated the increment of soil volumetric water content from CRIME model, the descent velocity of wetting front, and infiltration rate from cross borehole radar data quantitatively. They were almost coincident with the directly measured results. Using these results,we tried to estimate permeability based on some hypothesis of infiltration process.

  7. Thermochemical production of hydrogen via multistage water splitting processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents and reviews the fundamental thermodynamic principles underlying thermochemical water splitting processes. The overall system is considered first and the temperature limitation in process thermal efficiency is developed. The relationship to an ideal water electrolysis cell is described and the nature of efficient multistage reaction processes is discussed. The importance of the reaction entropy change and the relation of the reaction free energy change to the work of separation is described. A procedure for analyzing thermochemical water splitting processes is presented and its use to calculate individual stage efficiency is demonstrated. A number of processes are used to illustrate the concepts and procedures.

  8. Effect of water separation layer on metal nanoforming process investigated using molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Da; Chang Chin, Po-Yuan; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Lai, Rong-Jer; Fang, Te-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The effects of water separation layer and temperature on the nanoforming process of Al films are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. These effects are evaluated in terms of molecular/atomic trajectories, potential energy, slip vectors, and the radial distribution function. The simulation results show that Al films can automatically fill cavities via heating without requiring an external loading exerted on them. At the complete filling stage, the most compact structure is obtained for forming with no water; however, the pattern collapses during the demolding process due to strong adhesion with the mold. In nanoforming in a humid environment, water molecules between the mold and Al film act as a buffer which relieves the forming pressure on the Al film, slowing down the deformation. During demolding, the buffer effectively prevents the formation of pattern defects induced by adhesion. Water molecules gradually vaporize with increasing temperature, which causes pattern failure due to a decrease in humidity. Moderate water layers are beneficial for better order and a compact pattern structure.

  9. Numerical simulation of sediment related processes in water quality model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediment is a major nonpoint-source pollutant, and the exchange of materials between water and sediment is an important component of the lake eutrophication process. Suspended sediment increases water surface reflectivity and light attenuation in the water column. Nutrients can be absorbed to sedime...

  10. MULTIPLE WATER REUSE IN POULTRY PROCESSING: CASE STUDY IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An industrial-scale multiple water reuse system was under investigation for a period of four years at a modern poultry processing plant in Alexandria, Egypt. The system involved: chlorination of cooling water from the compressor; reuse of this water in the chiller; successive tra...

  11. Buildings, Beneficial Microbes, and Health.

    PubMed

    Peccia, Jordan; Kwan, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria and fungi in buildings exert an influence on the human microbiome through aerosol deposition, surface contact, and human and animal interactions. As the identities and functions of beneficial human microbes emerge, the consequences of building design, operation, and function must be understood to maintain the health of occupants in buildings. PMID:27397930

  12. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-08-16

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. PMID:22895336

  13. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  14. Water chemistry and antimicrobial treatment in poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influence of calcium and magnesium ions in process water on the solubility of trisodium phosphate. Water used in poultry processing operations may be treated with sanitizers such as trisodium phosphate to reduce microbial activity and the risk of contamination. This occurs wh...

  15. Novel biotreatment process for glycol waters

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, L.M.V.; Elamvaluthy, G.; Palaniappan, R.; Krishnan, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    Propylene oxide (PO), propylene glycol (PG), and polyols are produced from propylene via propylene chlorohydrin. Effluents from these plants contain biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) loads besides high chloride concentrations. The high salinity poses severe problem to adopt conventional methods like activated sludge processes. Presently, a simple, economically viable and versatile microbiological process has been developed to get more than 90% biodegradation in terms of BOD/COD, utilizing specially developed Pseudomonas and Aerobacter. The process can tolerate high salinity up to 10 wt% NaCl or 5 wt% CaCl{sub 2} and can withstand wide variations in pH (5.5-11.0) and temperature (15-45{degrees}C). The biodegradation of glycols involves two steps. The enzymatic conversion of glycols to carboxylic and hydroxycarboxylic acids is aided by Pseudoomonas. Further degradation to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O by carboxylic acid utilizing Aerobacter, and possible metabolic degradative pathway of glycols are discussed. Various process parameters obtained in the lab scale (50 L bioreactor) and pilot scale (20 m{sup 3} bioreactor), and unique features of our process are also discussed.

  16. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1993-09-09

    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today`s legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ``Indifference`` decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described.

  17. Water-hydrogen isotope exchange process analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorchenko, O.; Alekseev, I.; Uborsky, V.

    2008-07-15

    The use of a numerical method is needed to find a solution to the equation system describing a general case of heterogeneous isotope exchange between gaseous hydrogen and liquid water in a column. A computer model of the column merely outputting the isotope compositions in the flows leaving the column, like the experimental column itself, is a 'black box' to a certain extent: the solution is not transparent and occasionally not fully comprehended. The approximate analytical solution was derived from the ZXY-diagram (McCabe-Thiele diagram), which illustrates the solution of the renewed computer model called 'EVIO-4.2' Several 'unusual' results and dependences have been analyzed and explained. (authors)

  18. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.; Padilla, Dennis D.; Wingo, Robert M.; Worl, Laura A.; Johnson, Michael D.

    2003-07-22

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  19. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2006-12-26

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  20. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  1. Fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Sokichi; Adachi, Fumie; Miyano, Keiichi; Koizumi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Isao; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water treatment processes in several water purification plants that employ advanced water treatment technologies. PFOS and PFOA concentrations did not vary considerably in raw water, sand filtered water, settled water, and ozonated water. Sand filtration and ozonation did not have an effect on the removal of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water. PFOS and PFOA were removed effectively by activated carbon that had been used for less than one year. However, activated carbon that had been used for a longer period of time (>1 year) was not effective in removing PFOS and PFOA from water. Variations in the removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA by activated carbon were found between summer and winter months. PMID:21628066

  2. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  3. Process for the production of hydrogen from water

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Maroni, Victor A.; Willit, James L.

    2010-05-25

    A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

  4. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop hydrogen-selective membranes for an innovative gas-separation process based on a water-gas-shift membrane reactor (WGS-MR) for the production of hydrogen.

  5. INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: U915331
    Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson
    Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
    EPA GRANT R...

  6. INPUT SUBSTITUTION AND DEMAND IN THE WATER SUPPLY PRODUCTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure of input demand for U.S. water utilities is analyzed by estimating a translog cost function. An important feature of the model includes the multiproduct specification of the water supply production process. Operating variables are also specified to include capacity ...

  7. PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer model has been developed for use in estimating the performance and associated costs of proposed and existing water supply systems. Design procedures and cost-estimating relationships for 25 unit processes that can be used for drinking water treatment are contained with...

  8. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  9. Integrating Beneficiation into Regolith Conveyance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Mantovani, James H.; Townsend, I. I.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Regolith conveyance includes hauler/dumpers, hoppers, augers, pneumatic transport subsystems, and other elements. The features of the conveyance and the time the material stream spend in conveyance may be used synergistically to perform beneficiation, pre-processing (such as heating), and other tasks, thus reducing the mass and complexity of the overall ISRU system. Since the cost of spaceflight is largely driven by the cost of launching mass out of Earth's gravity well, the conveyance system should be leveraged in this way to the maximum extent.

  10. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    PubMed

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse. PMID:23012772

  11. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  12. Treatment of water-based printing ink wastewater by Fenton process combined with coagulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang-Juan; Xia, Hui-Long

    2009-02-15

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the efficiency of Fenton process combined with coagulation for treatment of water-based printing ink wastewater. Parameters affecting the Fenton process, such as pH, dosages of Fenton reagents and the settling time, were determined by using jar test experiments. 86.4% of color and 92.4% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be removed at pH 4, 50mg/l H(2)O(2), 25mg/l FeSO(4) and 30min settling time. The coagulation using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)) was beneficial to improve the Fenton process treated effluent in reducing the flocs settling time, enhancing color and COD removal. The overall color, COD and suspended solids (SS) removal reached 100%, 93.4% and 87.2% under selected conditions, respectively. Thus this study might offer an effective way for wastewater treatment of water-based ink manufacturer and printing corporation. PMID:18583032

  13. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  14. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Lowery, M.A.; Campbell, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  15. COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

  16. A system of automated processing of deep water hydrological information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romantsov, V. A.; Dyubkin, I. A.; Klyukbin, L. N.

    1974-01-01

    An automated system for primary and scientific analysis of deep water hydrological information is presented. Primary processing of the data in this system is carried out on a drifting station, which also calculates the parameters of vertical stability of the sea layers, as well as their depths and altitudes. Methods of processing the raw data are described.

  17. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  18. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  19. Experimental research on water-jet guided laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Wang, Yang; Yang, Lijun; Chu, Jiecheng

    2007-01-01

    The water-jet guided laser processing is a new compound micro-machining process in which the laser beam passes through the water-jet by full reflection onto the workpiece. In this paper, a new key component:the coupling unit was designed and which would form a long, slim, high-pressure and stable water-jet. The couple unit made the fluid field in the chamber symmetry; the coupling quality of the laser beam and the water-jet could be easily detected by CCD camera. For its excellent surface quality, the nozzle with a \\fgr 0.18mm hole got better machining effect than other nozzles. Aiming at finding optimum machining parameters, experiments were carried out. The results showed the attenuation of laser energy bore relation to water-jet stability. The energy intensity distributed over the water-jet cross section nearly homogeneous and the laser energy nearly did not decrease in long working distance. When water-jet pressure was high, efficient cooling of the workpiece prevented burrs, cracks and heat affected zone from forming. During cutting Si wafer process, nearly no cracking was found; Adjusting reasonable laser parameters grooving 65Mn, the machining accuracy would combine with the speed.

  20. Monitoring the Water Quality in the Recycling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyová, A.; Antony, P.; Soewito, B.

    2015-06-01

    Specific water contamination requires the recycling process prior to its discharge into the public sewerage network. Electro-flotation technology was used for cleaning of waste water contaminated with the disperse colorants. Dispersion colorants were used to decorate the boxes, made of corrugated board, in the company for the production of packaging. The objective of this paper is to present a method of optimization to determine the length of the time interval for electro-flotation process. Interval should be set so as to achieve the degree of cleaning the water that is the maximum possible in the process of electro-flotation. The measurement of the light passing through the measuring the translucent tube determines the actual degree of the water purity. The measurement is carried out by means of a photodiode in different wavelengths. The measured values in the measuring tube are compared with the nominal value, which corresponds to pure distilled water. Optimization the time interval to clean the water using electro-flotation was determined for yellow color. The optimum interval for the water contaminated with the yellow color was set to 1800s.

  1. The Use of Catalysts in Near-Critical Water Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2005-06-26

    The use of heterogeneous catalysts in near-critical water processing provides many challenges of material stability in addition to the normal questions of chemical activity. Conventional catalyst materials developed in traditional organic chemistry or petroleum chemistry applications provide a source of information of materials with the required activities but often without the required stability when used in hot liquid water. The importance of the use of catalysts in near-critical water processing plays a particularly crucial role for the development of renewable fuels and chemicals based on biomass feedstocks. Stability issues include both those related to the catalytic metal and also to the catalyst support material. In fact, the stability of the support is the most likely concern when using conventional catalyst formulations in near-critical water processing. Processing test results are used to show important design parameters for catalyst formulations for use in wet biomass gasification in high-pressure water and in catalytic hydrogenations in water for production of value-added chemical products from biomass in the biorefinery concept. Analytical methods including powder x-ray diffraction for crystallite size and composition determination, surface area and porosity measurements, and elemental analysis have all been used to quantify differences in catalyst materials before and after use. By these methods both the chemical and physical stability of heterogeneous catalysts can be verified.

  2. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  3. Indirect gas chromatographic measurement of water for process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.

    1993-05-01

    This project was conducted to develop a moisture measurement method for process gas streams of fossil fuels. Objective was to from pyrolysis to measure the molar concentration of water in a gas stream without flow measurements. The method developed has been incorporated into the hydrocarbon gas analysis method currently used at Western Research Institute. A literature search of types of direct measuring moisture sensors was conducted, and a list of sensors available is given; most of them could not survive in the environment of the process streams. Indirect methods of measuring water involve changing the water via reaction to a compound that can be more readily measured. These methods react water with various reagents to form hydrogen, acetylene, and acetone. The method chose for this study uses a calcium carbide reaction column to convert the water present in the gas stream to acetylene for analysis. Relative deviation for the daily determination of water varied from 0.5 to 3.4%. The method chosen was tested for linearity over a wide range of gas stream water content. Response over 2 to 15 mole % water appears to be linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.991.

  4. The Impact of Rhizosphere Processes on Water Flow and Root Water Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the rhizosphere, which is the zone of soil in the vicinity of the roots and which is influenced by the roots, is known as a unique soil environment with different physical, biological and chemical properties than those of the bulk soil. Indeed, in recent studies it has been shown that root exudate and especially mucilage alter the hydraulic properties of the soil, and that drying and wetting cycles of mucilage result in non-equilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere. While there are experimental evidences and simplified 1D model for those concepts, an integrated model that considers rhizosphere processes with a detailed model for water and roots flow is absent. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop a 3D physical model of water flow in the soil-plant continuum that take in consideration root architecture and rhizosphere specific properties. Ultimately, this model will enhance our understanding on the impact of processes occurring in the rhizosphere on water flow and root water uptake. To achieve this objective, we coupled R-SWMS, a detailed 3D model for water flow in soil and root system (Javaux et al 2008), with the rhizosphere model developed by Kroener et al (2014). In the new Rhizo-RSWMS model the rhizosphere hydraulic properties differ from those of the bulk soil, and non-equilibrium dynamics between the rhizosphere water content and pressure head is also considered. We simulated a wetting scenario. The soil was initially dry and it was wetted from the top at a constant flow rate. The model predicts that, after infiltration the water content in the rhizosphere remained lower than in the bulk soil (non-equilibrium), but over time water infiltrated into the rhizosphere and eventually the water content in the rhizosphere became higher than in the bulk soil. These results are in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data on water dynamics in the rhizosphere. Additionally, the results show that rhizosphere processes

  5. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  6. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-07-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

  7. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  8. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  9. Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Final report, August 1992--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Walker, K.L.; Mefford, J.L.; Kirsch, J.R.; Harju, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    The use of freeze-crystallization is becoming increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The climates typical of Colorado`s San Juan Basin and eastern slope, as well as the oil and gas producing regions of Wyoming, are well suited for application of these processes in combination. Specifically, the objectives of this research are related to the development of a commercially-economic FTE (freeze-thaw/evaporation) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and natural gas. The research required for development of this process consists of three tasks: (1) a literature survey and process modeling and economic analysis; (2) laboratory-scale process evaluation; and (3) field demonstration of the process. Results of research conducted for the completion of these three tasks indicate that produced water treatment and disposal costs for commercial application of the process, would be in the range of $0.20 to $0.30/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region. FTE field demonstration results from northwestern New Mexico during the winter of 1995--96 indicate significant and simultaneous removal of salts, metals, and organics from produced water. Despite the unusually warm winter, process yields demonstrate disposal volume reductions on the order of 80% and confirm the potential for economic production of water suitable for various beneficial uses. The total dissolved solids concentrations of the FTE demonstration streams were 11,600 mg/L (feed), 56,900 mg/L (brine), and 940 mg/L (ice melt).

  10. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  15. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  16. Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Derek; de Loë, Rob C; Morris, Michelle; Edwards, Tom W D; Gerlak, Andrea K; Hall, Roland I; Huitema, Dave; Ison, Ray; Livingstone, David; MacDonald, Glen; Mirumachi, Naho; Plummer, Ryan; Wolfe, Brent B

    2015-09-01

    In this policy perspective, we outline several conditions to support effective science-policy interaction, with a particular emphasis on improving water governance in transboundary basins. Key conditions include (1) recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into water resource decision-making processes; (2) establishing conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among actors; (3) understanding that social or group-learning processes linked to science-policy interaction are enhanced through greater collaboration; (4) accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge about hydrological issues and associated socioeconomic change and institutional responses is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes; and (5) engaging boundary organizations and informal networks of scientists, policy makers, and civil society. We elaborate on these conditions with a diverse set of international examples drawn from a synthesis of our collective experiences in assessing the opportunities and constraints (including the role of power relations) related to governance for water in transboundary settings. PMID:25773532

  17. Beneficial use of sludge in building components

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, J.E.

    1983-12-01

    Results are presented of a study in which sludge was introduced in the manufacture of brick. More than 300 bench-scale, sludge-amended bricks were produced with initial volumetric sludge additions of from 16% to 50%. These specimens looked, felt, and smelled like standard bricks, and those with sludge additions of 30% or less were found capable of meeting the appropriate technical standards. Three full-scale runs have been completed by a commercial manufacturer, and almost one million bricks have been produced. These bricks were found comparable to normal, unadulterated bricks; in fact, the incorporation of sludge was believed to be beneficial due to related improvements in the brick's water absorption properties. The name 'biobrick' is used to refer to the new product.

  18. Subcritical Water Processing of Proteins: An Alternative to Enzymatic Digestion?

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J

    2016-06-21

    Subcritical water is an emerging tool in the processing of bioorganic waste. Subcritical water is an environmentally benign solvent which has the potential to provide an alternative to traditional methods of protein hydrolysis without the inclusion of expensive acids or enzymes. To date, most studies on the subcritical water mediated hydrolysis of proteins have focused on the production of amino acids, rather than the intermediate peptides. Here, we investigate the specificity of subcritical water with respect to the production of peptides from three model proteins, hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and β-casein, and compare the results with enzymatic digestion of proteins by trypsin. In addition, the effect of subcritical water (SCW) treatment on two protein post-translational modifications, disulfide bonds and phosphorylation, was investigated. The results show that high protein sequence coverages (>80%) can be obtained following subcritical water hydrolysis. These are comparable to those obtained following treatment with tryspin. Under mild subcritical water conditions (160 °C), all proteins showed favored cleavage of the Asp-X bond. The results for β-casein revealed favored cleavage of the Glu-X bond at subcritical water temperatures of 160 and 207 °C. That was similarly observed for bovine serum albumin at a subcritical water temperature of 207 °C. Subcritical water treatment results in very limited cleavage of disulfide bonds. Reduction and alkylation of proteins either prior to or post subcritical water treatment improve reported protein sequence coverages. The results for phosphoprotein β-casein show that, under mild subcritical water conditions, phosphorylation may be retained on the peptide hydrolysis products. PMID:27181872

  19. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  20. Water and processes of degradation in the Martian landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that erosion has been active on Mars so that many of the surface landforms are products of degradation. Unlike earth, erosion has not been a universal process, but one areally restricted and intermittently active so that a landscape is the product of one or two cycles of erosion and large areas of essentially undisturbed primitive terrain; running water has been the principal agent of degradation. Many features on Mars are most easily explained by assuming running surface water at some time in the past; for a few features, running water is the only possible explanation.

  1. The "independence principle" in the processes of water transport.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, J A; Fischbarg, J

    1994-01-01

    The processes of membrane transport exhibiting permeability coefficients depending on the species activities do not obey the "independence principle" and are assumed to take place by a mechanism of discrete nature, analyzable by a kinetic formalism. In this article, we study the dependence of the osmotic permeability coefficient on the water activities, from the steady-state analysis of a kinetic model of single-file water transport that simultaneously incorporates the vacancy-mediated and "knock-on" mechanisms into the state diagram. In particular, we study the relation between the near-equilibrium osmotic permeability (Pe) and the equilibrium water activity of the compartments (w). The analysis and numerical calculations performed for a simple case of the model show that, for values of the parameters consistent with experimental data, Pe exhibits only a small variation with w within the physiological range in the majority of the situations considered here. It is not possible to predict, from the study of these simple models, whether more complicated kinetic diagrams of water transport may be characterized by permeability coefficients with a more evident dependence on the water activities. Nevertheless, the results obtained here suggest that, for the case of physiological water pores, the analysis of the kinetic dependence of the permeability coefficients on the water activities may not yield evidence pointing to a discrete nature for the transport process. PMID:7529582

  2. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  3. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  4. Process for removing an organic compound from water

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Kamaruddin, Henky D.

    1993-12-28

    A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

  5. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  6. Sunlight Controls Water Column Processing of Carbon in Arctic Freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Ward, C. P.; Crump, B. C.; Kling, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon (C) in thawing permafrost soils may have global impacts on climate change, yet controls on its processing and fate are poorly understood. The dominant fate of dissolved organic C (DOC) released from soils to inland waters is either complete oxidation to CO2 or partial oxidation and river export to oceans. Both processes are most often attributed to bacterial respiration, but we recently showed that photochemical oxidation exceeds rates of respiration and accounts for 70-95% of total DOC processed in the water column of arctic lakes and rivers. While the overall dominance of photochemical processing in streams and lakes remained, the fate of DOC varied consistently by water type. In small streams DOC was mainly mineralized by sunlight to CO2, while in lakes the main fate of DOC was partial photo-oxidation. Large rivers were intermediate between these end members, and photo-mineralization to CO2 was about equal to or less than partial photo-oxidation. We suggest this pattern is a result of light-exposure history, where DOC leached from soils into headwater streams has little prior light exposure and is labile to complete photo-oxidation, but as light exposure increases moving downstream and into lakes with longer residence times the DOC photo-lability declines. Thus as easily photo-mineralized moieties are removed, DOC fate shifts toward partial photo-oxidation and downstream export in rivers and lakes. At the basin scale, photochemical processing of DOC is about one third of the total CO2 released from surface waters, and is thus an important, newly measured component of the Arctic C budget. We also suggest that these photochemical transformations of DOC will occur in any shallow surface water, and could be important for better understanding inland water carbon cycling.

  7. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. PROCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. PROCESS WATER BUILDING AND ETR STACK ARE IN LEFT HALF OF VIEW. TRA-666 IS NEAR CENTER, ABUTTED BY SECURITY BUILDING; TRA-626, AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW BEHIND BUS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-34-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. New process for screen cutting: water-jet guided laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Amorosi, Simone; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2005-07-01

    Today's OLED manufacturers need high-precision, fast tools to cut the metal screens used to deposit the electroluminescent layers onto the substrate. Conventional methods -tching and dry laser cutting - are not satisfying regarding the demands of high-definition OLED displays. A new micro machining technology, the water jet guided laser - a hybrid of laser and water jet technologies that has been actively used in recent years in the electronic and semiconductor field - is now available to OLED manufacturers. This technology represents a significant improvement in screen, mask and stencil cutting, as it combines high precision and high speed. It is able to cut small apertures with totally clean edges (no dross or slag), as the water jet removes the particles and a thin water film is maintained on the material surface during the process. Because the water jet cools the material between the laser pulses, the cut material is free of any thermal stress. The water jet guided laser is also a very fast process: as an example, rectangular slots can be cut in 30 to 50 microns thick stainless steel or nickel at a rate between 25'000 and 30'000 holes per hour.

  9. Living biofouling-resistant membranes as a model for the beneficial use of engineered biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Thammajun L.; Guha, Rajarshi; Tang, Li; Geitner, Michael; Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Membrane systems are used increasingly for water treatment, recycling water from wastewater, during food processing, and energy production. They thus are a key technology to ensure water, energy, and food sustainability. However, biofouling, the build-up of microbes and their polymeric matrix, clogs these systems and reduces their efficiency. Realizing that a microbial film is inevitable, we engineered a beneficial biofilm that prevents membrane biofouling, limiting its own thickness by sensing the number of its cells that are present via a quorum-sensing circuit. The beneficial biofilm also prevents biofilm formation by deleterious bacteria by secreting nitric oxide, a general biofilm dispersal agent, as demonstrated by both short-term dead-end filtration and long-term cross-flow filtration tests. In addition, the beneficial biofilm was engineered to produce an epoxide hydrolase so that it efficiently removes the environmental pollutant epichlorohydrin. Thus, we have created a living biofouling-resistant membrane system that simultaneously reduces biofouling and provides a platform for biodegradation of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:27140616

  10. Living biofouling-resistant membranes as a model for the beneficial use of engineered biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wood, Thammajun L; Guha, Rajarshi; Tang, Li; Geitner, Michael; Kumar, Manish; Wood, Thomas K

    2016-05-17

    Membrane systems are used increasingly for water treatment, recycling water from wastewater, during food processing, and energy production. They thus are a key technology to ensure water, energy, and food sustainability. However, biofouling, the build-up of microbes and their polymeric matrix, clogs these systems and reduces their efficiency. Realizing that a microbial film is inevitable, we engineered a beneficial biofilm that prevents membrane biofouling, limiting its own thickness by sensing the number of its cells that are present via a quorum-sensing circuit. The beneficial biofilm also prevents biofilm formation by deleterious bacteria by secreting nitric oxide, a general biofilm dispersal agent, as demonstrated by both short-term dead-end filtration and long-term cross-flow filtration tests. In addition, the beneficial biofilm was engineered to produce an epoxide hydrolase so that it efficiently removes the environmental pollutant epichlorohydrin. Thus, we have created a living biofouling-resistant membrane system that simultaneously reduces biofouling and provides a platform for biodegradation of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:27140616

  11. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  12. Loss of Water to Space from Mars: Processes and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, D. M.

    2001-12-01

    One of the major sinks for water on Mars is the loss to space. This occurs via a complex series of processes that transport the individual atoms to the upper atmosphere, where several escape mechanisms remove them. Hydrogen and deuterium are lost primarily by Jeans escape. Non-thermal processes also remove H and D, but are only important in determining D loss at solar minimum under modern conditions. The present H loss rate is equivalent to the loss of 10-3~pr-\\micron~yr-1 of water. The loss of oxygen is more complicated. The three main processes are indirect (or ionospheric) sputtering, solar wind pickup of O+, and O2+ dissociative recombination. Their relative importance has varied over the history of Mars. The combined effect of the O loss processes is to remove a ~ 50~m global layer of water over the last 3.5 Gyr. Based on photochemical modeling, the loss of oxygen and hydrogen are balanced (over geological timescales) by a feedback process. During the early history of Mars, impact erosion and hydrodynamic blow-off may have removed significant water. But, it is difficult to estimate their quantitative effects. The transport of individual H, D and O atoms to the exosphere where they can escape is not completely understood. It occurs primarily via intermediate species, H2, HD, O2 and CO2. The H2 and HD are formed by photolysis of water and the odd hydrogen photochemistry. One open issue is the mechanism regulating the partitioning of D between HDO and HD (which controls the supply of D available for escape from the exosphere). The various loss processes isotopically enrich Martian water since the exospheric escape source region is depleted. Jeans escape and the transport from the lower atmosphere further fractionate hydrogen, the most useful isotopic system. Based on recent observations, the D/H fractionation factor, F ~ 0.02. Measurements of atmospheric water vapor indicate it is enriched in deuterium, with a D/H ratio ~ 5 times the terrestrial value. Since

  13. Effect of water treatment processes on Cryptosporidium infectivity.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Alexandra; Daminato, David; Saint, Christopher P; Monis, Paul T

    2008-03-01

    Conventional water treatment processes have the ability to remove Cryptosporidium oocysts through coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, provided there is efficient management of plant performance. The potential exists for the breakthrough of oocysts through the treatment train. The effect of the water treatment chemical aluminium sulphate (alum) on Cryptosporidium oocyst infectivity has been assessed using an assay that combines cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. The infectivity of fresh and temperature-aged oocysts (stored up to 6 months at 4 or 15 degrees C) was unaffected by exposure to a range of doses of alum in standard jar test procedures and dissolved air flotation processes and subsequent exposure to chlorine or chloramine. Removal efficiencies and infectivity measures are important in determining risk to public health and will reflect the ability of water treatment plants to act as a barrier to these pathogens. PMID:18067945

  14. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  15. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Stratospheric Middleworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry; Jensen, Eric; Sachse, Glenn; Podolske, James; Schoeberl, Mark; Browell, Edward; Ismail, Syed; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Water vapor in the winter arctic stratospheric middleworld is import-an: for two reasons: (1) the arctic middleworld is a source of air for the upper Troposphere because of the generally downward motion, and thus its water vapor content helps determine upper tropospheric water, a critical part of the earth's radiation budget; and (2) under appropriate conditions, relative humidities will be large, even to the point of stratospheric cirrus cloud formation, leading to the production of active chlorine species that could destroy ozone. On a number of occasions during SOLVE, clouds were observed in the stratospheric middleworld by the DC-8 aircraft. These tended to coincide with regions of low temperatures, though some cases suggest water vapor enhancements due to troposphere-to-stratosphere transport. The goal of this work is to understand the importance of processes in and at the edge of the arctic stratospheric middleworld in determining water vapor at these levels. Specifically, is water vapor at these levels determined largely by the descent of air from above, or are clouds both within and at the edge of the stratospheric middleworld potentially important? How important is troposphere-to-stratosphere transport of air in determining stratospheric middleworld water vapor content? To this end, we will first examine the minimum saturation mixing ratios along theta/EPV tubes during the SOLVE winter and compare these with DC-8 water vapor observations. This will be a rough indicator of how high relative humidities can get, and the likelihood of cirrus cloud formation in various parts of the stratospheric middleworld. We will then examine saturation mixing ratios along both diabatic and adiabatic trajectories, comparing these values with actual aircraft water vapor observations, both in situ and remote. Finally, we will attempt to actually predict water vapor using minimum saturation mixing ratios along trajectories, cloud injection (derived from satellite imagery) along

  16. Erosional processes in channelized water flows on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    A hypothesis is investigated according to which the Martian outflow channels were formed by high-velocity flows of water or dynamically similar liquid. It is suggested that the outflow channels are largely the result of several interacting erosional mechanisms, including fluvial processes involving ice covers, macroturbulence, streamlining, and cavitation.

  17. PROCESS WATER QUALITY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRON AND STEEL MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to: develop information on minimum water quality requirements for the different unit processes in iron and steel making; identify data gaps; and recommend research efforts to obtain the required information. The study utilized plant visits, lit...

  18. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  19. Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

    1980-09-16

    Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

  20. [Effects of quantum nonlocality in the water activation process].

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O V; Stekhin, A A; Yakovleva, G V

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic alterations of the magnetic flux density of the water volume, activated with structurally stressed calcium carbonate in micellar form have been investigated. The phase of the associated water was established to exhibit electrical and magnetic properties, recorded by in B&E meter in the frequency range of 5Hz - 2kHz. Alterations in water Eh (redox) potential and the magnetic flux density B testify to synchronous auto-oscillatory changes. This gives evidence of non-linearity of the relationship between auto-oscillatory processes excited in the water; and reflects the nonlocal in time the relationship between the states of water, manifesting in a change of water activity on the 1st and 2nd day in negative time. The mechanism of action of associated water phase is shown to be described by de Broglie concept of matter waves with taking into account delocalized in time states of phase of electron wave packet in accordance with the transactional interpretation of quantum physics. PMID:24749297

  1. A learning process of water cycle as complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Tassin, B.; Thevenot, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water cycle is a very good example of a complex geosystem which has many societal impacts and drivers. A permanent and ubiquitous question is how to increase public awareness and understanding of its extreme behaviours, as well as of the related uncertainties. For instance, CEREVE is highly solicited to help the general public, particularly the youth, and the local politicians to get better acquainted with the new water culture in general and with flood risks in particular, in the nearby county Val-de-Marne. Since 2001, May is the month of the "Festival de l'Oh"(which sounds like "Festival de l'Eau", i.e. the water festival co-organized by the county council and city of Paris. "Oh » at the same time partly displays the chemical composition of water and is an exclamation for atonishment). This festival starts with the Scientific Days of Environment that involve researchers and students of the county, as well as collaborators of all around the world. This conference is open to the public who can be informed from the latest research developments, in particular with the help of some general synthesis and panel discussions. On the other hand, (young) researchers can present their own works to a large public. This conference is followed by a Professional Forum where students, heads of water public services or private operators can meet. In the framework of the water festival preparation, there are several water forums for the secondary schools. All along the year, there are regular pedagogical activities for secondary schools, in particular in the framework of Water Houses scattered across the county. We will discuss the importance to better evaluate the effective impact of these pedagogical events on the public awareness and understanding, and to make the learning process more adaptive and interactive, as well as to better address the underlying fundamental problems, e.g. the present limitations of current modelling and data processing.

  2. Influence of hard water ions on the growth of salmonella in poultry processing water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of magnesium and calcium ions in process water on the growth of Salmonella was evaluated and related to the contamination in process wastewater. Salmonella typhimurium was grown in the laboratory and exposed to 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of magnesium and calcium ions to simulate hard pr...

  3. Modeling abiotic processes of aniline in water-saturated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrega-Duque, J.R.; Jafvert, C.T.; Li, H.; Lee, L.S.

    2000-05-01

    The long-term interactions of aromatic amines with soils are important in defining the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Abiotic loss of aniline from the aqueous phase to the soil phase occurs with an initial rapid loss due to reversible mass transfer processes, followed by a slow loss due to irreversible reactions. A kinetic model describing these processes in water-saturated soils was developed and evaluated. The model assumes that instantaneous equilibrium occurs for the following reversible processes: (1) acid dissociation of the protonated organic base (BH+) in the aqueous phase; (2) ion exchange between inorganic divalent cations (D{sup 2+} = Ca{sup 2+} + Mg{sup 2+}) on the soil and the protonated organic base; and (3) partitioning of the nonionic species of aniline (B{sub aq}) to soil organic carbon. The model assumes that irreversible loss of aniline occurs through reaction of B{sub aq} with irreversible sites (C{sub ir}) on the soil. A kinetic rate constant, k{sub ir}, and the total concentration of irreversible sites, C{sub T}, were employed as adjustable model parameters. The model was evaluated as adjustable model parameters. The model was evaluated with measured mass distributions of aniline between water and five soils ranging in pH (4.4--7.3), at contact times ranging from 2 to 1,600 h. Some experiments were performed at different soil mass to water volume ratios. A good fit was obtained with a single value of k{sub ir} for all soils, pH values, and soil-water ratios. To accurately predict soil-water distributions at contact times <24 h, mass transfer of the neutral species to the soil was modeled as a kinetic process, again, assuming that ion exchange processes are instantaneous.

  4. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  5. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  6. Carbon cycle. Sunlight controls water column processing of carbon in arctic fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Cory, Rose M; Ward, Collin P; Crump, Byron C; Kling, George W

    2014-08-22

    Carbon in thawing permafrost soils may have global impacts on climate change; however, the factors that control its processing and fate are poorly understood. The dominant fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from soils to inland waters is either complete oxidation to CO2 or partial oxidation and river export to oceans. Although both processes are most often attributed to bacterial respiration, we found that photochemical oxidation exceeds rates of respiration and accounts for 70 to 95% of total DOC processed in the water column of arctic lakes and rivers. At the basin scale, photochemical processing of DOC is about one-third of the total CO2 released from surface waters and is thus an important component of the arctic carbon budget. PMID:25146289

  7. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is to study ways to modify surface properties of coal, pyrite and ash-forming mineral matter for beneficiation of fine coal. Since the differences in surface properties of coal and mineral matter are utilized in several oil based preparation technologies, such as: froth flotation, emulsion flotation, spherical agglomeration and liquid-liquid separation, another objective is to delineate the role of oil. The following studies are behind carried out to achieve the objectives: Investigation of the natural hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite; development and evaluation of enhanced coal hydrophobicity; development and evaluation of reagents xanthates which modulate the hydrophobicity of pyrite; and development and evaluation of emulsion processes and their underlying principles.

  8. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  9. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    2000-07-18

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  10. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  11. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  12. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  13. Toxicity assessment of oil field produced water treated by evaporative processes to produce water to irrigation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, V T; Andrade, B G; Costa, B R S; Pereira, O A; Dezotti, M

    2010-01-01

    During the productive life of an oil well, a high quantity of produced water is extracted together with the oil, and it may achieve up to 99% in the end of the well's economical life. Desalination is one of mankind's earliest forms of saline water treatment, and nowadays, it is still a common process used throughout the world. A single-effect mechanical vapor compression (MVC) process was tested. This paper aims to assess the potential toxicity of produced water to be re-used in irrigation. Samples of both produced and distilled water were evaluated by 84 chemical parameters. The distilled produced water presented a reduction up to 97% for the majority of the analyzed parameters, including PAHs. Toxicity bioassays were performed with distilled produced water to evaluate the growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae, the acute toxicity to Danio rerio fish, the germination inhibition of Lactuca sativa vegetable and the severity of toxicity, as well as behavior test with Lumbricid Earthworm Eisenia fetida. The ecotoxicological assays results showed no toxicity, indicating that the referred evaporative process can produce water to be reused in irrigation. PMID:20706017

  14. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

  15. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  16. Stagewise processing of yellow water using clinoptilolite for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery and higher residual quality.

    PubMed

    Allar, A D; Beler Baykal, B

    2015-01-01

    Source-separated human urine may be used as a source of fertilizers indirectly through processing with clinoptilolite. The suggested form of fertilizer is clinoptilolite loaded with plant nutrients from urine, where nitrogen and phosphorus will be released upon contact with water. Triggered by the need for handling high concentrations remaining in the liquid phase to be disposed of, this paper aims to present the option of improving the residual nutrient quality through stagewise processing with clinoptilolite, while investigating any improvement in nutrient removal. Two sets of experiments, stagewise operation under (i) constant loadings and (ii) variable loadings in each stage, are discussed. Stagewise operation has been observed to be successful for attaining reduced residual liquid phase concentrations as well as improvements in nitrogen recovery as compared to single-stage operation. Comparing constant and variable stagewise loadings, the final concentration is 10 times lower with variable loadings. The latter is comparable to a level found in only 1% of conventional domestic wastewater volume. Stagewise operation was beneficial from the standpoint of both additional nutrient recovery and for residuals control, with more pronounced benefits for attaining higher quality residual liquid phase concentrations to be disposed of. PMID:26067508

  17. In vitro genotoxicity of chlorinated drinking water processed from humus-rich surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Liimatainen, A.; Grummt, T.

    1988-11-01

    Chlorination by-products of drinking waters are capable of inducing sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosome aberrations (CA) in vitro, in addition to their mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Finnish drinking waters, processed from humus-rich surface water using chlorine disinfection, have been found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames' test. The highest activities have been found in the acidic, non-volatile fraction of the water concentrates using tester strain TA100 without metabolic activation by S9mix. The mutagenicities have varied between 500 and 14,000 induced revertants per liter. These figures are one to two magnitudes higher than those reported elsewhere. The authors studied five Finnish drinking water samples for their potency to exert genotoxic effects, SCEs and CAs, in mammalian cells in vitro (human peripheral lymphocytes and Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts).

  18. An integrated modeling process to assess water quality for watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Samarjyoti

    2001-07-01

    An integrated modeling process has been developed that combines remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and the Agricultural NonPoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) hydrologic model to assess water quality of a watershed. Remotely sensed Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to obtain various land cover information of a watershed including sub-classes of rangeland and wheat land based on the estimates of vegetative cover and crop residue, respectively. AGNPS model input parameters including Universal Soil Loss Equation's (USLE) cropping factors (C-factors) were assigned to the landcover classes. The AGNPS-ARC INFO interface was used to extract input parameters from several GIS layers for the AGNPS model during several selected storm events for the sub-watersheds. Measured surface water quantity and quality data for these storm events were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations. Base flow separation was done to remove the base flow fraction of water and total suspended sediment (TSS), total nitrogen (total-N), and total phosphorous (total-P) from the total stream flow. Continuous antecedent moisture content ratios were developed for the sub-watersheds during the storm events and were used to adjust the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Numbers (SCS-CN) of various landcovers. A relationship was developed between storm amounts and estimated energy intensity (EI) values using a probability method (Koelliker and Humbert, 1989), and the EI values were used in running the AGNPS model input files. Several model parameters were calibrated against the measured water quality data and then the model was run on different sub-watersheds to evaluate the modeling process. This modeling process was found to be effective for smaller sub-watersheds having adequate rainfall data. However, in the case of large sub-watersheds with substantial variations of rainfall and landcover, this process was less satisfactory. This integrated modeling process will

  19. Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might

  20. Processes Driving Natural Acidification of Western Pacific Coral Reef Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamberger, K. E.; Cohen, A. L.; Golbuu, Y.; McCorkle, D. C.; Lentz, S. J.; Barkley, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are acidifying the oceans, reducing seawater pH, aragonite saturation state (Ωar) and the availability of carbonate ions (CO32-) that calcifying organisms use to build coral reefs. Today's most extensive reef ecosystems are located where open ocean CO32- concentration ([CO32-]) and Ωar exceed 200 μmol kg-1 and 3.3, respectively. However, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and long residence times of water can result in carbonate chemistry conditions within coral reef systems that differ greatly from those of nearby open ocean waters. In the Palauan archipelago, water moving across the reef platform is altered by both biological and hydrographic processes that combine to produce seawater pH, Ωar, [CO32-] significantly lower than that of open ocean source water. Just inshore of the barrier reefs, average Ωar values are 0.2 to 0.3 and pH values are 0.02 to 0.03 lower than they are offshore, declining further as water moves across the back reef, lagoon and into the meandering bays and inlets that characterize the Rock Islands. In the Rock Island bays, coral communities inhabit seawater with average Ωar values of 2.7 or less, and as low as 1.9. Levels of Ωar as low as these are not predicted to occur in the western tropical Pacific open ocean until near the end of the century. Calcification by coral reef organisms is the principal biological process responsible for lowering Ωar and pH, accounting for 68 - 99 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water at our sites. However, in the Rock Island bays where Ωar is lowest, CO2 production by net respiration contributes between 17 - 30 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water. Furthermore, the residence time of seawater in the Rock Island bays is much longer than at the well flushed exposed sites, enabling calcification and respiration to drive Ωar to very low levels despite lower net ecosystem

  1. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  2. Effectiveness of water desalination by membrane distillation process.

    PubMed

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  3. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-10-30

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

  4. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hipskino, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999-2000 winter season. Aircraft based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements are analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the arctic lower-most stratosphere, and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to- stratosphere exchange extends into the arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases idly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of about 5 ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20\\% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early Spring temperatures at the tropopause are cold enough so that 5-10\\% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100\\%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during, this period the arctic tropopause can play an important role in maintaining a very dry upper troposphere during early Spring.

  5. Mining and beneficiation: A review of possible lunar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful exploration of Mars and outer space may require base stations strategically located on the Moon. Such bases must develop a certain self-sufficiency, particularly in the critical life support materials, fuel components, and construction materials. Technology is reviewed for the first steps in lunar resource recovery-mining and beneficiation. The topic is covered in three main categories: site selection; mining; and beneficiation. It will also include (in less detail) in-situ processes. The text described mining technology ranging from simple diggings and hauling vehicles (the strawman) to more specialized technology including underground excavation methods. The section of beneficiation emphasizes dry separation techniques and methods of sorting the ore by particle size. In-situ processes, chemical and thermal, are identified to stimulate further thinking by future researchers.

  6. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  7. Reactor materials program process water component failure probability

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    1988-04-12

    The maximum rate loss of coolant accident for the Savannah River Production Reactors is presently specified as the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping materials. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis for an alternate, credible maximum rate LOCA. The major thrust of this program is to develop an alternate worst case accident scenario by deterministic means. In addition, the probability of a DEGB is also being determined; to show that in addition to being mechanistically incredible, it is also highly improbable. The probability of a DEGB of the process water piping is evaluated in two parts: failure by direct means, and indirectly-induced failure. These two areas have been discussed in other reports. In addition, the frequency of a large bread (equivalent to a DEGB) in other process water system components is assessed. This report reviews the large break frequency for each component as well as the overall large break frequency for the reactor system.

  8. Integrated treatment process using a natural Wyoming clinoptilolite for remediating produced waters from coalbed natural gas operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, H.; Vance, G.F.; Urynowicz, M.A.; Gregory, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in western U.S. states has resulted in an increase in an essential energy resource, but has also resulted in environmental impacts and additional regulatory needs. A concern associated with CBNG development relates to the production of the copious quantities of potentially saline-sodic groundwater required to recover the natural gas, hereafter referred to as CBNG water. Management of CBNG water is a major environmental challenge because of its quantity and quality. In this study, a locally available Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from Wyoming (WY) was examined for its potential to treat CBNG water to remove Na+ and lower the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, mmol1/2 L- 1/2). The zeolite material was Ca-modified before being used in column experiments. Column breakthrough studies indicated that a metric tonne (1000??kg) of Ca-WY-zeolite could be used to treat 60,000??L of CBNG water in order to lower SAR of the CBNG water from 30 to an acceptable level of 10??mmol1/2 L- 1/2. An integrated treatment process using Na-WY-zeolite for alternately treating hard water and CBNG water was also examined for its potential to treat problematic waters in the region. Based on the results of this study, use of WY-zeolite appears to be a cost-effective water treatment technology for maximizing the beneficial use of poor-quality CBNG water. Ongoing studies are evaluating water treatment techniques involving infiltration ponds lined with zeolite. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Beneficial trait stability in entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Deterioration or loss of beneficial traits during laboratory or industrial culture prod...

  10. Making beneficial fungi resistant to fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike phytopathogenic fungi such as scab and Phytophthora, some fungi that are found in the orchard are beneficial. These beneficial fungi such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum are natural control agents of various insect pests including the pecan weevil. However, these fungi can be...

  11. Beneficial Insects and Spiders of Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of integrated pest management programs is dependent on the availability of biological information on beneficial insects and natural enemies of agricultural pests. This cooperative effort between ARS and UAF represents the first manual on beneficial insects and natural enemies of pest...

  12. Ore and coal beneficiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Abadi, K.

    1987-10-27

    This patent describes a method for the separation of iron pyrite from a pulverized mineral ore comprising iron pyrites as a first constituent and a second constituent selected from the group consisting of coal and non-ferrous metal ores by air froth flotation of an aqueous pulp of the pulverized mineral ore. The improvement comprises incorporating in the pulp from about 0.02 to about 1 pound per ton of mineral of a composition comprising hydroxyacetic acid, xanthan gum, sodium silicate, and water wherein the acid content of the composition is from about 0.1 to about 69 percent by weight of the composition, the xanthan gum is from about 0.01 to about 10 percent by weight of the composition; and the ratio by weight of sodium silicate to hydroxyacetic acid is in the range of from about 0 to about 0.5.

  13. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    SciTech Connect

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am

  14. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 9, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-08-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the second quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: completed drop tube furnace devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; completed writing a summary topical report including all results to date on he nine fuels tested; and presented three technical papers on the project results at the 16th International Conference on Coal & Slurry Technologies.

  15. Methane gas seepage - Disregard of significant water column filter processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Schmale, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Marine methane seepage represents a potential contributor for greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is discussed as a driver for climate change. The ultimate question is how much methane is released from the seafloor on a global scale and what fraction may reach the atmosphere? Dissolved fluxes from methane seepage sites on the seabed were found to be very efficiently reduced by benthic microbial oxidation, whereas transport of free gas bubbles from the seabed is considered to bypass the effective benthic methane filter. Numerical models are available today to predict the fate of such methane gas bubble release to the water column in regard to gas exchange with the ambient water column, respective bubble lifetime and rise height. However, the fate of rising gas bubbles and dissolved methane in the water column is not only governed by dissolution, but is also affected by lateral oceanographic currents and vertical bubble-induced upwelling, microbial oxidation, and physico-chemical processes that remain poorly understood so far. According to this gap of knowledge we present data from two study sites - the anthropogenic North Sea 22/4b Blowout and the natural Coal Oil point seeps - to shed light into two new processes gathered with hydro-acoustic multibeam water column imaging and microbial investigations. The newly discovered processes are hereafter termed Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism. Spiral Vortex describes the evolution of a complex vortical fluid motion of a bubble plume in the wake of an intense gas release site (Blowout, North Sea). It appears very likely that it dramatically changes the dissolution kinetics of the seep gas bubbles. Bubble Transport Mechanism prescribes the transport of sediment-hosted bacteria into the water column via rising gas bubbles. Both processes act as filter mechanisms in regard to vertical transport of seep related methane, but have not been considered before. Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism represent the

  16. Effects of Gravity on Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegde, Uday; Hicks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the fluid mechanics of supercritical water jets are being studied at NASA to develop a better understanding of flow behaviors for purposes of advancing supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technologies for applications in reduced gravity environments. These studies provide guidance for the development of future SCWO experiments in new experimental platforms that will extend the current operational range of the DECLIC (Device for the Study of Critical Liquids and Crystallization) Facility on board the International Space Station (ISS). The hydrodynamics of supercritical fluid jets is one of the basic unit processes of a SCWO reactor. These hydrodynamics are often complicated by significant changes in the thermo-physical properties that govern flow behavior (e.g., viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, compressibility, etc), particularly when fluids transition from sub-critical to supercritical conditions. Experiments were conducted in a 150 ml reactor cell under constant pressure with water injections at various flow rates. Flow configurations included supercritical jets injected into either sub-critical or supercritical water. Profound gravitational influences were observed, particularly in the transition to turbulence, for the flow conditions under study. These results will be presented and the parameters of the flow that control jet behavior will be examined and discussed.

  17. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  18. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip; Chiarizia, Renato; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an ›H.sup.+ ! concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured.

  19. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, M.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1999-01-26

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an [H{sup +}] concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured. 24 figs.

  20. Degradation of ethylenethiourea pesticide metabolite from water by photocatalytic processes.

    PubMed

    Bottrel, Sue Ellen C; Amorim, Camila C; Leão, Mônica M D; Costa, Elizângela P; Lacerda, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic (photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV) and dark Fenton processes were used to remove ethylenethiourea (ETU) from water. The experiments were conducted in a photo-reactor with an 80 W mercury vapor lamp. The mineralization of ETU was determined by total organic carbon analysis, and ETU degradation was qualitatively monitored by the reduction of UV absorbance at 232 nm. A higher mineralization efficiency was obtained by using the photo-peroxidation process (UV/H2O2). Approximately 77% of ETU was mineralized within 120 min of the reaction using [H2O2]0 = 400 mg L(-1). The photo-Fenton process mineralized 70% of the ETU with [H2O2]0 = 800 mg L(-1) and [Fe(2+)] = 400 mg L(-1), and there is evidence that hydrogen peroxide was the limiting reagent in the reaction because it was rapidly consumed. Moreover, increasing the concentration of H2O2 from 800 mg L(-1) to 1200 mg L(-1) did not enhance the degradation of ETU. Kinetics studies revealed that the pseudo-second-order model best fit the experimental conditions. The k values for the UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton processes were determined to be 6.2 × 10(-4) mg L(-1) min(-1) and 7.7 × 10(-4) mg L(-1) min(-1), respectively. The mineralization of ETU in the absence of hydrogen peroxide has led to the conclusion that ETU transformation products are susceptible to photolysis by UV light. These are promising results for further research. The processes that were investigated can be used to remove pesticide metabolites from drinking water sources and wastewater in developing countries. PMID:24502213

  1. Water states and water gates in osmotic processes, and the inoperative concept of molfraction of water.

    PubMed

    Scholander, P F

    1975-10-01

    An historical account is given of concepts regarding the mechanism of osmosis and imbibition, starting with Lord Kelvin's gravitational column, where he pointed out that a capillary standing in a dish of water within an isothermal enclosure must have a lowered vapor pressure at its elevated meniscus so as to match that emanating from the surface in the dish, otherwise distillation would violate the Second law. A brilliant sequence to this simple idea followed through Poynting, Arrhenius, Noyes and culminated with Hulett, who in 1901 formulated the "solvent tension theory" of osmosis, stating in essence that the thermal motion of the solute molecules by impact with the free solvent surface put the solvent under tension. This lowers the vapor pressure and thereby also its freezing point. Perrin, in famous experiments on Brownian motion, demonstrated solute-solvent independence within a solution and further support came through Herzfeld, Mysels and Duclaux. We measured negative pressures in salt-free sap of mangroves and other plants matching the osmotic pressure in the leaf cells. A series of measurements on magnetic and gravitational effects on osmotic pressure likewise bore out the tension theory. The fashionable "water concentration theory" is left experimentally contradicted and in violation of the Second law. PMID:1104754

  2. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  3. Extraction of reusable water from a mineral mining process

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1982-01-19

    A method for the treatment of an aqueous effluent slime derived from a tar sand extraction process is disclosed. The effluent slime ph is adjusted to an acidic ph and treated with an anionic surface active agent to create flocculation of solid asphaltic material entrained within the slime. A solvent solution comprising chlorinated hydrocarbon and a solvent therefor is added so that upon centrifuging of the treated slime three physical layers of material comprising (1) water; (2) asphaltics in the solvent solution and (3) clay are formed.

  4. Polymer performance in cooling water: The influence of process variables

    SciTech Connect

    Amjad, Z.; Pugh, J.; Zibrida, J.; Zuhl, B.

    1997-01-01

    The key to the efficacy of phosphate and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment (CWT) programs is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in CWT programs can be adversely impacted by the presence of iron, phosphonate, or cationic polymer and influenced by a variety of process variables including system pH and temperature. In this article, the performance of several polymeric additives is evaluated under a variety of stressed conditions.

  5. Polymer performance in cooling water: The influence of process variables

    SciTech Connect

    Amjad, Z.; Pugh, J.; Zibrida, J.; Zuhl, B.

    1996-12-01

    The key to the efficacy of phosphate and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment (CWT) programs is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in CWT programs can be adversely impacted by the presence of iron, phosphonate, or cationic polymer and influenced by a variety of process variables including system pH and temperature. In this paper, the performance of several polymeric additives is evaluated under a variety of stressed conditions.

  6. Magnetic beneficiation of lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, D. S; Oder, R. R.; Graf, J.; Taylor, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    We will present a review of recent laboratory results obtained in dry magnetic separation of one gram samples of the minus 1 mm size fraction of five lunar soils of widely differing maturities. Two highland soils were investigated as potential sources of low iron content feed stocks for space manufacture of metals, including aluminum, silicon, and calcium. Pure anorthite was separated from the diamagnetic fraction of immature highland regolith. Three high titanium mare soils were investigated as potential sources of ilmenite for production of hydrogen and for recovery of He-3. Ilmenite and pyroxene were separated from the paramagnetic fractions of the mare basalts. Agglutinates and other fused soil components containing metallic iron were separated from the strongly magnetic fractions of all soils. We will present conceptual magnetic separation flow sheets developed from the laboratory data and designed for production of anorthite from highland soils and for production of ilmenite from mare soils. Using these flow sheets, we will discuss problems and opportunities associated with the magnetic separation of lunar soils. Separation of high-grade anorthite or other diamagnetic components at moderately high recovery can be achieved in processing immature highland soils. Further, while magnet weight is always an issue in magnetic separation technology, recent developments in both low temperature and high temperature superconductivity present unusual opportunities for magnet design specific to the lunar environment.

  7. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. ); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. ); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. ); Misra, M. )

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  8. The removal of anionic surfactants from water in coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Jadwiga; Elektorowicz, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the effectiveness of the coagulation process in removing surfactants from water. The application of traditional coagulants (aluminium sulfate and iron chlorides) has not brought satisfactory results, the reduction in anionic surfactant (AS) content reached 7.6% and 10%, respectively. Adding cationic polyelectrolyte (Zetag-50) increased the removal efficiency to 24%. Coagulation using a polyelectrolyte alone proved to be more efficient, the reduction in surfactant content fluctuated at a level of about 50%. Complete surfactant removal was obtained when powdered activated carbon was added 5 minutes before the basic coagulant to the coagulation process. The efficiency of surfactant coagulation also increased after the application of powdered clinoptilolite, but to a smaller degree. Then the removal of AS was found to be improved by dosing powdered clinoptilolite simultaneously or with short delay after the addition of the basic coagulant. PMID:23837351

  9. Enhancement of processes for solar photocatalytic detoxification of water

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.; Tyner, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    A solar-driven photocatalytic process is being developed to destroy low levels of toxic organics in water. Parabolic troughs with a glass pipe reactor and heliostats (large tracking mirrors) with a falling-film reactor were used to conduct engineering-scale solar detoxification of water experiments. We have assessed the effect of catalyst (titanium dioxide) loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the destruction of a model organic compound, salicylic acid. We found the optimal catalyst loading to be 0.1% for the conditions of 30 ppM salicylic acid and 300 ppM hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide affected the reaction rates significantly, increasing the reaction rate over 4 times for stoichiometric amounts and more than 19 times for 10 times the stoichiometric amount. Destruction rates appear to be linearly proportional to the ultraviolet light intensity, though more data are needed to fully establish the relation. Initial tests with an actual water pollutant, trichloroethylene, demonstrated destruction from 1.2 ppM to less than 50 ppB in less than 5 minutes of exposure with a trough system. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Process for separating water and solids from fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, J.H.; Bachmann, D.L.

    1987-11-17

    A process for separating water and solid particles from a fuel oil feedstock is described comprising: subjecting the feedstock to a first separation in a scroll type centrifugal separator to form a first recovered fuel stream and an oil cake; subjecting at least the first recovered fuel stream to a second separation in a centrifugal disc separator to form a clean fuel stream, an oil-bearing water stream and a sludge stream; treating the oil-bearing water stream in a separator to recover the oil; treating the oil cake removed from the first separation with a solvent in order to form a suspension; mixing the suspension with the sludge stream to form a mixture; feeding the mixture to a filter press to yield a solid reject and a filtrate; separating the filtrate into a decantate and recovered oil; mixing at least a portion of the recovered oil with first recovered fuel stream to form a semi-cleaned fuel stream; and subjecting the semi-cleaned fuel stream to the second separation in a centrifugal disc separator to form the clean fuel stream.