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Sample records for benefit joint health

  1. Benefit of joint response in a mental health crisis.

    PubMed

    2016-07-27

    Andrew Lancaster writes in Mental Health Practice about the critical role mobile crisis teams (MCTs) can play in delivering a joint response from the police and mental health services to people in a mental health crisis. PMID:27461336

  2. D-002 (Beeswax Alcohols): Concurrent Joint Health Benefits and Gastroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Vivian; Mas, R.; Carbajal, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs include the traditional drugs and more selective COX-2 inhibitors. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use is hampered by their gastrotoxicity, while COX-2-inhibitors increase the cardiovascular risk. The search of safer substances for managing inflammatory conditions is updated, a challenge wherein dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors have a place. This review summarizes the benefits of D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, on joint health and gastric mucosa. D-002 elicits gastroprotection through a multiple mechanism that involves the increased secretion and improved quality of the gastric mucus, the reduction of hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, neutrophil infiltration and the increase of antioxidant enzymes on the gastric mucosa. Consistently, D-002 inhibits NSAIDs, ethanol, pylorus-ligation and acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats, and has reduced gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical studies. Early results found that D-002 was effective in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced pleurisy model in rats, lowering pleural leukotriene B4 levels without causing gastrointestinal ulceration. However, D-002 effects on inflammation received little attention for years. Recent data have shown that D-002 inhibited both COX and 5-LOX activities with a greater affinity for 5-LOX and could act as a dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor. This mechanism might explain efficacy in experimental inflammatory and osteoarthritic models as well as clinical efficacy in osteoarthritic patients while supporting the lack of D-002 gastrotoxicity, but not the gastroprotective effects, which appear to be due to multiple mechanisms. In summary oral D-002 intake could help manage inflammatory conditions that impair joint health, while offering gastroprotection. PMID:26009643

  3. The Benefits of Deploying Health Physics Specialists to Joint Operation Areas.

    PubMed

    Mower, Scott; Bast, Joshua D; Myers, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Preventive Medicine Specialists (military occupational specialty [MOS] 68S) with the health physics specialist (N4) qualification identifier possess a unique force health protection skill set. In garrison, they ensure radiation exposures to patients, occupational workers and the public from hospital activities such as radioisotope therapy and x-ray machines do not to exceed Federal law limits and kept as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining sufficient numbers of health physics specialists (HPSs) to fill authorizations has been a consistent struggle for the Army Medical Department due to the rigorous academic requirements of the additional skill identifier-producing program. This shortage has limited MOS 68SN4 deployment opportunities in the past and prevented medical planners from recognizing the capabilities these Soldiers can bring to the fight. In 2014, for the first time, HPSs were sourced to deploy as an augmentation capability to the 172nd Preventive Medicine Detachment (PM Det), the sole PM Det supporting the Combined Joint Operations Area-Afghanistan. Considerable successes in bettering radiation safety practices and improvements in incident and accident response were achieved as a result of their deployment. The purposes of this article are to describe the mission services performed by HPSs in Afghanistan, discuss the benefits of deploying HPSs with PM Dets, and demonstrate to senior medical leadership the importance of maintaining a health physics capability in a theater environment. PMID:26276950

  4. Achieving joint benefits from joint implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moomaw, W.R.

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) appears to have been born with Applied Energy Services Guatemala project in 1988. That project, to plant 52 million trees, protect existing forests from cutting and fire, and enhance rural development, is being implemented by CARE Guatemala to offset 120 per cent of the emissions of a small coal burning power plant that has been built in Connecticut. Since that time, several utilities and governments have initiated additional projects. Not all of these necessarily consist of tree planting in other countries, but may consist of energy efficiency or energy conservation programs designed to reduce carbon emissions by at least as much as the additional releases from a new facility. All JI projects share the characteristic of linking the release of greenhouse gases in an industrial country with an offset that reduces or absorbs a comparable amount in another country. The emitter in the industrial country is willing to pay for the reduction elsewhere because costs are less than they would be at home.

  5. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Luckey, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment. PMID:19088902

  6. Health benefits of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the claims of health benefits derived from the use of probiotics. A brief history of probiotics and the types of probiotics currently used and the criteria for the selection of probiotics is discussed. The ability of probiotics to enhance the nutritional content and bioavailability of nutrients and the scientific evidence for the usefulness of probiotics in alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance and in enhancing growth development is examined. The remainder of the review focuses on studies of a specific probiotic, Lactobacillus GG which has been extensively investigated for its health benefits in humans and animals. These studies severe as a model for the potential benefits of probiotics. The ability of Lactobacillus GG to treat or prevent diarrhoeal disease, to serve as an adjuvant for vaccines, to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea, to prevent milk-based allergic reactions, alcohol-induced liver disease and colon cancer are presented. The review concludes with a discussion of the data supporting the safety of probiotics. PMID:9924285

  7. Health benefits of tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Babette M; Staal, J Bart; Marks, Bonita L; Miller, Stuart; Miley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles. Structured computer searches of PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were undertaken, along with hand searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to March 2007. These had to be cohort studies (of either cross sectional or longitudinal design), case–control studies, or experimental studies. Twenty four studies were identified that dealt with physical fitness of tennis players, including 17 on intensity of play and 16 on maximum oxygen uptake; 17 investigated the relation between tennis and (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease; and 22 examined the effect of tennis on bone health. People who choose to play tennis appear to have significant health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a lower body fat percentage, a more favourable lipid profile, reduced risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and improved bone health. PMID:17504788

  8. Benefits for Health; NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The goal of HRP is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Presentation discusses (1) Bone Health: Vitamin D, Fish Consumption and Exercise (2) Medical Support in Remote Areas (3) ISS Ultrasound 4) Dry electrode EKG System (5) Environmental Factors and Psychological Health.

  9. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.; Flynn, James G.; Browder, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    A method of monitoring the health of selected solder joints, called SJ-BIST, has been developed by Ridgetop Group Inc. under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. The primary goal of this research program is to test and validate this method in a flight environment using realistically seeded faults in selected solder joints. An additional objective is to gather environmental data for future development of physics-based and data-driven prognostics algorithms. A test board is being designed using a Xilinx FPGA. These boards will be tested both in flight and on the ground using a shaker table and an altitude chamber.

  10. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  11. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  12. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits. PMID:25374169

  13. Health benefits of particle filtration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product was developed under an interagency agreement between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews o...

  14. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State health benefits. 1625.32 Section 1625.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL... Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits. (a) Definitions. (1) Employee...) Comparable State health benefit plan means a State-sponsored health benefit plan that, like...

  15. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... State health benefits. 1625.32 Section 1625.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL... Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits. (a) Definitions. (1) Employee...) Comparable State health benefit plan means a State-sponsored health benefit plan that, like...

  16. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... State health benefits. 1625.32 Section 1625.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL... Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits. (a) Definitions. (1) Employee...) Comparable State health benefit plan means a State-sponsored health benefit plan that, like...

  17. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... State health benefits. 1625.32 Section 1625.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL... Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits. (a) Definitions. (1) Employee...) Comparable State health benefit plan means a State-sponsored health benefit plan that, like...

  18. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  19. 5 CFR 630.1211 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1211 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1211 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1209 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1209 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1209 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1211 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1211 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1211 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1209 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1209 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1209 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1211 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1211 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1211 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  4. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  5. Orthopedic Health: Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Orthopedic Health Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents ... or the sound of bone rubbing on bone Diagnosis No single test can diagnose osteoarthritis. It is ...

  6. Health benefits of prebiotic fibers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Diederick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the various compounds that can act as prebiotic fibers: their structure, occurrence, production, and physiological effects (health effects) will be presented. The basis for the description is the latest definitions for dietary fibers and for prebiotics. Using as much as possible data from human studies, both the fiber and the prebiotic properties will be described of a variety of compounds. Based on the presented data the latest developments in the area of prebiotics, fibers and gut and immune health will be discussed in more detail as they show best what the potential impact of prebiotics on health of the human host might be. PMID:25624035

  7. The Benefits of Health Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    The article focuses on the merits of a comprehensive, medically-oriented health maintenance/risk assessment program, and suggests that such conditions as heart disease, cancer, and arteriosclerosis can be prevented or postponed through proper nutrition, weight control, exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management. (Author/CB)

  8. Methods of providing prescription drug benefits in health plans.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, F R

    1986-10-01

    Drug-benefit programs in health plans that offer varying degrees of risk to pharmacy providers are described. Administrators of health plans attempt to control the total cost of a drug benefit by controlling the cost per prescription, number of prescriptions, and administrative expenses. Specific ways to control these factors, such as through discounted product costs, patient copayments, and audits of prescribing practices, are described. Drug-benefit programs generally follow one of three models: fee-for-service contracts, hybrid fee-for-service risk contracts, and full-risk contracts. Examples of plans within each model are described. Full-risk contracts that provide drug benefits on a capitation basis put pharmacy providers at most risk of financial loss since physicians control prescribing. Pharmacists can control their risk by establishing a joint pharmacist and physician prescription fund that includes contract provisions limiting maximum losses, defining exceptions to the drug benefit, and paying close attention to payment schedules and characteristics of the program administrator. Antitrust issues associated with these new types of drug-benefit plans are described. Drug-benefit programs involving risk contracts can aid pharmacy practice by improving cash flow via negotiated prepayments, defining an enrolled patient population, and creating opportunities for generating additional revenue. Drug-benefit programs involving full-risk contracts and hybrid fee-for-service risk contracts will continue to develop, and understanding these models is the first step toward successful risk contracting by pharmacists. PMID:3788994

  9. Civil benefits of the JVX. [Joint Services Advanced Lift Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1984-01-01

    The inherently high productivity, VTOL capability, and low noise and vibration features of a civil version of the Joint Services Advanced Vertical Lift Aircraft, or 'JVX', are recommended for commercial exploitation. This tilt-rotor vehicle can provide ground and air traffic congestion relief through direct, city center-to-city center service, economically transporting 30 passengers for distances of up to 600 miles. Additional commercial opportunities emerge in the JVX's servicing of offshore, remote and infrastructureless areas. It is noted that Alaska, more than any other American state, would benefit from the JVX's VTOL access to natural resources and otherwise isolated settlements. The civilian development of the JVX could lead to the development of commercial tilt rotor aircraft for other size classes.

  10. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits. 1625.32 Section 1625.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Administrative Exemptions § 1625.32 Coordination of retiree health...

  11. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed. PMID:22039897

  12. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  13. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  14. Implications of health reform for retiree health benefits.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This Issue Brief examines how current health reform legislation being debated in Congress will impact the future of retiree health benefits. In general, the proposals' provisions will have a mixed impact on retiree health benefits: In the short term, the reinsurance provisions would help shore up early retiree coverage and Medicare Part D coverage would become more valuable to retirees. In the longer term, insurance reform combined with new subsidies for individuals enrolling for coverage through insurance exchanges, the maintenance-of-effort provision affecting early retiree benefits, increases to the cost of providing drug benefits to retirees, and enhanced Medicare Part D coverage, would all create significant incentives for employers to drop coverage for early retirees and drug coverage for Medicare-eligible retirees. REINSURANCE PROGRAM FOR EARLY RETIREES: Proposed legislation includes a provision to create a temporary reinsurance program for employers providing health benefits to retirees over age 55 and not yet eligible for Medicare. Given the temporary nature of the program, it is intended to provide employers an incentive to maintain benefits until the health insurance exchange is fully operational. At that point, employers will have less incentive to provide health benefits to early retirees, and retirees will have less need for former employers to maintain a program. MEDICARE DRUG BENEFITS: The House-passed bill would initially reduce the coverage gap (the so-called "doughnut hole") for individuals in the Medicare Part D program by $500 and eliminate it altogether by 2019. The bill currently before the Senate would also reduce the coverage gap by $500, but does not call for eliminating it. Both would also provide a 50 percent discount to brand-name drug coverage in the coverage gap. These provisions increase the value of the Medicare Part D drug program to Medicare-eligible beneficiaries relative to drug benefits provided by employers. TAX TREATMENT OF

  15. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  16. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  17. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  18. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  19. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  20. Value-managed mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Burton, W N; Conti, D J

    1991-03-01

    The First National Bank of Chicago's comprehensive program for mental health services has been shown to be an effective response to the rising demand and cost of mental health care. By assertively managing a benefit plan rather than capriciously cutting it, employees are afforded quality care while the corporation is able to handle the costs of a worthwhile benefit. The plan represented a collaboration of the Benefits and Medical Units, which brought together philosophies of benefit plan management and research regarding primary prevention and early intervention. Employees are afforded education and early intervention while at the work site and appropriate referrals to cost-efficient providers outside the bank. Should they need time away from the work site for treatment, this along with their reentry is also managed to increase the probability of successful recovery. In this way continuity of care is assured so that recurrent disability (eg, rehospitalization, further STD) may be reduced. The 4-year follow-up investigation of the program reveals management of overall mental health care costs, reduction in inpatient psychiatric hospitalization costs, and reduction in the average length of psychiatric short-term disability episodes for employees. PMID:1903154

  1. Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Shuler, Franklin D.; Wingate, Matthew K.; Moore, G. Hunter; Giangarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many skeletal and extraskeletal health benefits. Musculoskeletal injury prevention and recovery are potentially affected by sufficient circulating levels of the storage form of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency can exist among young, active, and healthy people, which may put them at increased risk for injury and prolonged recovery. Evidence Aquisition: PubMed was searched using vitamin D and skeletal muscle, vitamin D and athletic performance, and vitamin D review articles. Studies from the 1930s to 2012 were used for the review. Results: There is strong correlation between vitamin D sufficiency and optimal muscle function. Increasing levels of vitamin D reduce inflammation, pain, and myopathy while increasing muscle protein synthesis, ATP concentration, strength, jump height, jump velocity, jump power, exercise capacity, and physical performance. 25(OH)D levels above 40 ng/mL are required for fracture prevention, including stress fractures. Optimal musculoskeletal benefits occur at 25(OH)D levels above the current definition of sufficiency (> 30 ng/mL) with no reported sports health benefits above 50 ng/mL. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in athletes. For athletes presenting with stress fractures, musculoskeletal pain, and frequent illness, one should have a heightened awareness of the additional likely diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Correction of this deficiency is completed by standardized and supervised oral supplementation protocols producing significant musculoskeletal sports health benefits. PMID:24179588

  2. Catholic health care's community-benefit role.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Carol

    2005-06-16

    "While contemporary Catholic health care and other not-for-profit health care institutions excel in quality, innovation and technology, they remain community-benefit organizations, founded and sustained because of community need," Sister Carol Keehan, a Daughter of Charity who chairs the board of trustees of the Catholic Health Association of the United States, said in May 26 testimony in Washington before the House Ways and Means Committee, which conducted a hearing on the tax-exempt hospital sector. Keehan chairs the board of Sacred Heart Health System in Pensacola, Fla. She spoke the day after Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, announced that the Senate Finance Committee, which he chairs, had asked 10 nonprofit hospitals or health systems to account for their charitable activities in light of their tax-exempt status. Rep. Bill Thomas, R-Calif., chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, said at the House hearing that "the standards for tax exemption are not just an academic debate." In reviewing the broad ways Catholic hospitals benefit local communities, Keehan stressed that the services of Catholic hospitals are not provided "to justify continued tax exemption" but because serving communities in this way is integral to their identity and mission. Keehan's text follows. PMID:16178107

  3. Health benefits of a low carbon economy.

    PubMed

    Haines, A

    2012-09-01

    This article summarizes a presentation given at 'Health and Well-being: the 21st Century Agenda', which focused on the potential to make progress by making appropriate connections between activity to promote health and respond to the threat of climate change. It argues that a transition to a low carbon economy would bring together two of our greatest public health challenges, supporting action to improve public health within resource constraints and action to avert climate change as far as possible. Deep cuts in emissions are needed to prevent dangerous consequences arising from climate change. In addition, many of the policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will, in themselves, have beneficial effects on public health. This article provides an overview of several modelling studies which demonstrate that well-designed initiatives that curb greenhouse gas emissions in energy, residential construction, urban transport and agricultural systems can enhance global public health, including improving health among poor populations. Some of these health co-benefits can be achieved in a relatively short time frame, and they can help offset the costs of climate change mitigation policies. PMID:22784582

  4. Health benefits of whole grain phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Okarter, Neal; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-03-01

    A whole grain consists of the intact, ground, cracked, or flaked caryopsis, whose principal anatomical components--the starchy endosperm, germ, and bran--are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact caryopsis. Whole grain food products can be intact, consisting of the original composition of bran, germ, and endosperm, throughout the entire lifetime of the product, or reconstituted, in which one or more of the original components of a whole grain is recombined to the relative proportion naturally occurring in the grain kernel. Increased consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of major chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some cancers. Whole grain foods offer a wide range of phytochemicals with health benefits that are only recently becoming recognized. The unique phytochemicals in whole grains are proposed to be responsible for the health benefits of whole grain consumption. In this paper, whole grain phytochemicals and the health benefits associated with their consumption are reviewed. PMID:20301011

  5. Abortion counseling: to benefit maternal health.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, T N

    1989-01-01

    This Note examines how both the law and the health care profession neglect women's needs for abortion counseling before, during and after an abortion. Part I analyzes the health care profession's view of counseling, the psychological effects of abortion and how counseling both positively and negatively influences those effects. Part II reviews Supreme Court cases and state law regarding abortion counseling, critizing both the Court's narrow view of counseling and the states' failure to use the legislative process to create laws which benefit maternal health. Part III recommends an expanded role for abortion counseling, in which the counselor can provide emotional support from before the day of an abortion until a woman emotionally recovers from an abortion. This expanded role would be state-mandated, but would remain within constitutional boundaries by providing flexibility for counselors to give individual treatment while respecting a woman's privacy. PMID:2699161

  6. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  7. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775

  8. Hypoglycemic health benefits of D-psicose.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Oh, Deok-Kun; Lee, Ki Won

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes is an emerging health problem worldwide. The incidence of type 2 diabetes has dramatically increased and is expected to increase more rapidly in the future. Most patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from obesity and diabetes-related complications, including cardiovascular disease and hepatic steatosis. It has been proposed that simple sugar consumption is one of the major risk factors in the development of diabetes. Hence, the replacement of sugars with a low glycemic response would be an effective strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that D-psicose, which has 70% the sweetness of sucrose and no calories, is a functional sugar exerting several health benefits preventing the development of diabetes. Although D-psicose presents in small amounts in natural products, a recent new technique using biocatalyst sources enables large-scale D-psicose production. More importantly, several clinical and animal studies demonstrated that D-psicose has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities, which make it an ideal candidate for preventing diabetes and related health concerns. This review will summarize the protective effects of D-psicose against type 2 diabetes and its complications, suggesting its potential benefits as a sucrose substitute. PMID:22224918

  9. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775

  10. Flavonoids in food and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Yao, L H; Jiang, Y M; Shi, J; Tomás-Barberán, F A; Datta, N; Singanusong, R; Chen, S S

    2004-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research of flavonoids from dietary sources, due to growing evidence of the versatile health benefits of flavonoids through epidemiological studies. As occurrence of flavonoids is directly associated with human daily dietary intake of antioxidants, it is important to evaluate flavonoid sources in food. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. However, there is still difficulty in accurately measuring the daily intake of flavonoids because of the complexity of existence of flavonoids from various food sources, the diversity of dietary culture, and the occurrence of a large amount of flavonoids itself in nature. Nevertheless, research on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans is expanding rapidly. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free-radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, and anticancer activity, while some flavonoids exhibit potential for anti-human immunodeficiency virus functions. As such research progresses. further achievements will undoubtedly lead to a new era of flavonoids in either foods or pharmaceutical supplements. Accordingly, an appropriate model for a precise assessment of intake of flavonoids needs to be developed. Most recent research has focused on the health aspects of flavonoids from food sources for humans. This paper reviews the current advances in flavonoids in food, with emphasis on health aspects on the basis of the published literature, which may provide some guidance for researchers in further investigations and for industries in developing practical health agents. PMID:15678717

  11. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits. 411.172 Section 411.172 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits. 411.172 Section 411.172 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits. 411.172 Section 411.172 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits. 411.172 Section 411.172 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits. 411.172 Section 411.172 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  16. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet. PMID:15584472

  17. Onions--a global benefit to health.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Trueman, Laurence; Crowther, Timothy; Thomas, Brian; Smith, Brian

    2002-11-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N. America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25% over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health. These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs). Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available. PMID:12410539

  18. The oral health benefits of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Michael W J

    2012-01-01

    The use of sugar-free gum provides a proven anti-caries benefit, but other oral health effects are less clearly elucidated. Chewing sugar-free chewing gum promotes a strong flow of stimulated saliva, which helps to provide a number of dental benefits: first, the higher flow rate promotes more rapid oral clearance of sugars; second, the high pH and buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva help to neutralise plaque pH after a sugar challenge; and, lastly, studies have shown enhanced remineralisation of early caries-like lesions and ultimately prospective clinical trials have shown reduced caries incidence in children chewing sugar-free gum. This paper reviews the scientific evidence for these functional claims and discusses other benefits, including plaque and extrinsic stain reduction, along with the possibility of adding specific active agents, including fluoride, antimicrobials, urea and calcium phosphates, to enhance these inherent effects. The evidence for a specific effect of xylitol as a caries-therapeutic agent is also discussed. In conclusion, it is asserted that chewing gum has a place as an additional mode of dental disease prevention to be used in conjunction with the more traditional preventive methods. PMID:23573702

  19. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  20. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  1. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  2. Reviewing The Benefits of Health Workforce Stability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of workforce stability and turnover in the context of policy attempts to improve retention of health workers. The paper argues that there are significant benefits to supporting policy makers and managers to develop a broader perspective of workforce stability and methods of monitoring it. The objective of the paper is to contribute to developing a better understanding of workforce stability as a major aspect of the overall policy goal of improved retention of health workers. The paper examines some of the limited research on the complex interaction between staff turnover and organisational performance or quality of care in the health sector, provides details and examples of the measurement of staff turnover and stability, and illustrates an approach to costing staff turnover. The paper concludes by advocating that these types of assessment can be valuable to managers and policy makers as they examine which policies may be effective in improving stability and retention, by reducing turnover. They can also be used as part of advocacy for the use of new retention measures. The very action of setting up a local working group to assess the costs of turnover can in itself give managers and staff a greater insight into the negative impacts of turnover, and can encourage them to work together to identify and implement stability measures. PMID:21156050

  3. Flavones: From Biosynthesis to Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Flavones correspond to a flavonoid subgroup that is widely distributed in the plants, and which can be synthesized by different pathways, depending on whether they contain C- or O-glycosylation and hydroxylated B-ring. Flavones are emerging as very important specialized metabolites involved in plant signaling and defense, as well as key ingredients of the human diet, with significant health benefits. Here, we appraise flavone formation in plants, emphasizing the emerging theme that biosynthesis pathway determines flavone chemistry. Additionally, we briefly review the biological activities of flavones, both from the perspective of the functions that they play in biotic and abiotic plant interactions, as well as their roles as nutraceutical components of the human and animal diet. PMID:27338492

  4. Flavones: From Biosynthesis to Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Doseff, Andrea I; Grotewold, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Flavones correspond to a flavonoid subgroup that is widely distributed in the plants, and which can be synthesized by different pathways, depending on whether they contain C- or O-glycosylation and hydroxylated B-ring. Flavones are emerging as very important specialized metabolites involved in plant signaling and defense, as well as key ingredients of the human diet, with significant health benefits. Here, we appraise flavone formation in plants, emphasizing the emerging theme that biosynthesis pathway determines flavone chemistry. Additionally, we briefly review the biological activities of flavones, both from the perspective of the functions that they play in biotic and abiotic plant interactions, as well as their roles as nutraceutical components of the human and animal diet. PMID:27338492

  5. Personal health benefits of Masters athletics competition.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J; Kavanagh, T; Mertens, D J; Qureshi, S; Clark, M

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires (750 respondents, 44.4% response rate) examined the long-term health value of endurance exercise training in older age-classed competitors ('Masters Athletes', 551 men and 199 women) over a 7-year period (1985-1992). The majority had initially completed maximal exercise tests. The weekly time devoted to training, competition and exercise-related travel was 10 to 30 h, and the annual expenditure on clothing, equipment and entrance fees was typically in the range Canadian $500-1500. Despite their age (mean(s.d.) 58(10), current range 40-81 years), only 1.4% reported sustaining a non-fatal heart attack and 0.6% had required bypass surgery over the 7-year interval. The majority (90%) were very interested in good health; 76% considered themselves as less vulnerable to viral illnesses than their peers, and 68% regarded their quality of life as much better than that of their sedentary friends. The majority of former smokers had stopped smoking before they began training, but 37% indicated that exercise had helped them in smoking withdrawal. In keeping with their health-conscious attitude, 59% had regular medical check-ups, and 86% obeyed legislation requiring use of a seat-belt when driving. In contrast with many older people, 88% slept well or very well. Slightly over half of the sample (57%) had sustained some injury which had limited their training for one or more weeks over the 7-year study. Although participation in Masters competition appears to carry considerable health benefits, gains may in part reflect an overall healthy lifestyle. PMID:7788216

  6. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes.

    PubMed

    Finkelman, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. PMID:17159275

  7. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  8. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits available under base benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. (1) States wishing to elect... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Marcel; Gibson, Glenn R; Hoyles, Lesley; McCartney, Anne L; Rastall, Robert; Rowland, Ian; Wolvers, Danielle; Watzl, Bernhard; Szajewska, Hania; Stahl, Bernd; Guarner, Francisco; Respondek, Frederique; Whelan, Kevin; Coxam, Veronique; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Léotoing, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Meheust, Agnes

    2010-08-01

    The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, 'normobiosis' characterises a composition of the gut 'ecosystem' in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to 'dysbiosis', in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation. The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new definition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classified as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in 'prebiotic effects'), defined as: 'The selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.' Thanks to the methodological and fundamental research of microbiologists, immense progress has very recently been made in our understanding of the gut microbiota. A large number of human intervention studies have been performed that have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in line with the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now a well-established scientific fact. The more data are accumulating, the more it will be recognised that such changes in the microbiota's composition, especially increase in bifidobacteria, can be regarded as a marker of intestinal health. The review is divided in chapters that cover the major areas of nutrition research where

  10. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  11. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. PMID:24871476

  12. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  13. 75 FR 20314 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... economic impact on a substantial number of small entities because the regulation only affects health... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 890 and 892 RIN 3206-AL95 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Miscellaneous... Health Benefits (FEHB) coverage for certain former Senate Restaurant employees who transferred...

  14. 75 FR 76615 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... and 892 RIN 3206-AL95 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Miscellaneous Changes AGENCY: U.S...) is issuing a final regulation to provide for continuation of Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB... meaning of the PRA. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) therefore is revising a health...

  15. 76 FR 57637 - TRICARE; Continued Health Care Benefit Program Expansion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB30 TRICARE; Continued Health Care Benefit Program..., some MHS beneficiaries would not be eligible to purchase Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP... continued health care coverage for eligible beneficiaries who lose their MHS eligibility. It was...

  16. 45 CFR 147.150 - Coverage of essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage of essential health benefits. 147.150 Section 147.150 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE...

  17. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  18. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  19. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  20. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  1. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  2. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  3. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  4. 45 CFR 147.150 - Coverage of essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage of essential health benefits. 147.150 Section 147.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE...

  5. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  6. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  7. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  8. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S.; Willman, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  9. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  10. What should be done now with retiree health benefit prefunding?

    PubMed

    Morris, F H

    1993-12-01

    At least in its early stages, health care reform is not likely to signal the end of concerns about retiree health benefits. Employers may want to explore prefunding as a practical approach to the problem. PMID:10130544

  11. Public Health Service report on fluoride benefits and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-14

    This report, Public Health Service Report on Fluoride Benefits and Risks is a summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of Review of Fluoride Benefits and Risks: Report of the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs, published in February 1991. The full report was prepared by an ad hoc subcommittee of the United States Public Health Service's Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs (CCEHRP) at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Health. The full report can be obtained from the Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Private benefit, joint ventures, and the death of healthcare as an exempt purpose.

    PubMed

    Colombo, J D

    2001-01-01

    The private benefit doctrine has become the IRS' main policing tool for tax exemption in healthcare. The IRS' modern interpretation of private benefit has clearly become the major limitation on exempt status. This Article begins by tracing the common law origins of this doctrine and how it became such an integral part of the IRS' analysis. Next, the author looks at policy issues regarding alternative analysis to the private benefit doctrine in cases of joint ventures between healthcare providers and for-profit investors. Finally, Professor Colombo questions the expanded use of this doctrine, arguing that in its current form it has no sound legal or policy under-pinnings. PMID:11833407

  13. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The density and pin count for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has been increasing, and has exceeded current methods of solder joint inspection, making early detection of failures more problematic. These failures are a concern for both flight safety and maintenance in commercial aviation. Ridgetop Group, Inc. has developed a method for detecting solder joint failures in real time. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a set of boards to test this method in ground environmental and accelerated testing as well as flight test on a Dryden F-15 or F-18 research aircraft. In addition to detecting intermittent and total solder joint failures, environmental data on the boards, such as temperature and vibration, will be collected and time-correlated to aircraft state data. This paper details the technical approach involved in the detection process, and describes the design process and products to date for Dryden s FPGA failure detection boards.

  14. Health Care Reform: Designing the Standard Benefits Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Frank B.

    1994-01-01

    Considerations in designing a standard health care benefits package as a part of national health care reform are discussed. Specific features examined include deductibles, employer contributions, regional variations, cost management techniques such as managed care and higher copayments, annual out-of-pocket maximums, and lifetime benefit maximums.…

  15. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. (1) States wishing to elect Secretary-approved coverage should... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Mary Ager

    2014-05-01

    Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education. PMID:24346222

  17. Health benefits of almonds beyond cholesterol reduction.

    PubMed

    Kamil, Alison; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2012-07-11

    Almonds are rich in monounsaturated fat, fiber, α-tocopherol, minerals such as magnesium and copper, and phytonutrients, albeit being energy-dense. The favorable fat composition and fiber contribute to the hypocholesterolemic benefit of almond consumption. By virtue of their unique nutrient composition, almonds are likely to benefit other modifiable cardiovascular and diabetes risks, such as body weight, glucose homeostasis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. This paper briefly reviews the nutrient composition and hypocholesterolemic benefits; the effects of almond consumption on body weight, glucose regulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation, based on the data of clinical trials, will then be discussed. Although more studies are definitely warranted, the emerging evidence supports that almond consumption beneficially influences chronic degenerative disease risk beyond cholesterol reduction, particularly in populations with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22296169

  18. Maximizing the benefit of health workforce secondment in Botswana: an approach for strengthening health systems in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Jessica S; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Makati, Ditsapelo; Nyangah, Robert; Sento, Baraedi W; Semo, Bazghina-Werq

    2014-01-01

    To address health systems challenges in limited-resource settings, global health initiatives, particularly the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have seconded health workers to the public sector. Implementation considerations for secondment as a health workforce development strategy are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to present outcomes, best practices, and lessons learned from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded secondment program in Botswana. Outcomes are documented across four World Health Organization health systems' building blocks. Best practices include documentation of joint stakeholder expectations, collaborative recruitment, and early identification of counterparts. Lessons learned include inadequate ownership, a two-tier employment system, and ill-defined position duration. These findings can inform program and policy development to maximize the benefit of health workforce secondment. Secondment requires substantial investment, and emphasis should be placed on high-level technical positions responsible for building systems, developing health workers, and strengthening government to translate policy into programs. PMID:24876798

  19. Health benefits of almonds beyond cholesterol reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are rich in monounsaturated fat, fiber, alpha-tocopherol, minerals such as magnesium copper, and phytonutrients, albeit being energy-dense. The favorable fat composition and fiber contribute to the hypocholesterolemic benefit of almond consumption. By virtue of their unique nutrient composit...

  20. Health-benefit claims for probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T

    2008-02-01

    Manufacturers wish to communicate the benefits of probiotics in advertising and labeling with lawful and adequately substantiated claims. Regulatory and substantiation requirements differ for products intended to cure, treat, prevent, or mitigate a disease; to reduce a healthy individual's risk of developing a disease; or to affect the structure or function of the body. Food labeling is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, and advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission; the standards and methods used by these agencies differ. Food manufacturers must design their claims regarding the benefits of probiotics with the regulatory environment in mind and must develop their research plans to provide evidence that satisfies the agencies' substantiation requirements. This article offers an overview of the applicable laws and regulations, what they mandate regarding legitimate claims, and the issues regarding the design of research to substantiate such claims. PMID:18181716

  1. 75 FR 62636 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Health Benefits Handbook Satisfaction Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Health Benefits Handbook Satisfaction Survey) Activity... forms of information technology. Title: Veterans Health Benefits Handbook Satisfaction Survey, VA Form... benefits information contained in Veterans Health Benefits handbook. DATES: Written comments...

  2. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    PubMed

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. PMID:25636315

  3. Silicon: the health benefits of a metalloid.

    PubMed

    Martin, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    Silicon is the second most abundant element in nature behind oxygen. As a metalloid, silicon has been used in many industrial applications including use as an additive in the food and beverage industry. As a result, humans come into contact with silicon through both environmental exposures but also as a dietary component. Moreover, many forms of silicon, that is, Si bound to oxygen, are water-soluble, absorbable, and potentially bioavailable to humans presumably with biological activity. However, the specific biochemical or physiological functions of silicon, if any, are largely unknown although generally thought to exist. As a result, there is growing interest in the potential therapeutic effects of water-soluble silica on human health. For example, silicon has been suggested to exhibit roles in the structural integrity of nails, hair, and skin, overall collagen synthesis, bone mineralization, and bone health and reduced metal accumulation in Alzheimer's disease, immune system health, and reduction of the risk for atherosclerosis. Although emerging research is promising, much additional, corroborative research is needed particularly regarding speciation of health-promoting forms of silicon and its relative bioavailability. Orthosilicic acid is the major form of bioavailable silicon whereas thin fibrous crystalline asbestos is a health hazard promoting asbestosis and significant impairment of lung function and increased cancer risk. It has been proposed that relatively insoluble forms of silica can also release small but meaningful quantities of silicon into biological compartments. For example, colloidal silicic acid, silica gel, and zeolites, although relatively insoluble in water, can increase concentrations of water-soluble silica and are thought to rely on specific structural physicochemical characteristics. Collectively, the food supply contributes enough silicon in the forms aforementioned that could be absorbed and significantly improve overall human health

  4. Dutch Cycling: Quantifying the Health and Related Economic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Elliot; Schepers, Paul; Kamphuis, Carlijn Barbara Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Netherlands is well known for their high bicycle use. We used the Health Economic Assessment Tool and life table calculations to quantify the population-level health benefits from Dutch cycling levels. Cycling prevents about 6500 deaths each year, and Dutch people have half-a-year-longer life expectancy because of cycling. These health benefits correspond to more than 3% of the Dutch gross domestic product. Our study confirmed that investments in bicycle-promoting policies (e.g., improved bicycle infrastructure and facilities) will likely yield a high cost-benefit ratio in the long term. PMID:26066942

  5. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    PubMed

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process. PMID:24191344

  6. Utah's First Joint Effort in Vocational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Richard F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a tri-district program (in Utah's Granite, Jordan, and Murray school districts) to expand the health career program, which involved 62 field trips scouring the area's hospitals and health care centers, and student work experience opportunities, to expose students from 13 high schools to occupations beyond the traditional doctor and…

  7. Benefits of radiation processing to public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampelmacher, E. H.

    The problem of foodborne diseases, in which especially food of animals origin and the infected animal is involved, is reviewed. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of meat and poultry may today, together with parasites in meat and fish be considered as an increasing public health problem. Control and prevention measures, especially including radiation processing is summarized and with regard to specific micro-organisms and parasites and to various food commodities suitable for irradiation purposes. The possibilities of this new processing technique for reduction and probably elimination of pathogens and parasites are discussed and recommendations are given for practical application of radiation in order to eliminate health risks eliminating from contaminated food.

  8. GENDER AND THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF EDUCATION

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Does education improve health more for one sex than the other? We develop a theory of resource substitution which implies that education improves health more for women than men. Data from a 1995 survey of U.S. adults with follow-ups in 1998 and 2001 support the hypothesis. Physical impairment decreases more for women than for men as the level of education increases. The gender gap in impairment essentially disappears among people with a college degree. Latent growth SEM vectors also show that among the college educated, men’s and women’s life course patterns of physical impairment do not differ significantly. PMID:24288417

  9. Structural Health Monitoring of AN Aircraft Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickens, T.; Schulz, M.; Sundaresan, M.; Ghoshal, A.; Naser, A. S.; Reichmeider, R.

    2003-03-01

    A major concern with ageing aircraft is the deterioration of structural components in the form of fatigue cracks at fastener holes, loose rivets and debonding of joints. These faults in conjunction with corrosion can lead to multiple-site damage and pose a hazard to flight. Developing a simple vibration-based method of damage detection for monitoring ageing structures is considered in this paper. The method is intended to detect damage during operation of the vehicle before the damage can propagate and cause catastrophic failure of aircraft components. It is typical that only a limited number of sensors could be used on the structure and damage can occur anywhere on the surface or inside the structure. The research performed was to investigate use of the chirp vibration responses of an aircraft wing tip to detect, locate and approximately quantify damage. The technique uses four piezoelectric patches alternatively as actuators and sensors to send and receive vibration diagnostic signals.Loosening of selected screws simulated damage to the wing tip. The results obtained from the testing led to the concept of a sensor tape to detect damage at joints in an aircraft structure.

  10. Personal Benefits of a Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Durbeck, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the benefits reported by participants in a health evaluation and enhancement program dealing with physical activity. Program benefits were identified and defined in regard to three major areas: program effects on work; program effects on health; and program effects on habits and behavior. A strong positive and consistent relationship was found between reported benefits in each of these areas and measures of improvement in cardiovascular functioning based on treadmill performance. Significant differences in these measures of improvement were also found between participants who reported program benefits and those persons who did not. These findings provide a meaningful profile of the pattern of benefits generated by this kind of health program.

  11. The Contribution of Operational and Research Applications from the Joint Polar Satellite System to Societal Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    Applications of satellite data are paramount to transform science and technology to product and services which are used in critical decision making. For the satellite community, good representations of technology are the satellite sensors, while science provides the instrument calibration and derived geophysical parameters. Weather forecasting is an application of the science and technology provided by remote sensing satellites. The Joint Polar Satellite System, which includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) provides formidable science and technology to support many applications and includes support to 1) weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are used to forecast weather events out to 7 days - nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites; 2) environmental monitoring -data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color; and 3) climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be presented along with how the data and applications support a large number of societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS).

  12. 42 CFR 440.347 - Essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required as essential health benefits using the methodology set forth in 45 CFR 156.115(a)(5). (e... applicable requirements set forth in 45 CFR part 156: (1) Ambulatory patient services; (2) Emergency services... benefits described in 45 CFR 156.100, subject to supplementation under 45 CFR 156.110(b) and...

  13. 42 CFR 440.347 - Essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required as essential health benefits using the methodology set forth in 45 CFR 156.115(a)(5). (e... applicable requirements set forth in 45 CFR part 156: (1) Ambulatory patient services; (2) Emergency services... benefits described in 45 CFR 156.100, subject to supplementation under 45 CFR 156.110(b) and...

  14. Canadian employees place high value on health care benefits.

    PubMed

    Fine, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Canadian employees place such a high value on their employer-sponsored health care benefits, that most would not trade the benefits for extra vacation time or even significant amounts of cash, according to the 2004 Aventis Healthcare Survey. PMID:15702564

  15. Inulin: Properties, health benefits and food applications.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Shehzad, Aamir; Omar, Mukama; Rakha, Allah; Raza, Husnain; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Shakeel, Azam; Ansari, Anum; Niazi, Sobia

    2016-08-20

    Inulin is a water soluble storage polysaccharide and belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans. Inulin has attained the GRAS status in USA and is extensively available in about 36,000 species of plants, amongst, chicory roots are considered as the richest source of inulin. Commonly, inulin is used as a prebiotic, fat replacer, sugar replacer, texture modifier and for the development of functional foods in order to improve health due to its beneficial role in gastric health. This review provides a deep insight about its production, physicochemical properties, role in combating various kinds of metabolic and diet related diseases and utilization as a functional ingredient in novel product development. PMID:27178951

  16. Evidence of health benefits of canola oil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Allemekinders, Hanja; Dansby, Angela; Campbell, Lisa; Durance-Tod, Shaunda; Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-06-01

    Canola oil-based diets have been shown to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in comparison with diets containing higher levels of saturated fatty acids. Consumption of canola oil also influences biological functions that affect various other biomarkers of disease risk. Previous reviews have focused on the health effects of individual components of canola oil. Here, the objective is to address the health effects of intact canola oil, as this has immediate practical implications for consumers, nutritionists, and others deciding which oil to consume or recommend. A literature search was conducted to examine the effects of canola oil consumption on coronary heart disease, insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, energy metabolism, and cancer cell growth. Data reveal substantial reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as other positive actions, including increased tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with consumption of other dietary fat sources. In summary, growing scientific evidence supports the use of canola oil, beyond its beneficial actions on circulating lipid levels, as a health-promoting component of the diet. PMID:23731447

  17. Chemistry, Pharmacology and Health Benefits of Anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Trombetta, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally occurring molecules belonging to the flavonoid class characterized by the presence of chromophores. Apart from their well-known antioxidant activity, they show a wide variety of health-promoting properties for human health, ranging from cytoprotective, antimicrobial and antitumour activities to neuroprotective, anti-obesity and lipidomic potential, properties for which anthocyanins have been prescribed as medicines in several countries for thousands of years. Despite this, these phytochemicals have received less attention than other flavonoids, and there is still a gap in the literature, particularly regarding pharmacological and toxicological aspects. Moreover, epidemiological evidence suggests a direct correlation between anthocyanin intake and a lower incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. In light of this, the aim of this review is to cover the current literature on anthocyanins, their biological in vitro and in vivo effects and their potential therapeutic applications, as well as their bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, all of which are essential to gain a better understanding of their biological effectiveness and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27221033

  18. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Key, T J; Davey, G K; Appleby, P N

    1999-05-01

    Compared with non-vegetarians, Western vegetarians have a lower mean BMI (by about 1 kg/m2), a lower mean plasma total cholesterol concentration (by about 0.5 mmol/l), and a lower mortality from IHD (by about 25%). They may also have a lower risk for some other diseases such as constipation, diverticular disease, gallstones and appendicitis. No differences in mortality from common cancers have been established. There is no evidence of adverse effects on mortality. Much more information is needed, particularly on other causes of death, other morbidity including osteoporosis, and long-term health in vegans. The evidence available suggests that widespread adoption of a vegetarian diet could prevent approximately 40,000 deaths from IHD in Britain each year. PMID:10466166

  19. Can organizations benefit from worksite health promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, L C

    1989-01-01

    A decision-analytic model was developed to project the future effects of selected worksite health promotion activities on employees' likelihood of chronic disease and injury and on employer costs due to illness. The model employed a conservative set of assumptions and a limited five-year time frame. Under these assumptions, hypertension control and seat belt campaigns prevent a substantial amount of illness, injury, and death. Sensitivity analysis indicates that these two programs pay for themselves and under some conditions show a modest savings to the employer. Under some conditions, smoking cessation programs pay for themselves, preventing a modest amount of illness and death. Cholesterol reduction by behavioral means does not pay for itself under these assumptions. These findings imply priorities in prevention for employer and employee alike. PMID:2499556

  20. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  1. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  2. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  3. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  4. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  5. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  6. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  7. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  8. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  9. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  10. Pet Dogs Benefit Owners' Health: A "Natural Experiment" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a "natural experiment" taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners' health. Previous Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major cities,…

  11. Benefits for Infants and Toddlers in Health Care Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Routine health care can spell the difference between a strong beginning and a fragile start. After much public and Congressional debate, President Obama signed into law landmark health care reform legislation. Although many provisions will not go into effect this year, several important changes could benefit children within a few months. The…

  12. Health and climate benefits of different energy-efficiency and renewable energy choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Luckow, Patrick; Norris, Gregory; Spengler, John D.; Biewald, Bruce; Fisher, Jeremy; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) can benefit public health and the climate by displacing emissions from fossil-fuelled electrical generating units (EGUs). Benefits can vary substantially by EE/RE installation type and location, due to differing electricity generation or savings by location, characteristics of the electrical grid and displaced power plants, along with population patterns. However, previous studies have not formally examined how these dimensions individually and jointly contribute to variability in benefits across locations or EE/RE types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a high-resolution model to simulate and compare the monetized public health and climate benefits of four different illustrative EE/RE installation types in six different locations within the Mid-Atlantic and Lower Great Lakes of the United States. Annual benefits using central estimates for all pathways ranged from US$5.7-US$210 million (US$14-US$170 MWh-1), emphasizing the importance of site-specific information in accurately estimating public health and climate benefits of EE/RE efforts.

  13. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  14. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  15. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  16. Benefits and drawbacks of electronic health record systems

    PubMed Central

    Menachemi, Nir; Collum, Taleah H

    2011-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 that was signed into law as part of the “stimulus package” represents the largest US initiative to date that is designed to encourage widespread use of electronic health records (EHRs). In light of the changes anticipated from this policy initiative, the purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the literature on the benefits and drawbacks of EHR systems. Much of the literature has focused on key EHR functionalities, including clinical decision support systems, computerized order entry systems, and health information exchange. Our paper describes the potential benefits of EHRs that include clinical outcomes (eg, improved quality, reduced medical errors), organizational outcomes (eg, financial and operational benefits), and societal outcomes (eg, improved ability to conduct research, improved population health, reduced costs). Despite these benefits, studies in the literature highlight drawbacks associated with EHRs, which include the high upfront acquisition costs, ongoing maintenance costs, and disruptions to workflows that contribute to temporary losses in productivity that are the result of learning a new system. Moreover, EHRs are associated with potential perceived privacy concerns among patients, which are further addressed legislatively in the HITECH Act. Overall, experts and policymakers believe that significant benefits to patients and society can be realized when EHRs are widely adopted and used in a “meaningful” way. PMID:22312227

  17. Spanish health benefits for services of curative care

    PubMed Central

    Planas-Miret, Ivan; Tur-Prats, Ana

    2005-01-01

    This contribution presents entitlements and benefits, decision criteria, and involved actors for services of curative care in Spain. It describes basic benefits included in the category of curative care defined by the central government and any additional benefits that some autonomous communities (ACs) have included to enlarge their own basket. It is concluded that there is no specific and explicit benefit catalogue. As no user charges exist for this category, waiting times serve as the main cost containment tool. There is a need for further legislation, as inequalities may increase across the territory as a matter of fact. Inequalities in access to health care resources between ACs are not due to differences in health baskets but mainly to the availability of technologies. PMID:16267655

  18. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix; Zinsstag, Jakob; Orkhon, Dontor; Chimed-Ochir, G.; Hutton, Guy; Cosivi, Ottorino; Carrin, Guy; Otte, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49,027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the cost-effectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. CONCLUSION: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors. PMID:14997239

  19. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. PMID:26792873

  20. Evaluation of health and pharmacy benefit information in health plan information packages.

    PubMed

    Nair, K V

    2001-12-01

    Consumers have ready access to their health plan information packages, and the utility of this source in providing information about health and pharmacy benefits to consumers should be evaluated. A preliminary evaluation using a sample of student consumers enrolled in a variety of health plans was conducted. Findings revealed that consumer information is lacking in areas related to the definition of pharmacy benefit terminology, cost sharing for medications and services, provider selection, and referral processes. Managed care decision makers will benefit from understanding the informational needs of their members and from designing health care benefit information to accommodate these needs. PMID:11794843

  1. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States. PMID:26669416

  2. Reassessing the human health benefits from cleaner air.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2012-05-01

    Recent proposals to further reduce permitted levels of air pollution emissions are supported by high projected values of resulting public health benefits. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency recently estimated that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) will produce human health benefits in 2020, from reduced mortality rates, valued at nearly $2 trillion per year, compared to compliance costs of $65 billion ($0.065 trillion). However, while compliance costs can be measured, health benefits are unproved: they depend on a series of uncertain assumptions. Among these are that additional life expectancy gained by a beneficiary (with median age of about 80 years) should be valued at about $80,000 per month; that there is a 100% probability that a positive, linear, no-threshold, causal relation exists between PM(2.5) concentration and mortality risk; and that progress in medicine and disease prevention will not greatly diminish this relationship. We present an alternative uncertainty analysis that assigns a positive probability of error to each assumption. This discrete uncertainty analysis suggests (with probability >90% under plausible alternative assumptions) that the costs of CAAA exceed its benefits. Thus, instead of suggesting to policymakers that CAAA benefits are almost certainly far larger than its costs, we believe that accuracy requires acknowledging that the costs purchase a relatively uncertain, possibly much smaller, benefit. The difference between these contrasting conclusions is driven by different approaches to uncertainty analysis, that is, excluding or including discrete uncertainties about the main assumptions required for nonzero health benefits to exist at all. PMID:22050234

  3. Health Benefits Offer Rates: Is There a Nonresponse Bias?

    PubMed Central

    Pickreign, Jeremy D; Gabel, Jon R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a nonresponse bias exists in the offer rate for health benefits in firms with fewer than 50 workers and to present a simple adjustment to correct for observed bias. Data Sources The 2003 Employer Health Benefits Survey (EHBS) conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust, and a follow-up survey of nonrespondents to the 2003 EHBS. Study Design We conducted a follow-up survey to the 2003 EHBS to collect health benefits offering data from firms with fewer than 50 workers. We used McNemar's test to verify that the follow-up survey provided results comparable to the EHBS, and t-tests were used to determine nonresponse bias. We applied a simple weighting adjustment to the EHBS. Data Collection The data for both the EHBS and the follow-up survey were collected by the same survey research firm. The EHBS interviews the person most knowledgeable about the firm's health benefits, while the follow-up survey interviews the first person who answers the telephone whether they are the most knowledgeable or not. Principal Findings Firms with 3–9 workers were more likely to exhibit a bias than were firms with 10–24 workers and 25–49 workers. Although the calculated bias for each size category was not significant, there is sufficient evidence to warrant caution when reporting offer rates. Conclusions Survey nonresponse in the EHBS produces an upward bias on estimates for the offer rates of small firms. Although not significant, this upward bias is because of nonresponse by small firms that do not offer health benefits. Our research is limited in that we only control for differences in the size of the firm. PMID:15762899

  4. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  5. New insights into the health benefits of dairy products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt have long been known to provide good nutrition. The protein and calcium present in milk and the vitamin D added to it are major healthful contributors to the diets of many Americans. Additional ways in which milk and milk products benefit humans is th...

  6. New insights into the health benefits of dairy products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt have long been known to provide good nutrition. The protein, calcium, and fatty acids present in milk and the vitamin D added to it are major healthful contributors to the diets of many people. Additional ways in which milk and milk products benefit h...

  7. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 2. Postretirement health benefits.

    PubMed Central

    Dopkeen, J C

    1987-01-01

    One-fourth of all those over 65 have some form of employer-provided retirement medical benefits. For these retirees and dependents, having this medical coverage may mean the difference between retirement security and ruin; but for employers, providing it could mean serious financial strain or even a threat to survival. The unfunded liability for retirement medical coverage has been variously projected from +100 billion to nearly +2 trillion. Continuing corporate concerns over the costs of health care, and recent changes in federal policies regarding Medicare and the taxation of employee benefit funds, threaten to alter the system of postretirement health benefits substantially and perhaps irrevocably for many. Employers are being forced to reassess their retiree commitments. Some corporations have undertaken to modify and even eliminate postretirement medical coverage for those over 65. These changes will affect not only the corporations involved and their retirees, but also the national and state governments to whom retirees may turn for additional assistance in meeting their health care needs. The purpose of this synthesis is to explain the issue of postretirement health benefits (PRHBs) for both public and private sector policymakers who will be most involved with this issue over the next five years. The analysis identifies the issues involved, considers the dimensions of the problem, and attempts to assess the implications for the future. PMID:3106266

  8. Assessing the public health benefits of reduced ozone concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J I; Carrothers, T J; Tuomisto, J T; Hammitt, J K; Evans, J S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine scientific evidence and related uncertainties in two steps of benefit-cost analyses of ozone reduction: estimating the health improvements attributable to reductions in ozone and determining the appropriate monetary values of these improvements. Although substantial evidence exists on molecular and physiologic impacts, the evidence needed to establish concentration-response functions is somewhat limited. Furthermore, because exposure to ozone depends on factors such as air conditioning use, past epidemiologic studies may not be directly applicable in unstudied settings. To evaluate the evidence likely to contribute significantly to benefits, we focus on four health outcomes: premature mortality, chronic asthma, respiratory hospital admissions, and minor restricted activity days. We determine concentration-response functions for these health outcomes for a hypothetical case study in Houston, Texas, using probabilistic weighting reflecting our judgment of the strength of the evidence and the possibility of confounding. We make a similar presentation for valuation, where uncertainty is due primarily to the lack of willingness-to-pay data for the population affected by ozone. We estimate that the annual monetary value of health benefits from reducing ozone concentrations in Houston is approximately $10 per person per microgram per cubic meter (24-hr average) reduced (95% confidence interval, $0.70-$40). The central estimate exceeds past estimates by approximately a factor of five, driven by the inclusion of mortality. We discuss the implications of our findings for future analyses and determine areas of research that might help reduce the uncertainties in benefit estimation. PMID:11748028

  9. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage; Prasad Kumarab, Peramune A A S

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica L. (Gotu Kola) is a nutritionally important plant and a valued traditional medicine in South East Asia. In this review, the chemical composition, nutritional values, and health benefits of C. asiatica have been discussed in detail to emphasize its usage as traditional food and medicine. C. asiatica is one of the most commonly used green leafy vegetables (GLVs) in some countries including Sri Lanka due to its high amounts of medicinally important triterpenoids and beneficial carotenoids. It is consumed in the form of GLVs and in the preparation of juice, drink, and other food products. It is also known to contain vitamins B and C, proteins, important minerals, and some other phytonutrients such as flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, and polyphenol. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown important health benefits like antidiabetic, wound-healing, antimicrobial, memory-enhancing, antioxidant, and neuroprotecting activities. However, detailed scientific approaches on clinical trials regarding health benefits and nutritional values of C. asiatica are limited, hindering the perception of its benefits, mechanisms, and toxicity in order to develop new drug prototypes. In vitro studies have shown that the method of processing C. asiatica has an impact on its nutritional values and health-related beneficial compounds. The composition of its compounds is influenced by different biotic and abiotic factors which need to be studied in detail to provide information to the public in order to maximize the usage of this valuable plant. PMID:26602573

  10. Health and functional benefits of texturized whey proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey proteins are added to many food products to enhance their nutrient content. Recent research findings confirm that consumption of whey proteins provides health benefits such as boosting immune response and maintaining muscle mass. We have used the extrusion processing conditions of moderate shea...

  11. Self-employment and Health: Barriers or Benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; van Kippersluis, Hans; Thurik, A. Roy

    2016-01-01

    The self-employed are often reported to be healthier than wage workers; however, the cause of this health difference is largely unknown. The longitudinal nature of the US Health and Retirement Study allows us to gauge the plausibility of two competing explanations for this difference: a contextual effect of self-employment on health (benefit effect), or a health-related selection of individuals into self-employment (barrier effect). Our main finding is that the selection of comparatively healthier individuals into self-employment accounts for the positive cross-sectional difference. The results rule out a positive contextual effect of self-employment on health, and we present tentative evidence that, if anything, engaging in self-employment is bad for one’s health. Given the importance of the self-employed in the economy, these findings contribute to our understanding of the vitality of the labor force. PMID:25048640

  12. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Tobacco 21's health benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/podcast/transcript051616.html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Tobacco 21's health benefits : 05/16/2016 To use the sharing ... is what's new this week in To Your Health — a consumer health oriented podcast from NLM — that ...

  13. Clinical Benefits of Electronic Health Record Use: National Findings

    PubMed Central

    King, Jennifer; Patel, Vaishali; Jamoom, Eric W; Furukawa, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether physicians’ reported electronic health record (EHR) use provides clinical benefits and whether benefits depend on using an EHR meeting Meaningful Use criteria or length of EHR experience. Data Source The 2011 Physician Workflow study, representative of U.S. office-based physicians. Study Design Cross-sectional data were used to examine the association of EHR use with enhanced patient care overall and nine specific clinical benefits. Principal Findings Most physicians with EHRs reported EHR use enhanced patient care overall (78 percent), helped them access a patient’s chart remotely (81 percent), and alerted them to a potential medication error (65 percent) and critical lab values (62 percent). Between 30 and 50 percent of physicians reported that EHR use was associated with clinical benefits related to providing recommended care, ordering appropriate tests, and facilitating patient communication. Using EHRs that met Meaningful Use criteria and having 2 or more years of EHR experience were independently associated with reported benefits. Physicians with EHRs meeting Meaningful Use criteria and longer EHR experience were most likely to report benefits across all 10 measures. Conclusions Physicians reported EHR use enhanced patient care overall. Clinical benefits were most likely to be reported by physicians using EHRs meeting Meaningful Use criteria and longer EHR experience. PMID:24359580

  14. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign. PMID:23348094

  15. Biased selection in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program.

    PubMed

    Price, J R; Mays, J W

    1985-01-01

    The existence of biased selection in health insurance markets has long been assumed by economic theorists as well as seen between classes of health plans. In this paper, we use a model of the premium rate that takes into consideration the effects of moral hazard to make empirical estimates of the extent of selection in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program. We find that biased selection has raised the premium of the Blue Cross Plan high-option coverage by 21% and lowered the premium of the low-option coverage by 29%, both relative to premiums that would have been charged in the absence of selection. PMID:2933333

  16. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products. PMID:20020687

  17. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications. PMID:23311666

  18. Necessary health care and basic needs: health insurance plans and essential benefits.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Johnson, Pamela Jo

    2013-12-01

    According to HealthCare.gov, by improving access to quality health for all Americans, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will reduce disparities in health insurance coverage. One way this will happen under the provisions of the ACA is by creating a new health insurance marketplace (a health insurance exchange) by 2014 in which "all people will have a choice for quality, affordable health insurance even if a job loss, job switch, move or illness occurs". This does not mean that everyone will have whatever insurance coverage he or she wants. The provisions of the ACA require that each of the four benefit categories of plans (known as bronze, silver, gold and platinum) provides no less than the benefits available in an "essential health benefits package". However, without a clear understanding of what criteria must be satisfied for health care to be essential, the ACA's requirement is much too vague and open to multiple, potentially conflicting interpretations. Indeed, without such understanding, in the rush to provide health insurance coverage to as many people as is economically feasible, we may replace one kind of disparity (lack of health insurance) with another kind of disparity (lack of adequate health insurance). Thus, this paper explores the concept of "essential benefits", arguing that the "essential health benefits package" in the ACA should be one that optimally satisfies the basic needs of the people covered. PMID:22068620

  19. Structural Health Monitoring of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Fady

    In recent years, many aerospace organizations have researched and implemented composite materials to achieve better fuel efficiency as well as reduced maintenance cost. In addition to the use of composites, manufacturers are investigating the use of adhesive bonded joints and composite patch bonded repairs to extend the life of their in-service aircraft. Adhesive joints are superior to traditional mechanical fasteners as they reduce stress concentration zones and overall part count. However, the integrity of an adhesive joint is difficult to inspect. Inspection of adhesive joints may be carried out using interrogation technology such as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This thesis focuses on the evaluation of Acoustic-Ultrasonic (AU) SHM technique for the detection of crack and disbond growth. In addition to AU, Capacitance Disbond Detection Technique (CDDT) and the Surface Mountable Crack Detection System (SMCDS) were evaluated for the detection disbonds. Results of the AU system demonstrated that AU technology may be used to detect and quantify crack and disbond growth. It was also found that SMCDS and CDDT both complement each other, as SMCDS identified the location of disbond while CDDT quantify disbond.

  20. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  1. Health benefits of improving air quality in Taiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deliang; Wang, Cuicui; Nie, Jiesheng; Chen, Renjie; Niu, Qiao; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng; Perera, Frederica

    2014-12-01

    Since 2000, the government in Shanxi province has mounted several initiatives and mandated factory shutdowns with the goal of reducing coal burning emissions and the environmental impacts of industrialization. We estimated the health benefits associated with air quality improvement from 2001 to 2010 in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and monetized the health benefits using value of statistical life (VOSL). Data were collected on annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and relevant health outcomes in Taiyuan from 2001 to 2010. Selected exposure-response functions were used to calculate the cases of death or disease attributable to PM10 annually over a 10-year period. These were summed to calculate the DALYs lost and their monetary value associated with PM10 each year between 2001 and 2010. Air quality improvement from 2001 to 2010 was estimated to have prevented 2810 premature deaths, 951 new cases of chronic bronchitis, 141,457 cases of outpatient visits, 969 cases of emergency-room visits and 31,810 cases of hospital admissions. The DALYs (VOSL) decreased by 56.92% (52.68%) from 52,937 (7274 million Yuan) in 2001 to 22,807 (3442 million Yuan) in 2010. Premature deaths accounted for almost 95% of the total DALYs. Our analysis demonstrates that air pollution abatement during the last decade in Taiyuan has generated substantial health benefits. PMID:25168129

  2. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine. PMID:22916813

  3. Health benefits of physical activity during pregnancy: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Lanay M; Owe, Katrine M; Mottola, Michelle F; Pivarnik, James M

    2013-02-01

    While early studies on the effects of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy were concerned about possible harm to the mother or fetus, these fears have not been substantiated. Instead, a growing body of literature has documented several health benefits related to pregnancy LTPA. The purpose of this article was to synthesize evidence from epidemiological studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia on the benefits of LTPA and exercise during pregnancy with regard to maternal health, pregnancy outcomes, and child health. We focused on studies evaluating relations between pregnancy LTPA and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, excessive gestational weight gain, birth weight, timing of delivery, and child body composition. The bulk of evidence supports beneficial effects of pregnancy LTPA on each outcome; however, most previous studies have been observational and used self-reported LTPA at only one or two time points in pregnancy. Limitations of the current knowledge base and suggestions for future research on the health benefits of LTPA during pregnancy are provided. PMID:22895379

  4. Krill for human consumption: nutritional value and potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2007-02-01

    The marine crustacean krill (order Euphausiacea) has not been a traditional food in the human diet. Public acceptance of krill for human consumption will depend partly on its nutritive value. The aim of this article is to assess the nutritive value and potential health benefits of krill, an abundant food source with high nutritional value and a variety of compounds relevant to human health. Krill is a rich source of high-quality protein, with the advantage over other animal proteins of being low in fat and a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids. Antioxidant levels in krill are higher than in fish, suggesting benefits against oxidative damage. Finally, the waste generated by the processing of krill into edible products can be developed into value-added products. PMID:17345959

  5. The “Health Benefit Basket” in France

    PubMed Central

    Cherilova, Veneta; Paris, Valérie

    2005-01-01

    The French “Health Benefit Basket” is defined principally by positive lists of reimbursed goods and services; however, global budget-financed hospital-delivered services are more implicitly defined. The range of reimbursable curative care services is defined by two coexisting positive lists/fee schedules: the Classification Commune des Actes Médicaux (CCAM) and the Nomenclature Générale des Actes Professionnels (NGAP). The National Union of Health Insurance Funds has been updating these positive lists since August 2004, with the main criterion for inclusion being the proposed procedure’s effectiveness. This is assessed by the newly created High Health authority (replacing the former ANAES). In addition, complementary health insurers are consulted in the inclusion process due to their important role in French healthcare financing. PMID:16267657

  6. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens. PMID:14743696

  7. Benefits and Systems of Care for Maternal and Child Health under Health Care Reform: Workshop Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Cynthia H., Ed.

    This report discusses the health care needs of and benefits for women, children, and adolescents in light of national health care reform proposals put forth in 1994, and is based on presentations and discussions at an invitational workshop on maternal and child health. The report asserts that since women and children are disproportionately…

  8. A Comparison of Benefit Limits in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Olesiuk, William Joseph; Sweeney, Helen Anne; Seiber, Eric E; Zhu, Hong; Schweikhart, Sharon B; Shoben, Abigail B; Tam, Kwok Kwan

    2016-07-01

    This study provides insight to policy makers and stakeholders on how three types of benefits limits on Medicaid-covered mental health services might affect access for consumers diagnosed with severe mental illness. The study used a retrospective cohort design with data for Medicaid-covered, community-based mental health services provided in Ohio during fiscal year 2010. Log-binomial regression was used for the analysis. Results indicate that limits compared have significant, varying consequences based on Medicaid coverage and diagnoses. When constraining Medicaid costs, policy makers should consider how limits will disrupt care and include clinicians in discussions prior to implementation. PMID:25966651

  9. Federal employees health benefits program: debarment--OPM. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1994-10-11

    The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing final regulations to incorporate into regulations the statutory requirement that carriers in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program may not deny claims for services or supplies due to the debarment of the providers who supplied them if the claimants could not have known that the provider was debarred. The purpose of these regulations is to comply with the provision of law that requires OPM to prescribe regulations on this issue. PMID:10137652

  10. Health benefits of cereal fibre: a review of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Cereal fibre and whole-grain intakes have been consistently associated in the epidemiological literature with reduced mortality and risk of chronic disease including obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present review focuses on intervention trials with three primary aims: (1) understanding the mechanisms through which fibre consumption improves health (for example, examination of intermediate endpoints reflecting improved lipid, glucose and energy metabolism); (2) close evaluation of qualitative factors which modify fibre’s effectiveness including physiochemical properties (for example, solubility, fermentability and viscosity), fibre extract molecular weight, fibre particle size and botanical structure of the fibre source grain; and (3) identification of areas in which additional research is needed. The first two aims typify the goals of nutrition research, in that improved understanding of the specific factors which determine fibre’s health benefits has critical implications for dietary recommendations as well as improving understanding of physiological mechanisms. The third aim acknowledges the substantial gap between recommended and actual fibre intakes in many developed countries including the USA and the UK. In recognition of this deficit in total fibre intake, food manufacturing processes increasingly utilise fibre extracts and concentrates as food additives. However, whether fibre extracts provide similar health benefits to the fibre supplied in the constituents of whole grain is largely unexplored. The relative benefits of fibre extracts compared with whole-grain fibre sources therefore represent a critical area in which additional research is needed. PMID:21320383

  11. Health benefits of cereal fibre: a review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-06-01

    Cereal fibre and whole-grain intakes have been consistently associated in the epidemiological literature with reduced mortality and risk of chronic disease including obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present review focuses on intervention trials with three primary aims: (1) understanding the mechanisms through which fibre consumption improves health (for example, examination of intermediate endpoints reflecting improved lipid, glucose and energy metabolism); (2) close evaluation of qualitative factors which modify fibre's effectiveness including physiochemical properties (for example, solubility, fermentability and viscosity), fibre extract molecular weight, fibre particle size and botanical structure of the fibre source grain; and (3) identification of areas in which additional research is needed. The first two aims typify the goals of nutrition research, in that improved understanding of the specific factors which determine fibre's health benefits has critical implications for dietary recommendations as well as improving understanding of physiological mechanisms. The third aim acknowledges the substantial gap between recommended and actual fibre intakes in many developed countries including the USA and the UK. In recognition of this deficit in total fibre intake, food manufacturing processes increasingly utilise fibre extracts and concentrates as food additives. However, whether fibre extracts provide similar health benefits to the fibre supplied in the constituents of whole grain is largely unexplored. The relative benefits of fibre extracts compared with whole-grain fibre sources therefore represent a critical area in which additional research is needed. PMID:21320383

  12. Do the Health Benefits of Cycling Outweigh the Risks?

    PubMed Central

    de Hartog, Jeroen Johan; Boogaard, Hanna; Nijland, Hans; Hoek, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Background Although from a societal point of view a modal shift from car to bicycle may have beneficial health effects due to decreased air pollution emissions, decreased greenhouse gas emissions, and increased levels of physical activity, shifts in individual adverse health effects such as higher exposure to air pollution and risk of a traffic accident may prevail. Objective We describe whether the health benefits from the increased physical activity of a modal shift for urban commutes outweigh the health risks. Data sources and extraction We have summarized the literature for air pollution, traffic accidents, and physical activity using systematic reviews supplemented with recent key studies. Data synthesis We quantified the impact on all-cause mortality when 500,000 people would make a transition from car to bicycle for short trips on a daily basis in the Netherlands. We have expressed mortality impacts in life-years gained or lost, using life table calculations. For individuals who shift from car to bicycle, we estimated that beneficial effects of increased physical activity are substantially larger (3–14 months gained) than the potential mortality effect of increased inhaled air pollution doses (0.8–40 days lost) and the increase in traffic accidents (5–9 days lost). Societal benefits are even larger because of a modest reduction in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and traffic accidents. Conclusions On average, the estimated health benefits of cycling were substantially larger than the risks relative to car driving for individuals shifting their mode of transport. PMID:20587380

  13. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. PMID:26414085

  14. Health monitoring of bolted joints using the time reversal method and piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wang; Shaopeng, Liu; Junhua, Shao; Yourong, Li

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the time reversal method based on piezoelectric active sensing is investigated for health monitoring of bolted joints. Experiments are conducted on bolted joints to study the relationship between the time reversal focused signal peak amplitudes and the bolt preload. Two piezoelectric patches are bonded on two different sides of a bolted joint. Any one of the piezoelectric patches can be used as an actuator to generate an ultrasonic wave, and the other one can be used as a sensor to detect the propagated wave. With the time reversal method, the received response signal is reversed in the time domain and then is re-emitted as an excitation signal to acquire the time reversal focused signals. The experimental results show that the time reversal focused signal peak amplitudes increase with the increasing bolt preload until reaching saturation, and when the bolt preload increases to a certain value, the focused signal peak amplitudes will remain unchanged. Experiments show that the surface roughness of the bolted joint impacts the saturation value. A higher surface roughness value corresponds to a higher saturation value. In addition, the proposed method has a high signal to noise ratio benefiting from the time reversal method time and space focusing ability.

  15. Preserving workers' compensation benefits in a managed health care environment.

    PubMed

    Dembe, A E

    1998-01-01

    Managed care techniques are increasingly being applied in the workers' compensation setting. Many workers, labor representatives and public health advocates fear that the introduction of managed care into workers' compensation may reflect a broader employer-driven campaign to erode benefits, tighten eligibility criteria, and weaken employees' control over health care and compensation issues. The potential threats to workers can be mitigated by involving them in the design of the workers' compensation health plan and selection of provider organization, assuring access to appropriate specialists and diagnostic testing, minimizing delays, increasing accountability through contract provisions and government oversight, and enhancing communications through the use of ombudsmen and alternative dispute resolution approaches. Additional outcomes studies assessing the long-term impact of managed care in workers' compensation are needed. PMID:9670702

  16. Health benefits and possible risks of broccoli - an overview.

    PubMed

    Latté, Klaus Peter; Appel, Klaus-Erich; Lampen, Alfonso

    2011-12-01

    Chemopreventive effects of broccoli, a highly valued vegetable, have been known for a long time. Several studies have demonstrated that broccoli might be beneficial by reducing the risk for the development of certain forms of cancer. These effects are generally attributed to glucosinolate-derived degradation products like isothiocyanates and indoles which are formed by the hydrolytic action of plant myrosinase and/or glucosidases deriving from the human microbial flora. However, recent in vitro and experimental animal studies indicate that broccoli, its extracts and the glucosinolate-derived degradation products might also have undesirable effects, especially genotoxic activities. However, the relevance of the genotoxic activities to human health is not known yet. This paper gives an overview on genotoxic, anti-genotoxic/chemopreventive, nutritive and antinutritive properties of broccoli, its ingredients and their degradation products. A qualitative comparison of the benefit and risk of broccoli consumption benefit-risk assessment shows that the benefit from intake in modest quantities and in processed form outweighs potential risks. For other preparations (fortified broccoli-based dietary supplements, diets with extraordinary high daily intake, consumption as a raw vegetable) further studies both for potential risks and beneficial effects are needed in order to assess the benefit and risk in the future. PMID:21906651

  17. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.430 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  18. Integrating mental health parity for homebound older adults under the medicare home health care benefit.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Joan K; Gellis, Zvi D

    2011-04-01

    Despite high rates of mental illness, very few homebound older adults receive treatment. Comorbid mental illness exacerbates physical health conditions, reduces treatment adherence, and increases dependency and medical costs. Although effective treatments exist, many home health agencies lack capacity to effectively detect and treat mental illness. This article critically analyzes barriers within the Medicare home health benefit that impede access to mental health treatment. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are made to integrate mental health parity in home health care. In particular, creative use of medical social work can improve detection and treatment of mental illness for homebound older adults. PMID:21462061

  19. Health Benefits In 2015: Stable Trends In The Employer Market.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Whitmore, Heidi; Damico, Anthony; Kenward, Kevin; Long, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2015, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,251 for single coverage and $17,545 for family coverage. Both premiums rose 4 percent from 2014, continuing several years of modest growth. The percentage of firms offering health benefits and the percentage of workers covered by their employers' plans remained statistically unchanged from 2014. Eighty-one percent of covered workers were enrolled in a plan with a general annual deductible. Among those workers, the average deductible for single coverage was $1,318. Half of large employers either offered employees the opportunity or required them to complete biometric screening. Of firms that offer an incentive for completing the screening, 20 percent provide employees with incentives or penalties that are tied to meeting those biometric outcomes. The 2015 survey included new questions on financial incentives to complete wellness programs and meet specified biometric outcomes as well as questions about narrow networks and employers' strategies related to the high-cost plan tax and the employer shared-responsibility provisions of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:26395215

  20. Health maintenance organizations: structure, performance, and current issues for employee health benefits design.

    PubMed

    Gold, M

    1991-03-01

    After summarizing the origins and key principles of HMOs, including the current characteristics of the HMO industry, this article reviews the evidence of HMO performance in the areas of benefits design, utilization and cost effectiveness, quality of care and consumer satisfaction, and selection and overall employer satisfaction. Outstanding issues and concerns, from the perspective of employee health benefits design, include issues such as assuring a fair price for HMO benefits, employer contribution methods, HMO diversification, and cost escalation and the search for value. Results of research studies have been generally positive about HMO performance on benefits, cost effectiveness, quality, and consumer satisfaction, and more mixed on employer satisfaction. As employers address concerns, some changes are likely in the methods used to integrate HMOs into a health benefits strategy. Because the issues involved in these changes are numerous and complex, careful consideration and design are desirable to assure that the net impact of any change is positive and consistent with overall goals. PMID:1903152

  1. Potential health benefits of broccoli- a chemico-biological overview.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, Hannah R; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Das, Dipak K

    2009-06-01

    The concept that bioactive components in functional foods are efficacious for the improvement of health, has recently gained much importance. The cruciferous vegetables which include broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower are excellent source of phytochemicals including glucosinolates and their byproducts, phenolics and antioxidant vitamins as well as dietary minerals. Broccoli consumption mediates a variety of functions including providing antioxidants, regulating enzymes and controlling apoptosis and cell cycle. The organosulfur chemicals namely glucosinolates and the S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide found in broccoli in concert with other constituents such as vitamins E, C, K and the minerals such as iron, zinc, selenium and the polyphenols namely kaempferol, quercetin glucosides and isorhamnetin are presumably responsible for various health benefits of broccoli. There exists no comprehensive review on the health promoting effects of phytochemical compounds present in broccoli so far. This review compiles the evidence for the beneficial role of glucosinolates in conjugation with the other phytoconstituents for human health. It also gives an overview on the chemical and biological characterization of potential bioactive compounds of broccoli including the interaction of phytoconstituents on its bioactivity. Further, the molecular basis of the biological activities of the chemicals present in broccoli potentially responsible for health promotion, from chemoprevention to cardio protection, are outlined based on in vitro and in vivo studies with a note on the structure activity relationship of sulforaphane and a few other isothiocyanates. PMID:19519500

  2. Back to the future? Health benefits, organized labor, and universal health care.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Marie

    2007-12-01

    The umbrella of employment-based health benefits is growing increasingly threadbare. As a result, health benefits are once again a major arena of labor-management strife, and once again calls for universal health care by many labor leaders mask important differences between them over health care reform. Some labor leaders advocate a bottom-up mobilization in support of a single-payer solution that would dismantle the system of job-based benefits rooted in private insurance. Others stake their health care strategy on wooing key business leaders to be constructive partners in some kind of unspecified comprehensive reform of the health system. Organized labor faces enormous obstacles, both institutional and ideological, to forging an effective united front to fight for comprehensive, high-quality, affordable health care for all. Two entrenched features of the shadow welfare state of job-based benefits, notably the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 and the union-run health and welfare funds created under the Taft-Hartley Act, remain daunting barriers on the road to reform, exacerbating tensions and differences within organized labor. Moreover, a dramatic ideological schism in the labor movement about its future direction vexes its stance on health care reform. These ideological differences fuel vastly different views within organized labor about how best to confront the unraveling of job-based health benefits and the growing popularity among business leaders, insurers, and public officials of the "individual-mandate" solution, which would penalize people who do not have adequate health insurance. PMID:18000156

  3. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms. PMID:27447602

  4. Extending the infoway benefits evaluation framework for health information systems.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis

    2009-01-01

    A proposal is made that extends the current Canada Health Infoway Benefits Evaluation (BE) Framework for Health Information Systems (HIS) being deployed in Canada. The current BE framework takes a micro view of HIS quality, use and impact at the local level whereas the extended framework takes into account the broader socio-organizational and contextual aspects known as the meso and macro views of HIS deployment. The meso view addresses the people, organization, network and implementation dimensions. The macro view focuses on the contextual dimensions of technology standard, funding/incentive, legislation/policy and professional practice. Validation of this extended BE framework is being planned through a comparative review of recent HIS evaluation literature, a Delphi-consensus process with HIS experts and users, and multiple validation studies with recent HIS implementation projects in British Columbia. PMID:19380969

  5. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, D.; Cuda, C.; Luhovyy, B. L.; Anderson, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640

  6. Beta glucan: health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, D; Cuda, C; Luhovyy, B L; Anderson, G H

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640

  7. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  8. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  9. Nutritional constituents and health benefits of wild rice (Zizania spp.).

    PubMed

    Surendiran, Gangadaran; Alsaif, Maha; Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-04-01

    Wild rice (Zizania spp.) seems to have originated in North America and then dispersed into Eastern Asia and other parts of the world. Nutritional analysis shows that wild rice is rich in minerals, vitamins, protein, starch, dietary fiber, and various antioxidant phytochemicals, while it is low in fat. Wild rice has been recognized as a whole grain by the US Food and Drug Administration; in the North American marketplace it is currently sold as and considered to be a health-promoting food. Recent scientific studies have revealed antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of wild rice, while others have documented cardiovascular benefits associated with the long-term consumption of wild rice in experimental settings. The present review article summarizes various features of wild rice and its cultivation, including its plantation, harvest, nutritional composition, and biological properties. While evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of wild rice consumption is accumulating, additional studies are warranted to determine the clinical benefits of regular consumption of wild rice. PMID:24684371

  10. 45 CFR 156.120 - Collection of data from certain issuers to define essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT... benefits means benefits for medical care, as defined at § 144.103 of this chapter, which may be...

  11. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  12. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  13. Potential health benefits of controlling dust emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Fan, Songmiao; Kang, Chuyun; Yi, Kan; Cheng, Yanli; Shen, Xing; Tao, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Although the adverse impact of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) on human health has been well acknowledged, little is known of the health effects of its specific constituents. Over the past decade, the annual average dust concentrations in Beijing were approximately ∼14 μg m(-3), a value that poses a great threat to the city's 20 million residents. In this study, we quantify the potential long-term health damages in Beijing resulting from the dust exposure that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Each year in Beijing, nearly 4000 (95% CI: 1000-7000) premature deaths may be associated with long-term dust exposure, and ∼20% of these deaths are attributed to lung cancer. A decomposition analysis of the inter-annual variability of premature deaths in Beijing indicates that dust concentrations determine the year-to-year tendency, whereas population growth and lung cancer mortality rates drive the increasing tendency of premature death. We suggest that if Beijing takes effective measures towards reducing dust concentrations (e.g., controlling the resuspension of road dust and the fugitive dust from construction sites) to a level comparable to that of New York City's, the associated premature deaths will be significantly reduced. This recommendation offers "low-hanging fruit" suggestions for pollution control that would greatly benefit the public health in Beijing. PMID:27038572

  14. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440.335 Section 440.335 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.335 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  15. Health Benefits 101: The University of Kentucky's Effort to Improve Lives, Control Costs and Offer a Sustainable Benefits Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Joey

    2008-01-01

    A few years ago, the University of Kentucky found itself faced with unsustainable trends in retiree health care costs, as well as the rising cost of health care in general. This article provides an overview of the process and decisions made by the University of Kentucky to effect positive change in its health benefits for employees, retirees and…

  16. Employer purchasing of health care benefits: marketing implications of an organizational buying perspective.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J M; Hurley, R E

    1996-01-01

    While health care providers recognize employers as key purchasers of health benefits, there is little understanding of how employers make these important buys. We propose a model of health benefits acquisition using an organizational buying perspective, and discuss findings from a study of employee benefits managers. Critical marketing implications are presented. PMID:10158489

  17. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Prescription drugs. (8) Mental health benefits. (c) * * * (1) In addition to the types of benefits of this...-benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  18. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retirement, health benefits, and group... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or...

  19. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement, health benefits, and group... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or...

  20. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Filing health benefit... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.204-72 Filing health benefit...

  1. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension... health, welfare, and/or pension benefits. (a) Determining the required amount of benefits. (1) Most fringe benefit determinations containing health and welfare and/or pension requirements specify a...

  2. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension... health, welfare, and/or pension benefits. (a) Determining the required amount of benefits. (1) Most fringe benefit determinations containing health and welfare and/or pension requirements specify a...

  3. 77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... 3206-AM66 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters AGENCY: Office of... (OPM) is issuing an interim final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHB... health benefits plan under the FEHB. DATES: This rule is effective July 17, 2012. OPM must...

  4. 5 CFR 890.205 - Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans. 890.205 Section 890.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits...

  5. Benefits of listening to a recording of euphoric joint music making in polydrug abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Vogt, Marius; Lederer, Annette; Schneider, Lydia; Fomicheva, Eira; Schneider, Martha; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Listening to music can have powerful physiological and therapeutic effects. Some essential features of the mental mechanism underlying beneficial effects of music are probably strong physiological and emotional associations with music created during the act of music making. Here we tested this hypothesis in a clinical population of polydrug abusers in rehabilitation listening to a previously performed act of physiologically and emotionally intense music making. Methods: Psychological effects of listening to self-made music that was created in a previous musical feedback intervention were assessed. In this procedure, participants produced music with exercise machines (Jymmin) which modulate musical sounds. Results: The data showed a positive effect of listening to the recording of joint music making on self-efficacy, mood, and a readiness to engage socially. Furthermore, the data showed the powerful influence of context on how the recording evoked psychological benefits. The effects of listening to the self-made music were only observable when participants listened to their own performance first; listening to a control music piece first caused effects to deteriorate. We observed a positive correlation between participants’ mood and their desire to engage in social activities with their former training partners after listening to the self-made music. This shows that the observed effects of listening to the recording of the single musical feedback intervention are influenced by participants recapitulating intense pleasant social interactions during the Jymmin intervention. Conclusions: Listening to music that was the outcome of a previous musical feedback (Jymmin) intervention has beneficial psychological and probably social effects in patients that had suffered from polydrug addiction, increasing self-efficacy, mood, and a readiness to engage socially. These intervention effects, however, depend on the context in which the music recordings are

  6. Productivity benefits of minimally invasive surgery in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Saavoss, Josh D; Koenig, Lane; Cher, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is associated with a marked decrease in quality of life. Increasing evidence supports minimally invasive SIJ fusion as a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. The impact of SIJ fusion on worker productivity is not known. Methods Regression modeling using data from the National Health Interview Survey was applied to determine the relationship between responses to selected interview questions related to function and economic outcomes. Regression coefficients were then applied to prospectively collected, individual patient data in a randomized trial of SIJ fusion (INSITE, NCT01681004) to estimate expected differences in economic outcomes across treatments. Results Patients who receive SIJ fusion using iFuse Implant System® have an expected increase in the probability of working of 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11%–21%) relative to nonsurgical patients. The expected change in earnings across groups was US $3,128 (not statistically significant). Combining the two metrics, the annual increase in worker productivity given surgical vs nonsurgical care was $6,924 (95% CI $1,890–$11,945). Conclusion For employees with chronic, severe SIJ dysfunction, minimally invasive SIJ fusion may improve worker productivity compared to nonsurgical treatment. PMID:27114712

  7. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion. PMID:26075546

  8. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. Discussion The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) as a guiding principle to discuss potentials of E-health in providing and accessing sexual health services. There are important issues in relation to utilising and providing online sexual health services. For healthcare providers, e-health can act as an opportunity to enhance their clients’ sexual health care by facilitating communication with full privacy and confidentiality, reducing administrative costs and improving efficiency and flexibility as well as market sexual health services and products. Sexual health is one of the common health topics which both younger and older people explore on the internet and they increasingly prefer sexual health education to be interactive, non-discriminate and anonymous. This commentary presents and discusses the benefits of e-sexual health and provides recommendations towards addressing some of the emerging challenges. Future directions The provision of sexual health services can be enhanced through E-health technology. Doing this can empower consumers to engage with information technology to enhance their sexual health knowledge and quality of life and address some of the stigma associated with diversity in sexualities and sexual health experiences. In addition, e-sexual health may better support and enhance the relationship between consumers and their health care providers across different locations. However, a systematic and focused approach to research and the application of findings in

  9. Interaction of probiotics and pathogens--benefits to human health?

    PubMed

    Salminen, Seppo; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Collado, Maria Carmen; Vesterlund, Satu; El-Nezami, Hani

    2010-04-01

    The probiotic terminology has matured over the years and currently a unified definition has been formed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have been reported to remove heavy metals, cyanotoxins and mycotoxins from aqueous solutions. The binding processes appear to be species and strain specific. The most efficient microbial species and strains in the removal of these compounds vary between components tested. However, it is of interest to note that most strains characterized until now do not bind positive components or nutrients in the diet. This has significant implications to future detoxification biotechnology development. In a similar manner, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria interact directly with viruses and pathogens in food and water as well as toxin producing microbes and some toxins. This review updates information and aims to characterize these interactions in association. The target is to understand probiotic health effects and to relate the mechanisms and actions to future potential of specific probiotic bacteria on decontamination of foods and water, and diets. The same aim is targeted in characterizing the role of probiotics in inactivating pathogens and viruses of health importance to facilitate the establishment of novel means of disease risk reduction related health benefits. PMID:20413293

  10. Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... help achieve an accurate diagnosis, including: X-rays Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Blood tests A joint aspiration, which involves drawing fluid from the joint for examination Treatment The only ...

  11. A survey of health care benefits in the apparel industry.

    PubMed

    Moore, W B

    1985-09-01

    Each day as Americans prepare to begin their days, many put on their clothing often without a thought as to how or where it was manufactured. The manufacture of clothing in the United States is a labor intensive industry pressed by competition in foreign countries where labor is abundant and less expensive; therefore, the manufacturers must look for every opportunity to reduce their costs. The survey presented here reviews the health benefit plans in the apparel industry and current initiatives for cost reduction. The results are interesting, for they give the hospital administrator vital information on the types of programs that might be in place in local manufacturers and the method of cost containment expected in this industry. PMID:10273751

  12. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species

    PubMed Central

    Yende, Subhash R.; Harle, Uday N.; Chaugule, Bhupal B.

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum. PMID:24600190

  13. Orthopedic Health: Healthy Joints for a Lifetime / Keep Your Moving Parts Moving

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Healthy Joints for a Lifetime Past Issues / ... being made every day in the world of orthopedic health and disease treatment —our bones, muscles, tendons, ...

  14. Selenium Health Benefit Values: Updated Criteria for Mercury Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Nicholas V C; Ralston, Carla R; Raymond, Laura J

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se)-dependent enzymes (selenoenzymes) protect brain tissues against oxidative damage and perform other vital functions, but their synthesis requires a steady supply of Se. High methylmercury (CH3Hg) exposures can severely diminish Se transport across the placenta and irreversibly inhibit fetal brain selenoenzymes. However, supplemental dietary Se preserves their activities and thus prevents pathological consequences. The modified Se health benefit value (HBVSe) is a risk assessment criterion based on the molar concentrations of CH3Hg and Se present in a fish or seafood. It was developed to reflect the contrasting effects of maternal CH3Hg and Se intakes on fetal brain selenoenzyme activities. However, the original equation was prone to divide-by-zero-type errors whereby the calculated values increased exponentially in samples with low CH3Hg contents. The equation was refined to provide an improved index to better reflect the risks of CH3Hg exposures and the benefits provided by dietary Se. The HBVSe provides a biochemically based perspective that confirms and supports the FDA/EPA advice for pregnant and breast-feeding women regarding seafoods that should be avoided vs. those that are beneficial to consume. Since Se can be highly variable between watersheds, further evaluation of freshwater fish is needed to identify locations where fish with negative HBVSe may arise and be consumed by vulnerable subpopulation groups. PMID:26463749

  15. Possible Health Benefits From Reducing Occupational Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Joseph D.; Ray, Tapas K.; Park, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic fields (MF) from AC electricity are a Possible Human Carcinogen, based on limited epidemiologic evidence from exposures far below occupational health limits. Methods To help formulate government guidance on occupational MF, the cancer cases prevented and the monetary benefits accruing to society by reducing workplace exposures were determined. Life-table methods produced Disability Adjusted Life Years, which were converted to monetary values. Results Adjusted for probabilities of causality, the expected increase in a worker’s disability-free life are 0.04 year (2 weeks) from a 1 microtesla (μT) MF reduction in average worklife exposure, which is equivalent to $5,100/worker/μT in year 2010 U.S. dollars (95% confidence interval $1,000–$9,000/worker/μT). Where nine electrosteel workers had 13.8 μT exposures, for example, moving them to ambient MFs would provide $600,000 in benefits to society (uncertainty interval $0–$1,000,000). Conclusions When combined with the costs of controls, this analysis provides guidance for precautionary recommendations for managing occupational MF exposures. PMID:23129537

  16. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  17. Hereditary Cancer: Example of a Public Health Approach to Ensure Population Health Benefits of Genetic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cragun, Deborah; Lewis, Courtney; Camperlengo, Lucia; Pal, Tuya

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the identification, prevention, and treatment of hereditary cancer as an important public health concern. Hereditary cancer research and educational outreach activities are used to illustrate how public health functions can help to achieve health benefits of genetic and genomic medicine. First, we evaluate genetic service delivery through triangulating patient and provider survey results which reveal variability among providers in hereditary cancer knowledge and genetic service provision. Second, we describe efforts we have made to assure competency among healthcare providers and to inform, educate and empower patients with regard to the rapidly evolving field of genomics and hereditary cancer. Lastly, key policy-issues raised by our experiences are discussed in the context of how they may help us to more effectively translate future genomic technologies into practice in order to attain population health benefits from genetic and genomic medicine.

  18. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms....

  19. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms....

  20. 29 CFR 825.210 - Employee payment of group health benefit premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee payment of group health benefit premiums. 825.210... and Medical Leave Act § 825.210 Employee payment of group health benefit premiums. (a) Group health... had been continuously employed during the FMLA leave period. Therefore, any share of group health...

  1. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits available under base-benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. (2) If the benchmark coverage... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440.335 Section 440.335 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  2. The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Martin, K R

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the effects of silica on human health in contrast to prior research which focused solely on the toxic effects of inhaled crystalline silica. However, multiple forms of silica exist in nature and silicon, a component, is the second most prevalent element after oxygen. Silica has widespread industrial applications including use as a food additive, i.e., anti-caking agent, as a means to clarify beverages, control viscosity, as an anti-foaming agent, dough modifier, and as an excipient in drugs and vitamins. Chemically, silica is an oxide of silicon, viz., silicon dioxide, and is generally colorless to white and insoluble in water. When associated with metals or minerals the family of silicates is formed. There are several water soluble forms of silica referred collectively to as silicic acid (ortho, meta, di, and tri-silicates), which are present in surface and well water in the range of 1--100 mg/L. Orthosilicic acid is the form predominantly absorbed by humans and is found in numerous tissues including bone, tendons, aorta, liver and kidney. Compelling data suggest that silica is essential for health although no RDI has been established. However, deficiency induces deformities in skull and peripheral bones, poorly formed joints, reduced contents of cartilage, collagen, and disruption of mineral balance in the femur and vertebrae. Very little toxicity data exist regarding aqueous silica consumption due, in part, to the lack of anecdotal reports of toxicity and general presumption of safety. However, a few rodent studies have been conducted, which indicate a No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of 50,000 ppm (mg/L) for dietary silica. In conclusion, many forms of silica exist in nature and compelling data support myriad beneficial effects of silica in water. PMID:17435951

  3. Upper limb joint angle measurement in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Diego; Alvarez, Juan C; González, Rafael C; López, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    Usual human motion capture systems are designed to work in controlled laboratory conditions. For occupational health, instruments that can measure during normal daily life are essential, as the evaluation of the workers' movements is a key factor to reduce employee injury- and illness-related costs. In this paper, we present a method for joint angle measurement, combining inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) and magnetic sensors. This method estimates wrist flexion, wrist lateral deviation, elbow flexion, elbow pronation, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction and shoulder internal rotation. The algorithms avoid numerical integration of the signals, which allows for long-time estimations without angle estimation drift. The system has been tested both under laboratory and field conditions. Controlled laboratory tests show mean estimation errors between 0.06° and of 1.05°, and standard deviation between 2.18° and 9.20°. Field tests seem to confirm these results when no ferromagnetic materials are close to the measurement system. PMID:25573165

  4. Involving Community Health Workers in the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities Research Projects: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Weier, Rory C; Hohl, Sarah D; Thompson, Beti; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the benefits and challenges of including community health workers (CHWs) in health disparities research can improve planning and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Representatives from 18 projects from the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative completed an online questionnaire about the benefits and challenges of involving CHWs in their research. Eight emergent themes were classified into two categories: 1) Personal qualities and background CHWs bring to research including community knowledge and cultural sensitivity to improve recruitment and effectiveness of interventions; and 2) Workplace demands of CHWs including human resource policies and processes, research skills/background (training needs), and oversight despite distance. These findings demonstrate the benefits of involving CHWs in research and draw attention to the hiring, training, and oversight of CHWs and subsequent challenges. Additional research is needed to understand interactions between project staff and CHWs better and to identify best practices to involve CHWs in research. PMID:27524766

  5. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  6. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  7. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  8. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  9. Advance on the Flavonoid C-glycosides and Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianbo; Capanoglu, Esra; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Miron, Anca

    2016-07-29

    The dietary flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most vital phytochemicals in diets and are of great general interest due to their diverse bioactivity. Almost all natural flavonoids exist as their O-glycoside or C-glycoside forms in plants. The dietary flavonoid C-glycosides have received less attention than their corresponding O-glycosides. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding flavonoid C-glycosides and their influence on human health. Among the flavonoid C-glycosides, flavone C-glycosides, especially vitexin, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin and their multiglycosides are more frequently mentioned than others. Flavonoid C-monoglycosides are poorly absorbed in human beings with very few metabolites in urine and blood and are deglycosylated and degraded by human intestinal bacteria in colon. However, flavonoid C-multiglycosides are absorbed unchanged in the intestine and distributed to other tissues. Flavonoid C-glycosides showed significant antioxidant activity, anticancer and antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, antiviral activity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and other biological effects. It looks like that the C-glycosylflavonoids in most cases showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetes potential than their corresponding O-glycosylflavonoids and aglycones. However, there is a lack of in vivo data on the biological benefits of flavonoid C-glycosides. It is necessary to investigate more on how flavonoid C-glycosides prevent and handle the diseases. PMID:26462718

  10. Resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits.

    PubMed

    Thakorlal, J; Perera, C O; Smith, B; Englberger, L; Lorens, A

    2010-04-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is a type of starch that is resistant to starch hydrolyzing enzymes in the stomach and thus behaves more like dietary fibre. RS has been shown to have beneficial effects in disease prevention including modulation of glycaemic index diabetes, cholesterol lowering capability and weight management, which are critically important for many people in the Federated States of Micronesia. Green bananas are known to contain substantial concentrations of RS and are a common part of the Micronesian diet. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the RS content in banana cultivars from Pohnpei, Micronesia: Daiwang, Inahsio, Karat, Utin Kerenis and Utin Ruk, for which no such information was available. Utin Kerenis, Inahsio and Utin Ruk were found to contain the highest amounts of RS. The fate of RS after incorporation into a food product (i.e., pancakes) was also studied and a significant reduction in the RS content was found for each cultivar after cooking. Microscopy of the banana samples indicated that the overall morphology of the cultivars was similar. In conclusion, green banana, including these varieties, should be promoted in Micronesia and other places for their rich RS content and related health benefits including diabetes control. Further research is needed to more clearly determine the effects of cooking and food processing on RS. PMID:20968236

  11. Health benefit of fucosterol from marine algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Qudeer Ahmed; Choi, Ran Joo; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds belong to a group of marine plants known as algae, which are consumed as sea vegetables in several Asian countries. Recent studies have focused on the biological and pharmacological activities of seaweeds and their highly bioactive secondary metabolites because of their potential in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Although several varieties of bioactive novel compounds such as phlorotannins, diterpenes and polysaccharides from seaweeds have already been well scrutinized, fucosterol as a phytosterol still needs to reinvent itself. Fucosterol (24-ethylidene cholesterol) is a sterol that can be isolated from algae, seaweed and diatoms. Fucosterol exhibits various biological therapeutics, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antifungal, antihistaminic, anticholinergic, antiadipogenic, antiphotodamaging, anti-osteoporotic, blood cholesterol reducing, blood vessel thrombosis preventive and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. In this review, we address some potential approaches for arbitrating novel fucosterol biologics in the medical field, focusing on the selection of personalized drug candidates and highlighting the challenges and opportunities regarding medical breakthroughs. We also highlight recent advances made in the design of this novel compound, as the significant health benefits from using these optimized applications apply to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields. PMID:26455344

  12. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in... planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall...

  13. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  14. 24 CFR 3.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Activities Prohibited § 3.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 3.235(d), in providing... services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide...

  15. 45 CFR 2555.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 2555... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in... planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall...

  16. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 25.440... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and... coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  17. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in... planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall...

  18. 10 CFR 1042.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 1042.440... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.440 Health and insurance benefits and services... health service shall provide gynecological care....

  19. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to..., including family planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service...

  20. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in... planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall...

  1. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to..., including family planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service...

  2. 45 CFR 2555.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 2555... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in... planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall...

  3. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  4. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a... recipient which provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  5. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 106.39... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care. (Authority: Secs. 901,...

  6. 29 CFR 36.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance benefits and services. 36.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to..., including family planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service...

  7. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in... planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall...

  8. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 106.39... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care. (Authority: Secs. 901,...

  9. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to..., including family planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service...

  10. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to..., including family planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a... recipient which provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  12. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 25.440... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and... coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  13. 24 CFR 3.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Activities Prohibited § 3.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 3.235(d), in providing... services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide...

  14. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  15. 45 CFR 147.160 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. 147.160 Section 147.160 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS... INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.160 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) In general....

  16. 48 CFR 1604.7101 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Disputed Health Benefit Claims 1604.7101 Filing health benefit claims/court review of... at 5 CFR 890.105 and 890.107, respectively. The contract clause at 1652.204-72 of this chapter... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Filing health...

  17. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium-based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to beneficiaries who meet the eligibility...

  18. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Related to... requirements of 29 CFR 2560.503-1 for group health plans complies with the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2.... (5) Emergency care. Benefits for emergency care. (6) Prescription drugs. Benefits for...

  19. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to qualified beneficiaries (set forth...

  20. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to qualified beneficiaries (set forth...

  1. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium-based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to beneficiaries who meet the eligibility...

  2. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium-based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to beneficiaries who meet the eligibility...

  3. 77 FR 70643 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial Value, and... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation...

  4. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health maintenance organization, or any agent or entity that administers benefit plans, or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance,...

  5. 32 CFR 728.31 - Eligible beneficiaries and health benefits authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible beneficiaries and health benefits... and Dependents of the Uniformed Services § 728.31 Eligible beneficiaries and health benefits... member who does not have medical coverage under an employer-sponsored health plan, and who: (i) On...

  6. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  7. 78 FR 58291 - TRICARE; Fiscal Year 2014 Continued Health Care Benefit Program Premium Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE; Fiscal Year 2014 Continued Health Care Benefit Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated Continued Health Care Benefit Program Premiums for Fiscal Year 2014. SUMMARY: This notice provides the updated Continued Health Care...

  8. [Perspectives on veterinary public health, food security, and the "One Health" joint initiative].

    PubMed

    Cartín-Rojas, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Veterinarians play a key role in food security. The health of millions of people, stimulation of national economies, development of sustainable livestock production related to this food source, and the different agricultural production systems that compose value chains, and access to more profitable international markets all depend on their efficient and transparent work. Shifting nutritional patterns globally, along with expected population growth, and the increase in marketable food commodity routes and volumes, forecast that demand for animal source food will steadily intensify over the coming decades. To successfully address these challenges, the veterinary profession should establish more practical and up-to-date conceptual and methodological frameworks for academic and professional profiles, focusing the profession on the different public health subject areas, in undergraduate and graduate courses. Furthermore, interdisciplinary alliances should also be developed--such as the "One Health" approach proposed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the World Health Organization (WHO)--to establish frameworks for joint work and public policies more in line with the domestic conditions of Latin American countries, using a collaborative, sustainable, and comprehensive approach to animal health, food security, and public health policy. PMID:25418770

  9. Benefits in Cash or in Kind? A Community Consultation on Types of Benefits in Health Research on the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Njue, Maureen; Molyneux, Sassy; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Kamuya, Dorcas; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Background Providing benefits and payments to participants in health research, either in cash or in kind, is a common but ethically controversial practice. While much literature has concentrated on appropriate levels of benefits or payments, this paper focuses on less well explored ethical issues around the nature of study benefits, drawing on views of community members living close to an international health research centre in Kenya. Methods The consultation, including 90 residents purposively chosen to reflect diversity, used a two-stage deliberative process. Five half-day workshops were each followed by between two and four small group discussions, within a two week period (total 16 groups). During workshops and small groups, facilitators used participatory methods to share information, and promote reflection and debate on ethical issues around types of benefits, including cash, goods, medical and community benefits. Data from workshop and field notes, and voice recordings of small group discussions, were managed using Nvivo 10 and analysed using a Framework Analysis approach. Findings and Conclusions The methods generated in-depth discussion with high levels of engagement. Particularly for the most-poor, under-compensation of time in research carries risks of serious harm. Cash payments may best support compensation of costs experienced; while highly valued, goods and medical benefits may be more appropriate as an ‘appreciation’ or incentive for participation. Community benefits were seen as important in supporting but not replacing individual-level benefits, and in building trust in researcher-community relations. Cash payments were seen to have higher risks of undue inducement, commercialising relationships and generating family conflicts than other benefits, particularly where payments are high. Researchers should consider and account for burdens families may experience when children are involved in research. Careful context-specific research planning

  10. Berries and human health: research highlights from the Fifth Biennial Berry Health Benefits Symposium.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-05-01

    The fifth biennial Berry Health Benefits Symposium showcased recent research supporting the positive effects of berry consumption on human health and disease. Remarkably, the vast majority of oral papers covered data accumulated from in vivo studies, which underscores how berry health research has advanced since the inception of this symposium in 2005. Similar to the past, research presented at this meeting was primarily focused on the major commercially cultivated berries in North America, namely, blackberry, blueberry, black raspberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry. Despite this, on the basis of similar compositional chemistry, it is possible that similar biological effects may also be extended to other small soft-fleshed "berry-type" fruits popular in other parts of the world including Europe, Asia, and South America. Overall, this symposium continues to add to the growing body of data supporting the positive impact of berry fruit consumption on human health promotion and disease risk reduction. PMID:24148006

  11. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drugs, mental health services, vision services or hearing services, then the actuarial value of the... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457.430 Section 457.430 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  12. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457.430 Section 457.430 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS...

  13. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457.430 Section 457.430 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS...

  14. Health systems ownership: can regulation preserve community benefits?

    PubMed

    Pauly, M V

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses two questions. What determines the amount of community benefit a nonprofit firm will provide? What would be the expected effect of legal rules requiring nonprofit firms to provide more community benefit than they would otherwise have chosen? The amount of community benefit provided, it is argued, depends on the desires of the donors who endow the nonprofit firm with its equity capital and control its corporate board. The effect of a law requiring the provision of community benefit depends on the degree of competition in the local market. In competitive markets, such a rule is like a hidden tax. In markets in which nonprofit firms have market power, it may divert resources from types of benefit valued highly by the board toward activities valued highly by the political process. The definition of community benefit and the future of nonprofit hospitals are also discussed. PMID:10157360

  15. A Systems Biology Approach to Synovial Joint Lubrication in Health, Injury, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Alexander Y.; McCarty, William J.; Masuda, Koichi; Firestein, Gary S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The synovial joint contains synovial fluid (SF) within a cavity bounded by articular cartilage and synovium. SF is a viscous fluid that has lubrication, metabolic, and regulatory functions within synovial joints. SF contains lubricant molecules, including proteoglycan-4 and hyaluronan. SF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with secreted contributions from cell populations lining and within the synovial joint space, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Maintenance of normal SF lubricant composition and function are important for joint homeostasis. In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint injury, changes in lubricant composition and function accompany alterations in the cytokine and growth factor environment and increased fluid and molecular transport through joint tissues. Thus, understanding the synovial joint lubrication system requires a multi-faceted study of the various parts of the synovial joint and their interactions. Systems biology approaches at multiple scales are being used to describe the molecular, cellular, and tissue components and their interactions that comprise the functioning synovial joint. Analyses of the transcriptome and proteome of SF, cartilage, and synovium suggest that particular molecules and pathways play important roles in joint homeostasis and disease. Such information may be integrated with physicochemical tissue descriptions to construct integrative models of the synovial joint that ultimately may explain maintenance of health, recovery from injury, or development and progression of arthritis. PMID:21826801

  16. The effect of health benefit information on consumers health value, attitudes and intentions.

    PubMed

    Tudoran, Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C

    2009-06-01

    This research explored the effect of health benefit information on individuals' stated health value, attitudes towards functional/enriched foods, expectations, perceptions, and intentions to purchase a new fibre-enriched fish product. The study used a randomized design involving an experimental group receiving fibre and health information on the product and a control group who did not receive such information. The results indicated that consumers in the experimental group scored higher on the average attitudes towards functional/enriched foods than did consumers in the control group. No significant differences were observed for other variables. Following a value-attitude-behaviour approach, the study proposed a model relating consumers' health value to their attitudes towards functional/enriched foods, attitudes towards the new functional product and intention to purchase the product, and tested how information affected the structural model. Four of the seven relationships in the structural model proved to be moderated by information. For example, the results indicated that information constrained the association between the health value and product-related health perceptions or hedonic expectations, when individuals had negative attitudes towards the functional/enriched food products. Overall, the study advances the existing literature on the effects of information on consumer behaviour by adding insights into how information simultaneously influenced the mean values and the relationships among the health value, attitudinal factors and intention. PMID:19501752

  17. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  18. What You Should Know about Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... HAT Y OU S HOULD K NOW A BOUT Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits V aginal dryness ... Women _ s Health Ini- tiative in 1993 to study hormone effects. Researchers were expecting to find that hormones ...

  19. Evidence-based benefit design: toward a sustainable health care future for employers.

    PubMed

    Bunn, William B; Stave, Gregg M; Allen, Harris; Naim, Ahmad B

    2010-10-01

    Health care costs for employers are rising much faster than inflation. The common approach to health benefit design of increasing cost sharing has failed to contain costs. Some employers, however, have been successful at mitigating the cost trend or actually reducing health care costs. These employers have in common a dedication to data analysis, a search for cost drivers, and a willingness to adjust their approach to health benefit design to address these cost drivers. This approach has much in common with the movement in clinical practice toward evidence-based medicine. We propose that employers adopt a similar approach toward health benefits termed evidence-based benefit design, which is based on a health and productivity framework focused on direct and indirect costs. Evidence-based benefit design incorporates the relevant literature and employer-specific data that are integrated and regularly analyzed. PMID:20881622

  20. Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Peter D.; McManus, Alexandra; Krail, Kevin; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Miller, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The joint symposium of The Omega-3 Centre and the Australasian Section American Oil Chemists Society; Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability, was held November 7, 2013 in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Over 115 attendees received new information on a range of health benefits, aquaculture as a sustainable source of supply, and current and potential new and novel sources of these essential omega-3 long-chain (LC, ≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrients (also termed LC omega-3). The theme of “Food versus Fuel” was an inspired way to present a vast array of emerging and ground breaking Omega-3 research that has application across many disciplines. Eleven papers submitted following from the Omega-3 Symposium are published in this Special Issue volume, with topics covered including: an update on the use of the Omega-3 Index (O3I), the effects of dosage and concurrent intake of vitamins/minerals on omega-3 incorporation into red blood cells, the possible use of the O3I as a measure of risk for adiposity, the need for and progress with new land plant sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), the current status of farmed Australian and New Zealand fish, and also supplements, in terms of their LC omega-3 and persistent organic pollutants (POP) content, progress with cheap carbon sources in the culture of DHA-producing single cell organisms, a detailed examination of the lipids of the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, and a pilot investigation of the purification of New Zealand hoki liver oil by short path distillation. The selection of papers in this Special Issue collectively highlights a range of forward looking and also new and including positive scientific outcomes occurring in the omega-3 field. PMID:25255830

  1. Recent advances in omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; McManus, Alexandra; Krail, Kevin; Sinclair, Andrew J; Miller, Matt

    2014-09-01

    The joint symposium of The Omega-3 Centre and the Australasian Section American Oil Chemists Society; Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability, was held November 7, 2013 in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Over 115 attendees received new information on a range of health benefits, aquaculture as a sustainable source of supply, and current and potential new and novel sources of these essential omega-3 long-chain (LC, ≥ C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrients (also termed LC omega-3). The theme of "Food versus Fuel" was an inspired way to present a vast array of emerging and ground breaking Omega-3 research that has application across many disciplines. Eleven papers submitted following from the Omega-3 Symposium are published in this Special Issue volume, with topics covered including: an update on the use of the Omega-3 Index (O3I), the effects of dosage and concurrent intake of vitamins/minerals on omega-3 incorporation into red blood cells, the possible use of the O3I as a measure of risk for adiposity, the need for and progress with new land plant sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), the current status of farmed Australian and New Zealand fish, and also supplements, in terms of their LC omega-3 and persistent organic pollutants (POP) content, progress with cheap carbon sources in the culture of DHA-producing single cell organisms, a detailed examination of the lipids of the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, and a pilot investigation of the purification of New Zealand hoki liver oil by short path distillation. The selection of papers in this Special Issue collectively highlights a range of forward looking and also new and including positive scientific outcomes occurring in the omega-3 field. PMID:25255830

  2. Estrogen Alone and Joint Symptoms in the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Cirillo, Dominic J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Pettinger, Mary; Carbone, Laura D.; Johnson, Karen C.; Simon, Michael S; Woods, Nancy F.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While joint symptoms are commonly reported after menopause, observational studies examining exogenous estrogen influence on joint symptoms provide mixed results. Against this background, estrogen alone effects on joint symptoms were examined in post hoc analyses in the Women’s Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy were randomized to receive daily oral conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/d) or matching placebo. The frequency and severity of joint pain and joint swelling were assessed by questionnaire at entry and year 1 from all participants and in a random 9.9% subsample (n=1062) following years 3 and 6. Logistic regression models were used to compare frequency and severity of symptoms by randomization group. Sensitivity analyses evaluated adherence influence on symptoms. Results At baseline, joint pain and swelling were closely comparable in the randomization groups (about 77% with joint pain and 40% with joint swelling). After one year, joint pain frequency was significantly lower in the estrogen alone compared to the placebo group (76.3% vs 79.2%, P=0.001) as was joint pain severity and the difference in pain between randomization groups persisted through year 3. However, joint swelling frequency was higher in the estrogen alone group (42.1% vs 39.7%, P=0.02). Adherence adjusted analyses strengthen the estrogen association with reduced joint pain but attenuated the estrogen association with increased joint swelling. Conclusions The current findings suggest that estrogen alone use in postmenopausal women results in a modest but sustained reduction in the frequency of joint pain. PMID:23511705

  3. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  4. Perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption among Russian consumers.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Heleen; Fischer, Arnout R H; Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn J

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge about differences in consumer perceptions of health risks and benefits related to fish consumption is important for the development of targeted health interventions associated with dietary choice. The purpose of this study is to identify individual differences in Russian consumers according to their perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption. By application of a cluster analysis on perceptions of personal risks and benefits associated with the consumption of fish, four groups of Russian consumers were classified as: very positive; positive; moderately positive; and 'high risk-high benefit' about the healthiness of fish consumption. Differences in perceptions of personal risks and benefits across consumers were related to self-reported fish consumption, optimism about personal risks and benefits, and optimism about personal knowledge about risks and benefits. Implications for the development of targeted health interventions to influence perceptions of risks and benefits associated with fish consumption, and ultimately fish consumption, are discussed. It is concluded that optimism regarding perceptions and knowledge of health risks, and health benefits should be taken into account when developing interventions aimed at consumer health. PMID:21147191

  5. Health changes in Sri Lanka: benefits of primary health care and public health.

    PubMed

    Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304

  6. Using a 401(h) account to fund retiree health benefits from your pension plan.

    PubMed

    Lee, David; Singerman, Eduardo

    2003-06-01

    If a health and welfare plan covering retirees faces financial shortfalls, administrators and trustees can fund retiree health benefit payments from a related pension plan that may be in better condition. This method is legal and ethical, but it requires sophisticated accounting techniques for creating an account that provides retiree members with promised benefits while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements. PMID:12800312

  7. 78 FR 48337 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Members of Congress and Congressional Staff

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... reasonable reading of the statute is that enrollment in FEHB contracted plans under chapter 89 of title 5... of Meaning of ``Health Benefit Plan Under This Chapter'' As Used in 5 U.S.C. 8905(b) and 5 U.S.C...'' or ``approving'' health benefit plans that are offered through the Exchanges, there is no doubt...

  8. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing health benefit... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES... to support the covered individual's position. (e) OPM review. (1) If the covered individual...

  9. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing health benefit... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES... to support the covered individual's position. (e) OPM review. (1) If the covered individual...

  10. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of 29 CFR 2560.503-1 for group health plans complies with the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2...-network. Benefits furnished on an inpatient basis and within a network of providers established or recognized under a plan or health insurance coverage. (2) Inpatient, out-of-network. Benefits furnished on...

  11. 78 FR 52579 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...: Trust Funds Group of the Office of Chief Financial Officer, Office of Personnel Management (OPM), offers... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life... Personnel Management. Title: (1) Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits,...

  12. Preventive Health Care in the HMO: Cost Benefit Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Daniel S.; Bisbee, Gerald E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Using a sample of graduate students at the Yale Health Plan, this paper reports on the costs and the medical findings of providing annual physical examinations in university health delivery systems. The role of alternative forms of health education are discussed, as well as recommendations for the continued efficacy of the annual physical…

  13. The next big thing in health benefits: consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Consumers are the only ones who can affect all decision points that drive health care cost and quality. As a result, consumers' health and financial security depend on their taking more responsibility for their health care decisions and having the tools and information needed to do so successfully. This article explains the five key decision points that drive health care cost and quality, how technology aids marketplace innovations, and how employers can help advance consumer choice in order to push the health care system to deliver better care and keep inflation in check. PMID:11881142

  14. Perceptions of the risks and benefits of fish consumption: Individual choices to reduce risk and increase health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption often focus on awareness of and adherence to advisories, how much fish people eat, and contaminant levels in those fish. This paper examines knowledge and accuracy of risks and benefits of fish consumption among fishers and other recreationists in the New York Bight, indicative of whether they could make sound dietary decisions. While most respondents knew about health risks (70%) and benefits (94%) of consuming fish, far fewer could name specific risks and benefits. Less than 25% of respondents mentioned mercury and less than 15% mentioned that pregnant women and children were at risk. Far fewer people mentioned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nearly 70% said it was healthy to eat fish, and 45% were aware that fish were rich in healthful oils. Despite the lack of details about what specific risks and benefits of fish, well over a third did not feel they needed more information. Other respondents had basic questions, but did not pose specific questions about the fish they caught or ate that would have clarified their individual risk-balancing decisions. Knowledge of which fish were high in contaminants did not match the mercury or PCB levels in those fish. There was a disconnect between the information base about specific risks and benefits of fish consumption, levels of mercury and PCBs in fish, and the respondent’s desire for more information. These data indicate that respondents did not have enough accurate information about contaminants in fish to make informed risk-balancing decisions. PMID:19193369

  15. What are the benefits and risks of using return on investment to defend public health programs?

    PubMed

    Brousselle, Astrid; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Benhadj, Lynda

    2016-06-01

    Return on investment (ROI) is an economic measure used to indicate how much economic benefit is derived from a program in relation to its costs. Interest in the use of ROI in public health has grown substantially over recent years. Given its potential influence on resource allocation, it is crucial to understand the benefits and the risks of using ROI to defend public health programs. In this paper, we explore those benefits and risks. We present two recent examples of ROI use in public health in the United States and Canada and conclude with a series of proposals to minimize the risks associated with using ROI to defend public health interventions. PMID:27419005

  16. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. PMID:26538523

  17. Investing in children's health: what are the economic benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Paolo C.; Bustreo, Flavia; Preker, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that investing in children's health is a sound economic decision for governments to take, even if the moral justifications for such programmes are not considered. The paper also outlines dimensions that are often neglected when public investment decisions are taken. The conclusion that can be drawn from the literature studying the relationship between children's health and the economy is that children's health is a potentially valuable economic investment. The literature shows that making greater investments in children's health results in better educated and more productive adults, sets in motion favourable demographic changes, and shows that safeguarding health during childhood is more important than at any other age because poor health during children's early years is likely to permanently impair them over the course of their life. In addition, the literature confirms that more attention should be paid to poor health as a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Children born into poor families have poorer health as children, receive lower investments in human capital, and have poorer health as adults. As a result, they will earn lower wages as adults, which will affect the next generation of children who will thus be born into poorer families. PMID:16283055

  18. Mechanisms governing the health and performance benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Bailey, D

    2013-01-01

    Humans are considered among the greatest if not the greatest endurance land animals. Over the last 50 years, as the population has become more sedentary, rates of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension have all increased. Aerobic fitness is considered protective for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, a variety of cancers, joint disease and depression. Here, I will review the emerging mechanisms that underlie the response to exercise, focusing on the major target organ the skeletal muscle system. Understanding the mechanisms of action of exercise will allow us to develop new therapies that mimic the protective actions of exercise. PMID:24033098

  19. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  20. Benefits of improved environmental cooperation on a joint DoD/DOE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, G.K.; Gibson, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    Numerous Federal facilities within the US involve multiple government agencies that face overlapping environmental concerns. This paper highlights the benefits of looking beyond the strict letter of environmental regulations that might affect a single tenant or environmental site to cooperative environmental efforts that focus on the entire facility, consistent with the missions of participating agencies. Using Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) as a model, seven areas of Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cooperation are discussed that span technical, regulatory compliance, and administrative issues.

  1. [The periodic health examination: from law to the directive of the German Federal Joint Committee (G-BA)].

    PubMed

    Perleth, Matthias; Matthias, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Since 1989 a periodic health examination beginning at the age of 35 for the early detection of "common diseases" (especially cardiovascular and kidney diseases as well as diabetes) by means of history-taking, physical examination, blood and urine tests and counselling has been available in Germany. Altogether, the respective directive of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) was revised six times, but a substantive change took place only once (i. e., the cancellation of uric acid, creatinine, and resting ECG in 1999). However, additional examinations (e.g., glaucoma screening) were not added to the health check after systematic assessments of the evidence were completed. In the mid-1990s, several evaluations were performed which showed that new diagnoses were established in a significant proportion of patients, and measures were initiated such as nutrition counselling. A patient-relevant benefit in terms of avoided adverse events (such as heart attacks) could, however, not be demonstrated due to methodological reasons. Criticism of the health examination is not new, in particular concerning the lack of evidence of benefit for the diagnostic procedures of the health examination. A draft law issued by the former Federal Government proposing an amendment to the health examination has recently been rejected in the Bundesrat (upper house of the German parliament). PMID:24889707

  2. Psychological Benefits of Aerobic Running: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…

  3. Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, D

    2013-09-01

    The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings. PMID:24099822

  4. Cellular Radio Telecommunication for Health Care: Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Sneiderman, Charles A.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Cellular radio telecommunication has increased exponentially with many applications to health care reported. The authors attempt to summarize published applications with demonstrated effect on health care, review briefly the rapid evolution of hardware and software standards, explain current limitations and future potential of data quality and security, and discuss issues of safety. PMID:15298996

  5. What is a health benefit? An evaluation of EFSA opinions on health benefits with reference to probiotics.

    PubMed

    Binnendijk, K H; Rijkers, G T

    2013-09-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host. However, before these effects can be referred to as beneficial to human health, such claims need to be evaluated by regulatory institutes such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and allergies (NDA) has published their opinions regarding health claims including probiotics, most of which were rejected in the past years. Using the EFSA database, the NDA dossiers published between 2005 and 2013 were analysed to provide an overview on what grounds certain health effects were accepted as beneficial and others not. The NDA Panel distinguishes between claims that are definitely beneficial, possibly beneficial or non-beneficial to human health. Overall, 78% of all analysed health claims are considered by the NDA Panel as (possibly) beneficial to human health, in particular the gut health effects. Since, in many cases, the scientific substantiation of a particular health claim was deemed insufficient, most applications were turned down. For future health claim applications concerning probiotics to be successful, they should include specific statements on what exactly the microorganism affects, and the scientific substantiation of the particular health claim should be based on the targeted (general) population. PMID:23685375

  6. Health benefits from devolution in England: international lessons.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Yvonne; Johnstone, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Chancellor of the Exchequer's recent announcements to devolve decision making power from Whitehall to 30 English regions provide a challenge to use devolution to deliver more favourable health outcomes. However evaluation of devolved health models internationally is scarce, because it is rarely considered. Evidence from countries with long-standing experience of devolution finds that the best approaches are holistic, seeking fiscal freedoms to sustain the environment, promote health, well-being and citizen engagement. Overall, international outcomes are mixed, with some evidence of greater efficiency of care delivery but little hard evidence of better clinical outcomes or health status. Handling specialised services in a devolved health system is challenging. Regulation by national authorities is important to avoid gaming of the system by providers. Information from the devolved area is important in demonstrating equitable access. We present an evaluation framework and recommend that evaluation continues through governance of these deals during implementation. PMID:26908880

  7. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Revisiting the ACA's Essential Health Benefits Requirements.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act broadens and strengthens the health insurance benefits available to consumers by requiring insurers to provide coverage of a minimum set of medical services known as "essential health benefits." Federal officials implemented this reform using transitional policies that left many important decisions to the states, while pledging to reassess that approach in time for the 2016 coverage year. This issue brief examines how states have exercised their options under the initial federal essential health benefits framework. We find significant variation in how states have developed their essential health benefits packages, including their approaches to benefit substitution and coverage of habilitative services. Federal regulators should use insurance company data describing enrollees' experiences with their coverage--information called for under the law's delayed transparency requirements--to determine whether states' differing strategies are producing the coverage improvements promised by reform. PMID:26259257

  8. NOAA-ISRO joint science projects on Earth observation system science, technology, and applications for societal benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A.; Jayarman, V.; Kondragunta, S.; Kogan, F.; Kuligowski, R.; Maturi, E.

    2006-12-01

    India and the United States of America (U.S.A.) held a joint conference from June 21-25, 2004 in Bangalore, India to strengthen and expand cooperation in the area of space science, applications, and commerce. Following the recommendations in the joint vision statement released at the end of the conference, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Indian Space and Reconnaissance Organization (ISRO) initiated several joint science projects in the area of satellite product development and applications. This is an extraordinary step since it concentrates on improvements in the data and scientific exchange between India and the United States, consistent with a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by the two nations in 1997. With the relationship between both countries strengthening with President Bush's visit in early 2006 and new program announcements between the two countries, there is a renewed commitment at ISRO and other Indian agencies and at NOAA in the U.S. to fulfill the agreements reached on the joint science projects. The collaboration is underway with several science projects that started in 2005 providing initial results. NOAA and ISRO agreed that the projects must promote scientific understanding of the satellite data and lead to a satellite-based decision support systems for disaster and public health warnings. The projects target the following areas: --supporting a drought monitoring system for India --improving precipitation estimates over India from Kalpana-1 --increasing aerosol optical depth measurements and products over India --developing early indicators of malaria and other vector borne diseases via satellite monitoring of environmental conditions and linking them to predictive models --monitoring sea surface temperature (SST) from INSAT-3D to support improved forecasting of regional storms, monsoon onset and cyclones. The research collaborations and results from these projects will be presented and discussed in the

  9. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889

  10. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  11. Health and climate benefits of offshore wind facilities in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Luckow, Patrick; Fisher, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2016-07-01

    Electricity from fossil fuels contributes substantially to both climate change and the health burden of air pollution. Renewable energy sources are capable of displacing electricity from fossil fuels, but the quantity of health and climate benefits depend on site-specific attributes that are not often included in quantitative models. Here, we link an electrical grid simulation model to an air pollution health impact assessment model and US regulatory estimates of the impacts of carbon to estimate the health and climate benefits of offshore wind facilities of different sizes in two different locations. We find that offshore wind in the Mid-Atlantic is capable of producing health and climate benefits of between 54 and 120 per MWh of generation, with the largest simulated facility (3000 MW off the coast of New Jersey) producing approximately 690 million in benefits in 2017. The variability in benefits per unit generation is a function of differences in locations (Maryland versus New Jersey), simulated years (2012 versus 2017), and facility generation capacity, given complexities of the electrical grid and differences in which power plants are offset. This work demonstrates health and climate benefits of offshore wind, provides further evidence of the utility of geographically-refined modeling frameworks, and yields quantitative insights that would allow for inclusion of both climate and public health in benefits assessments of renewable energy.

  12. The electronic cigarette: potential health benefit or mere business?

    PubMed

    De Marco, Cinzia; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Bosi, Sandra; Pozzi, Paolo; Di Paco, Adriano; Mazza, Roberto; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Munarini, Elena; Boffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have attracted considerable attention as a possible alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality as well as their commercial success without a clear regulatory framework are arousing concern. We have therefore tried to summarize the health-related implications of the use of e-cigarettes in order to help physicians and health professionals provide accurate information on this device. Given the lack of unequivocal scientific data on their toxicity and safety, we conclude that at the moment there is no reason to approve e-cigarettes as a safe alternative to tobacco smoke. PMID:24503808

  13. Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

  14. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  15. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  16. The Role of Leisure Engagement for Health Benefits Among Korean Older Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Irwin, Lori; Kim, May; Chin, Seungtae; Kim, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine the benefits of leisure to older Korean women. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, in this study we identified three categories of benefits from leisure activities: (a) developing social connections, (b) enhancing psychological well-being, and (c) improving physical health. The findings of this study demonstrate that involvement in leisure activities offers substantial physical, psychological, and social benefits for older Korean women. The results also suggest that these benefits can provide an opportunity for older Korean adults to improve their health and well-being, which, in turn, may help promote successful aging. PMID:26252796

  17. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  18. Self-reported health and sickness benefits among parents of children with a disability

    PubMed Central

    Wendelborg, Christian; Tøssebro, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article investigates the possible consequences in self-reported health and receipt of sickness benefits when parenting a child with a disability This study uses data from the population health study, The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2), and the historical event database, FD-Trygd, which contains Social Security and national insurance data for the Norwegian population. In the analysis, we compare 1587 parents of a child with a disability to other parents. Results indicate that parenting a disabled child impacts on self-reported health, particularly among mothers; however, being a parent to a disabled child has a much stronger effect in explaining the variance in received sickness benefits, and also length of time and frequency of having received sickness benefits. Parents with disabled children report just slightly lower self-reported health but are on sickness benefits more often than other parents which may be attributed to their extended care responsibilities.

  19. A Review of the Health Benefits of Greenness

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Banay, Rachel F.; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly exploring how neighborhood greenness, or vegetation, may affect health behaviors and outcomes. Greenness may influence health by promoting physical activity and social contact; decreasing stress; and mitigating air pollution, noise, and heat exposure. Greenness is generally measured using satellite-based vegetation indices or land-use databases linked to participants’ addresses. In this review, we found fairly strong evidence for a positive association between greenness and physical activity, and a less consistent negative association between greenness and body weight. Research suggests greenness is protective against adverse mental health outcomes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, though most studies were limited by cross-sectional or ecological design. There is consistent evidence that greenness exposure during pregnancy is positively associated with birth weight, though findings for other birth outcomes are less conclusive. Future research should follow subjects prospectively, differentiate between greenness quantity and quality, and identify mediators and effect modifiers of greenness-health associations. PMID:26185745

  20. 18 CFR 1317.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and insurance... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  1. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  2. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  3. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance... full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  4. 14 CFR 1253.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  5. 18 CFR 1317.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  6. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  7. 14 CFR 1253.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Health and insurance benefits and services... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  8. 31 CFR 28.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  9. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  10. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  11. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  12. 6 CFR 17.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  13. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a..., any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  14. 45 CFR 86.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 86.39 Section 86.39 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and...

  15. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  16. 6 CFR 17.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  17. 31 CFR 28.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  18. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  19. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  20. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.440 Health and insurance... provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care....

  1. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements of 29 CFR 2560.503-1 for group health plans complies with the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. 146.136 Section 146.136 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  2. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements of 29 CFR 2560.503-1 for group health plans complies with the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. 146.136 Section 146.136 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  3. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... instructions and directives. (2) Legal and ethical business and health care practices. (3) Compliance with the... chargeable to the contract; (2) Using fraudulent or unethical business or health care practices or...

  4. Low-Income Employees’ Choices Regarding Employment Benefits Aimed at Improving the Socioeconomic Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Marion; Lovett, Francis; Sabik, Lindsay; Adikes, Katherin; Cheng, Glen; Aomo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Socioeconomic factors are associated with reduced health status in low-income populations. We sought to identify affordable employment benefit packages that might ameliorate these socioeconomic factors and would be consonant with employees’ priorities. Methods. Working in groups (n = 53), low-income employees (n = 408; 62% women, 65% Black) from the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, Md, metropolitan area, participated in a computerized exercise in which they expressed their preference for employment benefit packages intended to address socioeconomic determinants of health. The hypothetical costs of these benefits reflected those of the average US benefit package available to low-income employees. Questionnaires ascertained sociodemographic information and attitudes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to examine benefit choices. Results. Groups chose offered benefits in the following descending rank order: health care, retirement, vacation, disability pay, training, job flexibility, family time, dependent care, monetary advice, anxiety assistance, wellness, housing assistance, and nutrition programs. Participants varied in their personal choices, but 78% expressed willingness to abide by their groups’ choices. Conclusions. It is possible to design employment benefits that ameliorate socioeconomic determinants of health and are acceptable to low-income employees. These benefit packages can be provided at the cost of benefit packages currently available to some low-income employees. PMID:17666702

  5. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    PubMed Central

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  6. Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Danielle F.; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J.; Lin, Brenda B.; Dean, Julie; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Nature within cities will have a central role in helping address key global public health challenges associated with urbanization. However, there is almost no guidance on how much or how frequently people need to engage with nature, and what types or characteristics of nature need to be incorporated in cities for the best health outcomes. Here we use a nature dose framework to examine the associations between the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure to nature and health in an urban population. We show that people who made long visits to green spaces had lower rates of depression and high blood pressure, and those who visited more frequently had greater social cohesion. Higher levels of physical activity were linked to both duration and frequency of green space visits. A dose-response analysis for depression and high blood pressure suggest that visits to outdoor green spaces of 30 minutes or more during the course of a week could reduce the population prevalence of these illnesses by up to 7% and 9% respectively. Given that the societal costs of depression alone in Australia are estimated at AUD$12.6 billion per annum, savings to public health budgets across all health outcomes could be immense.

  7. Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Danielle F.; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J.; Lin, Brenda B.; Dean, Julie; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Nature within cities will have a central role in helping address key global public health challenges associated with urbanization. However, there is almost no guidance on how much or how frequently people need to engage with nature, and what types or characteristics of nature need to be incorporated in cities for the best health outcomes. Here we use a nature dose framework to examine the associations between the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure to nature and health in an urban population. We show that people who made long visits to green spaces had lower rates of depression and high blood pressure, and those who visited more frequently had greater social cohesion. Higher levels of physical activity were linked to both duration and frequency of green space visits. A dose-response analysis for depression and high blood pressure suggest that visits to outdoor green spaces of 30 minutes or more during the course of a week could reduce the population prevalence of these illnesses by up to 7% and 9% respectively. Given that the societal costs of depression alone in Australia are estimated at AUD$12.6 billion per annum, savings to public health budgets across all health outcomes could be immense. PMID:27334040

  8. Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J; Lin, Brenda B; Dean, Julie; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Nature within cities will have a central role in helping address key global public health challenges associated with urbanization. However, there is almost no guidance on how much or how frequently people need to engage with nature, and what types or characteristics of nature need to be incorporated in cities for the best health outcomes. Here we use a nature dose framework to examine the associations between the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure to nature and health in an urban population. We show that people who made long visits to green spaces had lower rates of depression and high blood pressure, and those who visited more frequently had greater social cohesion. Higher levels of physical activity were linked to both duration and frequency of green space visits. A dose-response analysis for depression and high blood pressure suggest that visits to outdoor green spaces of 30 minutes or more during the course of a week could reduce the population prevalence of these illnesses by up to 7% and 9% respectively. Given that the societal costs of depression alone in Australia are estimated at AUD$12.6 billion per annum, savings to public health budgets across all health outcomes could be immense. PMID:27334040

  9. Whole grain cereals: functional components and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Borneo, Rafael; León, Alberto Edel

    2012-02-01

    Cereal-based food products have been the basis of the human diet since ancient times. Dietary guidelines all over the world are recommending the inclusion of whole grains because of the increasing evidence that whole grains and whole-grain-based products have the ability to enhance health beyond the simple provision of energy and nutrients. In this review we will examine the main chemical components present in whole grains that may have health enhancing properties (dietary fiber, inulin, beta-glucan, resistant starch, carotenoids, phenolics, tocotrienols, and tocopherols) and the role that whole grains may play in disease prevention (cardiovascular diseases and strokes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, as well as different forms of cancer). The knowledge derived from the functional properties of the different chemical components present in whole grains will aid in the formulation and development of new food products with health enhancing characteristics. PMID:22134555

  10. State-based coverage solutions: the California Health Benefit Exchange.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Micah; Haase, Leif Wellington

    2011-05-01

    California was the first state to create its own health insurance exchange after the passage of the Affordable Care Act. Because of its front-runner status and the sheer size of its coverage expansion, California's choices will have implications for other states as they address difficult issues, including minimizing adverse selection, promoting cost-conscious consumer choice, and seamlessly coordinating with public programs. California took advantage of the flexibility in the federal health reform law to create an exchange that will function as an active purchaser in the marketplace; take significant steps to combat adverse selection both against and within the exchange, including requiring all insurers to sell all tiers of products and making exchange participation a condition of selling catastrophic plans; and allow community-based health plans to develop commercial offerings for the exchange. This brief examines these decisions, which will provide a roadmap for other states as they set up their exchanges. PMID:21630546

  11. Multiplicity of effects and health benefits of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kuršvietienė, Lolita; Stanevičienė, Inga; Mongirdienė, Aušra; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is mainly found in grapes and red wine, also in some plants and fruits, such as peanuts, cranberries, pistachios, blueberries and bilberries. Moreover, nowadays this compound is available as purified preparation and dietary supplement. Resveratrol provides a wide range of benefits, including cardiovascular protective, antiplatelet, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, blood glucose-lowering and anticancer activities, hence it exhibits a complex mode of action. During the recent years, these properties have been widely studied in animal and human models, both in vitro and in vivo. This paper is intended to present information published during the recent years on the biological activities and multiple effects of resveratrol. PMID:27496184

  12. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  13. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5–10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  14. Benefits and operational concerns of rural health clinics.

    PubMed

    Fogel, L A; MacQuarrie, C

    1994-11-01

    In 1977, Congress enacted the Rural Health Clinic Act in an effort to make healthcare more accessible in underserved rural areas. Changes in the regulations affecting these clinics, such as offering incentives to start and staff the facilities, have been enacted in a series of Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts beginning in 1987. As a result, the last few years have seen the number of clinics double. In this article, authors Lawrence A. Fogel and Cindy MacQuarrie examine the advantages offered by rural health clinics and review the operational issues involved in setting up and running them. PMID:10146094

  15. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition. PMID:26720057

  16. Soil health benefits using cover crops across the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils in the southeastern U.S. are very low in organic matter, which can be attributed to high temperatures, humidity, and rainfall that oxidizes organic residues very quickly. Conventional tillage exacerbates this condition and generally contributes to poor soil health. As a result, soils in the r...

  17. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  18. Affordable Health Benefits for Part-Time School Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhart, Russ

    2005-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 45 million Americans do not have health insurance. What's surprising is the majority of those individuals are actually employed. Part-time workers make up a full 15 percent of the uninsured population and school systems have a share of that group. Every day in the United States, approximately 10 percent…

  19. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dollar value of essential health benefits. For more information, see 29 CFR 2590.715-2711. (1) General—(i..., supervised clinical experience for psychiatrists or Ph.D. level psychologists since their licensing...

  20. Medicare and Other Health Benefits: Your Guide to Who Pays First

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan. The group health plan may be a fee-for-service plan or a managed care plan, ... Medicare & Veterans’ benefits (continued) I have a VA fee-basis identification (ID) card. Who pays first? The ...

  1. New NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins on Medical Research That Benefits Everyone's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefit everyone's health." — NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins Healthcare Reform— We can put science to work to better ... of this? Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, NIH has received $10 billion in stimulus funding, ...

  2. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    PubMed

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages. PMID:26462418

  3. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... imposing lifetime and annual limits on the dollar value of essential health benefits. For more information..., supervised clinical experience for psychiatrists or Ph.D. level psychologists since their licensing...

  4. 26 CFR 54.9812-1 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... imposing lifetime and annual limits on the dollar value of essential health benefits. (1) General—(i..., supervised clinical experience for psychiatrists or Ph.D. level psychologists since their licensing...

  5. Co-benefits of climate mitigation and health protection in energy systems: scoping methods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Haigler, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Interventions in the energy sector offer significant opportunities for reducing both greenhouse and other health-damaging pollution, resulting in what are called "co-benefits." The health community plays a critical role in evaluating such interventions to optimize progress of both sorts because both affect health. In detail, analyses require sophisticated modeling and specific local information. As a starting point, however, we offer here a set of scoping methods for obtaining a quick assessment of these co-benefits for interventions in the energy sector, the arena with the highest potential for significant co-benefits. Thus we combine relevant methods developed separately in recent years for cost-effectiveness assessments in the climate change, health, and development communities. We offer sample calculations, which illustrate the apparent high degree of co-benefit effectiveness for targeted interventions in the household energy sector in developing countries. PMID:18173381

  6. Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship. NBER Working Paper No. 16722

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that education offers a wide-range of benefits that extend beyond increases in labor market productivity. Improvements in education can lower crime, improve health, and increase voting and democratic participation. This chapter reviews recent developments on these "non-production" benefits of education with an…

  7. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618.440 Section 618.440 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE..., hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a...

  8. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618.440 Section 618.440 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE..., hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a...

  9. 77 FR 67743 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Intermittent Employees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Benefits program (FEHBP) to temporary firefighters and fire protection personnel. 77 FR 42417. In addition... types of emergency response services to enroll in a health benefits plan under this part. In granting... Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to apply to OPM for authorization to offer FEHBP coverage...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-network. Benefits furnished on an inpatient basis and within a network of providers established or recognized under a plan or health insurance coverage. (2) Inpatient, out-of-network. Benefits furnished on an inpatient basis and outside any network of providers established or recognized under a plan or...

  11. Health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in women.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Among the numerous positive effects of probiotic microorganisms and prebiotic carbohydrates observed in clinical studies--the majority of which, however, does not fulfil the criteria of pharmaceutical verification--some are of specific relevance to female health. The present review addresses--besides some notes concerning the potential microbiota-hormone interactions--the first line with preventive and/or therapeutic applications of probiotic bacteria in order to maintain a balanced intestinal and urogenital flora, as well as in the case of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation (idiopathic slow-transit) and urogenital tract infections. Further aspects are the promotion of bone health and osteoporosis prevention brought about by inulin, oligofructose and galactooligosaccharides. Some further conditions, namely anorexia nervosa, the premenstrual syndrome as well as prevention or alleviation of climacteric and menopausal disorders, for which the use of probiotics is rather hypothetical or is largely studied by alternative medicine practising physicians, are addressed briefly. PMID:19237621

  12. Medical students as sexual health peer educators: who benefits more?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of an educational reproductive health program on medical student peer educators and the secondary school pupils whom they taught. Methods The Marseille School of Medicine and ten public secondary schools participated in the study. Medical students were recruited and trained as peer educators to promote sexual health in the secondary schools. The medical students and secondary school pupils were evaluated before and after education program. The main outcome measure was the sexual health knowledge score on a 20-item questionnaire (maximum score 20). Results A total of 3350 students attended the peer-led course conducted by 107 medical students. The medical students’ score increased significantly before and after the course (from 15.2 ± 1.8 to 18.3 ± 0.9; p < 0.001). The knowledge score of the pupils increased (from 7.8 ± 4 to 13.5 ± 4.4; p < 0.001). The girls’ score was significantly higher than the boys’ score after the course, but not before (14.5 ± 3.3 vs 12.5 ± 4.6; p < 0.001). Prior to the course, the score among the female medical students was significantly higher than that of the males. The overall knowledge increase was not significantly different between medical students and secondary school pupils (mean 3.1 ± 1 and 5.7 ± 4 respectively; p > 0.05). Conclusions The program was effective in increasing the knowledge of medical students as well as secondary school pupils. Male sexual health knowledge should be reinforced. PMID:25099947

  13. Designing food structures for nutrition and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jennifer E; Wallis, Gareth A; Spyropoulos, Fotis; Lillford, Peter J; Norton, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    In addition to providing specific sensory properties (e.g., flavor or textures), there is a need to produce foods that also provide functionality within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, over and above simple nutrition. As such, there is a need to understand the physical and chemical processes occurring in the mouth, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, in addition to the food structure-physiology interactions. In vivo techniques and in vitro models have allowed us to study and simulate these processes, which aids us in the design of food microstructures that can provide functionality within the human body. Furthermore, it is important to be aware of the health or nutritional needs of different groups of consumers when designing food structures, to provide targeted functionality. Examples of three groups of consumers (elderly, obese, and athletes) are given to demonstrate their differing nutritional requirements and the formulation engineering approaches that can be utilized to improve the health of these individuals. Eating is a pleasurable process, but foods of the future will be required to provide much more in terms of functionality for health and nutrition. PMID:24387609

  14. Translating behavioral health services research into benefits policy.

    PubMed

    Grazier, K L; Pollack, H

    2000-01-01

    This article uses a 4-pronged statistical approach to examine the impact of a mental health carve-out at a major employer. To examine net financial impact of the carve-out, the authors perform a pre-post, multivariate regression analysis of changes in costs. Using a random-effects model, the authors explore the ultimate financial impact of the carve-out for patients and for the firm. Using a multinomial logistic regression, they examine differing program effects by intensity of use. A fixed-effects negative binomial regression models the episodic nature of outpatient care, controlling for patient-specific unobserved characteristics that influence health care utilization. The carve-out slightly reduced overall mental health costs and utilization while expanding entry-level access to routine services. At the same time, the specific carve-out shifted financial burdens from the firm onto high-utilization patients. Therefore, this carve-out appears poorly suited to the care of individuals experiencing severe and debilitating psychiatric disorders. PMID:11105506

  15. Increasing health insurance coverage through an extended Federal Employees Health Benefits Program.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, B C

    2001-01-01

    The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) could be combined with health insurance tax credits to extend coverage to the uninsured. An extended FEHBP, or "E-FEHBP," would be open to all individuals who were not covered through work or public programs and who also were eligible for the tax credits on the basis of income. E-FEHBP also would be open to employees of very small firms, regardless of their eligibility for tax credits. Most plans available to FEHBP participants would be required to offer enrollment to E-FEHBP participants, although premiums would be rated separately. High-risk individuals would be diverted to a separate high-risk pool, the cost of which would be subsidized by the federal government. E-FEHBP would be administered by the states, or if a state declined, by an entity that contracted with the Office of Personnel Management. While E-FEHBP would provide group insurance to people who otherwise could not get it, premiums could exceed the tax-credit amount and some people still might find the coverage unaffordable. PMID:11529514

  16. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. PMID:26189913

  17. [Justification to health managers: cost-benefit of osteoporosis management].

    PubMed

    Hernández-García, César

    2011-09-01

    Medicines are strictly regulated and controlled until they reach the patients. Once in the market, the mechanisms governing their use are very complex due to the large number of actors playing different roles. It is necessary to extend an evaluation culture among all involved and to make economic analysis a structured part of decisions made by physicians and health managers. Since physicians occupy a central place in this market of medicines, it is necessary that they assume their responsibility by actively participating in this evaluation. PMID:21924214

  18. 5 CFR 890.203 - Application for approval of, and proposal of amendments to, health benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of amendments to, health benefit plans. 890.203 Section 890.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.203 Application for approval of, and proposal of amendments to,...

  19. 5 CFR 890.203 - Application for approval of, and proposal of amendments to, health benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for approval of, and proposal of amendments to, health benefit plans. 890.203 Section 890.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans §...

  20. Managing Costs, Managing Benefits: Employer Decisions in Local Health Care Markets

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Jon B; Trude, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To better understand employer health benefit decision making, how employer health benefits strategies evolve over time, and the impact of employer decisions on local health care systems. Data Sources/Study Setting. Data were collected as part of the Community Tracking Study (CTS), a longitudinal analysis of health system change in 12 randomly selected communities. Study Design This is an observational study with data collection over a six-year period. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The study used semistructured interviews with local respondents, combined with monitoring of local media, to track changes in health care systems over time and their impact on community residents. Interviewing began in 1996 and was carried out at two-year intervals, with a total of approximately 2,200 interviews. The interviews provided a variety of perspectives on employer decision making concerning health benefits; these perspectives were triangulated to reach conclusions. Principal Findings The tight labor market during the study period was the dominant consideration in employer decision making regarding health benefits. Employers, in managing employee compensation, made independent decisions in pursuit of individual goals, but these decisions were shaped by similar labor market conditions. As a result, within and across our study sites, employer decisions in aggregate had an important impact on local health care systems, although employers' more highly visible public efforts to bring about health system change often met with disappointing results. Conclusions General economic conditions in the 1990s had an important impact on the configuration of local health systems through their effect on employer decision making regarding health benefits offered to employees, and the responses of health plans and providers to those decisions. PMID:12650371

  1. Human health benefits and burdens of a pharmaceutical treatment: Discussion of a conceptual integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Debaveye, Sam; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Vandijck, Dominique; Heirman, Bert; Kavanagh, Shane; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a pharmaceutical treatment have until now been evaluated by the field of Health Economics on the patient health benefits, expressed in Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) versus the monetary costs. However, there is also a Human Health burden associated with this process, resulting from emissions that originate from the pharmaceutical production processes, Use Phase and End of Life (EoL) disposal of the medicine. This Human Health burden is evaluated by the research field of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and expressed in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), a metric similar to the QALY. The need for a new framework presents itself in which both the positive and negative health effects of a pharmaceutical treatment are integrated into a net Human Health effect. To do so, this article reviews the methodologies of both Health Economics and the area of protection Human Health of the LCA methodology and proposes a conceptual framework on which to base an integration of both health effects. Methodological issues such as the inclusion of future costs and benefits, discounting and age weighting are discussed. It is suggested to use the structure of an LCA as a backbone to cover all methodological challenges involved in the integration. The possibility of monetizing both Human Health benefits and burdens is explored. The suggested approach covers the main methodological aspects that should be considered in an integrated assessment of the health effects of a pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26544901

  2. Serious engagement in sport and health benefits among Korean immigrants in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Henderson, Karla A; Han, Areum; Park, Se-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group. PMID:27492152

  3. Serious engagement in sport and health benefits among Korean immigrants in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Henderson, Karla A.; Han, Areum; Park, Se-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group. PMID:27492152

  4. Urban governance and the systems approaches to health-environment co-benefits in cities.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jose A Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N H; Siri, José; Dreyfus, Magali; Farzaneh, Hooman; Capon, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities. PMID:26648361

  5. Improved cost, health, and satisfaction with a health home benefit plan for self-insured employers and small physician practices.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Jerry; Kapp, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We compared the impacts on total costs, health, and satisfaction among 615 adults enrolled 2 years in an employer's health home benefit plan to their baseline year in a standard preferred provider organization plan. The new plan combined strong continuity care incentives with nurse coaching support. After 24 months, total medical costs were 23% lower than the baseline year, biometric measures improved for more than 85% of members, and patient satisfaction exceeded 85%. Emergency department visits decreased by 16% and hospital days decreased by 48%. Health home benefit plans engaging small primary care physician practices and members in coordinated continuity care can deliver high value. PMID:23448916

  6. Polyphenols in whole rice grain: genetic diversity and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yafang; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    Polyphenols, such as phenolic acid, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidins, have both nutraceutical properties and functional significance for human health. Identification of polyphenolic compounds and investigation of their genetic basis among diverse rice genotypes provides the basis for the improvement of the nutraceutical properties of whole rice grain. This review focuses on current information on the identification, genetic diversity, formation and distribution patterns of the phenolic acid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidins in whole rice grain. The genetic analysis of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity allows the identification of several candidate genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for polyphenol variation, which may be useful in improvement of these phytochemicals by breeding. Future challenges such as how to mitigate the effects of climate change while improving nutraceutical properties in whole grain, and how to use new technology to develop new rice high in nutraceutical properties are also presented. PMID:25766805

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of comprehensive mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Fukuda, Takashi; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program's average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27-16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs. PMID:24077445

  8. Cost-benefit Analysis of Comprehensive Mental Health Prevention Programs in Japanese Workplaces: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    IIJIMA, Sachiko; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; KITAMURA, Fumihiko; FUKUDA, Takashi; INABA, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program’s average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27–16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs. PMID:24077445

  9. Saponins from edible legumes: chemistry, processing, and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Shi, John; Arunasalam, Konesh; Yeung, David; Kakuda, Yukio; Mittal, Gauri; Jiang, Yueming

    2004-01-01

    Demand for bean products is growing because of the presence of several health-promoting components in edible bean products such as saponins. Saponins are naturally occurring compounds that are widely distributed in all cells of legume plants. Saponins, which derive their name from their ability to form stable, soaplike foams in aqueous solutions, constitute a complex and chemically diverse group of compounds. In chemical terms, saponins contain a carbohydrate moiety attached to a triterpenoid or steroids. Saponins are attracting considerable interest as a result of their diverse properties, both deleterious and beneficial. Clinical studies have suggested that these health-promoting components, saponins, affect the immune system in ways that help to protect the human body against cancers, and also lower cholesterol levels. Saponins decrease blood lipids, lower cancer risks, and lower blood glucose response. A high saponin diet can be used in the inhibition of dental caries and platelet aggregation, in the treatment of hypercalciuria in humans, and as an antidote against acute lead poisoning. In epidemiological studies, saponins have been shown to have an inverse relationship with the incidence of renal stones. Thermal processing such as canning is the typical method to process beans. This study reviews the effect of thermal processing on the characteristics and stability of saponins in canned bean products. Saponins are thermal sensitive. During soaking and blanching, portions of saponins are dissolved in water and lost in the soaking, washing, and blanching liquors. An optimum thermal process can increase the stability and maintain the saponins in canned bean products, which is useful for assisting the food industry to improve thermal processing technology and enhance bean product quality. PMID:15117556

  10. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Blomhoff, Rune; Carlsen, Monica H; Andersen, Lene Frost; Jacobs, David R

    2006-11-01

    A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and minimally refined cereals is associated with lower risk for chronic degenerative diseases. Since oxidative stress is common in chronic degenerative disease, it has been assumed that dietary antioxidants may explain this protective effect. Every dietary plant contains numerous types of antioxidants with different properties. Many of these antioxidants cooperate in oxidative stress reduction in plants, and we hypothesize that many different antioxidants may also be needed for the proper protection of animal cells. To test this hypothesis, it is useful to identify dietary plants with high total antioxidant content. Several nuts are among the dietary plants with the highest content of total antioxidants. Of the tree nuts, walnuts, pecans and chestnuts have the highest contents of antioxidants. Walnuts contain more than 20 mmol antioxidants per 100 g, mostly in the walnut pellicles. Peanuts (a legume) also contribute significantly to dietary intake of antioxidants. These data are in accordance with our present extended analysis of an earlier report on nut intake and death attributed to various diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. We observed that the hazard ratio for total death rates showed a U-shaped association with nut/peanut butter consumption. Hazard ratio was 0.89 (CI = 0.81-0.97) and 0.81 (CI = 0.75-0.88) for nut/peanut butter intake once per week and 1-4 times per week, respectively. Death attributed to cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases showed strong and consistent reductions with increasing nut/peanut butter consumption. Further studies are needed to clarify whether antioxidants contribute to this apparent beneficial health effect of nuts. PMID:17125534

  11. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... the enrollment, in accordance with this part, and without regard to age, race, sex, health status, or... child, except that a plan that is sponsored or underwritten by an employee organization may not...

  12. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health...

  13. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health...

  14. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health...

  15. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  16. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  17. Vaccine Risk/Benefit Communication: Effect of an Educational Package for Public Health Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Kennen, Estela M.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Arnold, Connie L.; Quinlin, Mackey S.; Bocchini, Joseph A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an in-service for public health nurses (PHNs) and accompanying educational materials could improve vaccine risk/benefit communication. The content and timing of vaccine communication were recorded during 246 pre-and 217 post-intervention visits in two public health immunization clinics.…

  18. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and well-child care, including age-appropriate immunizations. (5) Emergency services. (6) Family... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark...

  19. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  20. Perceived safety and benefit of community water fluoridation: 2009 HealthStyles survey

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Nathan; Griffin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe perceived benefits and safety of community water fluoridation (CWF) and investigate factors associated with those perceptions of CWF among respondents to a proprietary survey in the United States. Methods We obtained data from the 2009 HealthStyles survey, a convenience sample of 4,556 respondents. Pearson's chi-squared and logistic regression were used to determine the associations between certain socio-demographic factors and perceptions regarding the safety and health benefits of CWF. Results The majority of respondents (55.3 percent) strongly agreed/agreed that CWF was safe, while 31.5 percent were neutral, and 13.2 percent disagreed/strongly disagreed. Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported CWF had no health benefit, 57.3 percent reported some benefit, and 15.5 percent reported great benefit. Perceived CWF safety and benefit in the bivariate analyses were associated with gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, sealant knowledge, CWF knowledge, past year dental utilization, and perceived vaccine safety. Respondents with knowledge of CWF (47.9 percent) were more likely to agree that it was safe (69.8 percent) than those who reported no knowledge (41.3 percent). Among respondents who said childhood vaccines were not safe (4.0 percent), almost half disagreed that CWF was safe. Logistic regression results indicated that perceived CWF safety and benefits increased with CWF knowledge, perceived vaccine safety, and income. Conclusions Although only a minority of the US population perceived CWF as unsafe or providing no benefit to health, perceptions regarding CWF varied by knowledge of CWF and socio-demographic factors. Oral health promotion activities should consider these differing perceptions of CWF among groups to tailor oral health messaging appropriately. PMID:26147330

  1. Potential public health benefits of HIV testing occurring at home in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guy, Rebecca J; Prestage, Garrett P; Grulich, Andrew; Holt, Martin; Conway, Damian P; Jamil, Muhammad S; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Wilson, David P

    2015-06-01

    In many countries, including Australia, policies have recently changed to support HIV self-testing. The decision has created much debate about the public health benefits of the strategy versus the risks. Self-testing for HIV was approved in the US on the basis that it would facilitate greater HIV testing uptake, despite having a lower sensitivity than laboratory HIV immunoassays. We calculated the frequency of self-testing that would be required among Australian gay and bisexual men at high-risk for there to be a public health benefit (detection of HIV infections that would have otherwise remained undiagnosed). At a population level, if access to HIV self-testing led to men supplementing their usual sexual health check-ups (involving a laboratory HIV immunoassay) with one or more self-tests at home, or self-tests led to untested gay and bisexual men having an HIV test for the first time, there would be a public health benefit. If men replaced their average of one laboratory HIV immunoassay per year with self-testing at home, then three self-tests would be needed to counteract the lower sensitivity of the self-test (so zero infections would be missed). If four self-tests were undertaken then additional infections would be detected (ie, there would be a public health benefit). Additional public health benefits include a reduction in the period of undiagnosed infection, which is known to be a period of relatively high infectiousness. PMID:26021364

  2. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Krupnick, Alan J; Morgenstern, Richard D; Thurston, George D

    2008-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. Methods We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1) changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2) avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3) economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. Results We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis). While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Conclusion Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits. PMID:18671873

  3. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  4. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Ríos, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

  5. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations. PMID:24964573

  6. Benefit distribution of social health insurance: evidence from china's urban resident basic medical insurance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Tian, Sen; Zhou, Qin; Han, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Equity is one of the essential objectives of the social health insurance. This article evaluates the benefit distribution of the China's Urban Residents' Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 300 million urban populations. Using the URBMI Household Survey data fielded between 2007 and 2011, we estimate the benefit distribution by the two-part model, and find that the URBMI beneficiaries from lower income groups benefited less than that of higher income groups. In other words, government subsidy that was supposed to promote the universal coverage of health care flew more to the rich. Our study provides new evidence on China's health insurance system reform, and it bears meaningful policy implication for other developing countries facing similar challenges on the way to universal coverage of health insurance. PMID:26936094

  7. Air Emissions and Health Benefits from Using Sugarcane Waste as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.; Campbell, E.; Chen, Y.; Carmichael, G.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S.

    2010-12-01

    Brazil, as the largest ethanol exporter in the world, faces rapid expansion of ethanol production due to the increase of global biofuels demand. Current production of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol causes significant air emissions mainly from the open burning phase of agriculture wastes (i.e. sugarcane straws and leaves) resulting in potential health impacts. One possible measure to avoid undesired burning practices is to increase the utilization of unburned sugarcane residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. To explore the benefits of this substitution, here we first apply a bottom-up approach combining agronomic data and life-cycle models to investigate spatially and temporally explicit emissions from sugarcane waste burning. We further quantify the health benefits from preventing burning practices using the CMAQ regional air quality model and the BenMAP health benefit analysis tool adapted for Brazilian applications. Furthermore, the health impacts will be converted into monetary values which provide policymakers useful information for the development of cellulosic ethanol.

  8. Identifying the public health benefits of livestock-dependent, agro-ecosystems under climate change.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Shana

    2013-12-01

    As the demand for meat continues to grow in South Asia and Africa and access to communal sources of water and forage shrinks, intensification of small-scale livestock systems in peri-urban areas is expected to expand. In South East Asia, smallholder transition to livestock intensification has been transformative, increasing economic opportunities while also introducing new disease risks. While we have an understanding of the emerging disease burden from livestock intensification; we have just begun to understand the possible public health benefits of sustainable landscapes and the potential health savings accrued from disease avoidance. To date, few studies have attempted to quantify the health benefits attributable to sustainable agro-ecosystems, especially in regard to livestock systems. In this paper, I will examine what is needed to measure and communicate the public health benefits and cost-savings (from disease avoidance) of sustainable agro-ecosystems. PMID:24176076

  9. US power plant carbon standards and clean air and health co-benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Burtraw, Dallas; Reid, Stephen B.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions standards for US power plants will influence the fuels and technologies used to generate electricity, alter emissions of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, and influence ambient air quality and public health. We present an analysis of how three alternative scenarios for US power plant carbon standards could change fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations in ambient air, and the resulting public health co-benefits. The results underscore that carbon standards to curb global climate change can also provide immediate local and regional health co-benefits, but the magnitude depends on the design of the standards. A stringent but flexible policy that counts demand-side energy efficiency towards compliance yields the greatest health benefits of the three scenarios analysed.

  10. Health behavior change benefits: Perspectives of Latinos with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Burrows, Kimberly; Aschbrenner, Kelly; Barre, Laura K; Pratt, Sarah I; Alegría, Margarita; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the perceived benefits of engaging in health behavior change from the viewpoint of overweight and obese Latinos with severe mental illness (SMI) enrolled in the U.S. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 obese Latinos with SMI who were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a motivational health promotion intervention adapted for persons with SMI. Overweight and obese Latino participants believed that engaging in health behavior change would have both physical and mental health benefits, including chronic disease management, changes in weight and body composition, and increased self-esteem. Interventions that explicitly link physical activity and healthy eating to improvements in mental health and well-being may motivate Latinos with SMI to adopt health behavior change. PMID:26873582

  11. Conditional Health-Related Benefits of Higher Education: An Assessment of Compensatory versus Accumulative Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed. PMID:24768780

  12. Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre. Fibre intakes are generally lower than recommendations. This paper reviews the physiological effects of wheat bran and the health benefits it may provide in terms of the prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. In recognition of the weight of evidence, the European Food Safety Authority has recently approved two health claims for wheat bran and gastrointestinal health. PMID:22716911

  13. Health benefits of nut consumption with special reference to body weight control.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Kunyanga, Catherine N; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-01-01

    Nuts are an integral part of the Mediterranean food patterns, and their incorporation into the regular diets of human beings is believed to provide many health benefits. The recent recognition of nuts as "heart-healthy" foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given a major boost to the positive image of nuts. Nut consumption has been associated with several health benefits, such as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic benefits, among other functional properties. However, although nuts possess these many health benefits, their consumption has been hampered by a lack of adequate information regarding those benefits. In addition, because nuts are energy-dense foods with high-fat content, there is a misconception among consumers that increased consumption may lead to unwanted gain in body weight with the risk of developing overweight/obesity. Nonetheless, available epidemiologic studies and short-term controlled feeding trials have supported the theory that the inclusion of nuts in the typical diet does not induce weight gain, despite an expected increase in total caloric intake. To address the misperception about nuts and body weight gain, the present review focuses mainly on the relation between nut consumption and body weight gain, in the context of the many health benefits of nuts. PMID:23044160

  14. Provider stakeholders' perceived benefit from a nascent health information exchange: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Pevnick, Joshua M; Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Asch, Steven M; Stutman, Harris R; Tomines, Alan; Fu, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We sought to better understand the perceived costs and benefits of joining a nascent health information exchange (HIE) from the perspective of potential provider organization participants. We therefore conducted semi-structured interviews with organizational representatives. Interview transcriptions were thematically coded, and coded text was subsequently aggregated to summarize the breadth and depth of responses. Although no respondents expected HIE to result in net financial benefit to their organization, all respondents recognized some potential benefits, and some respondents expected HIE to result in overall organizational benefit. Disproportionate benefit was expected for the poorest, sickest patients. Many respondents had concerns about HIE increasing the risk of data security breaches, and these concerns were most pronounced at larger organizations. We found little evidence of organizational concern regarding loss of patients to other organizations or publication of unfavorable quality data. If HIE's greatest benefactors are indeed the poorest, sickest patients, our current health care financing environment will make it difficult to align HIE costs with benefits. To sustain HIE, state and federal governments may need to consider ongoing subsidies. Furthermore, these governments will need to ensure that policies regulating data exchange have sufficient nationwide coordination and liability limitations that the perceived organizational risks of joining HIEs do not outweigh perceived benefits. HIE founders can address organizational concerns by attempting to coordinate HIE policies with those of their largest founding organizations, particularly for data security policies. Early HIE development and promotional efforts should not only focus on potential benefits, but should also address organizational concerns. PMID:20703673

  15. US Farm households: joint decision making and impact of health insurance on labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Latika; Findeis, Jill; Chintawar, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    The paper attempts to answer a very simple question: how does a farm household respond as a unit in the labor market when benefits or health insurance is tied to employer provided jobs. One of the major changes affecting US agriculture has been a decline in the number of farms and an increase in the multiple job-holding, especially among farm women to fulfill various objectives ranging from helping out with farm expenses or securing benefits like health insurance. In addition to this, the new health care law or "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA") to be operational by 2014 requires that all individuals be covered by a health plan. Hence, it's important to understand the relationship between health insurance and labor markets to appropriately identify the impact of health policy reform for farm families. PMID:23718543

  16. US Farm households: joint decision making and impact of health insurance on labor market outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper attempts to answer a very simple question: how does a farm household respond as a unit in the labor market when benefits or health insurance is tied to employer provided jobs. One of the major changes affecting US agriculture has been a decline in the number of farms and an increase in the multiple job-holding, especially among farm women to fulfill various objectives ranging from helping out with farm expenses or securing benefits like health insurance. In addition to this, the new health care law or “The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA”) to be operational by 2014 requires that all individuals be covered by a health plan. Hence, it’s important to understand the relationship between health insurance and labor markets to appropriately identify the impact of health policy reform for farm families. PMID:23718543

  17. [Aspects of expertise which are jointly valid for German sociomedicine and statutory health care].

    PubMed

    Seger, W; Cibis, W; Hagen, T; Harai, G; Heipertz, W; Hüller, E; Korsukéwitz, C; Krasney, O E; Leistner, K; Leupold, M; Niedeggen, A; Rohwetter, M; Schian, H-M; Schuntermann, M F; Steinke, B; Stolz, M

    2004-01-01

    A project group of the Medical Advisory Board of the German Federal Rehabilitation Council (BAR) developed fundamental joint principles on experts' opinions according to the social law code no. IX (SGB IX). The principles aim at medical experts working in different social organisations and statutory health care insurance. It was intended to create a "sociomedical language" which should be used as jointly as possible by experts in rehabilitation and social medicine and which is based on the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, WHO 2001). Its stringent application will increase the utility of medical expertise across different institutions. The authors recommend to evaluate whether this model could provide a tool in the communication and cooperation between different sectors of the health system. Part I describes the theoretical model, Part II its application to a virtual individual case history. PMID:14767790

  18. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats. PMID:27061471

  19. The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.

    PubMed

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals. PMID:14505993

  20. Benefits of community-based education to the community in South African health science facilities

    PubMed Central

    Flack, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Community-based education (CBE) is utilised by health science faculties worldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service to underserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits to training institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities, too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in the planning of such training programmes. Method An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken by three South African universities in the provinces of Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. Focus group interviews were conducted in their local languages with groups of community leaders, patients and supervisors at community sites involved in CBE training. A thematic analysis of their views was undertaken with the aid of NVivo (version 9). Ethics approval was obtained from the respective universities and health care training sites. Results Benefits to the community could be categorised into short-term and long-term benefits. Short-term benefits included improved service delivery, reduction in hospital referrals, home visits and community orientated primary health care, improved communication with patients and enhanced professionalism of the health care practitioner. Long-term benefits included improved teaching through a relationship with an academic institution and student familiarity with the health care system. Students also became involved in community upliftment projects, thereby acting as agents of change in these communities. Conclusion Communities can certainly benefit from well-planned CBE programmes involving a training site - community site partnership.

  1. 10th World IHEA and ECHE Joint Congress: health economics in the age of longevity.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Getzen, Thomas E; Torbica, Aleksandra; Anegawa, Tomofumi

    2014-12-01

    The 10th consecutive World Health Economics conference was organized jointly by International Health Economics Association and European Conference on Health Economics Association and took place at The Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland in July 2014. It has attracted broad participation from the global professional community devoted to health economics teaching,research and policy applications. It has provided a forum for lively discussion on hot contemporary issues such as health expenditure projections, reimbursement regulations,health technology assessment, universal insurance coverage, demand and supply of hospital services, prosperity diseases, population aging and many others. The high-profile debate fostered by this meeting is likely to inspire further methodological advances worldwide and spreading of evidence-based policy practice from OECD towards emerging markets. PMID:25301000

  2. Perceptions of drugs benefits and barriers to quit by undergraduate health students.

    PubMed

    Henriquéz, Patricia Cid; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta de

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have exposed the consumption of drugs by undergraduate students in the health area, who are supposed to be examples of behavior and health educators. This descriptive correlation study aimed to relate the benefits of tobacco consumption and barriers to quit according to the perception of undergraduate students. Eighty third-year students, in three different courses, answered a self-applied questionnaire. The studied variables were: consumption conditions, barriers and benefits regarding drug consumption, family and personal characteristics. One-third of the students reported tobacco use; 5% reported the use of marijuana; 15% alcohol and 6% tranquilizers, more than once a month; 18% reported the consumption of tobacco and 13% reported the use of alcohol even before the age of 15. The perceived benefits were: relaxation, pleasure and social acceptance, whereas barriers for quitting were: habituation and addiction. According to the results, promoting self-responsibility of these future health professionals is recommended in their educational context. PMID:18709285

  3. Latina and Non-Latina Mothers' Perceived Health Barriers and Benefits and Their Relationship to Children's Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Highland, Krista B; Lundahl, Alyssa; Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Caballos, Miguel; McChargue, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Disparities exist in rates of overweight/obesity between Latino and non-Latino populations. Attention should be given to risk factors that may be modifiable through interventions involving both the parent and child. The current study sought to identify ethnic differences in parental health beliefs and their relation to children's health behaviors. Methods Latina and non-Latina mothers (N = 203) at rural and urban clinics and health departments completed self-report questionnaires. Key information included beliefs about barriers and benefits to health practices and children's health behaviors. Results Children of Latina mothers consumed significantly more soda and fried foods and exercised less than children of non-Latina mothers. Latina mothers were significantly more likely to perceive barriers to healthy eating and significantly less likely to perceive benefits to healthy eating and physical activity than non-Latina mothers. Ethnicity mediated the relationship between maternal views of health benefits and soda consumption. Conclusions Policy changes are needed to promote health education and increase the accessibility of healthy foods and safe places to exercise for Latino families. PMID:27003152

  4. The Effect of Employee Assistance Plan Benefits on the Use of Outpatient Behavioral Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Merrick, Elizabeth L.; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M.; McGuire, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Many US workers have access both to an employee assistance plan (EAP) and to employer health insurance that includes behavioral health services. We examine whether EAP services substitute for outpatient behavioral health care services covered by the health plan, in settings where the employer has purchased both products jointly. We analyze administrative data for 26,464 patients enrolled with a managed behavioral health organization in 2005. General linear models are used to predict visits and spending for regular outpatient care. We also use instrumental variable analysis to test for endogeneity of the number of EAP visits covered. Having more generous EAP coverage predicts fewer regular outpatient visits, and lower spending for outpatient care. This supports the idea that the two types of care are to some extent perceived as substitutes, although patients also appear to perceive that EAP services offer something distinct from regular outpatient care. PMID:21368341

  5. Health benefits of reducing NO x emissions in the presence of epidemiological and atmospheric nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappin, A. J.; Hakami, A.; Blagden, P.; Nasari, M.; Szyszkowicz, M.; Burnett, R. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the logarithm of concentration is a better predictor of mortality risk from long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and NO2 than concentration itself. A log-concentration-response function (CRF) predicts a heightened excess risk per unit concentration at low levels of exposure that further increases as the air becomes less polluted. Using an adjoint air quality model, we estimate the public health benefits of reducing NO x emissions, on a per-ton and source-by-source basis. Our estimates of benefits-per-ton assume linear in concentration and log-concentration CRFs for NO2 and a CRF that is linear in concentration for O3. We apply risk coefficients estimated using the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort. We find that a log-concentration CRF for NO2 leads almost consistently to larger benefits-per-ton than a linear in concentration CRF (e.g., 500 000 ton‑1 compared to 270 000 ton‑1 for Ottawa). We observe that concentrations gradually decline due to widespread, progressive emissions abatement, entailing increasing health benefits as a result of (1) a log-concentration CRF for NO2 and (2) the nonlinear response of O3 to NO x emissions. Our results indicate that NO x abatement has the potential to incur substantial and increasing health benefits, by up to five times with 85% emission reductions, for Canada into the future.

  6. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in

  7. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in primary joint arthroplasty in Aneurin Bevan University Health Board South.

    PubMed

    Blocker, O; Abdulkadir, U; Roberts, P

    2016-03-01

    Introduction The choice of perioperative antibiotics to reduce the prevalence of infection after joint arthroplasty should be considered carefully to minimise the risk of nosocomial infections. Dramatic increases in the incidence and severity of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) have occurred since 2000. Methods A retrospective audit of patients who underwent total hip and total knee replacement between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007 was undertaken in Aneurin Bevan University Health Board South (ABHBS). Stool samples from patients who had diarrhoea <12 months of surgery were recorded. Positive samples for CDAD <1 month of surgery were identified. After the change in practice in June 2010, a re-audit linked joint-replacement patients between 1 July 2010 and 26 June 2013 with infection control-records for CDAD-positive cases. Results In the first audit cycle, 1900 joint procedures were carried out in 1845 patients. There were 4 cases of CDAD <1 month of surgery (0.22%). In the re-audit period, 2591 joint procedures were undertaken in 2400 patients: no cases of CDAD <1 month of surgery were recorded. Fisher's exact test gave a two-tailed p=0.036. Conclusions The significant reduction in CDAD cases after the change in perioperative antibiotic regimen for primary joint arthroplasty mirrored a 66% reduction in overall CDAD cases in the ABUHBS between 2008 and 2012. This reduction was accompanied by financial savings in antibiotics and nursing hours. PMID:26836055

  8. Quantitative health monitoring of bolted joints using piezoceramic actuator-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritdumrongkul, Sopon; Abe, Masato; Fujino, Yozo; Miyashita, Takeshi

    2003-08-01

    A non-destructive evaluation technique using piezoceramic (PZT) as an actuator-sensor has an ability to efficiently detect structural damage. In this technique, a PZT actuator-sensor patch is bonded on a structure. Through the measurement of its electrical impedance, which is related to mechanical impedance of the structure being bonded, the change in structure properties due to damage can be detected. This paper presents the use of PZT in structural health monitoring to quantitatively detect damage of bolted joints. The structure used in this study consists of two aluminum beams connected by a bolted joint. The damage is simulated by loosening of the bolts. To quantitatively monitor the damage, a numerical model of the structure is formulated. Spectral element method (SEM) based on wave propagation approach is used to model the structure. A bonded-PZT beam and a bolted joint element are developed by using SEM. The equations of motion are derived by using Hamilton's principle subsequently, the spectral element matrices are formulated. Experimental results show the ability of this method to detect the damage. By using the proposed model, the loosening of bolts can be quantitatively identified as the change in stiffness and damping at the bolted joint. Therefore, this method has high potential to quantitatively monitor damage of bolted joints.

  9. Multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin; Dong, Liang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2016-04-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced composite materials are becoming the main structural materials of next generation of aircraft because of their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios, and excellent designability. As key components of large composite structures, joints play important roles to ensure the integrity of the composite structures. However, it is very difficult to analyze the strength and failure modes of composite joints due to their complex nonlinear coupling factors. Therefore, there is a need to monitor, diagnose, evaluate and predict the structure state of composite joints. This paper proposes a multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joints. Major work of this paper includes: 1) The concept of multifunctional sensor layer integrated with eddy current sensors, Rogowski coil and arrayed piezoelectric sensors; 2) Development of the process for integrating the eddy current sensor foil, Rogowski coil and piezoelectric sensor array in multifunctional sensor layer; 3) A new concept of smart composite joint with multifunctional sensing capability. The challenges for building such a structural state sensing system and some solutions to address the challenges are also discussed in the study.

  10. Emphasizing the health benefits of vitamin D for those with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Grant, William B; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Holick, Michael F; Cannell, John J; Pludowski, Pawel; Lappe, Joan M; Pittaway, Mary; May, Philip

    2015-03-01

    People with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities have much greater health care needs. Mainly staying indoors, such people generally have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The Vitamin D Task Force of the American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD) reviewed the evidence of 25(OH)D concentrations that benefit the health of persons with developmental disabilities. Maintaining recommended optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations year long will benefit skeletal development in infants, children, and adolescents, and benefit musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular coordination in adult patients, and decrease risk of falls. Maintaining optimal concentrations decreases risks and severities of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Other benefits include improved dental and oral health and improved physical performance. The Task Force recommends that 25(OH)D concentrations for optimal health to be in the range of 75 to 125 nmol/L, which can be achieved using between 800 and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 and sensible exposure to solar UVB radiation. The paper also discusses the potential risks of higher 25(OH)D concentrations, the evidence from and limitations of randomized controlled trials, and the recommendations by various groups and agencies. PMID:25734565

  11. Emphasizing the Health Benefits of Vitamin D for Those with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.; Holick, Michael F.; Cannell, John J.; Pludowski, Pawel; Lappe, Joan M.; Pittaway, Mary; May, Philip

    2015-01-01

    People with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities have much greater health care needs. Mainly staying indoors, such people generally have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The Vitamin D Task Force of the American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD) reviewed the evidence of 25(OH)D concentrations that benefit the health of persons with developmental disabilities. Maintaining recommended optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations year long will benefit skeletal development in infants, children, and adolescents, and benefit musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular coordination in adult patients, and decrease risk of falls. Maintaining optimal concentrations decreases risks and severities of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Other benefits include improved dental and oral health and improved physical performance. The Task Force recommends that 25(OH)D concentrations for optimal health to be in the range of 75 to 125 nmol/L, which can be achieved using between 800 and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 and sensible exposure to solar UVB radiation. The paper also discusses the potential risks of higher 25(OH)D concentrations, the evidence from and limitations of randomized controlled trials, and the recommendations by various groups and agencies. PMID:25734565

  12. A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2012-02-01

    At Copenhagen, the developed countries agreed to provide up to $100 bn per year to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation by developing countries. Projects aimed at cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will need to be evaluated against dual criteria: from the viewpoint of the developed countries they must cut emissions of GHGs at reasonable cost, while host countries will assess their contribution to development, or simply their overall economic benefits. Co-benefits of some types of project will also be of interest to host countries: for example some projects will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus improving the health of the local population. This paper uses a simple damage function methodology to quantify some of the health co-benefits of replacing coal-fired generation with wind or small hydro in China. We estimate the monetary value of these co-benefits and find that it is probably small compared to the added costs. We have not made a full cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy in China as some likely co-benefits are omitted from our calculations. Our results are subject to considerable uncertainty however, after careful consideration of their likely accuracy and comparisons with other studies, we believe that they provide a good first cut estimate of co-benefits and are sufficiently robust to stand as a guide for policy makers. In addition to these empirical results, a key contribution made by the paper is to demonstrate a simple and reasonably accurate methodology for health benefits estimation that applies the most recent academic research in the field to the solution of an increasingly important problem. PMID:22208748

  13. Huge "wellness incentives" are more about health plan benefit design than health promotion.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Regulations governing employers' use of financial incentives for employees who participate in health promotion programs or are successful in achieving health goals go into effect today (January 1, 2014). It is important to recognize that huge incentives have more to do with health plan design and less to do with effective strategies to improve health. Comprehensive health promotion programs need to increase awareness of the link between lifestyle and health, enhance motivation to improve health, build the skills important for a healthy lifestyle, and provide an abundance of opportunities to practice a healthy lifestyle. PMID:24380428

  14. Personal health records: definitions, benefits, and strategies for overcoming barriers to adoption.

    PubMed

    Tang, Paul C; Ash, Joan S; Bates, David W; Overhage, J Marc; Sands, Daniel Z

    2006-01-01

    Recently there has been a remarkable upsurge in activity surrounding the adoption of personal health record (PHR) systems for patients and consumers. The biomedical literature does not yet adequately describe the potential capabilities and utility of PHR systems. In addition, the lack of a proven business case for widespread deployment hinders PHR adoption. In a 2005 working symposium, the American Medical Informatics Association's College of Medical Informatics discussed the issues surrounding personal health record systems and developed recommendations for PHR-promoting activities. Personal health record systems are more than just static repositories for patient data; they combine data, knowledge, and software tools, which help patients to become active participants in their own care. When PHRs are integrated with electronic health record systems, they provide greater benefits than would stand-alone systems for consumers. This paper summarizes the College Symposium discussions on PHR systems and provides definitions, system characteristics, technical architectures, benefits, barriers to adoption, and strategies for increasing adoption. PMID:16357345

  15. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

  16. A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

    2013-01-01

    Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. Methods This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. Results The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Conclusions Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a

  17. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation.

    PubMed

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-07-16

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region. PMID:23798431

  18. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha

    2014-06-01

    The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3-3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet. PMID:24876635

  19. The Benefits and Challenges of Multiple Health Behavior Change in Research and in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Spring, Bonnie; Velicer, Wayne F.; Prochaska, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The major chronic diseases are caused by multiple risks, yet the science of multiple health behavior change (MHBC) is at an early stage, and factors that facilitate or impede scientists’ involvement in MHBC research are unknown. Benefits and challenges of MHBC interventions were investigated to strengthen researchers’ commitment and prepare them for challenges. Method An online anonymous survey was emailed to listservs of the Society of Behavioral Medicine between May 2006 and 2007. Respondents (N = 69) were 83% female; 94% held a doctoral degree; 64% were psychologists, 24% were in public health; 83% targeted MHBC in their work. Results A sample majority rated 23 of the 24 benefits, but only 1 of 31 challenge items, as very-to-extremely important. Those engaged in MHBC rated the total benefits significantly higher than respondents focused on single behaviors, F(1,69) = 4.21, p<.05, and rated the benefits significantly higher than the challenges: paired t(57) = 7.50, p<.001. The two groups did not differ in ratings of challenges. Conclusion It appears individuals focused solely on single behaviors do not fully appreciate the benefits that impress MHBC researchers; it is not that substantial barriers are holding them back. Benefits of MHBC interventions need emphasizing more broadly to advance this research area. PMID:19948184

  20. Retirement and health benefits for Mexican migrant workers returning from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Zissimopoulos, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of a bilateral agreement for the portability and totalization of social security contributions between the United States and Mexico, this article examines the access to pension and health insurance benefits and employment status of older Mexican return migrants. We find that return migrants who have spent less than a year in the United States have a similar level of access to social security benefits as non-migrants. Return migrants who have spent at least a year in the United States are less likely to have public health insurance or social security benefits, and could be more vulnerable to poverty in old age. These results inform the debate on a bilateral social security agreement between the United States and Mexico to improve return migrants’ social security. PMID:23750049

  1. Retirement and health benefits for Mexican migrant workers returning from the United States.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma; Zissimopoulos, Julie

    2013-04-01

    In the absence of a bilateral agreement for the portability and totalization of social security contributions between the United States and Mexico, this article examines the access to pension and health insurance benefits and employment status of older Mexican return migrants. We find that return migrants who have spent less than a year in the United States have a similar level of access to social security benefits as non-migrants. Return migrants who have spent at least a year in the United States are less likely to have public health insurance or social security benefits, and could be more vulnerable to poverty in old age. These results inform the debate on a bilateral social security agreement between the United States and Mexico to improve return migrants' social security. PMID:23750049

  2. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance... of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would violate §§...

  3. ARS: Health benefits of dairy products made from milk from pasture fed cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the health benefits associated with dairy foods are attributed to specific chemical compounds. Research has been conducted on the effects of the bovine herd’s diet on dairy product composition, quality, nutrition, and flavor. Research now is linking the consumption of dairy products to hea...

  4. 77 FR 38681 - Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form, OPM 2809

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form, OPM 2809 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-day notice and request for comments. ] SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office...

  5. 76 FR 32996 - Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form (OPM 2809)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form (OPM 2809) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office...

  6. 76 FR 36582 - Submission for Review: Standard Form 2809, Health Benefits Election Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on July 9, 2010 at Volume 75 FR 39587... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Standard Form 2809, Health Benefits Election Form AGENCY: U.S. Office...

  7. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle...

  11. 75 FR 32972 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved Areas for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ..., North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Oklahoma has been added for the 2011 calendar year. DATES: Effective Date: January 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lynelle T. Frye... Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2011. This is necessary to comply with...

  12. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  13. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  14. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  15. Seeds - health benefits, barriers to incorporation, and strategies for practitioners in supporting consumption among consumers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review provides an overview of the botany and classification of seeds, summarizes recent research examining the health benefits of seeds, and discusses barriers to incorporating seeds into Western diets. Strategies to help practitioners support their patients in incorporating more seed foods in...

  16. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, James; Edwards, Phil; Tonne, Cathryn; Armstrong, Ben G; Ashiru, Olu; Banister, David; Beevers, Sean; Chalabi, Zaid; Chowdhury, Zohir; Cohen, Aaron; Franco, Oscar H; Haines, Andy; Hickman, Robin; Lindsay, Graeme; Mittal, Ishaan; Mohan, Dinesh; Tiwari, Geetam; Woodward, Alistair; Roberts, Ian

    2009-12-01

    We used Comparative Risk Assessment methods to estimate the health effects of alternative urban land transport scenarios for two settings-London, UK, and Delhi, India. For each setting, we compared a business-as-usual 2030 projection (without policies for reduction of greenhouse gases) with alternative scenarios-lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles, increased active travel, and a combination of the two. We developed separate models that linked transport scenarios with physical activity, air pollution, and risk of road traffic injury. In both cities, we noted that reduction in carbon dioxide emissions through an increase in active travel and less use of motor vehicles had larger health benefits per million population (7332 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] in London, and 12 516 in Delhi in 1 year) than from the increased use of lower-emission motor vehicles (160 DALYs in London, and 1696 in Delhi). However, combination of active travel and lower-emission motor vehicles would give the largest benefits (7439 DALYs in London, 12 995 in Delhi), notably from a reduction in the number of years of life lost from ischaemic heart disease (10-19% in London, 11-25% in Delhi). Although uncertainties remain, climate change mitigation in transport should benefit public health substantially. Policies to increase the acceptability, appeal, and safety of active urban travel, and discourage travel in private motor vehicles would provide larger health benefits than would policies that focus solely on lower-emission motor vehicles. PMID:19942277

  17. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and..., service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of...

  18. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  19. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance... of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would violate §§...

  20. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  1. A new food ingredient for adding soluble oat beta-glucan health benefits to food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new oat food ingredient, containing 20% to 30% soluble beta-glucan, was obtained from oat bran by using natural treatments of heat and shear processing. The product is useful for reducing calories in foods while simultaneously adding health promoting benefits from its beta-glucan. It was evaluat...

  2. What are the chances? Evaluating risk and benefit information in consumer health materials

    PubMed Central

    Burkell, Jacquelyn

    2004-01-01

    Much consumer health information addresses issues of disease risk or treatment risks and benefits, addressing questions such as “How effective is this treatment?” or “What is the likelihood that this test will give a false positive result?” Insofar as it addresses outcome likelihood, this information is essentially quantitative in nature, which is of critical importance, because quantitative information tends to be difficult to understand and therefore inaccessible to consumers. Information professionals typically examine reading level to determine the accessibility of consumer health information, but this measure does not adequately reflect the difficulty of quantitative information, including materials addressing issues of risk and benefit. As a result, different methods must be used to evaluate this type of consumer health material. There are no standard guidelines or assessment tools for this task, but research in cognitive psychology provides insight into the best ways to present risk and benefit information to promote understanding and minimize interpretation bias. This paper offers an interdisciplinary bridge that brings these results to the attention of information professionals, who can then use them to evaluate consumer health materials addressing risks and benefits. PMID:15098049

  3. 76 FR 625 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Health Benefits Handbook Satisfaction Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Health Benefits Handbook Satisfaction Survey) Activity... Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10-0507. OMB Control Number: 2900--New (VA Form 10-0507). Type of Review:...

  4. Uptake of Medicare Benefits Schedule Items by Psychologists and Other Mental Health Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteford, Harvey A.; Doessel, Darrel P.; Sheridan, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a background to the mental health policy changes introduced by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2006. It then considers a major Australian Government COAG reform, the revision of the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS), by analysing the month-by-month utilisation of the available time-series data for the 17-month…

  5. U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Saari, Rebecca K; Monier, Erwan; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on U.S. air quality and health in 2050 and 2100 using a global modeling framework and integrated economic, climate, and air pollution projections. Three internally consistent socioeconomic scenarios are used to value health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation policies specifically derived from slowing climate change. Our projections suggest that climate change, exclusive of changes in air pollutant emissions, can significantly impact ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution across the U.S. and increase associated health effects. Climate policy can substantially reduce these impacts, and climate-related air pollution health benefits alone can offset a significant fraction of mitigation costs. We find that in contrast to cobenefits from reductions to coemitted pollutants, the climate-induced air quality benefits of policy increase with time and are largest between 2050 and 2100. Our projections also suggest that increasing climate policy stringency beyond a certain degree may lead to diminishing returns relative to its cost. However, our results indicate that the air quality impacts of climate change are substantial and should be considered by cost-benefit climate policy analyses. PMID:26053628

  6. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  7. 78 FR 33450 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...: Trust Funds Group of the Office of Chief Financial Officer, Office of Personnel Management (OPM), offers...: Trust Funds Group of the Office of Chief Financial Officer, Office of Personnel Management. Title: (1... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits,...

  8. Effectiveness of Strategies To Contain Costs of the Post-Retirement Health Benefit Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Thomas T. H.; And Others

    The management of the cost of post-retirement health benefits (PRHBs) for retirees is a major concern to American corporations because of a declining commitment to the Medicare program by the federal government, new proposed accounting rules that will change the financial treatment of PRHBs, and a growing retiree population. This study was…

  9. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... appeared in the Federal Register of June 23, 2011 (76 FR 36857). The document amends the Federal Employees... groups (SSSGs). DATES: The interim final rule published on Thursday, June 23, 2011 at 76 FR 36857 is.... Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

  10. Poverty, Education and Health in Indonesia: Who Benefits from Public Spending? Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanjouw, Peter; Pradhan, Menno; Saadah, Fadia; Sayed, Haneen; Sparrow, Robert

    This paper focuses on two important dimensions of Indonesia's development record: education and health. The paper investigates the extent to which the poor benefit from public and private provisioning of these services. Multiple rounds of annual household surveys document a reversal in the rate of decline in poverty and a slowdown in improvements…

  11. Gauging the Impact: Postretirement Health Benefits and the New Accounting Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monrad, Elizabeth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A research team answers questions about implications of new Financial Accounting Standards Board rules for reporting health and other nonpension retirement benefits. Business and human resources officers are urged to address the issue soon because action taken early can lessen the impact of the rules' impact and improve cost management.…

  12. 5 CFR 890.202 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FEHB Program shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart 1609.70. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for health benefits carriers. 890.202 Section 890.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED)...

  13. Health Services Research as a Source of Legislative Analysis and Input: The Role of the California Health Benefits Review Program

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas R; Singer, Rachel Friedman

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the role of the California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP) as a source of information in state health policy making. It explains why the California benefits review process relies heavily on university-based researchers and employs a broad set of criteria for review, which set it apart from similar programs in other states. It then analyzes the politics of health insurance mandates and how independent research and analysis might alter the perceived benefits and costs of health insurance mandates and thus political outcomes. It considers how research and analysis is typically used by policy makers, and illustrates how participants inside and outside of state government have used the reports prepared by CHBRP as both guidance in policy design and as political ammunition. Although there is consensus that the review process has reduced the number of mandate bills that are passed out of the legislature, both supporters and opponents favor the new process and generally believe the reports strengthen their case in legislative debates over health insurance mandates. The role of the CHBRP is narrowly defined by statute at the present time, but the program may well face pressure to evolve from its current academic orientation into a more interactive, advisory role for legislators in the future. PMID:16704675

  14. Health services research as a source of legislative analysis and input: the role of the California Health Benefits Review Program.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas R; Singer, Rachel Friedman

    2006-06-01

    This article examines the role of the California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP) as a source of information in state health policy making. It explains why the California benefits review process relies heavily on university-based researchers and employs a broad set of criteria for review, which set it apart from similar programs in other states. It then analyzes the politics of health insurance mandates and how independent research and analysis might alter the perceived benefits and costs of health insurance mandates and thus political outcomes. It considers how research and analysis is typically used by policy makers, and illustrates how participants inside and outside of state government have used the reports prepared by CHBRP as both guidance in policy design and as political ammunition. Although there is consensus that the review process has reduced the number of mandate bills that are passed out of the legislature, both supporters and opponents favor the new process and generally believe the reports strengthen their case in legislative debates over health insurance mandates. The role of the CHBRP is narrowly defined by statute at the present time, but the program may well face pressure to evolve from its current academic orientation into a more interactive, advisory role for legislators in the future. PMID:16704675

  15. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored. PMID:27348699

  16. Translating Medical Effectiveness Research into Policy: Lessons from the California Health Benefits Review Program

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Janet M; Hong, Mi-Kyung; Aubry, Wade M; Luft, Harold S; Yelin, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Context: Legislatures and executive branch agencies in the United States and other nations are increasingly using reviews of the medical literature to inform health policy decisions. To clarify these efforts to give policymakers evidence of medical effectiveness, this article discusses the California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP). This program, based at the University of California, analyzes the medical effectiveness of health insurance benefit mandate bills for the California legislature, as well as their impact on cost and public health. Methods: This article is based on the authors’ experience reviewing benefit mandate bills for CHBRP and findings from evaluations of the program. General observations are illustrated with examples from CHBRP's reports. Information about efforts to incorporate evidence into health policymaking in other states and nations was obtained through a review of published literature. Findings: CHBRP produces reports that California legislators, legislative staff, and other major stakeholders value and use routinely in deliberations about benefit mandate bills. Where available, the program relies on previously published meta-analyses and systematic reviews to streamline the review of the medical literature. Faculty and staff responsible for the medical effectiveness sections of CHBRP's reports have learned four major lessons over the course of the program's six-year history: the need to (1) recognize the limitations of the medical literature, (2) anticipate the need to inform legislators about the complexity of evidence, (3) have realistic expectations regarding the impact of medical effectiveness reviews, and (4) understand the consequences of the reactive nature of mandated benefit reviews. Conclusions: CHBRP has demonstrated that it is possible to produce useful reviews of the medical literature within the tight time constraints of the legislative process. The program's reports have provided state legislators with independent

  17. Occupational health values in the Supreme Court: cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Curran, W J; Boden, L I

    1981-11-01

    In American Textile Manufacturers Institute v. Donovan, the Supreme Court refuted an industry challenge, supported by the Reagan administration, to the cotton dust standard established under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Petitioners argued that the Act required cost-benefit analysis, but the Court ruled in favor of workers' health where toxic materials were concerned. An earlier Supreme Court decision, Industrial Union Dept. v. American Petroleum Institute, invalidated OSHA's standard on occupational exposure to benzene as too stringent for the determined risk. These two decisions provide boundaries within which standards may be promulgated balancing industrial growth and development against worker safety and health. PMID:6794378

  18. [Health benefits and demerits of calcium nutrition or supplementation in older people].

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Masataka

    2015-10-01

    The benefit of calcium nutrition for health has been believed for a long time. In fact, higher calcium intake is associated with reduction of blood pressure, rate of bone loss after menopause and mild risk reduction of fracture. Since calcium intake from food has not been achieved to be the recommended level, calcium supplementation is widely used especially in the US. However, calcium supplementation has been reported to increase in vascular events, recently. On the other hand, calcium nutrition from foods have not been reported any harmful effect on health. Therefore, calcium effects on health seemed to be composite effects of other nutrients taking together with calcium. PMID:26536675

  19. Public health and the potential benefits of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.

    PubMed

    Cozens, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Studies have consistently found that safety and security are major public concerns; however, crime is rarely considered as an outcome in public health. The recent shift by planning policy towards promoting compact, 'walkable' communities close to public transport aims to redress many of the problems associated with urban sprawl. However, communities that do not feel safe are less likely to be active citizens. This paper argues that Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has potential benefits for public health in the provision of local crime risk assessments and in delivering safer environments, which can support active living, walkable communities and public health. PMID:18093465

  20. Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Walid; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to increase worldwide, more attention is being paid to geriatric health care needs, and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in the medical literature. A preventive approach to the care of older adults is thus a priority in our aging societies. The purpose of this study was to update evidence for the health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies on the relationship between cycle ergometer training and health among older patients over 70. Twenty-five studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling for older adults over 70. These studies reported a positive effect on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and a significant improvement in metabolic responses. Improving functional status, muscle strength and cognitive performance are also well established. Overall, this review demonstrates a positive effect of cycle ergometer training with functional benefits and positive health outcomes for older adults over 70. Based on this evidence, clinicians can now encourage older adults to profit from the health benefits of cycle ergometer training to be able to pursue their daily activities independently. PMID:26865872

  1. Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Nyakudya, Elijah; Jeong, Jong Hoon; Lee, Nam Keun; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2014-06-01

    The extracts and pure saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) are reported to have a wide range of health benefits. Platycosides (saponins) from the roots of PG are characterized by a structure containing a triterpenoid aglycone and two sugar chains. Saponins are of commercial significance, and their applications are increasing with increasing evidence of their health benefits. The biological effects of saponins include cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, neuroprotective activity, antiviral activity, and cholesterol lowering effects. Saponins with commercial value range from crude plant extracts, which can be used for their foaming properties, to high purity saponins such as platycodin D, which can be used for its health applications (e.g., as a vaccine adjuvant). This review reveals that platycosides have many health benefits and have the potential to be used as a remedy against many of the major health hazards (e.g., cancer, obesity, alzheimer's) faced by populations around the world. Methods of platycoside purification and analysis are also covered in this review. PMID:25054103

  2. Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Nyakudya, Elijah; Jeong, Jong Hoon; Lee, Nam Keun; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2014-01-01

    The extracts and pure saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) are reported to have a wide range of health benefits. Platycosides (saponins) from the roots of PG are characterized by a structure containing a triterpenoid aglycone and two sugar chains. Saponins are of commercial significance, and their applications are increasing with increasing evidence of their health benefits. The biological effects of saponins include cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, neuroprotective activity, antiviral activity, and cholesterol lowering effects. Saponins with commercial value range from crude plant extracts, which can be used for their foaming properties, to high purity saponins such as platycodin D, which can be used for its health applications (e.g., as a vaccine adjuvant). This review reveals that platycosides have many health benefits and have the potential to be used as a remedy against many of the major health hazards (e.g., cancer, obesity, alzheimer’s) faced by populations around the world. Methods of platycoside purification and analysis are also covered in this review. PMID:25054103

  3. The Silver Surfer: Trends of Internet Usage in the Over 65 and the Potential Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, K; Duffy, R M; Kelly, B D

    2015-06-01

    The Internet provides medical information and interventions with promising benefits. This cross-sectional study explores trends in Internet use among the elderly in Ireland from 2002 to 2010 and considers possible implications for health benefit. Data were analysed on 1606 Irish individuals. Internet use in Ireland is increasing at similar rates to the rest of Europe; the percentage of over-65s using the Internet in Ireland nearly trebled from 2002 to 2010, from 26(8.3%) to 92 (24. 1%) (p < 0.001). Subgroups of this population displayed significantly higher rates of Internet usage; namely those with a better education, living with a partner, males and urban dwellers. Of those with good subjective general health, 230 (21%) had internet access, versus 36 (7.1%) with poor health. Web-based interventions targeting the elderly should become more available. These could be particularly useful in populations with limited access to transport and mobility. PMID:26182799

  4. A test of vitamin D benefits on respiratory health mediated through inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has beneficial effects on respiratory health. The role of inflammation as a possible mediator between vitamin D and respiratory health is not well understood. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006 data (unweighted N = 12,856) to examine the mediating effects of biomarkers of inflammation on associations between vitamin D and respiratory health. Vitamin D was measured by serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D test. Respiratory health was measured by self-reported respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarkers included C-reactive protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and five leukocyte measures. Models controlled for season, age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and current and former smoking. Lower levels of vitamin D were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms (linear trend p < 0.01) and with COPD (linear trend p < 0.0002) after adjusting for covariates. Adding biomarkers to the models to test for mediation, the vitamin D effect on respiratory health was not a consequence of any single marker but was partially attenuated as a combined result of leukocytes, AP, and CRP. Vitamin D is beneficial to improve respiratory health. Its benefits do not appear to be mediated by any single biomarker examined in this study; rather, benefits of vitamin D may act broadly through multiple mediating mechanisms. PMID:25336462

  5. Balancing the risks and benefits associated with cosmetic dentistry - a joint statement by UK specialist dental societies.

    PubMed

    Alani, A; Kelleher, M; Hemmings, K; Saunders, M; Hunter, M; Barclay, S; Ashley, M; Djemal, S; Bishop, K; Darbar, U; Briggs, P; Fearne, J

    2015-05-01

    Cosmetic dentistry has become increasingly popular, largely as a result of social trends and increased media coverage. This understandable desire for the alleged 'perfect smile' needs to be tempered with an appropriate awareness of the significant risks associated with invasive cosmetic procedures such as veneers and crowns. Patients need to be properly informed that elective removal of healthy enamel and dentine can result in pulpal injury and poorer periodontal health in the longer term, particularly if they are young. The duty of candour means that they ought to be informed that aggressive reduction of sound tooth tissue is not biologically neutral and results in structural weakening of their teeth. Less invasive procedures such as bleaching on its own or for example, combined with direct resin composite bonding, can satisfy many patient's demands, while still being kinder to teeth and having much better fall-back positions for their future requirements. It is the opinion of the British Endodontic Society, British Society for Restorative Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry UK, Dental Trauma UK, British Society of Prosthodontics and the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry that elective invasive cosmetic dental treatments can result in great benefit to patients, but that some aggressive treatments used to achieve them can produce significant morbidities in teeth which were previously healthy. This is a worrying and growing problem with many ethical, legal and biologic aspects, but many adverse outcomes for patients who request cosmetic dental improvements are preventable by using biologically safer initial approaches to treatment planning and its provision. PMID:25952437

  6. Quantitative health monitoring of bolted joints using a piezoceramic actuator sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritdumrongkul, Sopon; Abe, Masato; Fujino, Yozo; Miyashita, Takeshi

    2004-02-01

    The non-destructive evaluation technique using a piezoceramic (PZT) as an actuator-sensor has a potential to efficiently detect structural damage. In this technique, a PZT actuator-sensor patch is bonded on a structure. Through the measurement of its electrical impedance, which is related to the mechanical impedance of the structure being bonded, the change in structural properties due to damage can be detected. This paper presents the use of a PZT actuator-sensor in conjunction with numerical model-based methodology in structural health monitoring to quantitatively detect damage of bolted joints. The structure used in this study consists of two aluminium beams connected by a bolted joint. The damage was simulated by loosening the bolts. To quantitatively monitor the damage, a numerical model of the structure was formulated. A spectral element method (SEM), based on a wave propagation approach, was used to model the structure. A bonded-PZT beam and a bolted joint element were developed by using the SEM. The equations of motion were derived by using Hamilton's principle and then the spectral element matrices were formulated. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method to detect the damage. By using the proposed model, the loosening of bolts can be quantitatively identified as the change in stiffness and damping at the bolted joint, indicating a high potential of this method in order to quantitatively monitor structural damage.

  7. Are low income patients receiving the benefits of electronic health records? A statewide survey.

    PubMed

    Butler, Matthew J; Harootunian, Gevork; Johnson, William G

    2013-06-01

    There are concerns that physicians serving low-income, Medicaid patients, in the United States are less likely to adopt electronic health records and, if so, that Medicaid patients will be denied the benefits from electronic health record use. This study seeks to determine whether physicians treating Medicaid patients were less likely to have adopted electronic health records. Physician surveys completed during physicians' license renewal process in Arizona were merged with the physician licensing data and Medicaid administrative claims data. Survey responses were received from 50.7 percent (6,780 out of 13,380) of all physicians practicing in Arizona. Physician survey responses were used to identify whether the physician used electronic health records and the degree to which the physician exchanged electronic health records with other health-care providers. Medicaid claims data were used to identify which physicians provided health care to Medicaid beneficiaries. The primary outcome of interest was whether Medicaid providers were more or less likely to have adopted electronic health records. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate average marginal effects. In multivariate analysis, physicians with 20 or more Medicaid patients during the survey cycle were 4.1 percent more likely to use an electronic health record and 5.2 percent more likely to be able to transmit electronic health records to at least one health-care provider outside of their practice. These effects increase in magnitude when the analysis is restricted to solo practice physicians This is the first study to find a pro-Medicaid gap in electronic health record adoption suggesting that the low income patients served by Arizona's Health Care Cost Containment System are not at a disadvantage with regard to electronic health record access and that Arizona's model of promoting electronic health record adoption merits further study. PMID:23715209

  8. Quantifying the costs and benefits of occupational health and safety interventions at a Bangladesh shipbuilding company

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Irene; Thiede, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is the first cost–benefit analysis (CBA) of occupational health and safety (OHS) in a low-income country. It focuses on one of the largest shipbuilding companies in Bangladesh, where globally recognised Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Services (OHSAS) 18001 certification was achieved in 2012. Objectives: The study examines the relative costs of implementing OHS measures against qualitative and quantifiable benefits of implementation in order to determine whether OHSAS measures are economically advantageous. Methods: Quantifying past costs and benefits and discounting future ones, this study looks at the returns of OHS measures at Western Marine Shipbuilding Company Ltd. Results: Costs included investments in workplace and environmental safety, a new clinic that also serves the community, and personal protective equipment (PPE) and training. The results are impressive: previously high injury statistics dropped to close to zero. Conclusions: OHS measures decrease injuries, increase efficiency, and bring income security to workers’ families. Certification has proven a competitive edge for the shipyard, resulting in access to greater markets. Intangible benefits such as trust, motivation and security are deemed crucial in the CBA, and this study finds the high investments made are difficult to offset with quantifiable benefits alone. PMID:25589369

  9. Carbon reductions and health co-benefits from US residential energy efficiency measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Woo, May K.; Penn, Stefani L.; Omary, Mohammad; Tambouret, Yann; Kim, Chloe S.; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2016-03-01

    The United States (US) Clean Power Plan established state-specific carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction goals for fossil fuel-fired electricity generating units (EGUs). States may achieve these goals through multiple mechanisms, including measures that can achieve equivalent CO2 reductions such as residential energy efficiency, which will have important co-benefits. Here, we develop state-resolution simulations of the economic, health, and climate benefits of increased residential insulation, considering EGUs and residential combustion. Increasing insulation to International Energy Conservation Code 2012 levels for all single-family homes in the US in 2013 would lead to annual reductions of 80 million tons of CO2 from EGUs, with annual co-benefits including 30 million tons of CO2 from residential combustion and 320 premature deaths associated with criteria pollutant emissions from both EGUs and residential combustion sources. Monetized climate and health co-benefits average 49 per ton of CO2 reduced from EGUs (range across states: 12-390). State-specific co-benefit estimates can inform development of optimal Clean Power Plan implementation strategies.

  10. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Liming; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2011-07-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  11. Applications and Benefits of Computer Based Education for Medical and Allied Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Robert M.

    1981-01-01

    Advances in computer technology have provided unique opportunities to apply computer systems to a wide variety of medical and health care functions. One area which holds great potential for using computer systems is medical and health science education. The following paper focuses on 1. The benefits which can be derived from using computers to deliver many forms of medical education but particularly continuing medical education. 2. The applications of computer technology to medical and health science training. 3. The future applications of computers to medical and health science education. The paper cites numerous examples of how computers are currently being used in health care training and what new developments might be used in the very near future.

  12. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Smith, Steven J; Silva, Raquel A; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies(1-6) typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants(7-9), long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality(10-12). Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter(13) and ozone(14), global modeling methods(15), and new future scenarios(16). Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.5, and 2.2±0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $50-380 (ton CO2)(-1), which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future. PMID:24926321

  13. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies1–6 typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants7–9, long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality10–12. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter13 and ozone14, global modeling methods15, and new future scenarios16. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.5, and 2.2±0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $50–380 (ton CO2)−1, which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10–70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future. PMID:24926321

  14. Do employers know the quality of health care benefits they provide? Use of HEDIS depression scores for health plans.

    PubMed

    Robst, John; Rost, Kathryn; Marshall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Dissemination of health quality measures is a necessary ingredient of efforts to harness market-based forces, such as value-based purchasing by employers, to improve health care quality. This study examined reporting of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures for depression to firms interested in improving depression care. METHODS During surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011, a sample of 325 employers that were interested in improving depression treatment were asked whether their primary health plan reports HEDIS scores for depression to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and if so, whether they knew the scores. Data about HEDIS reporting by the health plans were collected from the NCQA. RESULTS HEDIS depression scores were reported by the primary health plans of 154 (47%) employers, but only 7% of employers knew their plan's HEDIS scores. Because larger employers were more likely to report knowing the scores, 53% of all employees worked for employers who reported knowing the scores. A number of structural, health benefit, and need characteristics predicted knowledge of HEDIS depression scores by employers. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that motivated employers did not know their depression HEDIS scores even when their plan publicly reported them. Measures of health care quality are not reaching the buyers of insurance products; however, larger employers were more likely to know the HEDIS scores for their health plan, suggesting that value-based purchasing may have some ability to affect health care quality. PMID:23945985

  15. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. PMID:26595460

  16. Ten years of jointly commissioning health and social care in England

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over the past two decades, the service delivery landscape across health and social care in England has been reshaped in order to separate the commissioning of services from their delivery. Policy/practice The market ethic that underpinned this move has depicted the previously roles as unresponsive to the needs of service users and dominated by provider interests. As well as seeming to offer commissioners the chance to change the nature of provision and type of provider, this policy model also created a further new opportunity—for joint commissioning across organisational boundaries. The logic here is that if two or more commissioners can jointly shape their programmes then they will be better able to secure integrated provision across a range of separate agencies and professions. Conclusion This article reviews the experience of joint commissioning across health and social care over the past decade in England. It contrasts the proliferation of policies against the paucity of achievements, seeks explanations for this situation, and offers pointers for future development. PMID:21677843

  17. Joining up health and planning: how Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) can inform health and wellbeing strategies and spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Paul; Hewitt, Stephen; Blackshaw, Neil

    2013-09-01

    There has been a welcome joining up of the rhetoric around health, the environment and land use or spatial planning in both the English public health white paper and the National Planning Policy Framework. However, this paper highlights a real concern that this is not being followed through into practical guidance needed by local authorities (LAs), health bodies and developers about how to deliver this at the local level. The role of Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) and Health and Wellbeing Strategies (HWSs) have the potential to provide a strong basis for integrated local policies for health improvement, to address the wider determinants of health and to reduce inequities. However, the draft JSNA guidance from the Department of Health falls short of providing a robust, comprehensive and practical guide to meeting these very significant challenges. The paper identifies some examples of good practice. It recommends that action should be taken to raise the standards of all JSNAs to meet the new challenges and that HWSs should be aligned spatially and temporally with local plans and other LA strategies. HWSs should also identify spatially targeted interventions that can be delivered through spatial planning or transport planning. Steps need to be taken to ensure that district councils are brought into the process. PMID:23765329

  18. [SOME ASPECTS OF URBAN POPULATION AWARENESS ABOUT JOINT RESPONSIBILITY FOR OWN HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Dauletkaliyeva, Z; Kulov, D; Sergaliyev, T; Syzdykov, M; Abdrakhmanov, K

    2016-01-01

    One of the key goals of public health policy is to improve the joint responsibility of the population in the promotion of their health. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the public opinion poll on attitudes to own health and to health care. Total covered 450 people, aged 18 to 60 years. The share of women was 60.0%, men - 40.0%. Almost half of respondents (47.0%) had higher education, 36.0% - specialized secondary education and 17.0% - secondary education. More than half (60.0%) of respondents were employed in the production of intellectual work, 40.0% - individuals, over ⅔ (67.2%) of the respondents at the time of the survey had a family. As a result of self-rated health, a third (35.6%) of the respondents rated their health as good to excellent. Men are more often evaluated positively their health than women. Persons engaged in mental labor rarely considered themselves unhealthy than engaged in the production of physical labor. The majority of respondents agree that the health - the most important thing in life (82.9%), for young people it is not significant and is ranked only third place (4.7%), giving primacy of material well-being (73.7%), and the appearance of the human (15.8%). They also found that the higher the education level, the more demanding patients to themselves as responsible for the health and the quality of medical services provided by the clinic. The bulk of the population doesn't want to part with the usual attributes inherent in the current system of public health (69.6%) state and free. With the introduction of compulsory health insurance of the population is afraid of losing with the innovations at least minimal social guarantees for the protection of health. PMID:26870982

  19. Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the US Government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011) $790 and $1775 per tonne methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70 and 150 % of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using global warming potential estimates. Results for monetized benefits are sensitive to a number of factors, particularly the choice of elasticity to income growth used when calculating the value of a statistical life. The benefits increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10 % accrue in the United States. As a result, this methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.

  20. Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the US Government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011) $790 and $1775 per tonnemore » methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70 and 150 % of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using global warming potential estimates. Results for monetized benefits are sensitive to a number of factors, particularly the choice of elasticity to income growth used when calculating the value of a statistical life. The benefits increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10 % accrue in the United States. As a result, this methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.« less