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Sample records for benign neurofibroma masquerading

  1. An Unusual Presentation of Neurofibroma Masquerading as a Vascular Hamartoma, Post-Iatrogenic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Siba Prasad; Das, Subhabrata P; Rangan, Vasundhara S; Bhartiya, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibroma is a localized discrete mass of benign nerve sheath tumour in the peripheral nervous system. Mostly present as skin lesions. Solitary neurofibroma may occur in deep soft tissue or subcutaneous plane in rare cases associated with syndromes like NF1. The neurofibroma most commonly present as skin lesions as isolated soft papules or nodules arising in any cutaneous site. Present case depicts unusual presentation of a neurofibroma as a vascular hamartoma post an iatrogenic intervention. PMID:25738032

  2. Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.P.; Fellmeth, B.; Salhany, K.E.; Patton, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Focal hot nodules on iodine thyroid images are associated with an exceedingly low incidence of malignancy. Most previously reported hot carcinomas represent the coexistence of small malignancies in or adjacent to a benign hot lesion. Described here is a 3-cm papillary carcinoma that fulfilled the criteria for benignancy on Tc-99m and I-123 imaging. Coincidental carcinoma within a benign lesion was excluded by detailed scintigraphic-pathologic correlation of the tumor. The implications of this case on the management of the solitary hot nodule are discussed and the literature reviewed.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous Osteomyelitis of Proximal Femur Masquerading as Benign Bone Tumor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra; Batra, Sahil; Maini, Lalit; Gautam, Virender Kumar

    2015-08-01

    We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) of the proximal femur in a 65-year-old woman who presented with pain of 6 months' duration in the right hip. Plain radiographs showed a lytic well-defined lesion in the right peritrochanteric region suggestive of a benign neoplastic etiology. The gross and histopathologic examination of the curettage specimen was consistent with XO. Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis is a rare chronic inflammatory process that is characterized by the presence of a large number of lipid-containing macrophages with an admixture of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. Gross and radiologic examination of this entity can mimic malignancy, and differentiation should be confirmed by histopathologic evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, XO of the femur has not been reported in the English-language literature. The rarity of this condition and its resemblance to bone tumors form the basis of this case report. PMID:26251942

  4. Subcutaneous Fungal Cyst Masquerading as Benign Lesions – A Series of Eight Cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Renu G’Boy; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Ramdas, Anita; K, Authy; G, Thangiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous fungal infections are caused by penetration of the causative fungi into the subcutaneous layer and are usually localised. We present a series of eight cases with subcutaneous fungal cystic lesions masquerading as benign lesions. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted on subcutaneous fungal infections seen between January 2007 to July 2014 in the Department of Pathology. Eight patients with biopsy proven subcutaneous fungal infection were included. We collected and analysed their demographic, clinical and histopathological details. Results Among eight patients, six were male and two were female. The mean age was 47 years (Range: 21-70). All the eight patients presented with non-tender cystic swelling. The size of the swellings varied from a minimum of 3x3 cm to maximum of 10x4 cm. Out of eight, hand was involved in three, forearm in one, elbow in two, leg in one and foot in one. On H&E staining, all the cases showed fibro collagenous cyst wall, lined by histiocytes, granulomatous reaction, foreign body type of giant cells with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrate containing fungal elements. Six were identified as hyalohyphomycosis and two were identified as phaeohyphomycotic cysts based on pigmentation of hyphae. Conclusion Fungal infection should be suspected in all subcutaneous cystic lesions. Excised tissue should always be sent for culture and histopathology. PMID:26557537

  5. Neurofibroma of the Palate

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, Tirumalasetty Sreenivasa; Krishna, Yelamolu Rama; Nalabolu, Govind Rajkumar; Pasupuleti, Swetha; Surapaneni, Suneela; Ganta, Suresh Babu

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibroma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor comprising variable mixture of Schwann cells, perineurial-like cells, and fibroblasts. Neurofibroma may occur as solitary lesion or as part of a generalised syndrome of neurofibromatosis or very rarely as multiple neurofibromas without any associated syndrome. There are two distinct variants of neurofibromatosis type I and type II. We present a case of neurofibroma of the hard palate associated with neurofibromatosis type I. The diagnosis of the lesion was made based on the clinical findings, family history, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Literature was reviewed and different types of neurofibroma, their incidence and frequency in the oral cavity, its association with neurofibromatosis, clinical manifestations, histopathologic characteristics, immunohistochemical analysis, behaviour, treatment, and recurrence are discussed. PMID:24860683

  6. Perinatal Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Blockade Prevents Peripheral Nerve Disruption in a Mouse Model Reminiscent of Benign World Health Organization Grade I Neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianqiang; Crimmins, Jason T.; Monk, Kelly R.; Williams, Jon P.; Fitzgerald, Maureen E.; Tedesco, Susan; Ratner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Benign peripheral nerve tumors called neurofibromas are a major source of morbidity for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Some neurofibroma Schwann cells aberrantly express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In a mouse model in which the CNPase promoter drives expression of human EGFR in Schwann cells, nerves develop hypertrophy, mast cell accumulation, collagen deposition, disruption of axon-glial interactions, characteristics of neurofibroma and are hypoalgesic. Administration of the EGFR antagonist cetuximab (IMC-C225) for 2 weeks beginning at birth in CNPase-hEGFR mice normalized all pathologies at 3 months of age as evaluated by hotplate testing or histology and by electron microscopy. Mast cell chemoattractants brain-derived neurotrophic factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and transforming growth factor-β1, which may account for mast cell accumulation and fibrosis, were reduced by cetuximab. Later treatment was much less effective. A birth to 2-week pulse of cetuximab blocked hEGFR phosphorylation and Schwann cell proliferation in perinatal mutant nerve, so CNPase-hEGFR Schwann cell numbers correlate with the cetuximab effect. A >250-fold enlarged population of EGFR+/p75+ cells was detected in newborn Nf1+/− mouse nerves. These results suggest the existence of an EGFR+ cell enriched in the perinatal period capable of driving complex changes characteristic of neurofibroma formation. PMID:16651634

  7. Plexiform Neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Tchernev, Georgi; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Patterson, James W.; Bakardzhiev, Ilko; Wollina, Uwe; Tana, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plexiform neurofibromas represent an uncommon variant (30%) of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) in which neurofibromas arise from multiple nerves as bulging and deforming masses involving also connective tissue and skin folds. We report a rare case of a 30-year-old man who presented with a progressive facial deformity that began in early childhood. Skin examination also revealed multiple neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules on the trunk and arms. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed overgrowth of peripheral nerve components and connective tissue. Two diagnostic criteria for NF-1 (plexiform variant) were met, the patient did not accept to undergo genetic testing. Craniofacial MRI confirmed the presence of a deforming mass arising from the left side of his face giving homolateral eye dislocation. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. However, the patient expressed the preference to avoid surgery and chose to undergo clinical follow-up every 6 months. Diagnosis of plexiform neurofibromas is usually made clinically, especially if classical hallmarks of NF-1 are present. Therapy is surgical, aiming at resecting deforming masses and cancerous tissue when malignant transformation occurs. PMID:26871793

  8. Solitary neurofibroma: a rare occurrence on gingiva.

    PubMed

    George, Joann Pauline; Sai Jyothsna, N

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas-benign, slow-growing nerve sheath neoplasms composed of Schwann cells, perineural cells, and fibroblasts-are common neurogenic tumors on skin but uncommon intraorally. A diagnosis of neurofibroma can be established by clinical and histologic examinations. This case report describes an unusual presentation of solitary neurofibroma on the lingual gingiva of the mandibular posterior region of a 22-year-old woman. The patient exhibited no systemic manifestations of neurofibromatosis. Excisional biopsy of the intraoral neurofibroma was performed. Histologically, the neoplasm showed lesional cells arranged in the form of interlacing fascicles. The cells were elongated and had dark-staining, wavy nuclei, ample cytoplasm, and distinct cell borders, all characteristic of Schwann cells. Based on the histopathologic findings, a final diagnosis of neurofibroma was made. The patient returned for periodic reexamination after excision of the tumor, and there was no recurrence after 15 months. PMID:27148653

  9. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma mimicking a vascular lesion.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Apa, Sebastian Nicolas; Lanoël, Agustina Maria; María, Josefina Sala; Sierre, Sergio; Pierini, Adrián Martin

    2016-04-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from peripheral nerve sheaths, generally associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). They are diffuse, painful and sometimes locally invasive, generating cosmetic problems. This report discusses an adolescent patient who presented with an isolated, giant plexiform neurofibroma on her leg that was confused with a vascular lesion due to its clinical aspects. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy, excision of the lesion was performed with improvement of the symptoms. PMID:27192529

  10. [A solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoyan; Luo, Gui; Zhu, Xinhua

    2014-07-01

    Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that arise from the nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Generally, neurofibromas can be categorized into dermal and plexiform subtypes. The former subtype is usually associated with a lone peripheral nerve in the integumentary system, while plexiform tumors are associated with many nerve bundles and can originate internally. Rarely, the plexiform tumors can undergo malignant transformation. Neurofibromas are usually found in individuals with neurofibromatosis, which is an autosomal dominant disease. On occasion, an isolated neurofibroma can transpire without being associated with neurofibromatosis. Mostly, these solitary tumors tend to occur in the gastrointestinal system, and neurofibromas of the head and neck are not uncommon, but very rarely they have been reported to occur in the temporal fossa. In this report, we describe a case of a solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa. PMID:25248275

  11. Myxoid Neurofibromas of the External Ear Canal: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maryam, Y K; Mohd Khairi, M D; Asmah Hanim, H

    2015-04-01

    Myxoid neurofibroma is benign tumours of perineural cell origin that arise from elements in the peripheral nervous system. We report a case of a 60-year-old female patient presented with history of right ear mass which was slowly growing. Her primary complaint was cosmetic deformity but hearing loss was also present. The mass was excised and histologically revealed a myxoid neurofibroma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that a myxoid neurofibroma arising from external auditory canal is reported. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass originating from this location. PMID:26162387

  12. Multiple cutaneous lipomatous neurofibromas.

    PubMed

    Texeira, M S; Duraes, Smb; Pereira, L A; Pantaleao, L

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lipomatous neurofibroma is a rare variant of neurofibroma with a little known pathogenesis; its presence has never been described in Brazil. A 61- year-old woman complaining scalp papules for one year, presented with skin colored to yellowish papules on the scalp. She noted that they were sometimes itchy and occasionally bled. Dermoscopy showed amorphous material, milky white, with a small poorly delimited yellowish area. Histopathological examination revealed spindle cell proliferation associated with mature adipocytes. Cutaneous lipomatous neurofibroma appears to be an underdiagnosed condition owing to the low index of suspicion and lack of knowledge of its existence. Few cases have been reported in the literature. PMID:27267198

  13. Hybrid Neurofibroma-Schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Namath S; Specht, Charles S; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Glantz, Michael; Harbaugh, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas and schwannomas are common lesions that may be idiopathic or may occur in association with neural crest genetic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1, neurofibromatosis type 2, and schwannomatosis. A hybrid tumor that contains pathological characteristics of both neurofibroma and schwannoma has been described as a rare entity. We present the clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings of such a case. PMID:27158577

  14. Hybrid Neurofibroma-Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Charles S; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Glantz, Michael; Harbaugh, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas and schwannomas are common lesions that may be idiopathic or may occur in association with neural crest genetic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1, neurofibromatosis type 2, and schwannomatosis. A hybrid tumor that contains pathological characteristics of both neurofibroma and schwannoma has been described as a rare entity. We present the clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings of such a case. PMID:27158577

  15. Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors in Neurofibromas of Patients with NF1

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Mauro; Mezitis, Spyros G.E.; Nunes, Fabio Pereira; Ribeiro, Marcia G.; Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Q.C.; Bronstein, Marcello D.; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Oliveira, Lisa; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or von Recklinghausen disease is a genetic disorder affecting the growth of cells in nervous system. One of the most remarkable characteristics of this disease is the development of benign tumors of the nervous system (neurofibromas). The purpose of this study was to test tissue samples taken from neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas of NF1 patients for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors. We used previously collected samples from patients registered in the database of the Centro Nacional de Neurofibromatose (CNNF-Brazil). Samples from twenty-five patients in the database presenting plexiform neurofibromas (N1 group) and 25 samples from the same database from patients presenting neurofibromas (N2 group) were tested. We observed positive staining for progesterone receptors in 13 of the neurofibroma samples and 19 of the plexiform neurofibroma samples. Among the neurofibroma samples, we observed one sample with positive estrogen receptor staining, but none of the plexiform neurofibroma samples showed positive staining. We suggest further studies to investigate in greater depth possible hormonal influences on the development and growth of neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas in NF1. PMID:21876657

  16. The Solitary Variant of Mandibular Intraosseous Neurofibroma: Report of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibroma (NF) is a benign neoplasm derived from peripheral nerve cells. NF may extend either as a solitary lesion or as part of a generalized syndrome of neurofibromatosis. Intraorally, the intraosseous variant of neurofibroma is a very rare tumor. The literature provides only few cases of solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of the mandible. We report a case of 28-year-old female who was diagnosed with a solitary intraosseous neurofibroma involving the lower left quadrant of the mandible. The present case is rare in regard to its dimensions and its location. PMID:26770842

  17. Localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Localized neurofibromas are rare in the orbit and, unlike the more common plexiform neurofibromas, are not typically associated with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. We present a rare case of localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits. PMID:24426488

  18. The Development of Cutaneous Neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Peltonen, Sirkku; Callens, Tom; Jokinen, Elina; Heape, Anthony M.; Messiaen, Ludwine; Peltonen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous neurofibromas are the hallmarks of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). They are composed of multiple cell types, and traditionally they are believed to arise from small nerve tributaries of the skin. A key finding in the context of this view has been that subpopulations of tumor Schwann cells harbor biallelic inactivation of the NF1 gene (NF1−/−). In the present study, our aim was to clarify further the pathogenesis of cutaneous neurofibromas. First, we detected cells expressing multipotency-associated biomarkers in cutaneous neurofibromas. Second, we developed a method for isolating and expanding multipotent neurofibroma-derived precursor cells (NFPs) from dissociated human cutaneous neurofibromas and used it to analyze their growth and differentiation potential. In analogy to solitary cells resident in neurofibromas, NFPs were found to express nestin and had the potential to differentiate to, at least, Schwann cells, neurons, epithelial cells, and adipocytes. Mutation analysis of the NFPs revealed that their genotype was NF1+/−. The results led us to speculate that the development of cutaneous neurofibromas includes the recruitment of multipotent NF1+/− precursor cells. These cells may be derived from the multipotent cells of the hair roots, which often are intimately associated with microscopic neurofibromas. PMID:21281783

  19. Misdiagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma of the medial plantar nerve: case report.

    PubMed

    D'Orazi, Valerio; Venditto, Teresa; Panunzi, Andrea; Anichini, Silvia; Manzini, Gabriele; Tallarico, Arturo; Bernetti, Andrea; Paoloni, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors of the peripheral nerve. Diagnosis may be challenging, if they present mimicking other peripheral nerve pathologies. We report the case of a patient who had severe foot pain, which progressively hampered her walking ability, erroneously attributed to recurrent Morton's neuroma. Diagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma of her right medial plantar nerve was made 15 years after the appearance of symptoms. Pain and function recovered after radical neurotomy of the medial plantar nerve. A correct diagnosis is an essential starting point in the treatment of neurofibromas and a misdiagnosis may lead to an inappropriate treatment. PMID:25024003

  20. Plexiform neurofibroma tissue classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weizman, L.; Hoch, L.; Ben Sira, L.; Joskowicz, L.; Pratt, L.; Constantini, S.; Ben Bashat, D.

    2011-03-01

    Plexiform Neurofibroma (PN) is a major complication of NeuroFibromatosis-1 (NF1), a common genetic disease that involving the nervous system. PNs are peripheral nerve sheath tumors extending along the length of the nerve in various parts of the body. Treatment decision is based on tumor volume assessment using MRI, which is currently time consuming and error prone, with limited semi-automatic segmentation support. We present in this paper a new method for the segmentation and tumor mass quantification of PN from STIR MRI scans. The method starts with a user-based delineation of the tumor area in a single slice and automatically detects the PN lesions in the entire image based on the tumor connectivity. Experimental results on seven datasets yield a mean volume overlap difference of 25% as compared to manual segmentation by expert radiologist with a mean computation and interaction time of 12 minutes vs. over an hour for manual annotation. Since the user interaction in the segmentation process is minimal, our method has the potential to successfully become part of the clinical workflow.

  1. Intraneural Hybrid Neurofibroma/Schwannoma In Scalp: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reena, Naik

    2015-01-01

    Benign Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (BPNSTs) are traditionally classified into schwannoma, neurofibroma and perinurioma. Due to advances in molecular techniques, hybrid BPNSTs containing more than one histologic types have been documented. Recent studies have demonstrated their frequent association with inherited syndromes like schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis. Intraneural variant of hybrid neurofibroma/schwannoma is yet to be described. Here we report such a case in a 30-year-old male, who presented with a scalp swelling and histology showed intraneural neurofibromatous tumour admixed with schwannoma-like nodules. IHC (immunohistochemistry) showed variable S100 staining in neurofibromatous areas, diffuse S100 staining in schwannoma-like areas and negative EMA staining in the tumour. PMID:26557528

  2. Intraneural Hybrid Neurofibroma/Schwannoma In Scalp: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kishori Moni; Reena, Naik

    2015-10-01

    Benign Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (BPNSTs) are traditionally classified into schwannoma, neurofibroma and perinurioma. Due to advances in molecular techniques, hybrid BPNSTs containing more than one histologic types have been documented. Recent studies have demonstrated their frequent association with inherited syndromes like schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis. Intraneural variant of hybrid neurofibroma/schwannoma is yet to be described. Here we report such a case in a 30-year-old male, who presented with a scalp swelling and histology showed intraneural neurofibromatous tumour admixed with schwannoma-like nodules. IHC (immunohistochemistry) showed variable S100 staining in neurofibromatous areas, diffuse S100 staining in schwannoma-like areas and negative EMA staining in the tumour. PMID:26557528

  3. Plexiform Neurofibroma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, Georgi; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Patterson, James W; Bakardzhiev, Ilko; Wollina, Uwe; Tana, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas represent an uncommon variant (30%) of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) in which neurofibromas arise from multiple nerves as bulging and deforming masses involving also connective tissue and skin folds.We report a rare case of a 30-year-old man who presented with a progressive facial deformity that began in early childhood. Skin examination also revealed multiple neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules on the trunk and arms. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed overgrowth of peripheral nerve components and connective tissue. Two diagnostic criteria for NF-1 (plexiform variant) were met, the patient did not accept to undergo genetic testing. Craniofacial MRI confirmed the presence of a deforming mass arising from the left side of his face giving homolateral eye dislocation.Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. However, the patient expressed the preference to avoid surgery and chose to undergo clinical follow-up every 6 months.Diagnosis of plexiform neurofibromas is usually made clinically, especially if classical hallmarks of NF-1 are present. Therapy is surgical, aiming at resecting deforming masses and cancerous tissue when malignant transformation occurs. PMID:26871793

  4. Tumors displaying hybrid schwannoma and neurofibroma features in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Blake K; Alimchandani, Meghna; Mehta, Gautam U; Dewan, Ramita; Nesvick, Cody L; Miettinen, Markku; Heiss, John D; Asthagiri, Ashok R; Quezado, Martha; Germanwala, Anand V

    2016-01-01

    Although schwannoma and neurofibroma tumors are generally reported as distinct pathologic diagnoses, sporadic schwannoma/neurofibroma hybrid nerve sheath tumors have been reported in the general population with components of both entities. We report the clinicopathological features of these hybrid nerve sheath tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). A retrospective review of nerve sheath tumor surgical specimens from patients with NF2 enrolled at the National Institutes of Health was performed. Those specimens reported to have schwannoma-like and neurofibromalike features were selected for further characterization by morphology, immunohistochemical panel (CD34, S100, neurofilament triplet protein (immunostain) (NFTP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)), and confirmation as hybrid tumors. Of 43 total NF2 patients undergoing resection of nerve sheath tumors, 11 specimens from 11 (26%) patients were found to be benign nerve sheath tumors exhibiting hybrid features of both neurofibroma and schwannoma. Immunohistochemical studies showed the schwannoma component to be S100+, CD 34- while the neurofibroma component was CD34+, variable S100+. Our experience emphasizes the importance of including this distinct tumor subtype, the schwannoma/neurofibroma hybrid tumor, in the differential diagnosis of nerve sheath tumors in NF2 patients and suggests that the relationship between neurofibroma and schwannoma tumors is closer than previously suspected.. PMID:26709712

  5. Multidisciplinary Management of a Giant Plexiform Neurofibroma by Double Sequential Preoperative Embolization and Surgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Roberto; Pérez-Lafuente, Mercedes; Romagosa, Cleofe; Pérez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from subcutaneous or visceral peripheral nerves, which are usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Giant neurofibromas are very difficult to manage surgically as they are extensively infiltrative and highly vascularized. These types of lesions require complex preoperative and postoperative management strategies. This case report describes a 22-year-old female with a giant plexiform neurofibroma of the lower back and buttock who underwent pre-operative embolization and intraoperative use of a linear cutting stapler system to assist with haemostasis during the surgical resection. Minimal blood transfusion was required and the patient made a good recovery. This case describes how a multidisciplinary management of these large and challenging lesions is technically feasible and appears to be beneficial in reducing perioperative blood loss and morbidity. Giant neurofibroma is a poorly defined term used to describe a neurofibroma that has grown to a significant but undefined size. Through a literature review, we propose that the term “giant neurofibroma” be used for referring to those neurofibromas weighing 20% or more of the patient's total corporal weight. PMID:23607010

  6. Intraparotid Neurofibroma of the Facial Nerve: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, Ahmed-Abdel-Fattah; El-Anwar, Mohammad-Waheed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraparotid neurofibromas of the facial nerve are extremely rare and mostly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Case Report: This is a case of a healthy 40-year-old man, which underwent surgery for a preoperatively diagnosed benign parotid gland lesion. After identification of the facial nerve main trunk, a single large mass (6 x 3 cm) incorporating the upper nerve division was observed. The nerve portion involved in the mass could not be dissected and was inevitably sacrificed with immediate neuroraphy of the upper division of the facial nerve with 6/0 prolene. The final histopathology revealed the presence of a neurofibroma. Complete left side facial nerve paralysis was observed immediately postoperatively but the function of the lower half was returned within 4 months and the upper half was returned after 1 year. Currently, after 3 years of follow up, there are no signs of recurrence and normal facial nerve function is observed. Conclusion: Neurofibroma should be considered as the diagnosis in a patient demonstrating a parotid mass. In cases where it is diagnosed intraoperatively, excision of part of the nerve with the mass will be inevitable though it can be successfully repaired by end to end anastomosis. PMID:27602341

  7. Extraskeletal Chondroma of the Gluteal Region Along with Sporadic Neurofibroma - An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nirupma P.; Agrawal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Extraskeletal or soft tissue chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumour that predominantly involves the hands and feet. We present a rare case of gluteal extraskeletal chondroma in a 55-year-old Indian female. She presented with right gluteal mass measuring 5 cm in greatest dimension. The diagnosis was provided through histopathological examination of completely excised tumour mass. The patient also had sporadic neurofibroma in the supraclavicular region. Such a unique association has not been reported till date in the English literature. We describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics of our case, emphasizing the first reported association of extraskeletal chondroma and sporadic neurofibroma. PMID:26155485

  8. [Solitary Neurofibroma of the Sigmoid Colon Presenting as a Subepithelial Tumor Successfully Removed by Endoscopic Resection].

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jik; Park, Sung Min; Kim, Byung Wook; Kim, Joon Sung; Ji, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hwang

    2016-07-25

    Neurofibromas are benign, slow-growing nerve sheath tumors of the peripheral nervous system, arising from Schwann cells, and classically associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1, von Recklinghausen's disease). They occur rarely in the gastro-intestinal tract as isolated neoplasms, outside the classical clinical feature of neurofibromatosis. We herein present an isolated colonic neurofibroma without any systemic signs of neurofibromatosis. A 59-year-old female came to our hospital for constipation. On physical examination, general appearance showed no definite skin lesions. A subepithelial tumor measuring 0.8 cm was detected at the distal descending colon on colonoscopy. The lesion was removed completely by endoscopic resection. Microscopic examination showed proliferation of spindle cells in the mucosa and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for S-100 protein. The above morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics were consistent with a diagnosis of a solitary neurofibroma of the sigmoid colon. PMID:27443624

  9. Pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus masquerading as a mucocele.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yok Kuan; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sushil; Chong, Aun Wee; Prepageran, Narayanan; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Khairuzzana, Baharudin; Lingham, Omkara Rubini

    2015-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of benign salivary gland tumor. It can also be found in the larynx, ear, neck, and nasal septum. It is rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and it has never been reported in the frontal sinus. We report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus that masqueraded as a mucocele. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this patient, and we review the literature. PMID:26670764

  10. Solitary Encapsulated Neurofibroma Not Associated with Neurofibromatosis-1 Affecting Tongue in a 73-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Sk Abdul; Shah, Neha; Chattaraj, Moumita; Gayen, Swagata

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of nerve cell origin arising due to proliferation of Schwann cells and fibroblasts. They are usually asymptomatic and hence remain undiagnosed. They are commonly found on the skin and intraorally tongue is the most common site for their occurrence. Here, we present a unique case of solitary encapsulated neurofibroma in the oral cavity without any clinical manifestations or family history of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a painless swelling on the tongue. The histopathologic findings closely mimicked benign fibrous histiocytoma. In our case, definitive diagnosis of neurofibroma was made based on clinical findings, family history, and histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Through this case report we want to emphasize the role of biopsy and immunohistochemistry in arriving at a confirmatory diagnosis. The patient was treated by surgical excision and showed no signs of recurrence over a follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:27525129

  11. Solitary Encapsulated Neurofibroma Not Associated with Neurofibromatosis-1 Affecting Tongue in a 73-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Sk. Abdul; Chattaraj, Moumita; Gayen, Swagata

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of nerve cell origin arising due to proliferation of Schwann cells and fibroblasts. They are usually asymptomatic and hence remain undiagnosed. They are commonly found on the skin and intraorally tongue is the most common site for their occurrence. Here, we present a unique case of solitary encapsulated neurofibroma in the oral cavity without any clinical manifestations or family history of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a painless swelling on the tongue. The histopathologic findings closely mimicked benign fibrous histiocytoma. In our case, definitive diagnosis of neurofibroma was made based on clinical findings, family history, and histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Through this case report we want to emphasize the role of biopsy and immunohistochemistry in arriving at a confirmatory diagnosis. The patient was treated by surgical excision and showed no signs of recurrence over a follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:27525129

  12. Masquerades of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    I summarize these observations in Figure 1. It represents every person in a hypothetical population who has myocardial infarction. A large but unknown number, some believe almost half, never get help. Mobile coronary care units are reducing this group, but so far only a little. When the diagnosis is not understood the disease is not recognized. Then come discovery and popularization. Hereafter masquerades hide some cases and the diagnosis is missed. Somewhere fairly early the diagnostic fad leads to false positive diagnosis. As new techniques are discovered, perfected and mastered, false positive errors and masquerades leading to oversights diminish but still exist. All the skill and technical virtuosity in the world will not be applied if we do not think of the disease. When we think of it, even obscure cases may be resolved easily. PMID:960416

  13. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆. PMID:24469750

  14. Runx1 contributes to neurofibromatosis type 1 neurofibroma formation

    PubMed Central

    Li, H; Zhao, X; Yan, X; Jessen, WJ; Kim, M-O; Dombi, E; Liu, PP; Huang, G; Wu, J

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are predisposed to neurofibromas but the driver(s) that contribute to neurofibroma formation are not fully understood. By cross comparison of microarray gene lists on human neurofibroma-initiating cells and developed neurofibroma Schwann cells (SCs) we identified RUNX1 overexpression in human neurofibroma initiation cells, suggesting RUNX1 might relate to neurofibroma formation. Immunostaining confirmed RUNX1 protein overexpression in human plexiform neurofibromas. Runx1 overexpression was confirmed in mouse Schwann cell progenitors (SCPs) and mouse neurofibromas at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Genetic inhibition of Runx1 expression by small hairpin RNA or pharmacological inhibition of Runx1 function by a Runx1/Cbfβ interaction inhibitor, Ro5-3335, decreased mouse neurofibroma sphere number in vitro. Targeted genetic deletion of Runx1 in SCs and SCPs delayed mouse neurofibroma formation in vivo. Mechanistically, loss of Nf1 increased embryonic day 12.5 Runx1+/Blbp+ progenitors that enable tumor formation. These results suggest that Runx1 has an important role in Nf1 neurofibroma initiation, and inhibition of RUNX1 function might provide a novel potential therapeutic treatment strategy for neurofibroma patients. PMID:26073082

  15. Hypertrichotic Giant Nevus Spilus Tardivus and Neurofibroma of the Tongue in Sporadic von Recklinghausen's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Sylvester, Vijay; Vengalath, Janisha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2014-01-01

    Solitary neurofibromas are rare, benign tumours of nonodontogenic origin. The presentation of a solitary neurofibroma on the tongue is an uncommon occurrence and we present such a case here which was discovered in concomitance with multiple neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's disease). Such a rare presentation seen in this case is a diagnostic challenge and often clinched only with the aid of histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. This work also discusses the various differential diagnoses that can be considered in similar cases. The presence of a hypertrichotic “giant” nevus spilus tardivus (Becker's nevus) is also a rare finding in this particular case. We present such a case which will be of interest to the budding dental practitioner. The lesion was excised and the patient followed up without any evidence of malignant transformation. PMID:25478247

  16. Surgical management of giant neurofibroma in soft tissue: a single-center retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Si-Ming; Cui, Lei; Guo, Yao; Wang, Jun; Hu, Xin-Bao; Jiang, Hui-Qing; Hong, Zhi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibroma, a common benign tumor in soft tissue, continues to grow, and often appears to be giant. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the surgical treatment of 26 patients with giant neurofibromas in our clinic in the past 10 years from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013. The tumors were located in the head (n = 10), trunk (n = 9), limbs (n = 5), and multi-sites (n = 2). According to the location and extent of the lesion, as well as the adjacent anatomy, surgical management was performed to partially (n = 15) or almost completely (n = 11) resect the tumor. The wounds were repaired by skin flap or skin graft. Among them, one child with a giant tumor in the scalp underwent three times of skin expander treatment, and acquired complete removal of the tumor finally without baldness. Eleven cases underwent the interventional embolization of tumor’s nutrient arteries, which successfully reduced the bleeding in operation. Most of the skin flap and skin graft survived well. After operation, the appearance of the patients and the function of the limbs were improved largely. In conclusion, for the giant neurofibroma, surgical treatment effectively reduces the tumor burden, rehabilitates the appearance and function, and so improves the quality of life. Skin expandor and interventional embolization of nutrient artery can be used when appropriate. PMID:26131098

  17. [Isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Carbia, S; Pagola, J; Flaster, N; Guida, A; Jufe, L; González, B; Caniparoli, A

    1995-01-01

    The neurogenic tumors in the biliary tract are rare and usually are amputation neuroma that occur after cholecystectomy. We describe a case of isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct in a young man not cholecystectomized. The patient suffered recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss without clinical signs of Von Recklinghausen's disease or jaundice. The hepatogram was normal. The echography indicated a solid formation with obstruction of the proximal common bile duct. In the ERCP the stenosis was found. Surgical excision of the tumor and anastomosis of bilateral hepatic ducts and jejunum were carried out. At microscopic examination intraparietal neurofibroma of the common bile duct was found. As isolated entity, we know of only one reported case. PMID:8731581

  18. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  19. Comparative study of CO2- and Er:YAG laser ablation of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas in von Recklinghausen's disease.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Lukas K; Susani, Martin; Kircher, Susanne G; Distelmaier, Klaus; Happak, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    With a prevalence of 1 in 3,000 births, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders and is characterized by an uninhibited expansion of neural tissue. Occasionally, severe deformities occur, but frequently considerable cosmetic disfigurement is caused by the development of hundreds of benign cutaneous neurofibromas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser as a therapeutic option for the removal of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas. In this prospective, comparative, in vivo study, 15,580 neurofibromas (44 operations on 21 patients) were removed via electrosurgery, CO2- or Er:YAG laser ablation. In 12 adjacent test areas, we compared the zone of thermal necrosis, the postoperative pain, the time to reepithelialization, the duration of postoperative erythema and the cosmetic outcome of these surgical methods. When compared to electrosurgery and CO2 laser ablation, the Er:YAG laser ablation outperformed the other methods of tumor removal. Rapid healing by second intention as well as the minimal discomfort and scar formation following Er:YAG laser ablation were noted. After 36 months of follow-up, permanent dyspigmentation was rare and hypertrophic scarring was not observed. Er:YAG laser vaporization of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas is a simple and rapid procedure that results in significantly better cosmetic results than CO2 laser treatment or electrosurgery. PMID:24189926

  20. Unusual solitary neurofibroma on the lower lip of a child

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Correia, Ramon De Medonça; Borba, Alexandre Meirelles; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Estrela, Cynthia Rodrigues De Araújo; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromas (NF) are benign tumors with involvement of the peripheral nerve, which is not frequently located in the oral cavity, and especially, extraordinary rarity on lower lip of a child. This report describes a case of a NF on lower lip in a 12-year-old Brazilian child. NF consists of a wide variety of cell types, including Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts. Due to cellular heterogeneity, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the histogenesis of this lesion. One of them, it support an origin of Schwannian, while others emphasize the participation of both Schwann cells and perineural cells. Excisional biopsy was performed to establish definitive diagnosis. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of interlacing bundles of elongated cells with wavy nuclei and small nerve fibers. Immunohistopathologic assessment showed cells positive for S-100, confirming the diagnosis of NF. No recurrence was observed after 1-year follow-up. Pediatric dentists must have a thorough knowledge of this unusual lesion. PMID:24403799

  1. Neurotized Congenital Melanocytic Nevus Resembling a Pigmented Neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma. PMID:25657396

  2. Post-mastectomy benign lymphangioendothelioma of the skin following chronic lymphedema for breast carcinoma: a teaching case mimicking low-grade angiosarcoma and masquerading as Stewart-Treves syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Yamada, Yoko; Kobayashi, Miwa; Hino, Ryosuke; Nawata, Aya; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Motonobu; Nakayama, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Benign lymphangioendothelioma (BL) represents a very rare lymphatic vascular proliferation. Our aim is to be aware that owing to its characteristic features, pathologists can easily misinterpret it as cutaneous low-grade angiosarcoma when examining only small specimens. In the present case, multiple small and yellowish to reddish soft nodules were noticed in the edematous left arm of a 54-year-old Japanese female 4 years after the radical mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection and following radiotherapy to the chest for the left breast carcinoma. The biopsy specimen showed an ill-defined lesion composed of a proliferation of irregular and sometimes anastomosing vascular structures in the dermis, lined by endothelial cells having mildly hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei, but no mitotic figures. As the lesion grew within deeper dermis, these proliferating vessels dissected dermal collagenous bands, occasionally arranged in low-papillary projections and/or characteristic hobnail cytomorphology. We first interpreted it as low-grade angiosarcoma following chronic lymphedema due to the operation, i.e., the so-called Stewart-Treves syndrome. Although additional treatments were performed for 7 years, she had neither local invasion nor metastases of these tumors, respectively, and was alive and well. Retrospective immunohistochemical findings demonstrated that these mildly atypical endothelial cells were strongly positive for lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1 as well, and MIB-1 labeling index was less than 1%. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of BL of the skin. MIB-1 labeling index might be useful and adjunctive aids for reaching the correct diagnosis of cutaneous BL, especially in case of small or inadequate specimens.Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_197. PMID:25358645

  3. Whole-exome sequencing of breast cancer, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and neurofibroma from a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    McPherson, John Richard; Ong, Choon-Kiat; Ng, Cedric Chuan-Young; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Heng, Hong-Lee; Yu, Willie Shun-Shing; Tan, Benita Kiat-Tee; Madhukumar, Preetha; Teo, Melissa Ching-Ching; Ngeow, Joanne; Thike, Aye-Aye; Rozen, Steven George; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Lee, Ann Siew-Gek; Teh, Bin-Tean; Yap, Yoon-Sim

    2015-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of multiple neurofibromas, cafe-au-lait spots, and Lisch nodules. Individuals with NF1 are at increased risk of developing various tumors, such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), pheochromocytoma, leukemia, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and breast cancer. Here, we describe the exome sequencing of breast cancer, MPNST, and neurofibroma from a patient with NF1. We identified a germline mutation in the NF1 gene which resulted in conversion of leucine to proline at amino acid position 847. In addition, we showed independent somatic NF1 mutations in all the three tumors (frameshift insertion in breast cancer (p.A985fs), missense mutation in MPNST (p.G23R), and inframe deletion in dermal neurofibroma (p.L1876del-Inf)), indicating that a second hit in NF1 resulting in the loss of function could be important for tumor formation. Each tumor had a distinct genomic profile with mutually exclusive mutations in different genes. Copy number analysis revealed multiple copy number alterations in the breast cancer and the MPNST, but not the benign neurofibroma. Germline loss of chromosome 6q22.33, which harbors two potential tumor suppressor genes, PTPRK and LAMA2, was also identified; this may increase tumor predisposition further. In the background of NF1 syndrome, although second-hit NF1 mutation is critical in tumorigenesis, different additional mutations are required to drive the formation of different tumors. PMID:26432421

  4. Benign small bowel tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Melvin, D B; Gray, G; Thorbjarnarson, B

    1975-01-01

    The clinical record and histologic sections of 84 cases of benign small bowel tumor are reviewed. Manifestations of systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, and lesions of either the ileocecal valve or periampullary region were excluded. In the same time span there were 96 small bowel malignancies. Clinical presentation, pathologic findings, management and result are compared to the collected published experience of about 2000 cases. There were 36 leiomyomas, 22 lipomas, 9 angiomas, 6 neurofibromas and 4 fibromas. Thirty-six men and 48 women were affected; the majority in their fifth and sixth decade. Seventy-eight were operative and 6 autopsy diagnoses. The most common symptom was obstruction (42%) followed by hemorrhage (34%) and pain (22%), relative frequency differing for the various specific tumors. There were rarely significant physical findings. A diagnosis of small bowel tumor was made radiologically in 30 patients. Because of the nonspecificity of other signs and symptoms, an acute awareness of the possibility of small bowel tumor is mandatory for preoperative anticipation of the diagnosis. Local resection was performed in all with no deaths or significant postoperative complications. PMID:1078626

  5. Identification of Growth Hormone Receptor in Plexiform Neurofibromas of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Barboza, Eliane Porto; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of growth hormone receptor in plexiform neurofibromas of neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. INTRODUCTION The development of multiple neurofibromas is one of the major features of neurofibromatosis type 1. Since neurofibromas commonly grow during periods of hormonal change, especially during puberty and pregnancy, it has been suggested that hormones may influence neurofibromatosis type 1 neurofibromas. A recent study showed that the majority of localized neurofibromas from neurofibromatosis type 1 patients have growth hormone receptor. METHODS Growth hormone receptor expression was investigated in 5 plexiform neurofibromas using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Four of the 5 plexiform neurofibromas were immunopositive for growth hormone receptor. CONCLUSION This study suggests that growth hormone may influence the development of plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18297205

  6. Giant plexiform neurofibroma and suboccipital meningocele manifesting as segmental neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Masanori; Mizumaki, Yasushi; Fukuda, Osamu; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Kuwayama, Naoya; Endo, Shunro

    2008-06-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with segmental neurofibromatosis manifesting as a soft lump with a large café-au-lait macule on her occipital region and neck. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a thick skin tumor in the occipital region and posterior neck, and a suboccipital meningocele which seemed to have no association with her symptoms. Biopsy lead to a histological diagnosis of giant plexiform neurofibroma. During biopsy, massive local bleeding occurred and hemostasis was achieved by electrocautery and meticulous suture ligation. The postoperative course was uneventful and observation was continued for both the giant plexiform neurofibroma and the meningocele. PMID:18574335

  7. Superficial neurofibromas in the setting of schwannomatosis: nosologic implications

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Bernd W.; George, David; Midha, Rajiv; MacCollin, Mia; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.

    2015-01-01

    First described in the past decade, schwannomatosis is a syndrome distinct from neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). It is characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas, sparing the vestibular division of cranial nerve VIII, and may also predispose to develop meningiomas. We report two female patients, a 27 and a 44 years old who developed multiple peripheral schwannomas, but without involvement of the vestibular nerves, satisfying clinical criteria for schwannomatosis. Lack of vestibular nerve involvement was confirmed with MRI using an internal auditory canal protocol with 3 mm thick slices in both patients after age 30. Both patients developed a small neurofibroma in axillary subcutaneous tissues and a diffuse cutaneous neurofibroma of the left buttock, respectively. This report highlights that superficial neurofibromas may arise in the setting of schwannomatosis, which may have implications for the diagnostic criteria of this unique syndrome. In particular, the presence of a cutaneous neurofibroma in a patient with multiple schwannomas should not lead to a diagnosis of NF2. PMID:21191601

  8. Methylation-based classification of benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, Manuel; Koelsche, Christian; Schrimpf, Daniel; Capper, David; Sahm, Felix; Kratz, Annekathrin; Reuss, Jana; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T W; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Becker, Albert; Weis, Joachim; Mawrin, Christian; Mittelbronn, Michel; Perry, Arie; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Hartmann, Christian; Okuducu, Ali Fuat; Arp, Mirko; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Hänggi, Daniel; Heim, Stefanie; Paulus, Werner; Schittenhelm, Jens; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; von Deimling, Andreas; Reuss, David E

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of peripheral nerve sheath tumors derive from the Schwann cell lineage and comprise diverse histological entities ranging from benign schwannomas and neurofibromas to high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), each with several variants. There is increasing evidence for methylation profiling being able to delineate biologically relevant tumor groups even within the same cellular lineage. Therefore, we used DNA methylation arrays for methylome- and chromosomal profile-based characterization of 171 peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We analyzed 28 conventional high-grade MPNST, three malignant Triton tumors, six low-grade MPNST, four epithelioid MPNST, 33 neurofibromas (15 dermal, 8 intraneural, 10 plexiform), six atypical neurofibromas, 43 schwannomas (including 5 NF2 and 5 schwannomatosis associated cases), 11 cellular schwannomas, 10 melanotic schwannomas, 7 neurofibroma/schwannoma hybrid tumors, 10 nerve sheath myxomas and 10 ganglioneuromas. Schwannomas formed different epigenomic subgroups including a vestibular schwannoma subgroup. Cellular schwannomas were not distinct from conventional schwannomas. Nerve sheath myxomas and neurofibroma/schwannoma hybrid tumors were most similar to schwannomas. Dermal, intraneural and plexiform neurofibromas as well as ganglioneuromas all showed distinct methylation profiles. Atypical neurofibromas and low-grade MPNST were indistinguishable with a common methylation profile and frequent losses of CDKN2A. Epigenomic analysis finds two groups of conventional high-grade MPNST sharing a frequent loss of neurofibromin. The larger of the two groups shows an additional loss of trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). The smaller one retains H3K27me3 and is found in spinal locations. Sporadic MPNST with retained neurofibromin expression did not form an epigenetic group and most cases could be reclassified as cellular schwannomas or soft tissue sarcomas. Widespread immunohistochemical loss

  9. Recurrent angio-fibroma of breast masquerading as phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Jai K; Alam, Feroz; Shadan, Mariam; Naim, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    A young Indian female presented with a recurring tumor in the right breast masquerading as phyllodes tumor. Patient had history of five times excision and recurrences of the tumor, diagnosed as fibrous phyllodes of the breast. Presently, a well-circumscribed tumor of about 10 cm size, comprising of benign fibrous-angiomatous tissue with evidence of foci of pyogenic vasculitis was observed. Immuno-histochemical markers for the myo-epithelial and epithelial elements excluded the possibility of fibrous phyllodes, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, desmoid fibromatosis, and metaplastic carcinoma. The present findings were diagnostic of an inflammatory angio-fibroma of the right breast, not reported in the earlier literature. The observations indicated that the female breast may be susceptible to spontaneous productive and common-antibiotic-resistant focal septic vascular inflammation giving rise to angio-fibromatous proliferation producing a well-defined tumor mass in the breast, distinguishable from the other breast lesions by the connective tissue stains and immuno-histochemical markers. PMID:26458623

  10. Isolated Vaginal Neurofibroma Presenting as Vaginal Wall Cyst: A Rare Case Report With Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nibhoria, Sarita; Kaur Tiwana, Kanwardeep; Kaur, Manmeet; Phutela, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas commonly involve peripheral nervous system. Isolated neurofibroma of vagina is very rare tumor and usually associated with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. Vulva is the most frequent location of neurofibroma of genital tract followed by clitoris and labia. We present a rare case of neurofibroma of vaginal wall presented as vaginal cyst in a 52 year old female with no history of any other symptoms related to Recklinghausen’s disease. Excision biopsy was done and on the histopathological examination non-encapsulated, well circumscribed mass composed of spindle shaped cells with wavy nuclei and bland nuclear chromatin was noted. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positivity with S-100.

  11. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Masquerading as Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vinit; Arora, Anil; Tyagi, Pankaj; Sharma, Praveen; Bansal, Naresh; Singla, Vikas; Bansal, Rinkesh K.; Gupta, Varun; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Malignancy masquerading as liver abscess, and presenting with fever, is mainly described in patients with colorectal cancers with liver metastasis. Primary liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as non-resolving liver abscess is extremely uncommon and carries a dismal prognosis. We present a rare case of non-resolving liver abscess as a presenting manifestation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25941437

  12. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  13. Nilotinib Is More Potent than Imatinib for Treating Plexiform Neurofibroma In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiang; Freytag, Marcus; Schober, Yvonne; Nockher, Wolfgang A.; Mautner, Victor F.; Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Manley, Paul W.; Kluwe, Lan; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs) are benign nerve sheath tumors mostly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. They often extend through multiple layers of tissue and therefore cannot be treated satisfactorily by surgery. Nilotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat leukemia, with advantages over the prototype imatinib in terms of potency and selectivity towards BCR-ABL, and the DDR, PDGFR, and KIT receptor kinases. In this study, we compared efficacies of the two drugs on cultured cells of PNF in vitro and on xenografted tumor fragments on sciatic nerve of athymic nude mice. Xenografts were monitored weekly using a high resolution ultrasound measurement. Treatment with nilotinib at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg for four weeks led to a reduction of the graft sizesstd by 68±7% in the 8 treated mice, significantly more than the 33±8% reduction in the 8 untreated mice (P<0.05) and the 47±15% in the 7 mice treated with imatinib (P<0.05). The peak plasma nilotinib concentration 6.6±1.1 µM is within the pharmacological range of clinical application. Imatinib, but not nilotinib significantly hindered body weight increase of the mice and elevated cytotoxicity of mouse spleen cells (P<0.05). Our results suggest that nilotinib may be more potent than imatinib for treating PNFs and may also be better tolerated. Imatinib seems to have some off-target effect in elevating immunity. PMID:25340526

  14. Density-dependent predation influences the evolution and behavior of masquerading prey.

    PubMed

    Skelhorn, John; Rowland, Hannah M; Delf, Jon; Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2011-04-19

    Predation is a fundamental process in the interaction between species, and exerts strong selection pressure. Hence, anti-predatory traits have been intensively studied. Although it has long been speculated that individuals of some species gain protection from predators by sometimes almost-uncanny resemblances to uninteresting objects in the local environment (such as twigs or stones), demonstration of antipredatory benefits to such "masquerade" have only very recently been demonstrated, and the fundamental workings of this defensive strategy remain unclear. Here we use laboratory experiments with avian predators and twig-mimicking caterpillars as masqueraders to investigate (i) the evolutionary dynamics of masquerade; and (ii) the behavioral adaptations associated with masquerade. We show that the benefit of masquerade declines as the local density of masqueraders relative to their models (twigs, in our system) increases. This occurs through two separate mechanisms: increasing model density both decreased predators' motivation to search for masqueraders, and made masqueraders more difficult to detect. We further demonstrated that masquerading organisms have evolved complex microhabitat selection strategies that allow them to best exploit the density-dependent properties of masquerade. Our results strongly suggest the existence of opportunity costs associated with masquerade. Careful evaluation of such costs will be vital to the development of a fuller understanding of both the distribution of masquerade across taxa and ecosystems, and the evolution of the life history strategies of masquerading prey. PMID:21464318

  15. Neurofibroma and epidermoid cyst: unexpected findings after first foreskin retraction.

    PubMed

    Ballouhey, Quentin; Longis, Bernard; Couvrat-Carcauzon, Véronique; Gardic, Solène; Piguet, Christophe; Berenguer, Daniel; Fourcade, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    We report here 2 unusual cases of tumor of the glans penis in children. Abnormal findings were found on a 12-year-old and a 13-year-old boy soon after their first foreskin retraction. Initial medical examination suggested inclusions of smegma and they were referred to our Department of Pediatric Urology. Complete resection was performed under general anesthesia. Histologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst in the first patient and a solitary neurofibroma in the second. These patients represent respectively the third and the second cases of such entities described in the pediatric age group. Cautious examination is required for persistent inclusions of smegma. PMID:23958511

  16. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  17. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  18. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  19. Primary Cutaneous Plasmacytosis: Masquerading as Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Zawar, Vijay; Sharma, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Isolated cutaneous plasmacytosis (CP) is a rare entity with few cases reported in world literature. CP masquerading as hidradenitis suppurativa like presentation is a unique case with some features differentiating it clinically from it which were further confirmed by histopathology and immunostaining. Our case showed hyperplasia of mature plasma cells and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, immunostaining for CD138 positivity and kappa: lambda ratio more than 3:1. Extensive clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any underlying pathology, presence of any underlying disease accompanying the hypergammaglobulinemia and/or plasma cell proliferation. PMID:27057027

  20. Primary Cutaneous Plasmacytosis: Masquerading as Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Zawar, Vijay; Sharma, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Isolated cutaneous plasmacytosis (CP) is a rare entity with few cases reported in world literature. CP masquerading as hidradenitis suppurativa like presentation is a unique case with some features differentiating it clinically from it which were further confirmed by histopathology and immunostaining. Our case showed hyperplasia of mature plasma cells and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, immunostaining for CD138 positivity and kappa: lambda ratio more than 3:1. Extensive clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any underlying pathology, presence of any underlying disease accompanying the hypergammaglobulinemia and/or plasma cell proliferation. PMID:27057027

  1. Nf1+/− mast cells induce neurofibroma like phenotypes through secreted TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng-Chun; Chen, Shi; Clegg, Travis; Li, Xiaohong; Morgan, Trent; Estwick, Selina A.; Yuan, Jin; Khalaf, Waleed; Burgin, Sarah; Travers, Jeff; Parada, Luis F.; Ingram, David A.; Clapp, D. Wade

    2011-01-01

    Neurofibromas are common tumors found in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients. These complex tumors are composed of Schwann cells, mast cells, fibroblasts and perineurial cells embedded in collagen that provide a lattice for tumor invasion. Genetic studies demonstrate that in neurofibromas, nullizygous loss of Nf1 in Schwann cells and haploinsufficiency of Nf1 in non-neuronal cells are required for tumorigenesis. Fibroblasts are a major cellular constituent in neurofibromas and are a source of collagen that constitutes ~50% of the dry weight of the tumor. Here, we show that two of the prevalent heterozygous cells found in neurofibromas, mast cells and fibroblasts interact directly to contribute to tumor phenotype. Nf1+/− mast cells secrete elevated concentrations of the profibrotic transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). In response to TGF-β, both murine Nf1+/− fibroblasts and fibroblasts from human neurofibromas proliferate and synthesize excessive collagen, a hallmark of neurofibromas. We also establish that the TGF-β response occurs via hyperactivation of a novel Ras-c-abl signaling pathway. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of c-abl reverses fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis to wild-type levels. These studies identify a novel molecular target to inhibit neurofibroma formation. PMID:16835260

  2. Neurofibromatosis type 1 presenting with plexiform neurofibromas in two patients: MRI features.

    PubMed

    Halefoglu, Ahmet Mesrur

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as peripheral neurofibromatosis or von Recklinghausen's disease, is one of the most common genetic disorders. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Multiple cutaneous neurofibromas are hallmark lesions of NF1. Localized and plexiform neurofibromas of the paraspinal and sacral region are the most common abdominal neoplasms in NF1. Herein, we report two patients with a known history of NF1 presenting with multiple, extensive localized and plexiform neurofibromas. We describe the important distinguishing features of these tumors as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including very bright signal intensity and target sign on T2 weighted images. PMID:23049566

  3. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    PubMed Central

    Suut, Syahminan; Al-Ani, Zeid; Allen, Carolyn; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Durr-e-Sabih; AL-Harbi, Abdullah; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:26664560

  4. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses.

    PubMed

    Suut, Syahminan; Al-Ani, Zeid; Allen, Carolyn; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Durr-E-Sabih; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:26664560

  5. Multiple orbital neurofibromas, painful peripheral nerve tumors, distinctive face and marfanoid habitus: a new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Babovic-Vuksanovic, D; Messiaen, Ludwine; Nagel, Christoph; Brems, Hilde; Scheithauer, Bernd; Denayer, Ellen; Mao, Rong; Sciot, Raf; Janowski, Karen M; Schuhmann, Martin U; Claes, Kathleen; Beert, Eline; Garrity, James A; Spinner, Robert J; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Gavrilova, Ralitza; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Mautner, Victor; Legius, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Four unrelated patients having an unusual clinical phenotype, including multiple peripheral nerve sheath tumors, are reported. Their clinical features were not typical of any known familial tumor syndrome. The patients had multiple painful neurofibromas, including bilateral orbital plexiform neurofibromas, and spinal as well as mucosal neurofibromas. In addition, they exhibited a marfanoid habitus, shared similar facial features, and had enlarged corneal nerves as well as neuronal migration defects. Comprehensive NF1, NF2 and SMARCB1 mutation analyses revealed no mutation in blood lymphocytes and in schwann cells cultured from plexiform neurofibromas. Furthermore, no mutations in RET, PRKAR1A, PTEN and other RAS-pathway genes were found in blood leukocytes. Collectively, the clinical and pathological findings in these four cases fit no known syndrome and likely represent a new disorder. PMID:22258529

  6. Cells of origin in the embryonic nerve roots for NF1-associated plexiform neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiguo; Liu, Chiachi; Patel, Amish J; Liao, Chung-Ping; Wang, Yong; Le, Lu Q

    2014-11-10

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a tumor-predisposing genetic disorder. Plexiform neurofibromas are common NF1 tumors carrying a risk of malignant transformation, which is typically fatal. Little is known about mechanisms mediating initiation and identity of specific cell type that gives rise to neurofibromas. Using cell-lineage tracing, we identify a population of GAP43(+) PLP(+) precursors in embryonic nerve roots as the cells of origin for these tumors and report a non-germline neurofibroma model for preclinical drug screening to identify effective therapies. The identity of the tumor cell of origin and facility for isolation and expansion provides fertile ground for continued analysis to define factors critical for neurofibromagenesis. It also provides unique approaches to develop therapies to prevent neurofibroma formation in NF1 patients. PMID:25446898

  7. Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma Masquerading as Refractory Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zloto, Ofira; Elkader, Amir E. Abd; Fabian, Ido Didi; Vishnevskia-Dai, Vicktoria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of a patient with primary vitreoretinal lymphoma masquerading as retinitis. Methods Retrospective review of the patient's clinical, histopathological and imaging records. Results Cytopathology was negative for malignancy, and preliminary polymerase chain reaction results supported the diagnosis of varicella zoster virus retinitis. Therefore, the patient was treated with antiviral therapy. However, under this treatment, the retinitis progressed. As a result, primary vitreoretinal lymphoma was suspected, and empirical treatment with intravitreal methotrexate injections was started. Under this treatment, the ocular features improved. Five months after initial ocular presentation and ocular resolution, the patient presented with central nervous system lymphoma. Conclusion This case should raise the awareness of the variable clinical presentations, the challenging diagnosis and treatment of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma. All cases should be continuously systemically evaluated. PMID:26557084

  8. Dark photons as fractional cosmic neutrino masquerader

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Tu, Huitzu; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang E-mail: huitzu@phys.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-09-01

    Recently, Weinberg proposed a Higgs portal model with a spontaneously broken global U(1) symmetry in which Goldstone bosons may be masquerading as fractional cosmic neutrinos. We extend the model by gauging the U(1) symmetry. This gives rise to the so-called dark photon and dark Higgs. The dark photons can constitute about 0.912 (0.167) to the effective number of light neutrino species if they decouple from the thermal bath before the pions become non-relativistic and after (before) the QCD transition. Restriction on the parameter space of the portal coupling and the dark Higgs mass is obtained from the freeze-out condition of the dark photons. Combining with the collider data constraints on the invisible width of the standard model Higgs requires the dark Higgs mass to be less than a few GeV.

  9. Multifocal brain radionecrosis masquerading as tumor dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Safdari, H.; Boluix, B.; Gros, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on an autopsy-proven case of multifocal widespread radionecrosis involving both cerebral hemispheres and masquerading as tumor dissemination on a CT scan done 13 months after complete resection of an oligodendroglioma followed by radiation therapy. This case demonstrates that radiation damage may be present in a CT scan as a multifocal, disseminated lesion. Since the survival of brain-tumor patients who have undergone radiation therapy is prolonged by aggressive therapy, the incidence and variability of radiation-induced complications in such cases is likely to increase. For similar reasons, the radionecrosis in such cases should be taken into consideration. A short review of the CT scan findings and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in a case of widespread radionecrosis is presented. The need for appropriate diagnosis and subsequent life-saving management is emphasized.

  10. Mechanical Ptosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Heralding the Diagnosis of Right Sided Cervical Vagus Nerve Neurofibroma: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Sucheta; Panda, Bijnya; Pujahari, Susanta; Jena, Satyaswarup

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder. In NF1, involvement of vagus nerve can occur in the form of neurofibroma. A few cases of neurofibroma of thoracic vagus nerve have been reported while neurofibroma of cervical vagus nerve with NF1 is quite rare. A 19-year-old male came with complaints of decreased vision of both eyes and right sided drooping of eyelid since childhood. He was diagnosed as having NF1 with neurofibroma of right cervical vagus nerve. PMID:27504321

  11. Mechanical Ptosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Heralding the Diagnosis of Right Sided Cervical Vagus Nerve Neurofibroma: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Jyotiranjan; Parija, Sucheta; Panda, Bijnya; Pujahari, Susanta; Jena, Satyaswarup

    2016-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder. In NF1, involvement of vagus nerve can occur in the form of neurofibroma. A few cases of neurofibroma of thoracic vagus nerve have been reported while neurofibroma of cervical vagus nerve with NF1 is quite rare. A 19-year-old male came with complaints of decreased vision of both eyes and right sided drooping of eyelid since childhood. He was diagnosed as having NF1 with neurofibroma of right cervical vagus nerve. PMID:27504321

  12. Insertional Mutagenesis Identifies a STAT3/Arid1b/β-catenin Pathway Driving Neurofibroma Initiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianqiang; Keng, Vincent W; Patmore, Deanna M; Kendall, Jed J; Patel, Ami V; Jousma, Edwin; Jessen, Walter J; Choi, Kwangmin; Tschida, Barbara R; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Fan, Danhua; Schwartz, Eric B; Fuchs, James R; Zou, Yuanshu; Kim, Mi-Ok; Dombi, Eva; Levy, David E; Huang, Gang; Cancelas, Jose A; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Spinner, Robert J; Largaespada, David A; Ratner, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    To identify genes and signaling pathways that initiate Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) neurofibromas, we used unbiased insertional mutagenesis screening, mouse models, and molecular analyses. We mapped an Nf1-Stat3-Arid1b/β-catenin pathway that becomes active in the context of Nf1 loss. Genetic deletion of Stat3 in Schwann cell progenitors (SCPs) and Schwann cells (SCs) prevents neurofibroma formation, decreasing SCP self-renewal and β-catenin activity. β-catenin expression rescues effects of Stat3 loss in SCPs. Importantly, P-STAT3 and β-catenin expression correlate in human neurofibromas. Mechanistically, P-Stat3 represses Gsk3β and the SWI/SNF gene Arid1b to increase β-catenin. Knockdown of Arid1b or Gsk3β in Stat3(fl/fl);Nf1(fl/fl);DhhCre SCPs rescues neurofibroma formation after in vivo transplantation. Stat3 represses Arid1b through histone modification in a Brg1-dependent manner, indicating that epigenetic modification plays a role in early tumorigenesis. Our data map a neural tumorigenesis pathway and support testing JAK/STAT and Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitors in neurofibroma therapeutic trials. PMID:26904939

  13. Mesothelioma - benign-fibrous

    MedlinePlus

    Mesothelioma - benign; Mesothelioma - fibrous; Pleural fibroma; Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura ... other reasons. Other tests that may show benign mesothelioma include: CT scan of the chest Open lung ...

  14. Sirolimus for progressive neurofibromatosis type 1–associated plexiform neurofibromas: a Neurofibromatosis Clinical Trials Consortium phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Brian; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Wolters, Pamela; Dombi, Eva; Vinks, Alexander; Cantor, Alan; Perentesis, John; Schorry, Elizabeth; Ullrich, Nicole; Gutmann, David H.; Tonsgard, James; Viskochil, David; Korf, Bruce; Packer, Roger J.; Fisher, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors that arise in one-third of individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). They may cause significant disfigurement, compression of vital structures, neurologic dysfunction, and/or pain. Currently, the only effective management strategy is surgical resection. Converging evidence has demonstrated that the NF1 tumor suppressor protein, neurofibromin, negatively regulates activity in the mammalian Target of Rapamycin pathway. Methods We employed a 2-strata clinical trial design. Stratum 1 included subjects with inoperable, NF1-associated progressive PN and sought to determine whether sirolimus safely and tolerably increases time to progression (TTP). Volumetric MRI analysis conducted at regular intervals was used to determine TTP relative to baseline imaging. Results The estimated median TTP of subjects receiving sirolimus was 15.4 months (95% CI: 14.3–23.7 mo), which was significantly longer than 11.9 months (P < .001), the median TTP of the placebo arm of a previous PN clinical trial with similar eligibility criteria. Conclusions This study demonstrated that sirolimus prolongs TTP by almost 4 months in patients with NF1-associated progressive PN. Although the improvement in TTP is modest, given the lack of significant or frequent toxicity and the availability of few other treatment options, the use of sirolimus to slow the growth of progressive PN could be considered in select patients. PMID:25314964

  15. A case of portal hypertension by presumed as plexiform neurofibroma at the hepatic hilum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Han; Yoo, Sun Hong; Noh, Gi Tark; Heo, Won Suk; Ko, Byung Seong; Chio, Jung Ah; Cho, Hyo Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Jun; Sohn, Won; Park, Sang Jong; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas can occur anywhere in the body, but they usually involve the head, neck, pelvis, and extremities. Abdominal visceral involvement is rare, and intrahepatic involvement is even less common. We describe a patient who suffered from plexiform neurofibromatosis with liver involvement. A 49-year-old man, who had previously been diagnosed with neurofibromatosis, underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography for screening purposes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed grade 2 esophageal varices and abdominal ultrasonography showed conglomerated nodules with echogenic appearances in the perihepatic space. Magnetic resonance imaging showed presumed plexiform neurofibroma involving the lesser sac and hepatic hilum and encasing the common hepatic artery celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery left portal triad. We report an unusual case of portal hypertension attributed to the compressive narrowing of the portal vein by presumed as plexiform neurofibroma at the lesser sac and hepatic hilum. PMID:27209645

  16. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  17. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  18. In Vivo-Simulated Sonotransfection and the Effect of Gamma Interferon Gene on Neurofibroma Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuki; Feril, Loreto B.; Yoshida, Yuichi; Nakayama, Juichiro; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2007-05-01

    We have previously shown that ultrasound-mediated gene transfection (or sonotransfection) can be optimized on the basis of concepts drawn from previous in vitro experiments demonstrating ultrasound-induced apoptosis. At optimized conditions, we have shown using five cancer cell lines (HeLa, U937, Meth A, T24 and PC3) that sonotransfection is superior to other conventional non-viral methods such as electroporation and liposome-mediated transfection. In the present study, we further investigate the gene transfection of pEGFP-N1 into neurofibroma cell line isolated from human dermal neurofibroma, using an improved experimental set up that simulates in vivo conditions. The ultrasound device used was SonoPore KTAC-4000, which is capable of various settings. Using transducers of centre frequency 1.011 MHz, the optimal conditions include ISATA of 0.15, 0.44 and 0.64 W/cm2, burst frequency of 0.5 Hz, 25% duty factor, and 10-40 sec exposure duration. Cells were assayed at 24, 48 and 72 hr after the sonication. The transfection efficiency was found to be around 10%. Then we further investigated whether sonotransfection of gamma interferon on neurofibroma cell lines in vivo can suppress cell proliferation. Gamma interferon is well known as a pluripotential cytokine. It exerts an anti-tumor activity in some malignant diseases such as malignant lymphoma. Gamma interferon gene transfection by use of lipofectamin has been found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of neurofibroma cell lines in vitro. Our new experimental system was applied in evaluating the effect of sonotransfected gamma interferon gene on neurofibroma proliferation in vitro. It is suggested that ultrasound-mediated gamma interferon gene transfection could potentially become a non-surgical method in treating skin diseases, such as neurofibromas, particularly in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.

  19. Orbital masses: CT and MRI of common vascular lesions, benign tumors, and malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sarah N.; Sepahdari, Ali R.

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of space occupying lesions may be encountered in the orbit. CT and MR imaging frequently help confirm the presence of a mass and define its extent. Characteristic imaging features may help distinguish among lesions that have overlapping clinical presentations. This review focuses on some of the common orbital masses. Common vascular lesions that are reviewed include: capillary (infantile) hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma (solitary encapsulated venous-lymphatic malformation), and lymphangioma (venous-lymphatic malformation). Benign tumors that are reviewed include: optic nerve sheath meningioma, schwannoma, and neurofibroma. Malignancies that are reviewed include: lymphoma, metastasis, rhabdomyosarcoma, and optic glioma. Key imaging features that guide radiological diagnosis are discussed and illustrated. PMID:23961022

  20. [Immunohistochemical studies of paraffin-embedded material of solitary cutaneous neurofibromas].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-06-15

    Nine cutaneous solitary neurofibromas have been studied using antibodies against vimentin, S 100 protein, lysozyme, myoglobin, factor VIII, neurofilament, neuron specific enolase, and myelin-associated antigen. Most of the tumor cells showed positive reactions to S 100 protein and vimentin with different patterns of staining. Whereas vimentin was detected in the cell periphery, S 100 protein was concentrated in the perinuclear area and distinct in the cytoplasm. About 60 percent of the tumor cells revealed positive staining for laminin. Myoglobin, neurofilament, and neuron specific enolase could not be proved in the tumor tissue. Our results suggest that the majority of neurofibroma cells may derive from Schwann's cells. PMID:3529668

  1. Clinical and radiological repercussions of plexiform neurofibroma in the pelvic region.

    PubMed

    Slaibi, Érica Bertolace; Daher, João Gabriel Lima; da Fonseca, Gustavo Guida Godinho; Daher, Carlos Magno; Geller, Mauro; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the case of a plexiform neurofibroma located in the pelvis, affecting the bladder, prostate and spine (lumbar/sacral), followed-up for three years and six months. Surgical removal was contraindicated and the patient underwent biannual clinical and radiological follow-up that did not demonstrate any tumor increase. The clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 are variable, and the medical team should be attentive to further investigations, considering possible unexpected rare findings. Large pelvic masses may correspond to plexiform neurofibromas, so the diagnostic hypothesis of neurofibromatosis should be taken into consideration. PMID:25741110

  2. Cell of origin and microenvironment contribution for NF1-associated dermal neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Le, Lu Q.; Shipman, Tracey; Burns, Dennis K.; Parada, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The tumor predisposition disorder Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders of the nervous system. It is caused by mutation in the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene, which encodes a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) that negatively regulates p21-RAS. The development of malignant nerve tumors and neurofibromas, the most frequent tumors in NF1, is a serious complication of the disease. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the initiation and progression of these complex tumors, as well as the identity of the specific cell type that gives rise to dermal or cutaneous neurofibromas. In this study, we identify a population of stem/progenitor cells residing in the dermis termed Skin Derived Precursors (SKPs) that, through loss of Nf1, form neurofibromas. We propose that SKPs, or their derivatives, are the cell of origin of dermal neurofibroma. We also provide evidence that additional signals from the non-neoplastic cells in the tumor microenvironment play essential roles in neurofibromagenesis. PMID:19427294

  3. Anaplastic Carcinoma Arising in a Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm Masquerading as Pancreatic Pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Aldaoud, Najla; Joudeh, Amani; Al-Momen, Sami; Alnahawi, Mamdouh; Al-Abbadi, Mousa A

    2016-06-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the pancreas can vary from benign to premalignant and malignant. Preoperative diagnosis is essential to offer the patient appropriate treatment. Occasionally these cases may harbor anaplastic carcinoma while clinically masquerade as a pseudocyst. Here in, we report an unusual case of a 37-year old female presented with recurrent abdominal pain that was suspected clinically and by imaging studies to have a pseudocyst. EUS-FNA with internal drainage of the cyst was performed. Cytological evaluation of the cyst fluid showed numerous inflammatory cells composed mainly of many neutrophils admixed with macrophages reminiscent of the usual pseudocyst content but there were scattered rare dyscohesive malignant cells which were highly pleomorphic with multinucleation. Immunostains on the cell block showed immunoreactivity of these cells including the multinucleated cells for Cam 5.2 and AE1/AE3 and focally for Ber-Ep4, Moc -31, and CA19-9. The subsequent resection confirmed the presence of anaplastic (undifferentiated) carcinoma (AC) arising in a MCN of the pancreas. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:538-542. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028547

  4. Glomus-like bodies within a neurofibroma: a novel neoplasm arising in neurofibromatosis type 1 or a coincidence?

    PubMed

    Thareja, Sumeet; Honigbaum, Alexis; Jukic, Drazen

    2015-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a relatively common genetic disorder with variable phenotypes. Tumors with features of both glomus tumors and neurofibromas are exceedingly rare in literature. Herein, we report a not yet described neoplasm with features of both a glomangioma/glomus tumor and a neurofibroma arising in a patient with segmental neurofibromatosis. Our case report supports the theory of a common lineage/ancestor cell between neurofibromas and glomus tumors and adds it to the spectrum of neoplasms that may arise in the setting of Von Recklinghausen's disease. PMID:25384450

  5. Uveal Melanoma in the Peripheral Choroid Masquerading as Chronic Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lei; Zhu, Jiang; Gao, Tao; Li, Baizhou; Yang, Yabo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To describe a case of uveal melanoma in the peripheral choroid masquerading as chronic uveitis and to raise awareness about malignant masquerade syndromes. Case Report A 36-year-old Chinese woman presented from an outside ophthalmologist with a 6-month history of unilateral chronic uveitis unresponsive to medical therapy in the left eye. She was found to have a uveal melanoma in the retinal periphery and underwent successful enucleation of her left eye. The histopathological diagnosis confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Conclusions When uveal melanoma presents in an atypical way, the diagnosis is more difficult. This case highlights the uncommon presentations of malignant melanoma of the choroid. It provides valuable information on how peripheral uveal melanoma can present with clinical signs consistent with an anterior uveitis. PMID:25036546

  6. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of benign neurogenic tumours of the posterior mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The indications for videothoracoscopy are very broad and include the treatment of mediastinal tumours. Aim To present our experience of using the minimally invasive technique in treating benign neurogenic tumours. Material and methods Twenty-two patients were treated due to tumours of the posterior mediastinum from 2003 to 2012. The size of the tumours ranged from 2 cm to 25 cm. Tumours up to the size of 6 cm were treated using videothoracoscopy (VT), bigger ones through thoracotomy. Results The videothoracoscopy technique was used in 17 patients, thoracotomy in 5. In 2 cases conversion was required due to adhesions in the pleural cavity preventing VT treatment. Complications related to the procedure were not observed. The average time of hospital stay after VT treatment was 4 days, while after thoracotomy it was 6 days. Histologically, tumours of benign nature were found in all cases. Schwannoma was diagnosed in 15 patients, ganglioneuroma in 3 patients, neurofibroma in 3 patients, and chemodectoma in 1 patient. None of the 3 cases of neurofibroma was associated with Recklinghausen's disease. At a mean follow-up of 60 months no recurrence of the tumour was found. Conclusions In the case of tumours up to 6 cm the best surgical technique is videothoracoscopy. In the case of large tumours the best access is the open technique. The minimally invasive technique allows one to shorten the patient's treatment time, reduce postoperative pain and obtain a good cosmetic effect of the treatment. PMID:25337152

  7. Angioleiomyoma of Gingiva Masquerading as Pyogenic Granuloma.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Pardhe, Nilesh; Kumar, Manish

    2016-07-01

    Leiomyomas are benign soft tissue neoplasms that arise from smooth muscles. Three distinctive patterns of leiomyoma have been described as piloleiomyomas, angioleiomyomas and genital leiomyomas. Here in, we report the case of 39-year male with chief complain of growth on his lower left front region of the jaw. On the basis of clinical examination, it was provisionally diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma; however, histopathological examination made to the final diagnosis of angioleiomyoma. Excision led to uneventful recovery. PMID:27504561

  8. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  9. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  10. The Benign Hamburger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peaslee, Graham; Lantz, Juliette M.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a case study of food poisoning from hamburgers at the fictitious Jill-at-the-Grill to teach the nuclear science behind food irradiation. Includes case teaching notes on the benign hamburger. (ASK)

  11. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  12. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia. PMID:26811580

  13. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia. PMID:26811580

  14. Retained strabismus suture material masquerading as nonspecific orbital inflammation.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Alison B; Scofield, Stacy M; Gallin, Pamela F; Kazim, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of orbital myositis of the superior rectus muscle-levator complex masquerading as nonspecific orbital inflammation but corresponding in location to a known braided polyester "chicken suture" placed 20 years earlier during strabismus surgery. The orbital inflammation was refractory to oral steroids but resolved promptly on surgical removal of the suture material. Although suture material is known to cause foreign body granulomatous reactions, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of a deep, diffuse orbital inflammation attributable to chicken suture placed during strabismus surgery. PMID:27112911

  15. Idiopathic subvalvular aortic aneurysm masquerading as acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Balaji; Ramanathan, Sundar; Subramaniam, Natarajan; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Subvalvular aneurysms are the least common type of left ventricular (LV) aneurysms and can be fatal. Subaortic LV aneurysms are much rarer than submitral LV aneurysms and mostly reported in infancy. They can be congenital or acquired secondary to infections, cardiac surgery or trauma. Here, we report a unique presentation of a large, idiopathic subaortic aneurysm in an adult masquerading as an acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis was made with the help of a CT aortography. Aneurysm was surgically resected with good results. This case highlights the clinical presentation and management of subaortic aneurysms, an important differential for congenital aortic malformations. PMID:27591034

  16. Benign Essential Blepharospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation 637 North 7th Street Suite 102 P.O. ... 832-0788 Fax: 409-832-0890 Dystonia Medical Research Foundation 1 East Wacker Drive Suite 2810 Chicago, IL ...

  17. Benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Gilday, D L; Ash, J M

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of 99mTc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions. PMID:1082170

  18. Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 with multiple neurofibromas of the entire spinal nerve roots

    PubMed Central

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Peters-Willke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The coexistence of polyneuropathy which has the definite clinical and electromyographical findings consistent with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has infrequently been reported. We describe a patient with both CMT and NF1, who had multiple neurofibromas involving the entire spinal neural axis. In addition, he had multiple neurofibromas distributed within the ileopsoas and gluteus muscles and subcutaneous tissues. These lesions were detected readily by MRI and the patient underwent successful surgical resection of the largest tumours compressing bilateral C2 nerve roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CMT syndrome coexisting with NF1 in which multiple neurofibromas involved the entire spinal nerve roots. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, emphasising the role of MRI and electrophysiology in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:23853192

  19. Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 with multiple neurofibromas of the entire spinal nerve roots.

    PubMed

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Peters-Willke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The coexistence of polyneuropathy which has the definite clinical and electromyographical findings consistent with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has infrequently been reported. We describe a patient with both CMT and NF1, who had multiple neurofibromas involving the entire spinal neural axis. In addition, he had multiple neurofibromas distributed within the ileopsoas and gluteus muscles and subcutaneous tissues. These lesions were detected readily by MRI and the patient underwent successful surgical resection of the largest tumours compressing bilateral C2 nerve roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CMT syndrome coexisting with NF1 in which multiple neurofibromas involved the entire spinal nerve roots. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, emphasising the role of MRI and electrophysiology in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:23853192

  20. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (76). Left extradural-intradural lumbar neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Tsui, E Y K; Peh, W C G; Htoo, M M

    2002-08-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with weight loss, anoexia and back pain. She was found to have a palpable left abdominal mass. Radiographs, CT and MR imaging revealed a large left 3rd lumbar neurogenic tumour with both intra- and extradural components. A neurofibroma was excised and the diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. The patient has no recurrence at six years follow-up. The pathological classifications, clinical and imaging features of neurogenic tumours are discussed. With the knowledge of characteristic imaging features, these tumours can be differentiated from other types of intradural-extramedullary tumours. PMID:12507033

  1. Ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis type 1 with bilateral psoas muscle neurofibromas: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Hamid; Asadi, Mehrnaz; Mahzouni, Parvin; Foroozmehr, Abdolali

    2009-01-01

    The most common gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis is due to tumoral lesions which may present with gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. We report a case of concurrent ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis. A 39 year-old woman, known case of neurofibromatosis, was admitted to our department with complaint of chronic bloody diarrhea. After thorough clinical examination and paraclinical assessments, including colonoscopy and biopsy, ulcerative colitis was confirmed as the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Another rare finding in this patient was bilateral neurofibroma in psoas muscle that was detected on abdominal spiral Computer Tomography scan. PMID:21772893

  2. Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia

    SciTech Connect

    Siraganian, P.A.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Mulivor, R.A.; Miller, R.W. )

    1989-03-03

    Elevated alkaline phosphatase activity in serum suggests bone or liver disease or a neoplasm but can also indicate pregnancy or another benign condition. A family with benign hyperphosphatasemia was studied to elucidate the genetics and enzyme defect. Serum total alkaline phosphatase activity was greater than the population mean in all six family members, and more than 7 SDs above the mean in two of four offspring. Monoclonal antibodies to three alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, intestinal, placental, and tissue nonspecific demonstrated markedly increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in all family members and significantly elevated liver/bone/kidney activity in the two offspring. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the liver/bone/kidney component showed high alkaline phosphatase activity from liver in both siblings and from bone in one. The mode of inheritance in this family is obscure, but a complex regulation of the products of two different alkaline phosphatase genes seems likely. Steps toward diagnosis are suggested. Early recognition of this benign biochemical abnormality should help to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  3. Solitary epicranial neurofibroma with NF1-related germline mutation: case report.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Natsuki; Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Akiba, Chihiro; Nakanishi, Hajime; Ogino, Ikuko; Yasumoto, Yukimasa; Arai, Hajime; Ito, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old male became aware of a painless soft mass in the left occipital region. His medical and family history were unremarkable for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or other genetic disorders. Physical examination showed no signs of NF1. Neurological and ophthalmological examinations found no abnormality. Cranial computed tomography showed an isodense mass located subcutaneously with irregular deformities in the adjacent occipital bone. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated that the lesion, 7.5 × 5.5 cm in diameter, was hypointense both on T1- and T2-weighted images and intensely enhanced after gadolinium infusion. The patient requested to remove the large mass. The subcutaneous tumor was well circumscribed, encapsulated, and less vascular, and resected en bloc. The histological diagnosis was neurofibroma without findings of cell atypia, whereas genomic exploration identified abnormal gains in NF1 gene, and resultant absence of neurofibromin, a protein coded on NF1 gene. Solitary neurofibromas in "clinically" non-NF1 patients may originate from the genomic changes in NF1 gene. PMID:24140765

  4. Delayed phlegmon with gallstone fragments masquerading as soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Laura F.; Bateni, Cyrus P.; Bishop, John W.; Canter, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Complications from lost gallstones after cholecystectomy are rare but varied from simple perihepatic abscess to empyema and expectoration of gallstones. Gallstone complications have been reported in nearly every organ system, although reports of malignant masquerade of retained gallstones are few. We present the case of an 87-year-old woman with a flank soft tissue tumor 4 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The initial clinical, radiographic and biopsy findings were consistent with soft tissue sarcoma (STS), but careful review of her case in multidisciplinary conference raised the suspicion for retained gallstones rather than STS. The patient was treated with incisional biopsy/drainage of the mass, and gallstones were retrieved. The patient recovered completely without an extensive resectional procedure, emphasizing the importance of multidisciplinary sarcoma care to optimize outcomes for potential sarcoma patients. PMID:27333918

  5. Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    PubMed

    Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. PMID:23691938

  6. Identifying and quantifying recurrent novae masquerading as classical novae

    SciTech Connect

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2014-06-20

    Recurrent novae (RNe) are cataclysmic variables with two or more nova eruptions within a century. Classical novae (CNe) are similar systems with only one such eruption. Many of the so-called CNe are actually RNe for which only one eruption has been discovered. Since RNe are candidate Type Ia supernova progenitors, it is important to know whether there are enough in our Galaxy to provide the supernova rate, and therefore to know how many RNe are masquerading as CNe. To quantify this, we collected all available information on the light curves and spectra of a Galactic, time-limited sample of 237 CNe and the 10 known RNe, as well as exhaustive discovery efficiency records. We recognize RNe as having (1) outburst amplitude smaller than 14.5 – 4.5 × log (t {sub 3}), (2) orbital period >0.6 days, (3) infrared colors of J – H > 0.7 mag and H – K > 0.1 mag, (4) FWHM of Hα > 2000 km s{sup –1}, (5) high excitation lines, such as Fe X or He II near peak, (6) eruption light curves with a plateau, and (7) white dwarf mass greater than 1.2 M {sub ☉}. Using these criteria, we identify V1721 Aql, DE Cir, CP Cru, KT Eri, V838 Her, V2672 Oph, V4160 Sgr, V4643 Sgr, V4739 Sgr, and V477 Sct as strong RN candidates. We evaluate the RN fraction among the known CNe using three methods to get 24% ± 4%, 12% ± 3%, and 35% ± 3%. With roughly a quarter of the 394 known Galactic novae actually being RNe, there should be approximately a hundred such systems masquerading as CNe.

  7. Lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic peripheral nerve sheath. 2. Lectin binding patterns of schwannoma and neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, K; Nakasu, S; Nioka, H; Handa, J

    1993-01-01

    Lectin binding patterns of 31 schwannomas and 6 neurofibromas were examined using 12 lectins, and the results were compared with those of normal peripheral nerves. Tumors obtained from 10 cases of neurofibromatosis and 4 recurrent schwannomas were included. Changes of glycoconjugates were observed in association with a neoplastic transformation of Schwann cells; Arachis hypogaea (PNA) staining after neuraminidase treatment seen in normal Schwann cells was reduced in schwannoma of Antoni type A, and bindings with Glycine max (SBA) and Helix pomatia (HPA) after sialic acid removal, which were not seen in normal Schwann cells, appeared in schwannoma cells. Intensities of staining of tumor cells with each lectin were higher in Antoni type B than those in Antoni type A. No differences in lectin binding patterns were observed between schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis or recurrent schwannomas and ordinary, primary schwannomas in patients without stigmata of neurofibromatosis. Lectin binding patterns of Schwann cells and perineurial cells in neurofibroma were almost similar to those in normal peripheral nerves with an exception of faint stain of Schwann cells with HPA after neuraminidase pretreatment. This result suggests differences in extent of differentiation between schwannoma cells and neoplastic Schwann cells in neurofibroma. Specific PNA binding to perineurial cells in neurofibroma indicates the significance of this lectin as a marker of these cells. PMID:8310811

  8. Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2016-09-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare and poorly characterized disease affecting primarily premenopausal women. Asymptomatic patients are often diagnosed incidentally by radiographs or other lung-imaging procedures performed for other indications, and the diagnosis is eventually confirmed by biopsy. Patients with BML are usually treated pharmacologically with antiestrogen therapies or surgically with oophorectomy or hysterectomy. Antiestrogen therapy is typically efficacious and, in general, most patients have a favorable prognosis. Asymptomatic patients with a confirmed diagnosis of BML, may be followed conservatively without treatment. PMID:27514603

  9. Clinicopathological Profile of Benign Soft Tissue Tumours: A Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chandak, Shruti; Ranjan, Amar; Patel, Mehul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of soft tissue tumours, especially the frequency of benign tumours relative to malignant ones, is nearly impossible to determine accurately. Benign soft tissue tumours outnumber malignant tumours by a wide margin. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to look into the clinicopathological profile of benign soft tissue tumour in terms of hospital incidence of age, sex, site distribution and comparison of histological types of benign soft tissue tumours with other similar studies. Materials and Methods: The operated specimens or biopsy material of benign soft tissue tumours received from January, 2010 to July, 2010 in the Department of Histopathology of our hospital, were studied in detail. Age and sex incidence, site of lesion, clinical features, gross and microscopic appearance were carefully studied. Results: In our study, most common benign soft tissue tumour was lipoma (50.8%) followed by hemangioma (17.5%) which in turn was followed by neurofibroma, angiofibroma & schwannoma. Most common age group for benign soft tissue tumour were 31-40y (27.5%) followed by 21-30y (22.5%). Overall a male predominance was seen with 60.83% in males. The most common site of occurrence of benign soft tissue tumour overall was found to be trunk (25%), followed by upper extremities (21.7%), lower extremities (17.5%) and nose and nasopharynx (10.8%) in that order. Conclusion: With our study, we were able to reassess the clinical profile of soft tissue tumours and their different types with respect to age, sex, site distribution. PMID:25478344

  10. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  11. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Hyun, Dong Ju; Piquette, Raymonde; Beaumont, Clément; Germain, Lucie; Larouche, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF) has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions), clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up. PMID:27127789

  12. Image-guided robotic stereotactic body radiotherapy for benign spinal tumors: theUniversity of California San Francisco preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Sahgal, A; Chou, D; Ames, C; Ma, L; Lamborn, K; Huang, K; Chuang, C; Aiken, A; Petti, P; Weinstein, P; Larson, D

    2007-12-01

    We evaluate our preliminary experience using the Cyberknife Radiosurgery System in treating benign spinal tumors. A retrospective review of 16 consecutively treated patients, comprising 19 benign spinal tumors, was performed. Histologic types included neurofibroma [11], chordoma [4], hemangioma [2], and meningioma [2]. Three patients had Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Only one tumor, recurrent chordoma, had been previously irradiated, and as such not considered in the local failure analysis. Local failure, for the remaining 18 tumors, was based clinically on symptom progression and/or tumor enlargement based on imaging. Indications for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) consisted of either adjuvant to subtotal resection (5/19), primary treatment alone (12/19), boost following external beam radiotherapy (1/19), and salvage following previous radiation (1/19). Median tumor follow-up is 25 months (2-37), and one patient (with NF1) died at 12 months from a stroke. The median total dose, number of fractions, and prescription isodose was 21 Gy (10-30 Gy), 3 fx (1-5 fx), 80% (42-87%). The median tumor volume was 7.6 cc (0.2-274.1 cc). The median V100 (volume V receiving 100% of the prescribed dose) and maximum tumor dose was 95% (77-100%) and 26.7 Gy (15.4-59.7 Gy), respectively. Three tumors progressed at 2, 4, and 36 months post-SR (n=18). Two tumors were neurofibromas (both in NF1 patients), and the third was an intramedullary hemangioblastoma. Based on imaging, two tumors had MRI documented progression, three had regressed, and 13 were unchanged (n=18). With short follow-up, local control following Cyberknife spine SBRT for benign spinal tumors appear acceptable. PMID:17994789

  13. Management of Giant Facial Neurofibroma With Intratumoral Hematoma in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Patient.

    PubMed

    Tak, Min Sung; Cho, Seong Eun; Kang, Sang Gue; Kim, Chul Han; Lee, Yong Seok

    2016-09-01

    Type-1 neurofibromatosis, a common autosomal dominant disease, is also known as von Recklinghausen disease. Surgical procedures to treat this condition are challenging because of the brittleness of the surrounding blood vessels and soft tissues that bring the risk of causing fatal bleeding. With improvements in neurovascular embolization procedures, some literatures have been published about the application of preoperative embolization for neurofibromatosis. This case report describes a 60-year-old female with Type-1 neurofibromatosis, who presented giant facial neurofibromas with intratumoral hemorrhage on both cheeks. This patient demonstrates that these huge and challenging lesions can be successfully treated with preoperative embolization and surgical treatment. We also discuss the timing of surgical treatment with such lesions. PMID:27603687

  14. A benign or malignant eyelid lump – can you tell? An unusual collision tumour highlighting the difficulty differentiating a hidrocystoma from a basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakasam, Anuradha; Rene, Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Hidrocystoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid lesions. The former is benign while the latter is malignant and can cause significant destruction of the adnexal structures, orbital invasion and visual loss. The authors describe a case of a 76-year-old female with a slow growing right upper lid lesion which was diagnosed as a hidrocystoma but excision biopsy revealed a collision tumour comprised of a BCC abutting a hidrocystoma in the same lesion. Cystic BCC can masquerade as hidrocystoma but there are no previous case reports of BCC coexisting with hidrocystoma in the same lesion. This case highlights the fact that apparently benign lesions, such as hidrocystomas, may actually be malignant or coexist with malignant pathology. Clinicians should have a low threshold for appropriate excision biopsy and histological examination of such lesions, especially if there are sinister features, such as lash loss, induration, pigmentation or a pearly appearance. PMID:22744259

  15. [Benign endobronchial tumors].

    PubMed

    Nikhtianov, Kh

    1980-01-01

    Endobronchial localizations of benign neoplasms are met with in 24.5 per cent of the cases. Right lung localizations are more frequent. More than half of them are broadly based (57.5 per cent). In most of the cases it is a matter of nonepithelial tumours of which a greater intensity is displayed by hamartomas /7/, vascular /4/ and neurogenic /3/ neoformations. The size of endobronchial tumours varies from 1 to 10 cm. Cases measuring 1-3 cm are the most numerous. Those of the "iceberg" type appear to be larger. The size per se has a relative importance for the clinical picture. Endobronchial tumours exhibit a clear cut clinical picture, and run a clinical course in three stages, determined by the degree of bronchial obturation and longstanding of the condition. The most common symptoms are coughing /80.7 per cent/, expectoration /50.0 per cent/, rales /57.6 per cent/, dullness /38.4 per cent/ and lacking respiration /38.4 per cent/. The nosological entity by itself is less conclusive for the clinical course. The X-ray data have orientation and by no means decisive significance for the diagnosis. The "crab pincers" sign in the bronchial lumen during bronchography has a definite importance. Bronchoscopy in conjunction with biopsy is a dependable method of preoperative diagnosing. It contributes greatly to the nosological diagnosis. Even nowadays, the diagnosis of endobronchial tumours is difficult. A rather exact diagnosis can be made intraoperatively, whereas the most accurate diagnosis is established only after histological study. The treatment of endobronchial benign neoplasms is operative. The number of medium /lobectomies/ and extensive /pulmonectomies/ pulmonary resections is considerable. In case of early diagnosis and intervention, sparing resection is the naturally indicated size of operation - mainly resection and plasty of the bronchi without lobectomy. The advantages of circular resection are substantial. Reconstructive operations of "clarinet" and

  16. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Thomas, Dominique Dana Marie; Laor, Leanna; Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry H; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which causes lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a common diagnosis among the ageing male population with increasing prevalence. Many risks factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable, can increase the risk of development and progression of BPH and LUTS. The symptoms can be obstructive (resulting in urinary hesitancy, weak stream, straining or prolonged voiding) or irritative (resulting in increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and reduced voiding volumes), or can affect the patient after micturition (for example, postvoid dribble or incomplete emptying). BPH occurs when both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate in the transitional zone proliferate by processes that are thought to be influenced by inflammation and sex hormones, causing prostate enlargement. Patients with LUTS undergo several key diagnostic investigations before being diagnosed with BPH. Treatment options for men with BPH start at watchful waiting and progress through medical to surgical interventions. For the majority of patients, the starting point on the treatment pathway will be dictated by their symptoms and degree of bother. PMID:27147135

  17. Baritosis: a benign pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Doig, A T

    1976-01-01

    Baritosis is one of the benign pneumoconioses in which inhaled particulate matter lies in the lungs for years without producing symptoms, abnormal physical signs, incapacity for work, interference with lung function, or liability to develop pulmonary or bronchial infections or other thoracic disease. Owing to the high radio-opacity of barium, the discrete shadows in the chest radiograph are extremely dense. Even in the most well-marked cases with extreme profusion of the opacities, massive shadows do not occur. When exposure to barium dust ceases the opacities begin slowly to disappear. Nine cases of baritosis occurring in a small factory in which barytes was crushed, graded, and milled are described. Two of the cases occurred after only 18 and 21 month's exposure, and 9 of the 10 men employed for more than one and a half years had baritosis. Five of the affected men examined at intervals since their exposure to barytes ceased in 1964 showed marked clearing of their radiological abnormalities. Images PMID:1257935

  18. AngioVac extraction of intra-atrial hepatoma masquerading as PICC-associated thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Samir; Raparia, Kirtee; Ubago, Julianne M.; Resnick, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus associated with peripherally inserted central catheterization is not uncommon. Treatment is typically conservative; however, more aggressive therapies can be considered in patients with tenuous medical condition. The authors present a patient with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma masquerading as peripherally inserted central catheter-associated intra-atrial thrombus, subsequently removed via vacuum-assisted mechanical thrombectomy. PMID:26509915

  19. AngioVac extraction of intra-atrial hepatoma masquerading as PICC-associated thrombus.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Samir; Raparia, Kirtee; Ubago, Julianne M; Resnick, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus associated with peripherally inserted central catheterization is not uncommon. Treatment is typically conservative; however, more aggressive therapies can be considered in patients with tenuous medical condition. The authors present a patient with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma masquerading as peripherally inserted central catheter-associated intra-atrial thrombus, subsequently removed via vacuum-assisted mechanical thrombectomy. PMID:26509915

  20. Warning leak of intracranial aneurysm masquerading as sinus node dysfunction: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Devendra Singh; Garg, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    We describe the successful endovascular repair of an intracranial aneurysm causing subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 62-year-old man, who was initially diagnosed and treated as a case of symptomatic sinus bradycardia. The aim of this report and following discussion is to discuss the subtle warning signs of intracranial aneurysm that may masquerade as sinus node dysfunction. PMID:27489696

  1. Multifocal Head and Neck Neurofibromas with Osseous Abnormalities and Muscular Hypoplasia in a Child with Neurofibromatosis: Type I.

    PubMed

    Rath, Rachna; Kaur, Sheetal; Baig, Shadab Ali; Pati, Punyashlok; Sahoo, Sonalisa

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a clinically and genetically distinct disease involving both neuroectodermal and mesenchymal derivatives. Orofacial manifestations in NF1 have been documented before but occurrence of multifocal intraosseous (IO) and extraosseous (EO) neurofibromas is rare. The present case highlights the importance of imaging findings in the diagnosis and management of multifocal jaw, infratemporal, and parotid neurofibromas with muscular hypoplasia in an eight-year-old girl with NF1. Apart from orthopantomograms (OPG), three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) and cross-sectional reformations were valuable in delineating the extent of the lytic lesion and identifying additional bony deformities of the mandible. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helped to identify the solid nature of the lesion and true extent of the soft tissue mass. PMID:27382495

  2. Multifocal Head and Neck Neurofibromas with Osseous Abnormalities and Muscular Hypoplasia in a Child with Neurofibromatosis: Type I

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sheetal; Baig, Shadab Ali; Pati, Punyashlok; Sahoo, Sonalisa

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a clinically and genetically distinct disease involving both neuroectodermal and mesenchymal derivatives. Orofacial manifestations in NF1 have been documented before but occurrence of multifocal intraosseous (IO) and extraosseous (EO) neurofibromas is rare. The present case highlights the importance of imaging findings in the diagnosis and management of multifocal jaw, infratemporal, and parotid neurofibromas with muscular hypoplasia in an eight-year-old girl with NF1. Apart from orthopantomograms (OPG), three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) and cross-sectional reformations were valuable in delineating the extent of the lytic lesion and identifying additional bony deformities of the mandible. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helped to identify the solid nature of the lesion and true extent of the soft tissue mass. PMID:27382495

  3. Neurofibroma and lipoma in association with giant congenital melanocytic nevus coexisting in one nodule: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhiwei; Dai, Tao; Ren, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) are rare conditions that defined as melanocytic lesion recognized at birth, which will reach a diameter larger than 20 cm, and they occur in about 1 per 500,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, they may associate with severe abnormalities like spina bifida occulta, meningocele, club foot and hypertrophy or atrophy of deeper structures of a limb, Carney complex, premature aging syndromes, neurofibroma, vitiligo, lipoma and dysplasia of bilateral hip impact on the patient. In this case, we report a 3-years-old male child presenting a GCMN with large, blackish, and thick nevus covering over the entire neck, back, and lower to the waist level. We highlight the importance of proper histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from the single huge nodule which revealed features of both neurofibroma and lipoma coexisting. The objective of this paper is to report a rare case with the clinical and pathologic findings. PMID:26379904

  4. Crypsis via leg clustering: twig masquerading in a spider

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shichang; Mao, Kuei-Kai; Lin, Po-Ting; Ho, Chiu-Ju; Hung, Wei; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    The role of background matching in camouflage has been extensively studied. However, contour modification has received far less attention, especially in twig-mimicking species. Here, we studied this deceptive strategy by revealing a special masquerade tactic, in which the animals protract and cluster their legs linearly in the same axis with their bodies when resting, using the spider Ariamnes cylindrogaster as a model. We used cardboard papers to construct dummies resembling spiders in appearance and colour. To differentiate the most important factors in the concealment effect, we manipulated body size (long or short abdomen) and resting postures (leg clustered or spread) of the dummies and recorded the responses of predators to different dummy types in the field. The results showed that dummies with clustered legs received significantly less attention from predators, regardless of the body length. Thus, we conclude that A. cylindrogaster relies on the resting posture rather than body size for predator avoidance. This study provides, to the best of our knowledge, empirical evidence for the first time that twig-mimicking species can achieve effective camouflage by contour modification. PMID:26064622

  5. Mucocele After Orbital Fracture Repair Masquerading as Optic Neuritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongyeop; Kim, Jinhyun; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Hochang

    2016-06-01

    The authors report a patient of mucocele formation after orbital wall fracture repair masquerading as optic neuritis.A 38-year-old man with a history of medial orbital wall fracture repair with an alloplastic implant 10 years previously, presented with left visual disturbance and mild ocular pain with movement of the left eye of 3-day duration, and a relative afferent papillary defect in his left eye. He reported having cold symptoms 2 weeks before presentation. His symptoms were typical of retrobulbar optic neuritis. Under suspicion of optic neuritis, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed a large cyst in the sphenoid sinus and ethmoid sinus, just behind the alloplastic implant, that was compressing the medial rectus muscle and optic nerve of the left eye. The patient underwent endoscopic marsupialization of the cyst. Subsequent histologic examinations revealed a cyst lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and the visual disturbance resolved. For patients who present solely with optic neuropathy after orbital fracture repair, it is important to be vigilant of potentially rare cause, mucocele formation. PMID:27171955

  6. Salicylate intolerance: a masquerader of multiple adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Suran Loshana; Clarke, Lesley R

    2009-01-01

    A female in her early 50s presented with a long-standing history of episodic urticaria and angioedema. She also reported urticarial reactions after ingestion of aspirin, prednisone and multiple antibiotics. These medications were all taken during upper respiratory tract infections. An elimination diet followed by a series of open challenges to food chemicals demonstrated an urticarial eruption following the ingestion of mints, which contain high levels of salicylates. A double-blinded placebo-controlled challenge to salicylate confirmed her sensitivity and explained her reaction to aspirin. The patient informed her treating physician of her copious ingestion of mints during upper respiratory tract infections. Drug hypersensitivity to antibiotics and prednisone was excluded on the basis of negative radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) and/or absent skin-test responses and/or tolerance to oral challenges. This patient had a salicylate intolerance that caused her episodic urticaria and angioedema, and also masqueraded as a drug allergy due to the concurrent ingestion of mints. PMID:21918670

  7. Huntington’s disease masquerading as spinocerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Quiroga, Sergio Alejandro; Gonzalez-Morón, Dolores; Garretto, Nelida; Kauffman, Marcelo Andres

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterised by the presence of choreic abnormal movements, behavioural or psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Noteworthy, despite atypical motor symptoms other than chorea have been reported as initial presentation in some patients, a very few number of HD patients, presenting at onset mostly cerebellar dysfunction masquerading dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA), were occasionally reported. We report the case of a 42-year-old man with a 5-year history of gait disturbance, dysarthria and cognitive impairment and familial antecedents of dementia and movement disorders. Initially the clinical picture suggested the diagnosis of a dominant SCA, but finally a diagnosis of HD was made based on the molecular evidence of abnormal 39 Cytosine-Adenine-Guanine (CAG) repeats in exon 1 of Huntingtin gene. The authors highlight the importance of suspecting HD in the aetiology of spinocerebellar ataxias when dementia is a prominent feature in the proband or their family. PMID:23853009

  8. Crypsis via leg clustering: twig masquerading in a spider.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shichang; Mao, Kuei-Kai; Lin, Po-Ting; Ho, Chiu-Ju; Hung, Wei; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    The role of background matching in camouflage has been extensively studied. However, contour modification has received far less attention, especially in twig-mimicking species. Here, we studied this deceptive strategy by revealing a special masquerade tactic, in which the animals protract and cluster their legs linearly in the same axis with their bodies when resting, using the spider Ariamnes cylindrogaster as a model. We used cardboard papers to construct dummies resembling spiders in appearance and colour. To differentiate the most important factors in the concealment effect, we manipulated body size (long or short abdomen) and resting postures (leg clustered or spread) of the dummies and recorded the responses of predators to different dummy types in the field. The results showed that dummies with clustered legs received significantly less attention from predators, regardless of the body length. Thus, we conclude that A. cylindrogaster relies on the resting posture rather than body size for predator avoidance. This study provides, to the best of our knowledge, empirical evidence for the first time that twig-mimicking species can achieve effective camouflage by contour modification. PMID:26064622

  9. Anaphylaxis to protamine masquerading as an insulin allergy.

    PubMed

    Kim, R

    1993-01-01

    This is the case of a 62-year-old man referred for the evaluation of insulin allergy. This patient had reacted to the subcutaneous injection of Novolin 70/30 (Squibb, Princeton, N.J.) and Humulin NPH (Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, Ind.). These reactions were characterized by the immediate onset of diffuse pruritic urticaria and angioedema with progression to hypotension as well as a local reaction. Past history also included anaphylactic shock after intravenous administration of protamine sulfate used for heparin reversal during arterial bypass surgery. Immediate hypersensitivty skin testing to protamine containing (NPH) insulin and protamine sulfate USP were strongly positive, while Lente insulin (Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, Ind.) and controls were negative. RAST tests revealed the titers > 24 ng/ml of protamine specific IgE with 98 percent inhibition and 1163 ng/ml of protamine specific IgG with 29 percent inhibition, while levels of insulin specific antibodies were negligible. Subsequently, the patient was treated with non-protamine containing insulin preparation, Lente insulin, without further incident. This study confirms the diagnosis of Type I hypersensitivity to protamine sulfate masquerading as insulin allergy. PMID:8454092

  10. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vazales, Ryan; Constant, Dustin; Snyder, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa) is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC), marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC) and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended.

  11. When DLB, PD, and PSP masquerade as MSA

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Shunsuke; Aoki, Naoya; Uitti, Ryan J.; van Gerpen, Jay A.; Cheshire, William P.; Josephs, Keith A.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Langston, J. William

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine ways to improve diagnostic accuracy of multiple system atrophy (MSA), we assessed the diagnostic process in patients who came to autopsy with antemortem diagnosis of MSA by comparing clinical and pathologic features between those who proved to have MSA and those who did not. We focus on likely explanations for misdiagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 134 consecutive patients with an antemortem clinical diagnosis of MSA who came to autopsy with neuropathologic evaluation of the brain. Of the 134 patients, 125 had adequate medical records for review. Clinical and pathologic features were compared between patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA and those with other pathologic diagnoses, including dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease (PD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Results: Of the 134 patients with clinically diagnosed MSA, 83 (62%) had the correct diagnosis at autopsy. Pathologically confirmed DLB was the most common misdiagnosis, followed by PSP and PD. Despite meeting pathologic criteria for intermediate to high likelihood of DLB, several patients with DLB did not have dementia and none had significant Alzheimer-type pathology. Autonomic failure was the leading cause of misdiagnosis in DLB and PD, and cerebellar ataxia was the leading cause of misdiagnosis in PSP. Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy for MSA was suboptimal in this autopsy study. Pathologically confirmed DLB, PD, and PSP were the most common diseases to masquerade as MSA. This has significant implications not only for patient care, but also for research studies in MSA cases that do not have pathologic confirmation. PMID:26138942

  12. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  13. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  14. The rare benign liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Skalicky, T; Treska, V; Liska, V; Sutnar, A; Molacek, J; Mirka, H; Ferda, J; Ohlidalova, K

    2007-01-01

    As opposed to malignant secondary tumors, metastases of the colorectal carcinoma are benign tumors of the liver that are quite rare in the Czech Republic. From the 55 patients operated on since 2000 at our department for benign liver tumors, the most frequent are haemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocelular adenoma. Only 7.3% of them form a different histological type of a tumor than this most frequently occurring trio of tumors. The authors describe three cases of rather rare liver tumors with benign behavior that have the potential of becoming malignant. It concerns mucin producing biliary tumors, which correspond to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucin tumor, hepatic cystadenoma with ovarian stroma and a liver hamartoma in an adult patient (Ref 13). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:17694811

  15. T-cell lymphoma masquerading as extrapulmonary tuberculosis: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Piyush; Dutta, Sourabh; Kakkar, Aanchal; Goyal, Ankur; Vikram, Naval K.; Sharma, Mehar C.; Sood, Rita

    2015-01-01

    It is often difficult to establish confirmatory diagnosis in cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) because of its paucibacillary nature and difficulty in accessing the involved organs. In several cases, empirical anti-tubercular treatment is started, and the patient is followed-up closely for response. In countries with high prevalence of TB, it is a reasonably good strategy and works most of the times. However, catastrophe may occur when aggressive lymphomas masquerade as TB. PMID:25949984

  16. T-cell lymphoma masquerading as extrapulmonary tuberculosis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Piyush; Dutta, Sourabh; Kakkar, Aanchal; Goyal, Ankur; Vikram, Naval K; Sharma, Mehar C; Sood, Rita

    2015-01-01

    It is often difficult to establish confirmatory diagnosis in cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) because of its paucibacillary nature and difficulty in accessing the involved organs. In several cases, empirical anti-tubercular treatment is started, and the patient is followed-up closely for response. In countries with high prevalence of TB, it is a reasonably good strategy and works most of the times. However, catastrophe may occur when aggressive lymphomas masquerade as TB. PMID:25949984

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer. PMID:16364130

  18. Nocardia farcinica Meningitis Masquerading as Central Nervous System Metastasis in a Child With Cerebellar Pilocytic Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer; Kreppel, Andrew J; Brady, Rebecca C; Jones, Blaise; Stevenson, Charles B; Fouladi, Maryam; Hummel, Trent R

    2015-08-01

    Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common pediatric central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm, characteristically displays an indolent growth pattern and rarely demonstrates metastatic dissemination. Reports of infections mimicking CNS metastatic disease are also rare and can impact treatment. We report the youngest known case of a child with a CNS Nocardia farcinica infection who had a known cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, review other infections that may masquerade as CNS neoplasms, and discuss N. farcinica CNS infections. PMID:26181420

  19. Puberty and Plexiform Neurofibroma Tumor Growth in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type I

    PubMed Central

    Dagalakis, Urania; Lodish, Maya; Dombi, Eva; Sinaii, Ninet; Sabo, Jessica; Baldwin, Andrea; Steinberg, Seth M.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Widemann, Brigitte C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between pubertal progression and change in PN burden over time in pediatric and young adult patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and plexiform neurofibromas (PN). Study design Analyses accounted for sex, age, race, and chemotherapy. Forty-one patients with NF1 (15 female, 26 male) were studied at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Tanner stage, testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor −1, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were assessed. Tumor volume was measured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and lesion detection software developed at NIH. Patients were divided into two groups based upon whether they were actively progressing through puberty (n=16) or peri pubertal (n=25), and were followed for an average of 20 months. Tumor growth rates in the puberty and peri pubertal group were analyzed for a subset of patients. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tumor burden change over time (cc/kg/month) between the pubertal and peri pubertal group (−0.16 ± 0.34 vs. 0.03 ± 1.8, p=0.31), and in the PN growth rates pre and during puberty (p=0.90). Change in tumor volume/patient weight/time did not correlate with testosterone change/time in males or estradiol change/time in females. Conclusion These findings support that hormonal changes of puberty do not accelerate PN growth. Additional long-term follow up of patients is necessary to further characterize the interaction between puberty and tumor growth. PMID:24321536

  20. Preclinical Evidence for the Use of Sunitinib Malate in the Treatment of Plexiform Neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Michael J.; Rhodes, Steven D.; Jiang, Li; Li, Xiaohong; Yuan, Jin; Yang, Xianlin; Zhang, Shaobo; Vakili, Saeed T.; Territo, Paul; Hutchins, Gary; Yang, Feng-Chun; Ingram, David A.; Clapp, D. Wade; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plexiform neurofibromas (pNF) are pathognomonic nerve and soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), which are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and associated with significant morbidity/mortality. Disruption of aberrant SCF/c-Kit signaling emanating from the pNF microenvironment induced the first ever objective therapeutic responses in a recent phase 2 trial. Sunitinib malate is a potent, highly selective RTK inhibitor with activity against c-Kit, PDGFR, and VEGFR, which have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of sunitinib malate in a preclinical Krox20;Nf1flox/− pNF murine model. Experimental Design Proliferation, β-hexosaminidase release (degranulation), and Erk1/2 phosphorylation were assessed in sunitinib treated Nf1+/− mast cells and fibroblasts, respectively. Krox20;Nf1flox/− mice with established pNF were treated sunitinib or PBS-vehicle control for a duration of 12 weeks. pNF metabolic activity was monitored by serial [18F]DG-PET/CT imaging. Results Sunitinib suppressed multiple in vitro gain-in-functions of Nf1+/− mast cells and fibroblasts and attenuated Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Sunitinib treated Krox20;Nf1flox/− mice exhibited significant reductions in pNF size, tumor number, and FDG uptake compared to control mice. Histopathology revealed reduced tumor cellularity and infiltrating mast cells, markedly diminished collagen deposition, and increased cellular apoptosis in sunitinib treated pNF. Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate the efficacy of sunitinib in reducing tumor burden in Krox20;Nf1flox/− mice. These preclinical findings demonstrate the utility of inhibiting multiple RTKs in pNF and provide insights into the design of future clinical trials. PMID:26375012

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome due to a plexiform neurofibroma of the median nerve in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient: clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Daniel; Aido, Ricardo; Sousa, Marco; Costa, Luís; Oliveira, Vânia; Cardoso, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 56-year-old male patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) diagnosed during adolescence and with an insidious clinical evolution, characterised by an exuberant cutaneous involvement, referred to the orthopaedics outpatient clinic presenting with carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to a plexiform neurofibroma of the median nerve. A comprehensive clinical approach is discussed, considering the natural history of the disease and its potential complications, as well as the lack of consensus regarding standard therapeutic options for the compressive peripheral neuropathies in the NF1 disease. PMID:23853185

  2. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  3. Pathogenesis of benign adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Vezzosi, Delphine; Bertherat, Jérôme; Groussin, Lionel

    2010-12-01

    Most adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are benign unilateral adrenocortical adenomas, often discovered incidentally. Exceptionally, ACT are bilateral. However bilateral ACT have been very helpful to progress in the pathophysiology of ACT. Although most ACT are of sporadic origin, they may also be part of syndromic and/or hereditary disorders. The identification of the genetics of familial diseases associated with benign ACT has been helpful to define somatic alterations in sporadic ACT: for example, identification of PRKAR1A mutations in Carney complex or alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli. Components of the cAMP signaling pathway-for example, adrenocorticotropic-hormone receptors and other membrane receptors, Gs protein, phosphodiesterases and protein kinase A-can be altered to various degrees in benign cortisol-secreting ACT. These progress have been important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of benign ACT, but already have profound implications for clinical management, for example in unraveling the genetic origin of disease in some patients with ACT. They also have therapeutic consequences, and should help to develop new therapeutic options. PMID:21115158

  4. Adrenal Lymphangioma Masquerading as a Catecholamine Producing Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hodish, Israel; Schmidt, Lindsay; Moraitis, Andreas G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report the unusual case of an adrenal lymphangioma presenting in a patient with an adrenal cystic lesion and biochemical testing concerning for pheochromocytoma. The pertinent diagnostic and imaging features of adrenal lymphangiomas are reviewed. Methods. We describe a 59-year-old patient who presented with hyperhidrosis and a 2.2 by 2.2 cm left adrenal nodule. Biochemical evaluation revealed elevated plasma-free normetanephrine, urine normetanephrine, urine vanillylmandelic acid, and urine norepinephrine levels. Elevated plasma norepinephrine levels were not suppressed appropriately with clonidine administration. Results. Given persistent concern for pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent adrenalectomy. The final pathology was consistent with adrenal lymphangioma. Conclusions. Lymphangiomas are benign vascular lesions that can very rarely occur in the adrenal gland. Imaging findings are generally consistent with a cyst but are nonspecific. Excluding malignancy in patients presenting with adrenal cysts can be difficult. Despite its benign nature, the diagnosis of adrenal lymphangioma may ultimately require pathology. PMID:26618011

  5. Inflammatory pseudotumor of kidney masquerading as renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Babu, Prakash; Kalpana Kumari, M K; Nagaraj, H K; Mysorekar, Vijaya V

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor also known as inflammatory fibroblastic tumor is a rare benign tumor, which commonly affects the lung. It is very rarely seen in the genitourinary tract. As the preoperative diagnosis, clinically and radiologically is inconclusive, it is imperative to surgically remove and confirm it on histopathologic examination. We report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor in a 51-year-old male who presented with flank pain and was treated with nephrectomy. PMID:26458713

  6. Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

  7. A rare benign ovarian tumour.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is an extremely rare and benign ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 6% of the sex cord stromal ovarian tumours subtype. Usually, it is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain, a palpable pelvic mass or menstrual irregularity. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman reporting of mild pelvic pain, with normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a large right adnexal tumour was found, with features suggesting an ovarian sex cord tumour. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy, diagnosing a SST of the ovary. This paper also reviews the literature, and emphasises the typical pathological and imaging characteristics of these rare benign ovarian lesions, and their impact, in a conservative surgery. PMID:26933186

  8. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  9. Seborrheic keratosis over genitalia masquerading as Buschke Lowenstein tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar, N.; Venkatesan, S.; Mohanasundari, P. S.; Thilagavathy, S.; Elangovan, P.

    2015-01-01

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a common benign condition of the skin. It does not usually appear before middle age. Upper trunk and face are the sites most commonly involved. Lesions are also frequently seen on the extremities. SK of the genitalia is a rare entity. It has been frequently mistaken as genital warts and differentiation is made only on histopathology. We report a case of SK with polypoidal lesions restricted to the skin on and around the genitalia since 10 years. SK should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pedunculated lesions of the penis. The histopathology after shave excision is diagnostic. PMID:26392661

  10. Panayiotopoulos syndrome in a child masquerading as septic shock.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Verma, Devendra Kumar; Tayde, Pavan

    2016-06-01

    Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) is a benign childhood epilepsy with predominant autonomic symptoms. The syndrome can have varied presentations resulting in diagnostic dilemma. We herein describe a 3-year-old boy with PS, who had manifestations similar to septic shock. His investigations were normal and had a complete recovery. Through this case, we wish to highlight the unusual presentation of PS as septic shock. Physicians should be aware of the different ways in which this syndrome can present to ensure its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27390462

  11. Panayiotopoulos syndrome in a child masquerading as septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Verma, Devendra Kumar; Tayde, Pavan

    2016-01-01

    Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) is a benign childhood epilepsy with predominant autonomic symptoms. The syndrome can have varied presentations resulting in diagnostic dilemma. We herein describe a 3-year-old boy with PS, who had manifestations similar to septic shock. His investigations were normal and had a complete recovery. Through this case, we wish to highlight the unusual presentation of PS as septic shock. Physicians should be aware of the different ways in which this syndrome can present to ensure its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27390462

  12. Seborrheic keratosis over genitalia masquerading as Buschke Lowenstein tumor.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, N; Venkatesan, S; Mohanasundari, P S; Thilagavathy, S; Elangovan, P

    2015-01-01

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a common benign condition of the skin. It does not usually appear before middle age. Upper trunk and face are the sites most commonly involved. Lesions are also frequently seen on the extremities. SK of the genitalia is a rare entity. It has been frequently mistaken as genital warts and differentiation is made only on histopathology. We report a case of SK with polypoidal lesions restricted to the skin on and around the genitalia since 10 years. SK should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pedunculated lesions of the penis. The histopathology after shave excision is diagnostic. PMID:26392661

  13. Vascular transformation of bilateral cervical lymph node sinuses: a rare entity masquerading as tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Ghosh, Aloke Kanti

    2015-03-01

    Vascular transformation of sinuses (VTS) is a rare and reactive vasoproliferative disorder infrequently affecting the cervical lymph nodes. It is characterized by effacement of nodal architecture by variable expansion of the subcapsular, intermediate, and medullary sinuses. We report a very rare and unique case of VTS in bilateral cervical lymph nodes along with angiolipomatous hamartoma in a postoperative patient of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa clinically masquerading as tumor recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, only 15 cases of VTS have been reported in cervical lymph nodes till date and associated angiolipomatous or angiomyomatous hamartoma-like area was noted only in two cases of cervical lymph node VTS. PMID:25848149

  14. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects. PMID:27523417

  15. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric H; Larson, Jeffrey A; Andriole, Gerald L

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) commonly affect older men. Age-related changes associated with metabolic disturbances, changes in hormone balance, and chronic inflammation may cause BPH development. The diagnosis of BPH hinges on a thorough medical history and focused physical examination, with attention to other conditions that may be causing LUTS. Digital rectal examination and urinalysis should be performed. Other testing may be considered depending on presentation of symptoms, including prostate-specific antigen, serum creatinine, urine cytology, imaging, cystourethroscopy, post-void residual, and pressure-flow studies. Many medical and surgical treatment options exist. Surgery should be reserved for patients who either have failed medical management or have complications from BPH, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, refractory urinary retention, bladder stones, or renal insufficiency as a result of obstructive uropathy. PMID:26331999

  16. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach--acute appendicitis masquerading as macroamylasaemia.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Muniappan; Salam, Imroz

    2008-05-01

    Macroamylasaemia is a condition in which serum amylase is elevated in the presence of a low to normal urinary amylase and normal renal function. It is rare but can masquerade as other clinical disorders. Discussed here is a case report of a patient who presented initially with abdominal pain (later recognized as being due to gangrenous appendicitis) and in whom there was a very high serum amylase level, leading to an erroneous initial diagnosis and management as acute pancreatitis. The CT scan of the abdomen was normal without any evidence of pancreatitis. Subsequently, the renal amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (C(am)/C(cr)) was found to be low, being characteristic and diagnostic of macroamylasaemia; the latter was, in turn, the cause for the elevated serum amylase level. The underlying macroamylasaemia had thus masqueraded as pancreatitis. The patient underwent appendicectomy and hence made an excellent recovery. It is vitally important to recognize this condition in order to avoid both an incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment/management. PMID:18595630

  17. Orbital Cysticercosis - masquerading as preseptal cellulitis with ptosis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Amit; Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Topiwala, Pratik; Gupta, Panchmi; Sood, Sunandan

    2015-07-01

    We are sharing a case of orbital cysticercosis,which presented to us initially with simple ptosis and later on with upper lid inflammation and restricted ocular motility in upgaze. Human cysticercosis, a parasitic infection caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of the cestode, Taenia solium, is a benign infection of the subcutaneous tissues, inter-muscular fascia, muscles and other organs. Though it exists worldwide, it is more prevalent in the developing countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa, especially in areas where under-cooked pork is consumed regularly (Pushker et al, 2001). However, 5 year study of 33 cases of Ocular/Adnexal cysticercosis showed seventy percent of patients were of low socioeconomic group and 70% were strictly vegetarians (Atul et al, 1995). The clinical manifestation of orbital cysticercosis is entirely different from neuro-cysticercosis or cysticercosis of other parts of body. Diagnosis of cysticercosis is mainly based on highly specific radiological signs and history of exposure in endemic areas. PMID:27363971

  18. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Spleen Masquerading as Splenic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohammad; Pujani, Mukta; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Rana, Safia; Goel, Amit; Jetley, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors (IPTs) of the spleen are extremely rare, benign tumors of unknown etiology, and are most frequently detected incidentally. We report a case of IPT of the spleen in a 19-year-old male, who presented to the Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, with a history of pain and heaviness in the left hypochondrium. On clinical examination, splenomegaly was detected. Ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an enlarged spleen with a mass lesion completely occupying the lower pole of the spleen. Therefore, a diagnosis of splenomegaly with a malignant splenic lesion was suggested. Open splenectomy was performed. On gross examination, a well-circumscribed nodular growth measuring 9 × 8 × 5 cm in diameter was seen on the lower pole of the spleen, which on cut section appeared tan white with foci of yellowish discoloration. Microscopic examination of the nodular growth revealed spindle cells in a hyalinized stroma with inflammatory infiltration of predominantly plasma cells and lymphocytes. On immunohistochemistry, the spindle cells were positive for smooth muscle actin. A diagnosis of IPT of the spleen was rendered following histopathology testing. Splenectomy is both diagnostic and curative for this rare entity, and prognosis is usually favorable following the procedure. PMID:27168929

  19. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Spleen Masquerading as Splenic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad; Pujani, Mukta; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Rana, Safia; Goel, Amit; Jetley, Sujata

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors (IPTs) of the spleen are extremely rare, benign tumors of unknown etiology, and are most frequently detected incidentally. We report a case of IPT of the spleen in a 19-year-old male, who presented to the Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, with a history of pain and heaviness in the left hypochondrium. On clinical examination, splenomegaly was detected. Ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an enlarged spleen with a mass lesion completely occupying the lower pole of the spleen. Therefore, a diagnosis of splenomegaly with a malignant splenic lesion was suggested. Open splenectomy was performed. On gross examination, a well-circumscribed nodular growth measuring 9 × 8 × 5 cm in diameter was seen on the lower pole of the spleen, which on cut section appeared tan white with foci of yellowish discoloration. Microscopic examination of the nodular growth revealed spindle cells in a hyalinized stroma with inflammatory infiltration of predominantly plasma cells and lymphocytes. On immunohistochemistry, the spindle cells were positive for smooth muscle actin. A diagnosis of IPT of the spleen was rendered following histopathology testing. Splenectomy is both diagnostic and curative for this rare entity, and prognosis is usually favorable following the procedure. PMID:27168929

  20. Benign hereditary chorea: an update.

    PubMed

    Inzelberg, Rivka; Weinberger, Moran; Gak, Eva

    2011-06-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC, MIM 118700) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder manifesting with chorea in conjunction with hypothyroidism and respiratory problems, a triad also named "brain-lung-thyroid syndrome". BHC is characterized by childhood onset with minimal or no progression into adult life and normal cognitive function. The genetic basis of BHC has been partially resolved, when mutations in the TTF1 gene on chromosome 14q13 encoding the thyroid transcription factor-1 have been identified in a number of BHC patients, suggesting that aberration of TTF1 transcriptional function or haploinsufficiency is associated with this disorder. TTF1 (also known as TITF1, TEBP or NKX2-1), belonging to the NKX2 homeodomain transcription factor family, has been implicated in several important molecular pathways essential for brain, thyroid and lung morphogenesis. Clinical evaluation of TTF1 gene mutations carrier patients exposed the involvement of each of the triad's components characterized by heterogeneity between index cases and even within families. This review highlights the current updates on expanded clinical aspects of BHC, imaging and treatment experience, its genetic markers, proposed molecular mechanisms, animal models and link to cancer. PMID:21292530

  1. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  2. Endoscopic management of benign tracheobronchial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Ding, Xin; Wei, Dong; Cheng, Peng; Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Huanyi; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Even though benign tracheobronchial tumors are quite rare, they still can induce airway obstruction, result in suffocation, and need emergent management to remove the obstructing lesions and make the respiratory tracts unobstructed. Although the preferred therapy is surgery, it is still difficult to deal with the tumors in some cases, and the complications of surgery are common. Therefore, bronchoscopic managements, such as Nd: YAG laser, electrocautery, APC and Cryotherapy, are very important to treat benign tracheobronchial tumors and can cure most of them. The efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy for the treatment of patients with benign airways obstruction has been established. However, in order to maximally eradicate the benign tumors with minimal damage to patients, the success of bronchoscopic managements for the treatment strongly depends on the diligent identification of the various factors, including the location, size, shape of tumor, and the age, status, cardio respiratory function of patients, and full comprehension of the limits and potential of each particular technique. Because the advantages and disadvantages of above mentioned interventional methods, single method can not solve all clinical issues. Therefore, in order to remove benign tracheobronchial tumors completely, and reduce the incidence of recurrence as far as possible, many doctors combine several methods of them to treat complicated benign tracheobronchial tumors. This article reviews the core principles and techniques available to the bronchoscope managing benign tracheobronchial tumors. PMID:22263100

  3. Multiple Intradural Disc Herniations Masquerading as Intradural Extramedullary Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seop; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Jahng, Tae-Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Intradural disc herniation is a very rare condition, and multiple intradural disc herniations have not been reported to date. The latter may be confused with intradural extramedullary (IDEM) spinal tumors. Here, we report a case of multiple intradural disc herniations masquerading as multiple IDEM tumors and review the relevant literature. We retrospectively reviewed the patient's medical chart, reviewed the intraoperative microscopic findings, and reviewed of PubMed articles on intradural disc herniation. The masses considered to be IDEM tumors were confirmed to be multiple intradural disc herniations. A nonenhancing mass was found to have migrated along the intra-arachnoid space. Two enhancing masses could not migrate because of adhesion and showed peripheral neovascularization. We report an extremely rare case of multiple intradural lumbar disc herniations showing diverse enhancing patterns and masquerading as multiple IDEM tumors. In case of multiple enhancing IDEM masses suspected preoperatively, surgeons should consider the possibility of intradural disc herniation. PMID:27123028

  4. Polycyclic Annular Lesion Masquerading as Lupus Erythematosus and Emerging as Tinea Faciei Incognito

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Heesang; Kim, Dai Hyun; Seo, Soo Hong; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kye, Young Chul

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognito is a dermatophytic infection induced by immunosuppressive agents that lacks the classic features of a typical fungal infection. Although the treatment of tinea incognito is simple and relatively easy, its clinical manifestation varies and can masquerade as various skin disorders, causing misdiagnosis and thus preventing prompt and appropriate treatment. Here, we report an interesting case of tinea incognito occurring after topical steroid administration in an immunosuppressed patient with dermatitis artefacta. A 40-year-old female patient who had been taking systemic glucocorticoid for 4 years for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy presented with itching multiple erythematous erosive lesions on the face and upper chest for 2 months. Initial biopsy produced nonspecific findings. The skin lesion was aggravated and became polycyclic and erythematous; after azathioprine was added, her chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy became aggravated. A second biopsy confirmed hyphae in the cornified layer. Complete remission was achieved after admonishing oral terbinafine and topical amorolfine. PMID:26082592

  5. Polycyclic Annular Lesion Masquerading as Lupus Erythematosus and Emerging as Tinea Faciei Incognito.

    PubMed

    Kye, Heesang; Kim, Dai Hyun; Seo, Soo Hong; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kye, Young Chul; Choi, Jae Eun

    2015-06-01

    Tinea incognito is a dermatophytic infection induced by immunosuppressive agents that lacks the classic features of a typical fungal infection. Although the treatment of tinea incognito is simple and relatively easy, its clinical manifestation varies and can masquerade as various skin disorders, causing misdiagnosis and thus preventing prompt and appropriate treatment. Here, we report an interesting case of tinea incognito occurring after topical steroid administration in an immunosuppressed patient with dermatitis artefacta. A 40-year-old female patient who had been taking systemic glucocorticoid for 4 years for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy presented with itching multiple erythematous erosive lesions on the face and upper chest for 2 months. Initial biopsy produced nonspecific findings. The skin lesion was aggravated and became polycyclic and erythematous; after azathioprine was added, her chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy became aggravated. A second biopsy confirmed hyphae in the cornified layer. Complete remission was achieved after admonishing oral terbinafine and topical amorolfine. PMID:26082592

  6. Primary angiitis of central nervous system: The story of a great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Bhupender Kumar; Pandey, Shweta; Ramanujam, Bhargavi; Wadhwa, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Primary angiitis of central nervous system (PACNS) is characterized by non-caseating granulomatous angiitis restricted to CNS. The condition often masquerades as migraine, stroke, epilepsy, dementia, demyelinating disorder and CNS infection. The protean manifestations frequently lead to misdiagnoses. We present a case of a young male from rural background that remained undiagnosed for years as the possibility of PACNS was not considered. He had history suggestive of migraine-like headaches followed by seizures. Subsequently, he developed rapidly progressive dementia and two episodes of hemorrhagic strokes over a short period. The diagnosis was finally clinched by the absence of evidence of systemic vasculitis and the presence of characteristic non-caseating granuloma around vessels of duramater and cerebral parenchyma on brain biopsy. He was started on pulse therapy with intravenous cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone. The current literature about the condition and its management is reviewed in this report. PMID:26167025

  7. Sphenoid sinus organized hematoma with cranial neuropathies masquerading as a malignancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIN, YU-HSUAN; WANG, PO-CHIN; LIN, YAOH-SHIANG

    2016-01-01

    Sinonasal organized hematoma (SNOH) is rarely encountered in clinical practice. The disease demonstrates a high tendency for occurrence in East Asian individuals, and in the majority of cases, is located in the maxillary sinus. The current report presents the case of an 81-year-old female who developed a space-occupying lesion, which masqueraded as a skull base malignancy, following surgery for the treatment of isolated sphenoid sinus aspergilloma. Subsequent endoscopic endonasal surgery confirmed the diagnosis of an OH of the sphenoid sinus. The patient recovered from all neurological deficits within two months, with the exception of the loss of visual perception. Although SNOH presents a diagnostic challenge, when physicians possess knowledge of its typical imaging features, this facilitates the achievement of a correct diagnosis and the prescription of optimal treatment. PMID:27284357

  8. Lauren Slater and the Experts: Malingering, Masquerade, and the Disciplinary Control of Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    The work of psychologist and author Lauren Slater has elicited strong reactions from both medical professionals and disability studies theorists, ranging from criticism to high praise. Attending to these responses, I argue that her work, in perhaps perverse fashion, can provide a narrative touch point for attempts from both fields to complicate the outdated binary division of the medical and social models. I illustrate the need for this collaboration through the example of malingering, suggesting that reading Slater's work through the lens of Tobin Siebers's theory of "masquerade" can open progressive conversations about "illness deception," which is an issue of central importance in disability rights, psychiatry, and political conversations. By using Slater's work and research on malingering as a test case, I point to potentially productive convergences among academic, medical, and social fields. PMID:26095839

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Environmentally Benign Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a growing interest in replacing current non-biodegradable and toxic nanosystems with environmentally benign biopolymer based ones to minimize post-utilization hazards due to uncontrolled accumulation of nanoparticles in the environment. Lignin based nanoparticles (...

  10. Benign idiopathic partial epilepsy and brain lesion.

    PubMed

    Stephani, U; Doose, H

    1999-03-01

    A 14-year-old girl had severe head trauma from a dog bite at the age of 9 days. This resulted in extensive brain damage, tetraplegia, mental retardation, and epilepsy. The seizures were of rolandic type, and the EEG showed multifocal sharp waves. The course was benign. The initial diagnosis of a pure symptomatic epilepsy was revised after demonstrating typical benign focal sharp waves in the EEG of the healthy sister. Thus a phenocopy of a benign partial epilepsy by the brain lesion could be excluded with sufficient certainty. This observation allows the conclusion that the genetic disposition underlying the sharp-wave trait characteristic of benign partial epilepsies can be involved also in the pathogenesis of seemingly pure symptomatic epilepsies. EEG studies on siblings of such patients are needed to exclude possible phenocopies. PMID:10080522

  11. ENVIRONMENTALLY-BENIGN MULTIPHASE CATALYSIS. (R826034)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental concerns stemming from the use of conventional solvents and from hazardous waste generation have propelled research efforts aimed at developing benign chemical processing techniques that either eliminate or significantly mitigate pollution at the source. This pap...

  12. Comparative methylome analysis of benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    PubMed

    Feber, Andrew; Wilson, Gareth A; Zhang, Lu; Presneau, Nadege; Idowu, Bernadine; Down, Thomas A; Rakyan, Vardhman K; Noon, Luke A; Lloyd, Alison C; Stupka, Elia; Schiza, Vassia; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Schroth, Gary P; Flanagan, Adrienne; Beck, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation (DNAm) was first linked to cancer over 25 yr ago. Since then, many studies have associated hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes and hypomethylation of oncogenes to the tumorigenic process. However, most of these studies have been limited to the analysis of promoters and CpG islands (CGIs). Recently, new technologies for whole-genome DNAm (methylome) analysis have been developed, enabling unbiased analysis of cancer methylomes. By using MeDIP-seq, we report a sequencing-based comparative methylome analysis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), benign neurofibromas, and normal Schwann cells. Analysis of these methylomes revealed a complex landscape of DNAm alterations. In contrast to what has been reported for other tumor types, no significant global hypomethylation was observed in MPNSTs using methylome analysis by MeDIP-seq. However, a highly significant (P < 10(-100)) directional difference in DNAm was found in satellite repeats, suggesting these repeats to be the main target for hypomethylation in MPNSTs. Comparative analysis of the MPNST and Schwann cell methylomes identified 101,466 cancer-associated differentially methylated regions (cDMRs). Analysis showed these cDMRs to be significantly enriched for two satellite repeat types (SATR1 and ARLα) and suggests an association between aberrant DNAm of these sequences and transition from healthy cells to malignant disease. Significant enrichment of hypermethylated cDMRs in CGI shores (P < 10(-60)), non-CGI-associated promoters (P < 10(-4)) and hypomethylated cDMRs in SINE repeats (P < 10(-100)) was also identified. Integration of DNAm and gene expression data showed that the expression pattern of genes associated with CGI shore cDMRs was able to discriminate between disease phenotypes. This study establishes MeDIP-seq as an effective method to analyze cancer methylomes. PMID:21324880

  13. Nonepithelial Neoplasms of the Pancreas: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation, Part 1--Benign Tumors: From the Radiologic Pathology Archives.

    PubMed

    Manning, Maria A; Srivastava, Amogh; Paal, Edina E; Gould, Charles F; Mortele, Koenraad J

    2016-01-01

    Solid and cystic pancreatic neoplasms are being recognized more frequently with increasing utilization and spatial resolution of modern imaging techniques. In addition to the more common primary pancreatic solid (ductal adenocarcinoma) and cystic neoplasms of epithelial origin, nonepithelial neoplasms of the pancreas may appear as well-defined solid or cystic neoplasms. Most of these lesions have characteristic imaging features, such as a well-defined border, which allows differentiation from ductal adenocarcinoma. Solid masses include neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma, leiomyoma, lipoma, and perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). Schwannomas and desmoid tumors can be solid or cystic. Cystic tumors include mature cystic teratoma and lymphangioma. Lipoma, PEComa, and mature cystic teratoma can contain fat, and ganglioneuroma and mature cystic teratoma may contain calcification. Although these unusual benign neoplasms are rare, the radiologist should at least consider them in the differential diagnosis of well-defined lesions of the pancreas. The goal of this comprehensive review is to improve understanding of these rare primary pancreatic mesenchymal tumors. PMID:26761535

  14. Congenital giant plexiform neurofibroma with occipital calvarial dysplasia in association with meningoencephalocele in neurofibromatosis Type 1 and segmental neurofibromatosis: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Dadlani, Ravi; Sadanand, Venkatraman; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-11-01

    Giant plexiform neurofibroma (GPNF) of the scalp is an extremely rare lesion reported in association with neurofibromatosis. Occipital location of GPNF is even more infrequent, especially in association with occipital dysplasia (OD). The authors report 2 pediatric cases of GPNF associated with OD. The first case had an associated meningoencephalocele, and the second had large vascular channels within the lesion and the dominant ipsilateral transverse sinus lying in the center of the calvarial defect. The authors present these 2 unusual cases with a review of literature and discuss the radiological findings, theories of etiopathogenesis of the OD, and management dilemmas. PMID:24032991

  15. Benign Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Human Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Alexei; Downey, Robert J.; Healey, John; Moreira, Andre L.; Lou, Emil; Leung, Roland; Edgar, Mark; Singer, Samuel; LaQuaglia, Michael; Maki, Robert G.; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests that at least some sarcomas arise through aberrant differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but MSCs have never been isolated directly from human sarcoma specimens. Experimental Design We examined human sarcoma cell lines and primary adherent cultures derived from human sarcoma surgical samples for features of MSCs. We further characterized primary cultures as either benign or malignant by the presence of tumor-defining genetic lesions and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. Results We show that a dedifferentiated liposarcoma cell line DDLS8817 demonstrates fat, bone and cartilage trilineage differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Primary sarcoma cultures have the morphology, surface immunophenotype and differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Surprisingly, many of these cultures are benign as they do not form tumors in mice and lack sarcoma-defining genetic lesions. Consistent with the recently proposed pericyte origin of MSCs in normal human tissues, sarcoma-derived benign MSCs express markers of pericytes and cooperate with endothelial cells in tube formation assays. In human sarcoma specimens, a subset of CD146-positive microvascular pericytes express CD105, an MSC marker, while malignant cells largely do not. In an in vitro co-culture model, sarcoma-derived benign MSCs as well as normal human pericytes markedly stimulate the growth of sarcoma cell lines. Conclusions Sarcoma-derived benign MSCs/pericytes represent a previously undescribed stromal cell type in sarcoma which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:21138865

  16. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Benign leiomyomas of the uterus are uncommonly found in association with benign smooth muscle tumors beyond the confines of the uterus. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease in which the lung is described to be the most afflicted extrauterine organ. We present a brief review of the literature, along with case reports for four patients who were followed up after resection of a pulmonary lesion or after pathological confirmation by biopsy. The clinical course of BML varies from chronic asymptomatic appearance to rapid progression, leading to respiratory failure and death. Our BML patients did not complain of pulmonary symptoms, such as cough, dyspnea, or chest tightness. Pathology revealed benign leiomyomas with no atypia and mitotic activity <5 per 10 high-power field. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for actin and desmin. A standard treatment for BML has not yet been established. Because of the hormone-sensitive characteristics of BML, treatments are based on hormonal manipulation along with either surgical or medical oophorectomy. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma can be observed in postmenopausal women. We observed four patients who did not receive adjuvant hormonal therapy because they were postmenopausal or perimenopausal. All patients are still healthy and show no evidence of recurrence or progression of the disease. PMID:24134076

  17. Malignancy and the benign lymphoepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Bernacki, E G; Rice, D H; Stebler, M E

    1975-02-01

    The benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands is now considered the histological hallmark of a variety of clinical and pathological disorders affecting salivary tissues. Malignancy arising in the lesion is uncommon, but may take origin in either the epithelial or lymphoreticular components. Lymphomas and pseudolymphomas associated with salivary gland lymphoepithelial lesions have been predominately extra-salivary and strongly correlated with Sjögren's syndrome. Epithelial malignancy has not been associated with autoimmunity and with few exceptions has been of the anaplastic type. This report presents two patients with intra-salivary lymphomas arising in a benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands and a patient with anaplastic carcinoma arising in the epithelial islands of the lesion. The fourth patient manifested pseudolymphomatous lymphoreticular hyperplasia in lung and submandibular gland and illustrates the possible multiple organ involvement that may occur in patients with benign lymphoepithelial lesion, even without clinical evidence of concommitant autoimmune disorders. PMID:1172885

  18. The Unusual but Benign in Pediatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shandling, Barry

    1985-01-01

    The problem of what is normal and what is not is closely related to whether or not, if something is indeed abnormal, it matters. Anticipating the outcome will affect the management in infants and children of such relatively benign conditions as hydroceles, umbilical hernias, diseases of the male and female breasts, lymphadenopathy and the intact prepuce. Unnecessary investigations such as barium studies which do not affect management are inadvisable. Congenital torticollis and undescended testis, seemingly benign, must be appropriately treated, however, in order to avoid lifelong sequelae. PMID:21274156

  19. Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Levick, R K; Sharrard, W J

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of osteoid osteoma and one of benign osteoblastoma in children are described. The main complaint was severe pain which was worse at night; it was relieved by aspirin or other analgesics. The diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological grounds and was confirmed on histological examination of the central nidus removed at operation. The pain was relieved in the patients with osteoid osteoma, and it was very much less after operative removal of the benign osteoblastoma. Both conditions are probably variations of the same disease process, depending on the anatomical site and the type of bone affected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:475430

  20. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature. PMID:27098804

  1. Benign Cystic Mesothelioma Misdiagnosed as Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Deok; Kim, Suk Bae

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM) is a rare benign disease that forms multicystic masses in the abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. It occurs predominantly in young to middle-aged women. The majority of cases were associated with a history of abdominal or pelvic operation, a history of endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. We present a unique case of BCM which is different to the previous cases. The patient was a 52-year-old man showing features of peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by ascites on abdominal computed tomography scans. We herein report a case of BCM misdiagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  2. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  3. Unusual Benign Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Adrada, Beatriz E; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Carkaci, Selin; Posleman-Monetto, Flavia E; Ewere, Adesuwa; Whitman, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging characteristics of a variety of benign breast tumors that may be encountered in daily practice, in order to formulate an appropriate differential diagnosis and to establish concordance between the imaging and the pathologic findings, and to assist the clinician with appropriate management. PMID:26085959

  4. CSF imaging in benign intracranial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    James, A. Everette; Harbert, J. C.; Hoffer, P. B.; DeLand, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The cisternographic images in 10 patients with benign intracranial hypertension were reviewed. Nine were normal. Transfer of labelled tracer from the subarachnoid space was measured in five patients and was found to be abnormal in only two. The relation of these findings to the proposed pathophysiological alterations is discussed. Images

  5. Primary extra-renal clear cell renal cell carcinoma masquerading as an adrenal mass: A diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Roumina; Kumar, Sandeep; Monappa, Vidya; Ayachit, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of a nonmetastasizing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) masquerading as an adrenal mass, in the presence of normal bilateral native kidneys, in a young adult. The possibility of this mass developing in a supernumerary kidney was ruled out, since no identifiable renal tissue, pelvis or ureters was seen within the mass, nor was any separate systemic arterial supply to the mass seen. The diagnosis of extra-renal clear cell RCC was based on cyto-morphological features, further confirmed by immunohistochemistry findings. The origin of this extra-renal clear cell renal cell is proposed to be from the mesodermal embryonic rests. PMID:26692677

  6. Healing Sacral Fracture Masquerading as Metastatic Bone Disease on a 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Gykiere, Pieterjan; Goethals, Lode; Everaert, Hendrik

    2016-07-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is frequently overexpressed on prostate cancer cells. A Ga-PSMA PET/CT can be used for early detection of lymph node or bone metastases after radical prostatectomy when there is biochemical recurrence. This report describes PSMA uptake in a healing fracture masquerading as metastatic bone disease in a patient with a history of prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinicians reporting Ga-PSMA PET/CT should be aware of this potential important pitfall. PMID:27055135

  7. A case of retained graphite anterior chamber foreign body masquerading as stromal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Ryung; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak; Hyon, Joon Young

    2011-04-01

    We report a case of a retained graphite anterior chamber foreign body that was masquerading as stromal keratitis. A 28-year-old male visited with complaints of visual disturbance and hyperemia in his right eye for four weeks. On initial examination, he presented with a stromal edema involving the inferior half of the cornea, epithelial microcysts, and moderate chamber inflammation. Suspecting herpetic stromal keratitis, he was treated with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents. One month after the initial visit, anterior chamber inflammation was improved and his visual acuity recovered to 20/20, but subtle corneal edema still remained. On tapering the medication, after three months, a foreign body was incidentally identified in the inferior chamber angle and was surgically removed resulting in complete resolution of corneal edema. The removed foreign body was a fragment of graphite and he subsequently disclosed a trauma with mechanical pencil 12 years earlier. This case showed that the presence of an anterior chamber foreign body should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic localized corneal edema. PMID:21461226

  8. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, David; Alvarez-Castillo, David E.

    2016-01-01

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M⊙ with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram.

  9. [Extrarenal Retroperitoneal Angiomyolipoma Masquerading as Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma : A Report of Two Cases].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryohei; Inoue, Takamitsu; Numakura, Kazuyuki; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Maeno, Atsushi; Saito, Mitsuru; Narita, Shintaro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Satoh, Shigeru; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2016-06-01

    We report two patients with extrarenal retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma masquerading as perinephric liposarcoma. Patient 1 : A 66-year-old man was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal tumor near the right renal hilum on an abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed before surgery for gastric cancer. A diagnosis of extrarenal retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma was made on the basis of negative uptake of fluorine- 18 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET)/CT. However, because the tumor was found to have gradually enlarged at 18 months afterward, he underwent resection of the extrarenal fat tissue together with the right kidney. Patient 2 : A 56-year-old man underwent abdominal ultrasound during a periodic medical examination, which revealed a right retroperitoneal tumor. Because of the findings in the contrast-enhanced CT and positive uptake of 18F-FDG PET/CT, he underwent resection of the extrarenal fat tissue together with the right kidney. The pathological examination of the two tumors confirmed extrarenal angiomyolipoma. The differential diagnosis of extrarenal retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma from retroperitoneal liposarcoma is difficult even with the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT. PMID:27452495

  10. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid masquerading as a chalazion.

    PubMed

    Vrcek, Ivan; Hogan, R N; Mancini, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    Chalazia are among the most common eyelid lesions presenting to eye care providers. Often successfully managed conservatively, some require more invasive intervention such as incision and drainage or steroid injection. Lesions that recur, do not respond to treatment, or are atypical in appearance or natural history should prompt more thorough analysis, often with biopsy and subsequent microscopic analysis. Not uncommonly, such atypical chalazia may be masking a more serious diagnosis. Eyelid cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as a chalazion is exceedingly rare. We present a case report of an atypical chalazion that was refractory to incision and drainage as well as intralesional steroid injection. Incisional biopsy revealed the lesion to be a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma requiring full-thickness excision and subsequent reconstruction. The patient provided written informed consent, and the contents herein are acceptable under the provisions of the institutional review board. Following Mohs excision and oculoplastic reconstruction with a Hughes flap, the patient has had a good outcome and is currently free of recurrence. Recurrent chalazia that are defiant to surgical and medical interventions should prompt biopsy and evaluation by pathology. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis as early intervention can save a patient's eye and, not infrequently, their life. PMID:25479697

  11. Extranodal Rosai–Dorfman disease: a rare soft tissue neoplasm masquerading as a sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare proliferative histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology. RDD typically presents with generalized lymphadenopathy and polymorphic histiocytic infiltration of the lymph node sinuses; however, occurrences of extranodal soft tissue RDD may rarely occur when masquerading as a soft tissue sarcoma. Materials and methods A comprehensive search of all published cases of soft tissue RDD without associated lymphadenopathy was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar for the years 1988 to 2011. Ophthalmic RDD was excluded. Results Thirty-six cases of extranodal soft tissue RDD, including the current one, have been reported since 1988. Anatomical distribution varied among patients. Four (11.1%) patients presented with bilateral lesions in the same anatomic region. Pain was the most common symptom in six (16.8%) patients. Sixteen (41.6%) patients were managed surgically, of which one (2.8%) case experienced recurrence of disease. Conclusion RDD is a rare inflammatory non-neoplastic process that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue tumor. Thus, differentiation of extranodal RDD from more common soft tissue tumors such as soft tissue sarcoma or inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is often difficult and typically requires definitive surgical excision with histopathological examination. While the optimal treatment for extranodal RDD remains ill-defined and controversial, surgical excision is typically curative. PMID:23497062

  12. [BENIGN TUMORS OF MEDIASTINUM: CLINIC, DIAGNOSIS, SURGICAL TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Kalabukha, I A; Mayetniy, E M

    2015-12-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 18 patients in a thoracic surgery clinic for benign tumors of mediastinum are presented. The symptoms of benign tumors, efficacy of application of welding technologies in operative intervention were analyzed. PMID:27025028

  13. Isolated benign primary cutaneous plasmacytosis in a child.

    PubMed

    On, Hye Rang; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, You Chan; Kim, Soo-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated benign primary cutaneous plasmacytosis in a child is a very rare and benign disease. Herein we present a case of this condition occurring in a child who showed good response to topical corticosteroid. PMID:25424220

  14. A novel benign solution for collagen processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoult, Olivier

    Collagen is the main protein constituting the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues in the body (skin, cartilage, blood vessels...). It exists many types of collagen, this work studies only fibrillar collagen (e.g. collagen type I contained in the skin) that exhibits a triple helical structure composed of 3 alpha-helical collagen chains. This particular and defined hierarchical structure is essential to the biological and mechanical properties of the collagen. Processing collagen into scaffolds to mimic the ECM is crucial for successful tissue engineering. Recently collagen was processed into fibrous and porous scaffold using electrospinning process. However the solvent (HFIP) used for electrospinning is extremely toxic for the user and expensive. This work shows that HFIP can be replaced by a benign mixture composed of water, salt and alcohol. Yet only three alcohols (methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol) enable the dissolution of large quantity of collagen in the benign mixture, with a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, and conserve the collagen hierarchical structure at least as well as the HFIP. Collagen can be electrospun from the benign mixture into sub-micron fibers with concentrations as low as 6 wt-% for a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, with at least 10wt-% of salt, and any of the three alcohols. Specific conditions yield nano size fibers. After processing from HFIP or a benign mixture, collagen is water soluble and needs to be chemically crosslink for tissue engineering application. Post-crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) results in the loss of the scaffold fibrous aspect and porosity, hence it is useless for tissue engineering. Such issue could be prevented by incorporating the crosslinker into the mixture prior to electrospinning. When EDC is used alone, collagen forms a gel in the mixture within minutes, preventing electrospinning. The addition of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in excess to EDC

  15. [Surgery of benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Olthoff, A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical treatment of benign vocal fold lesions can be indicated for clinical or functional reasons. The principles of phonosurgery have to be maintained in either case. The appropriate phonosurgical technique depends on the type of vocal fold lesion. Depending on the findings, phonosurgery aims to maintain or improve voice quality. The evaluation of clinical and functional results includes indirect laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy, and voice analysis. PMID:27552826

  16. A benign maxillary tumour with malignant features.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Rosario R; Lim, Aimee Caroline E; Lopa, Ramon Antonio B; Carnate, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Non-specific biopsy results such as chronic inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis can be frustrating to the clinician. This is especially true if the patient presents with clinical features suggestive of an aggressive tumour. This is a review of the clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas and surgical management of a benign maxillary mass with malignant features - a disease called hematoma-like mass of the maxillary sinus (HLMMS). Our experience with five cases will also be cited. PMID:20502750

  17. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nate; Voznesensky, Maria; VerLee, Graham

    2015-09-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We review the literature and discuss options for treatment and surveillance. PMID:26793536

  18. Benign Diseases and Neoplasms of the Penis.

    PubMed

    Wasco, Matthew J; Shah, Rajal B

    2009-03-01

    This article provides comprehensive review of benign diseases and neoplastic conditions of the penis. It describes and provides representative images of clinical, key pathologic features and ancillary techniques to aid in differential diagnoses. It examines these diseases from the epidemiologic standpoint, looks at environmental and genetic factors, and outlines the new histologic entities for penile neoplasms with distinct outcomes and clinical behavior that have been proposed in recent years. PMID:26838101

  19. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Danielle; Zacharia, Ilana; Studin, Jillian; Covino, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an increasingly common diagnosis seen in men over age 50 years. Primary care providers must be aware of patient presentation, diagnostic tests, appropriate lifestyle modifications, treatment options, and potential complications in order to properly manage and educate patients with BPH. If left untreated, BPH can significantly decrease a man's quality of life; however, many pharmacologic and surgical treatments are available to control the symptoms. PMID:27367595

  20. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  1. An Update on Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Not Just Café-au-Lait Spots, Freckling, and Neurofibromas. An Update. Part I. Dermatological Clinical Criteria Diagnostic of the Disease.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, A; Duat-Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome and probably the one best known to dermatologists, who are generally the first physicians to suspect its diagnosis. Although the genetic locus of NF1 was identified on chromosome 17 in 1987, diagnosis of the disease is still mainly based on clinical observations and the diagnostic criteria of the National Institute of Health, dating from 1988. Cutaneous manifestations are particularly important because café-au-lait spots, freckling on flexural areas, and cutaneous neurofibromas comprise 3 of the 7 clinical diagnostic criteria. However, café-au-lait spots and freckling can also be present in other diseases. These manifestations are therefore not pathognomonic and are insufficient for definitive diagnosis in the early years of life. NF1 is a multisystemic disease associated with a predisposition to cancer. A multidisciplinary follow-up is necessary and dermatologists play an important role. PMID:26979265

  2. Clarithromycin Culprit of Benign Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Habib Rehman; Mason, Colin; Mulcahy, Riona

    2015-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension is characterized with increase in CSF opening pressure with no specific etiology. It is predominantly found in women of child bearing age and particularly in individuals with obesity. Visual disturbances or loss and associated headaches are common and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Diagnosis can be achieved once other causes of visual loss, headaches and high opening pressures are excluded. Management consists of serial optic disc assessments although no specific treatment is available despite recent trials using carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Diet modification and weight management can help in therapy. PMID:26713029

  3. OTC tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    Earlier this year, tamsulosin, an alpha blocker previously only available on prescription, became available for sale by pharmacists as a treatment for functional symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men aged 45-75 years (Flomax Relief MR - Boehringer Ingelheim). A television advert for the over-the-counter (OTC) product claims that it is a "simple and effective" treatment that can relieve symptoms within 1 week, allowing the user to "take control of your annoying pee problems".¹ Here we review the evidence on tamsulosin and assess whether its availability as an OTC product confers worthwhile advantages. PMID:20926447

  4. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  5. Models for studying benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mahapokai, W; Van Sluijs, F J; Schalken, J A

    2000-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases affecting aging man. Attempts have been made to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis and, to that end, experimental models have been developed. To date, in vitro and in vivo models have been used, depending on the concept of the study. Spontaneous animal models are limited to the chimpanzee and the dog. Ethical and financial factors restrict the applicability of these models. The hormonal-induced canine BPH model is a good alternative that closely resembles human BPH in many aspects. The experimental models currently used for studying BPH are reviewed. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 28-33 PMID:12497158

  6. Benign schwannoma of the maxillary antrum

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Oshin; Desai, Dinkar; Bhandarkar, Gowri P.; Paul, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma also known commonly as neurilemmoma and schwann cell tumor is a benign nerve sheath tumor. About 1/3rd cases of schwannoma arise from the head and neck region but rarely from the nasal and paranasal sinuses. The recurrence rate in these cases has reported to be very rare. We report a rare case of schwannoma in a 60-year-old woman arising from the maxillary sinus further eroding the orbital floor and nasal bone. We have also described the clinical presentation, radiological, histological findings, and management of the case. PMID:27095911

  7. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Visrodia, Kavel H; Tabibian, James H; Baron, Todd H

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic management of biliary obstruction has evolved tremendously since the introduction of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. For the last several decades, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become established as the mainstay for definitively diagnosing and relieving biliary obstruction. In addition, and more recently, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained increasing favor as an auxiliary diagnostic and therapeutic modality in facilitating decompression of the biliary tree. Here, we provide a review of the current and continually evolving role of gastrointestinal endoscopy, including both ERCP and EUS, in the management of biliary obstruction with a focus on benign biliary strictures. PMID:26322153

  8. Are deep eutectic solvents benign or toxic?

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hayyan, Adeeb; Al-Saadi, Mohammed A; AlNashef, Inas M; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Saheed, Olorunnisola Kola

    2013-02-01

    In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components (e.g. glycerine, ChCl) indicating that their toxicological behavior is different. For our best knowledge this is the first time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required. PMID:23200570

  9. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p < 0.05 as significant. The results showed that fibroadenoma represented the most frequent BBD (55%), followed by fibrocystic changes (19%), intraductal papilloma (6%) and inflammatory breast disorders (5%). The mean age was 31.5 years (± 6.1), BMI 21.2 kg/m² (± 3.4) and age at menarche 13.0 years (± 1.5). Duration of breast-feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p < 0.05), which remains significant also by multivariate analysis. It was concluded that there seemed to be no difference in breast-feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs. PMID:22185539

  10. Histiocytic sarcoma that mimics benign histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Boisseau-Garsaud, A M; Vergier, B; Beylot-Barry, M; Nastasel-Menini, F; Dubus, P; de Mascarel, A; Eghbali, H; Beylot, C

    1996-06-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a histiocytic sarcoma of a very uncommon origin, as it had developed for several years like a benign cutaneous histiocytosis resembling generalized eruptive histiocytoma before becoming acute, with nodal and massive pulmonary involvement. Despite various chemotherapies, the patient died within 8 months. Skin biopsies showed histiocytic proliferation in the dermis and node biopsies showed histiocytic proliferation with a sinusoidal pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis, performed on paraffin-embedded sections, demonstrated strong labeling of tumoral cells for CD68 and moderate labeling for CD3 and CD4. CD30 labeling was negative. S-100 protein was positive on a Langerhans' cell reactive subpopulation. Electron microscopy confirmed the histiocytic nature of malignant cells and showed cytoplasmic inclusions such as regularly laminated bodies, dense bodies and pleomorphic inclusions. No Birbeck granules were seen. A gene rearrangement study of T-cell receptor gamma and immunoglobulin heavy chain genes showed a germline configuration. Histiocytic sarcoma is an extremely rare true histiocytic malignancy, the existence of which has been recently debated since it has often been mistaken in the past for large cell lymphomas. Such a deceptive onset as benign cutaneous histiocytosis has not been described in the literature to our knowledge. PMID:8793665

  11. Giant anterior urethral diverticulum with a calculus masquerading as left inguinal hernia: A missed diagnosis, a lesson to learn

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Renu; Goel, Prabudh; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum is an infrequent but important cause of infravesical obstructive uropathy in children. Clinical spectrum usually includes obstructive or irritative urinary symptoms or penile ballooning during the act of micturition. We share our experience in a case of giant anterior urethral diverticulum with a contained calculus presenting as a huge inguino-scrotal swelling and masquerading as left inguinal hernia. The fluctuation in the size of the swelling related to the act of micturition was mistaken for cough impulse. He was subjected to a left inguinal herniotomy, following which he developed urine leak from the surgery wound and was subsequently referred to our centre for further management. The importance of a detailed history, meticulous physical examination, and diagnostic imaging has been stressed. The surgical approach in such cases has also been highlighted. PMID:24019642

  12. Severe paraneoplastic hypoglycemia secondary to a gastrointestinal stromal tumour masquerading as a stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, K; Rao, R; Grammatopoulos, D K; Randeva, H S; Weickert, M O; Murthy, N

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report the case of a 70-year-old previously healthy female who presented acutely to the Accident and Emergency department with left-sided vasomotor symptoms including reduced muscle tone, weakness upon walking and slurred speech. Physical examination confirmed hemiparesis with VIIth nerve palsy and profound hepatomegaly. A random glucose was low at 1.7 mmol/l, which upon correction resolved her symptoms. In hindsight, the patient recalled having had similar episodes periodically over the past 3 months to which she did not give much attention. While hospitalized, she continued having episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia during most nights, requiring treatment with i.v. dextrose and/or glucagon. Blood tests including insulin and C-peptide were invariably suppressed, in correlation with low glucose. A Synacthen stimulation test was normal (Cort (0′) 390 nmol/l, Cort (30′) 773 nmol/l). A computed tomography scan showed multiple lobulated masses in the abdomen, liver and pelvis. An ultrasound guided biopsy of one of the pelvic masses was performed. Immunohistochemistry supported the diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) positive for CD34 and CD117. A diagnosis of a non islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH) secondary to an IGF2 secreting GIST was confirmed with further biochemical investigations (IGF2=96.5 nmol/l; IGF2:IGF1 ratio 18.9, ULN <10). Treatment with growth hormone resolved the patient's hypoglycaemic symptoms and subsequent targeted therapy with Imatinib was successful in controlling disease progression over an 8-year observation period. Learning points NICTH can be a rare complication of GISTs that may manifest with severe hypoglycaemia and neuroglucopenic symptoms. NICTH can masquerade as other pathologies thus causing diagnostic confusion. Histological confirmation of GIST induced NICTH and exclusion of other conditions causing hypoglycaemia is essential. Mutational analysis of GISTs should be carried out in all

  13. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P.; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E.; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    system comprised background-matching mimicry, of the masquerade type, between egg-cowries (Simnia/Simnialena) and octocorals (Pacifigorgia/Eugorgia/Leptogorgia). We observed mimicry mismatches related to fitness trade-offs, such as reproductive aggregations vs. vulnerability against predators. Despite the general assumption that coevolution of mimicry involves speciation, egg-cowries with different hosts and colorations comprise the same lineages. Consequently, we infer that there would be significant tradeoffs between mimicry and the pursuit of reproductive aggregations in egg-cowries. The findings of this study not only contribute to the understanding of the evolution of mimicry in egg-cowries, a poorly studied group of marine gastropods, but also to the development of a new biologically meaningful board game that could be implemented as a learning tool. PMID:27547514

  14. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Juan A; Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    system comprised background-matching mimicry, of the masquerade type, between egg-cowries (Simnia/Simnialena) and octocorals (Pacifigorgia/Eugorgia/Leptogorgia). We observed mimicry mismatches related to fitness trade-offs, such as reproductive aggregations vs. vulnerability against predators. Despite the general assumption that coevolution of mimicry involves speciation, egg-cowries with different hosts and colorations comprise the same lineages. Consequently, we infer that there would be significant tradeoffs between mimicry and the pursuit of reproductive aggregations in egg-cowries. The findings of this study not only contribute to the understanding of the evolution of mimicry in egg-cowries, a poorly studied group of marine gastropods, but also to the development of a new biologically meaningful board game that could be implemented as a learning tool. PMID:27547514

  15. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2015-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures are a common indication for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Endoscopic management has evolved over the last 2 decades as the current standard of care. The most common etiologies of strictures encountered are following surgery and those related to chronic pancreatitis. High-quality cross-sectional imaging provides a road map for endoscopic management. Currently, sequential placement of multiple plastic biliary stents represents the preferred approach. There is an increasing role for the treatment of these strictures using covered metal stents, but due to conflicting reports of efficacies as well as cost and complications, this approach should only be entertained following careful consideration. Optimal management of strictures is best achieved using a team approach with the surgeon and interventional radiologist playing an important role. PMID:25613176

  16. Benign Intracranial Hypertension: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Gary Y.; Million, Stephanie K.

    2012-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) (also known as pseudotumor cerebri and empty sella syndrome) remains a diagnostic challenge to most physicians. The modified Dandy criteria consist of, the classic findings of headache, pulsatile tinnitus, papilledema, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, however, these are rarely collectively present in any one patient. Furthermore, these findings can wax and wane over time. Due to the nature of this disease, both signs and symptoms may be intermittent, making definitive diagnosis difficult. Newer imaging studies, particularly the magnetic resonance venogram (MRV) along with a constellation of correlative findings and associated diseases have given new impetus in the diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of this disease. This has led the authors to offer modifications to the classic Dandy criteria. This report presents three representative cases of BIH highlighting many of the newer advances in both diagnosis and treatment of this perplexing disorder. PMID:22928139

  17. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985961

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985968

  19. Benign Vascular Malformation at the Ischial Tuberosity.

    PubMed

    Said, Rami; Bevelaqua, Anna-Christina

    2016-07-01

    A 31-year-old female student was referred to physical therapy with a chief complaint of proximal, posterior left thigh pain that began insidiously 12 months prior, and progressively worsened while training for a half-marathon. A mobile, soft mass was identified just inferior to the ischial tuberosity that was tender and painful to palpation, recreating the patient's chief complaint. Radiographic findings were negative for a suspected avulsion fracture at the ischial tuberosity. Therefore, the physician performed musculoskeletal ultrasonography, which revealed a superficial hypoechoic mass with vascular flow. Magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent biopsy led to the diagnosis of a benign vascular malformation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):607. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0410. PMID:27363574

  20. [Benign thyroid nodules: diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Durante, Cosimo; Cava, Francesco; Paciaroni, Alessandra; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2008-05-01

    In the last years an increase in thyroid nodules detection has been reported from several epidemiological studies. This trend is largely due to the routine use of diagnostic sonography procedures in clinical practice. Thyroid nodules, both palpable or not palpable, rarely turn out to be malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAc) plays a central role in establishing the nature of the nodule. Excluded the presence of malignant lesions, which are generally treated with surgery, physicians are faced with a variety of therapeutic options, and choosing the optimal approach can be a difficult task. These include a periodic follow-up alone without treatment, the iodine supplementation, the thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy, the radioiodine administration, the percutaneous ethanol injections, and the new technique of laser photocoagulation. In all cases, decisions on the management of benign thyroid nodules should always be based on clinical target and a careful analysis of benefits and risks to the patient. PMID:18581970

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Environmentally Benign Acylation.

    PubMed

    Suchand, Basuli; Satyanarayana, Gedu

    2016-08-01

    Recent trends in research have gained an orientation toward developing efficient strategies using innocuous reagents. The earlier reported transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylations involved either toxic carbon monoxide (CO) gas as carbonylating agent or functional-group-assisted ortho sp(2) C-H activation (i.e., ortho acylation) or carbonylation by activation of the carbonyl group (i.e., via the formation of enamines). Contradicting these methods, here we describe an environmentally benign process, [Pd]-catalyzed direct carbonylation starting from simple and commercially available iodo arenes and aldehydes, for the synthesis of a wide variety of ketones. Moreover, this method comprises direct coupling of iodoarenes with aldehydes without activation of the carbonyl and also without directing group assistance. Significantly, the strategy was successfully applied to the synthesis n-butylphthalide and pitofenone. PMID:27377566

  2. [Neuroophthalmological aspects of benign intracranial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Eliseeva, N M; Serova, N K; Gasparian, S S; Shifrin, M A

    2008-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension (BICH) is characterized by elevated spinal fluid pressure in the absence of space-occupying lesion in the skull, dilated cerebral ventricles, significant neurological disorders, and altered spinal fluid composition. Forty-nine patients with a female predominance were examined. Their age ranged from 4 to 52 years (median 39 years). The most common predictors of BICH were overweight, endocrine disorders, and cerebral sinus thrombosis. Ophthalmoscopically, the patients were found to have early, moderate, and significant papilledema, and secondary optic atrophy. Examination of visual functions revealed these or those disturbances of visual acuity and/or field of vision in 43 of the 49 patients. The incidence and degree of visual disturbances depended on the stage of papilledema. Timely diagnosis and treatment in patients with BICH allows the development of visual disturbances to be prevented in them. PMID:18589651

  3. Benign Duodenocolic Fistula: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soheili, Marzieh; Honarmand, Shirin; Soleimani, Heshmatollah; Elyasi, Anvar

    2015-08-01

    Benign duodenocolic fistula (DCF), known as a fistula between the duodenum and colon with or without cecum of nonmalignant origin, is an unusual complication of different gastrointestinal diseases. The present paper records a case in which the patient presented with chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss as well as having a history of gastric ulcer. Most frequently the condition presents with signs of malabsorption such as weight loss and diarrhea, but other symptoms include nausea, vomiting (sometimes with fecal), and abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions are the usual causes. The most common ones are perforated duodenal ulcer and Crohn's disease. Barium enemas are usually diagnostic. Treatment consists of excising the fistula and repairing the duodenal and colonic defects. Closure of the fistula provides quick relief. PMID:26545997

  4. Inverted Sinonasal Papilloma Masquerading as a Malignancy - Report of an Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Sruthi, Ranganath; Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Perumal, Mahendra; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan

    2016-01-01

    Inverted sinonasal papilloma (ISP) is a benign epithelial neoplasm arising from the Schneiderian membrane. We report a case of ISP in a 50-year-old male that clinically presented as a polypoid mass in the nasal cavity. Imaging studies revealed it to be an aggressive lesion showing intracranial extension. On histopathological examination of the excised specimen, a diagnosis of ISP was arrived at. However, an extensive sampling of the tissue revealed no evidence of any malignant transformation. Taking into account the suggested viral aetiology for such lesions and the aggressiveness observed in this case, human papillomavirus (HPV) profiling was done but it turned out to be negative. Only one other case of inverted sinonasal papilloma arising from the nasal cavity and involving the brain has been reported in the literature to date. Considering the alarming clinical course in spite of its benign nature, it is important for the pathologist and surgeon to be well informed about this lesion. PMID:27081587

  5. [Surgical therapy of benign thyroid gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Mann, B; Buhr, H J

    1998-01-01

    Operations due to benign thyroid diseases are one of the most common elective surgical procedures performed in Germany. In the majority of cases, the preoperative determination of the serum thyrotropin concentration and an ultrasound of the thyroid region are sufficient preoperative investigations. In cases of thyroid functional disorders a scintigram should be additionally performed. Indications for operation in nodular goiter are local, mechanical compression, suspicion of malignancy and focal or disseminated autonomy. In Graves' disease the indication for operation is usually recurrent hyperthyroidism after medical treatment. In endemic nodular goiter the morphology of the nodular thyroid tissue is the guideline for resection; i.e. all nodules have to be removed. In Graves' disease the function of the remaining thyroid tissue is essential. The standardized subtotal resection with remaining tissue around the hilus, which frequently barries nodules, should be avoided. Instead a selective resection which takes the individual morphology and function of the diseased thyroid tissue into account should be favorized. With this operative technique the surgeon will have frequently direct contact with the recurrent nerve and the parathyroids. It is documented, that intraoperative visualisation of the recurrent nerve decreases not only the rate of permanent nerve damages but increases as well the completeness of resection. Additionally, ligation of the inferior thyroid artery decreases the incidence of residual or recurrent disease without enlarging the risk of postoperative parathyroiprive hypocalcemia. An individual follow-up with iodine and/or thyroxine replacement therapy is an indispensable component of the surgical therapeutic approach. The target of thyroxine substitution in patients after resection due to benign thyroid diseases is a physiologic serum thyrotropin concentration (0.3 to 4.0 mU/l). PMID:9542021

  6. [Presumed benign ovarian tumors during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Tariel, O; Huissoud, C; Rudigoz, R C; Dubernard, G

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy is between 0.3 and 5.4% (LE2). The most common ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are functional cysts diagnosed incidentally during the first trimester ultrasound (LE2) and spontaneous regression is often observed. Dermoid cysts and cystadenoma are the most frequent organic benign ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy (LE2). The main complication of presumed benign ovarian tumor (PBOT) during pregnancy is adnexal torsion and is estimated at around 8% (LE2), especially at the end of the first trimester and during the second trimester (LE4). Tumor markers are not reliable during pregnancy to assess the risk of malignancy of ovarian tumor (LE2). Ultrasound remains the gold standard for characterizing an ovarian tumor during pregnancy (LE3), but with a lower specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy. Pelvic MRI is accurate in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors during pregnancy and brings additional information to ultrasound (LE4). Ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian tumors is not recommended during pregnancy (grade C). Expectation is recommended in cases of PBOT during pregnancy, which does not enlarge (grade C). Whatever the gestational age, surgery is recommended in patients with symptoms suggesting an adnexal torsion (grade C). Laparoscopy is possible during the first and second trimester of pregnancy for the management of symptomatic PBOT (LE3). The risk of miscarriage following surgery (laparoscopy and laparotomy) for ovarian tumor during pregnancy is estimated at 2.8% (LE3). The route of delivery should not be modified by the ovarian tumour, except in case of praevia cyst requiring a cesarean section, a complication or suspicion of malignancy (grade C). Surgical treatment of PBOT may be performed during a cesarean section indicated for another reason. The risk of torsion is increased during the postpartum period (LE4). PMID:24210242

  7. Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease, the Masquerading Menace: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Rohit; Rao, Pankaj; Kachhawa, Dilip; Jain, Vinod K; Tuteja, Rajat K; Vijayvargiya, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis is a rare, benign, self-limiting disease with unknown etiology characterized by regional lymphadenopathy. A 30-year-old female presented with fever, weakness, multiple joint pain, oral ulcers, erythematous facial rashes, hemorrhagic crusting on both lips, and cervical lymphadenopathy of 2-month duration. Clinically, the disease was mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus, but immunofluorescence was negative for it. Lymph node biopsy suggested a diagnosis of KFD. PMID:27293275

  8. Non-Functional Adrenal Gland Ganglioneuroma Masquerading as Chronic Calculus Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmi D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, H L

    2015-09-01

    Adrenal ganglioneuromas in young adults are rare and ill-understood. We report an incidentally detected adrenal gland tumor diagnosed as ganglioneuroma (mature type) in 33 years old man who presented with vomiting and epigastric pain for 2 months. Histopathology examination revealed a well-encapsulated benign tumor of mature ganglion cells and Schwann-like cells arranged in fascicles, staining strongly with NSE and s-100 proteins, with adjacent unremarkable adrenal cortex and medulla. PMID:27608876

  9. [Treatment of benign laryngeal diseases using a CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Betka, J; Klozar, J; Kasík, P; Taudy, M; Tichý, S

    1989-05-01

    CO2 laser surgery is becoming a part of larynx surgery. The authors inform about their experience in benign larynx tumours treatment. They present analysis of concrete therapeutic procedures in individual larynx affections. They conclude that laser surgery is an advantegous method for benign larynx tumours treatment. PMID:2772545

  10. Benign Biliary Strictures: Diagnostic Evaluation and Approaches to Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Interventional radiologists are often consulted to help identify and treat biliary strictures that can result from a variety of benign etiologies. Mainstays of noninvasive imaging for benign biliary strictures include ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and computed tomography cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the invasive diagnostic procedure of choice, allowing both localization of a stricture and treatment. Percutaneous biliary interventions are reserved for patients who are not candidates for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (eg, history of distal gastrectomy and biliary-enteric anastomosis to a jejunal roux limb). This review discusses the roles of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage in the diagnosis of benign biliary strictures. The methodology for crossing benign biliary strictures, approaches to balloon dilation, management of recalcitrant strictures (ie, large-bore biliary catheters and retrievable covered stents), and the expected outcomes and complications of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary strictures are also addressed. PMID:26615161

  11. Benign disease of the common bile duct.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R; Pradeep, R; Chander, J; Kumar, P; Wig, J D; Yadav, R V; Kaushik, S P

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of common bile duct (CBD) pathology in a group of patients with benign biliary disease (n = 505) was found to be 23.2 per cent. The spectrum included 111 patients (90.2 per cent) with CBD stones, 37 of whom (33.3 per cent) had no symptoms or findings pre-operatively indicating CBD involvement. Five patients had papillary stenosis, three had postoperative CBD strictures, one had a choledochal cyst and one had an external biliary fistula. Of the 100 CBDs measuring more than 10 mm in diameter, 90 harboured calculi. In the remaining 23 CBDs measuring less than 10 mm, calculi were present in 21. The presence of CBD calculi was demonstrated by intra-operative cholangiography in 49 patients. In the remaining patients (n = 74), the diagnosis of CBD pathology was made either by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, T-tube cholangiography or peroperative palpation. The surgical procedures performed included choledochotomy and T-tube drainage (n = 74), transduodenal sphincteroplasty (n = 27) and choledochoduodenostomy (n = 18). The overall mortality and morbidity of CBD exploration was 3.3 per cent and 24.4 per cent respectively, which was significantly greater than that for cholecystectomy alone (0.3 per cent and 8.6 per cent respectively). Transduodenal sphincteroplasty carried a much higher mortality (11 per cent) and morbidity (52 per cent) when compared with other procedures. PMID:3167536

  12. [Pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Oelke, M; Martinelli, E

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated when men suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but there are no absolute indications for prostate surgery or severe bladder outlet obstruction. Phytotherapy can be used in men with mild to moderate LUTS and alpha-blockers can quickly and effectively decrease the LUTS and symptomatic disease progression. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) are an alternative to alpha-blockers when men experience bothersome side effects from alpha-blockers or erectile dysfunction. If patients predominantly have bladder storage symptoms and a small prostate, muscarinic receptor antagonists are a viable treatment option. The combination of alpha-blocker plus muscarinic receptor antagonist is more efficacious in reducing LUTS than the single drugs alone. The 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) can significantly decrease LUTS and disease progression (e.g. acute urinary retention and need for prostate surgery) in men with larger prostates (> 30-40 ml). The combination of 5ARI plus alpha-blocker can reduce LUTS and disease progression more effectively than drug monotherapy. Combination therapy with PDE5-I (tadalafil) plus 5ARI (finasteride) reduces LUTS more substantially than 5ARI alone and, additionally, PDE5-Is reduce the sexual side effects during 5ARI treatment. PMID:26676726

  13. Benign and pathological electrocardiographic changes in athletes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marino; Vaz Silva, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in athletes during sport. It is a tragic event that generates significant media attention and discussion throughout society as to whether everything possible had been done to prevent it. Regular physical exercise causes cardiac remodeling at both the mechanical and electrical level, known as athlete's heart, resulting in an electrocardiogram (ECG) considered abnormal compared with the ECGs of the general population. Some of these electrocardiographic changes are considered normal or physiological in athletes, while others suggest underlying cardiac disease with the potential to cause sudden cardiac death. There is thus an urgent need to define the electrocardiographic patterns that allow or prohibit participation in sports, and to differentiate them in terms of gender, ethnicity and age. The purpose of this review is to present the latest data on the electrocardiographic changes considered benign or pathological that are typically found in athletes and to critically analyze the most recent criteria for classifying ECGs in this population (the Seattle criteria), comparing them with previous guidelines and with the latest studies on the subject. This article also examines the question of including ECGs in pre-participation screening programs, the US and European approaches to the subject, and the most up-to-date data on the sensitivity, specificity and cost-effectiveness of the ECG in athletes. PMID:26643438

  14. Benign paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood.

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, R A; Billson, F

    1988-07-01

    Four cases of an apparently benign ocular motor syndrome of childhood are reported. The features of the disorder are: (1) onset in early life; (2) periods of constant or variably sustained tonic conjugate upward deviation of the eyes; (3) down-beating saccades in attempted downgaze, which are difficult to sustain below the neutral positions; (4) apparently normal horizontal eye movements; (5) frequent relief by sleep; (6) otherwise normal neurological findings apart from mild ataxia, chronic in one boy and at times of illness in one of the other patients; (7) absence of deterioration during observation spanning up to 15 years; (8) eventual improvement but with some residual ocular movement problems in two cases; (9) normal metabolic, electroencephalographic, and neuroradiologic investigations; (10) normal brain examination findings in one patient who died accidentally; and (11) an apparently good response to levodopa therapy in one patient. To the authors' knowledge, this condition has not been described previously. It may be a new levodopa-responsive condition, secondary to a localized neurotransmitter deficiency. PMID:3209843

  15. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  16. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  17. [Minimally Invasive Treatment of Esophageal Benign Diseases].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-07-01

    As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy. PMID:27440038

  18. Skin conditions: benign nodular skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Benign subcutaneous lesions are a common reason that patients visit family physicians. Lipomas are the most common of these lesions; they most often occur on the trunk and proximal extremities. Recent data show that as many as half of the fat cells in lipomas are atypical. Ultrasound is used increasingly to confirm lipoma diagnosis, but deep lesions should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging study or computed tomography scan to exclude involvement of underlying structures and/or liposarcoma. Small lesions can sometimes be managed with serial injections of midpotency steroids. Larger lesions (larger than 5 cm), those compressing other structures, or those suspicious for malignancy should be excised using standard surgical excision or, when possible, the newer minimal-scar segmental extraction technique. Ganglion cysts are another common lesion, the presence of which often is confirmed with ultrasound if the diagnosis is not clinically apparent. Management includes splinting, aspiration, and/or injection of steroids, with or without hyaluronidase. Epidermal inclusion cysts, also called sebaceous cysts, typically are asymptomatic unless they become infected. Ultrasound can aid in diagnosis. The only definitive management is surgical excision with complete removal of the cyst wall or capsule, using minimal-scar segmental extraction or conventional surgical removal. PMID:23600336

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  20. PRRT2 mutation in Japanese children with benign infantile epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihisa; Shimojima, Keiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Abe, Shinpei; Yamashita, Shintaro; Imai, Katsumi; Okanishi, Tohru; Enoki, Hideo; Fukasawa, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Takuya; Dibbens, Leanne M; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in PRRT2 genes have been identified as a major cause of benign infantile epilepsy and/or paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. We explored mutations in PRRT2 in Japanese patients with BIE as well as its related conditions including convulsion with mild gastroenteritis and benign early infantile epilepsy. We explored PRRT2 mutations in Japanese children who had had unprovoked infantile seizures or convulsion with mild gastroenteritis. The probands included 16 children with benign infantile epilepsy, 6 children with convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, and 2 siblings with benign early infantile epilepsy. In addition, we recruited samples from family members when PRRT2 mutation was identified in the proband. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences in probands with benign infantile epilepsy according to the presence or absence of PRRT2 mutation. Among a total of 24 probands, PRRT2 mutations was identified only in 6 probands with benign infantile epilepsy. A common insertion mutation, c.649_650insC, was found in 5 families and a novel missense mutation, c.981C>G (I327M), in one. The family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia was more common in probands with PRRT2 mutations than in those without mutations. Our study revealed that PRRT2 mutations are common in Japanese patients with benign infantile epilepsy, especially in patients with a family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. PMID:23131349

  1. Characteristics of "malignant" vs. "benign" electrocardiographic patterns of early repolarization.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, J T; Huikuri, H V

    2015-01-01

    The electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of early repolarization (ER) has historically been regarded as a benign ECG variant, but during the past few years, this concept has been challenged based on multiple reports linking the ER pattern with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although the mechanistic basis of ventricular arrhythmogenesis in patients with ER pattern is still incompletely understood, there is increasing information about the ECG and phenotype characteristics of "malignant" vs. "benign" patterns of ER. This review presents the current evidence of markers of "benign" and a more severe nature of ER. PMID:25634766

  2. [Diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Laculle-Massin, C; Collinet, P; Faye, N

    2013-12-01

    Symptoms of presumed benign ovarian tumors (PBOT) are not specific (LE4). Personal or family history of gynecological cancers can guide the diagnostic strategy. Clinical examination is ineffective for positive, topographic and etiologic diagnosis of PBOT (LE4). Signs of hormonal impregnation may refer to certain types of tumors (LE4). For any patient presenting with a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound is in the first-line exam (grade A); it can classify most ovarian tumors. In case of pure liquid unilocular mass smaller than 7 cm, ultrasound is sufficient to characterize the mass (grade A). In case of indeterminate or complex ovarian mass on ultrasound, MRI is useful to characterize the mass (LE2). Beyond 7 cm, the diagnostic performance of ultrasound decreases (LE2). When a non-unilocular liquid ovarian formation is characterized using ultrasound as determinate mass, ultrasound scan is the only exam recommended (grade B). MRI is indicated as a second-line scan for indeterminate masses or greater than 7 cm (grade B). Cyst puncture for diagnostic purposes has no place in the diagnostic strategy of ovarian cysts (grade C). In case of PBOT in pre-pubertal period, dosing biomarkers is useful but should not delay care. In adult women with PBOT, the measurement of CA125 is not recommended for first-line diagnosis (grade C). Current literature data are not sufficient to specify the diagnostic strategy for an ovarian tumor discovered incidentally during laparoscopy. In case of discovery of a high CA125 value, pelvic ultrasound is the first-line examination. The literature data are still limited to define a CA125 threshold value requiring further exploration or special monitoring, in case of normal pelvic ultrasound. PMID:24210239

  3. Hereditary benign telangiectasia: first case in Iran.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Zari; Maleki, M; Mashayekhi, V; Nahidi, Y; Omidvar Borna, A

    2006-07-01

    A 14-year-old boy was referred to the Dermatology Clinic of the Medical University of Mashhad, Iran, with numerous cutaneous telangiectasias on the face, ears, lips, and back of the hands, with lesions in the temporal region being the first to appear (Figs 1-3). His mother stated that the lesions had been present for 10 years with an increase in the past 6 months. He had no history of bleeding from the nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and other mucosal surfaces, and there was no sign of organ involvement. On inspection, no lesions were detected on the nasal mucosa, external ear, over the tympanic membrane, or mouth. The patient is one member of a family of six. His mother is healthy, but similar lesions were seen in his father, sister and one of his brothers with similar distributions. Lesions were also seen in his aunt and paternal grandmother, showing disease distribution in six members of this family from three generations. The oldest brother is 20 years of age and mentioned the onset of disease from the age of 10 years. The sister is 18 years of age and lesions started to appear 7 years ago; she claims that the lesions regress during her menstrual period. The youngest brother is 4 years of age and shows no sign of cutaneous lesions as yet. The parents are not consanguineous. Generalized telangiectasia with a predominant distribution on light-exposed skin, an autosomal dominant inheritance, and no sign of systemic or mucosal involvement and bleeding disorders indicates a diagnosis of hereditary benign telangiectasia. Our patient did not consent to biopsy. PMID:16863520

  4. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  5. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  6. Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Tumour of the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Soundappan; Khajanchi, Monty; Vaja, Tejas; Jajoo, Bhushan; Dey, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a rare tumor of the abdomen, is a diagnostic dilemma. This report emphasizes the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy in the diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:25866695

  7. Treatment Challenges with Benign Bone Tumors of the Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Helen; Yin, Vivian T.; Pfeiffer, Margaret L.; Wang, Wei-Lien; Sniegowski, Matthew C.; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Benign mesenchymal tumors of the craniofacial complex present unique challenges for orbital surgeons because of their potential for orbital compartment syndrome, ocular morbidity, and facial disfigurement and because definitive surgical management may be associated with significant morbidity. While the precise classification of such lesions depends on radiologic as well as histologic evaluations and remains controversial, benign tumors involving the bony walls of the orbit share features of bony expansion, facial deformity, and the potential to cause significant orbital and ophthalmic morbidity. We herein present 2 cases of benign mesenchymal tumors with bony involvement in the orbitofacial region (1 juvenile ossifying fibroma and 1 central giant cell granuloma) and review the current management of similar benign fibro-osseous and reactive bone lesions of the orbit. These rare entities presented share common orbital and ophthalmic manifestations and remain without any effective definitive treatment options. PMID:27171013

  8. THE DESIGN OF TECHNOLOGICALLY EFFECTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is presently considerable interest in finding environmentally benign replacement solvents that can perform in many different applications as solvents normally do. This requires solvents with desirable properties, e.g., ability to dissolve certain compounds, and without oth...

  9. Significance of nuclear morphometry in benign and malignant breast aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Narasimha, Aparna; Vasavi, B; Kumar, Harendra ML

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers occurring in the female population world-wide. Normal cells gradually transform to form the cancer cells through several stages. Nuclear changes occurring during these transformational steps need to be assessed objectively. Hence nuclear morphometry can be used as a diagnostic tool. Aim: To compare the nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant breast aspirates. Study Design: Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from the breast lumps in to malignant (30 cases), and benign (30 cases). Nuclear parameters were calculated using the Image J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analyzed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, compactness, and concave points were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) parameters in differentiating benign, and malignant aspirates. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus, a useful objective tool in the differentiating benign, and malignant breast lesions. PMID:23776836

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  11. Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases: volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of ''Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases'' comprises chapters devoted to: general remarks and considerations, radiopharmaceuticals, Paget disease, osteomyelitis, trauma, benign bone tumors, chronic renal dialysis, acute renal failure, osteomalacia and rickets, and osteoporosis. Although published in 1981, the most recent references in the book were 1978 and most are 1977 or earlier. One of the strongest aspects of the volume are tables which categorize diseases, pathophysiology of disease, and image abnormalities. (JMT)

  12. Pain interference in youth with neurofibromatosis type 1 and plexiform neurofibromas and relation to disease severity, social-emotional functioning, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Burns, Katherine M; Martin, Staci; Baldwin, Andrea; Dombi, Eva; Toledo-Tamula, Mary Anne; Dudley, William N; Gillespie, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2015-09-01

    The physical manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) can cause chronic pain. This study investigated the impact of pain in youth with NF1 and plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) and its relationship to disease factors, social-emotional functioning, and quality of life (QOL) within a biopsychosocial framework. Caregivers of 59 children and adolescents with NF1 and PNs (6-18 years), and 41 of these youth (10-18 years), completed questionnaires assessing social-emotional functioning and QOL, including an item on pain interference. Measures of disease severity included total PN volume by percent body weight and number of disease complications. Both caregiver (73%) and self-report (59%) ratings indicated that pain interferes with the child's daily functioning despite 33% taking pain medication. Based on caregivers' behavior ratings, more symptoms of anxiety and larger tumor volumes predicted greater pain interference, while greater pain interference, worse depressive symptoms, and more disease complications predicted poorer QOL. As rated by adolescents, more symptoms of anxiety predicted greater pain interference, while greater pain interference and social stress predicted poorer QOL. Further, social-emotional problems mediate the relationship between pain interference and QOL. Thus, pain interferes with daily functioning in the majority of youth with NF1 and PNs even when using pain medication. The impact of pain interference, disease severity, and particularly social-emotional problems on QOL highlights the interaction between physical and psychological states in NF1. Future research and treatment of pain in this population should utilize a biopsychosocial approach and involve multidisciplinary therapies including psychological interventions that target social-emotional functioning. PMID:25976979

  13. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; Villa, Damie De; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The neonatal period comprises the first four weeks of life. It is a period of adaptation where the skin often presents several changes: transient lesions, resulting from a physiological response, others as a consequence of transient diseases and some as markers of severe disorders. The presence of pustules in the skin of the newborn is always a reason for the family and for the assisting doctor to be worried, since the newborn is especially vulnerable to bacterial, viral or fungal infection. However, the majority of neonatal skin pustules is not infectious, comprising the benign neonatal pustulosis. Benign neonatal pustuloses are a group of clinical disease characterized by pustular eruptions in which a contagious agent is not responsible for its etiology. The most common ones are erythema toxicum neonatorum, the transient neonatal pustular melanosis and the benign cephalic pustulosis. These dermatoses are usually benign, asymptomatic and self-limited. It is important that the dermatologist and the neonatologist can identify benign and transient lesions, those caused by genodermatoses, and especially differentiate between neonates with systemic involvement from those with benign skin lesions, avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and worries. PMID:27192509

  14. Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Methods: The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. Results: This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusion: A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence. PMID:22487294

  15. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn*

    PubMed Central

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; Villa, Damie De; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal period comprises the first four weeks of life. It is a period of adaptation where the skin often presents several changes: transient lesions, resulting from a physiological response, others as a consequence of transient diseases and some as markers of severe disorders. The presence of pustules in the skin of the newborn is always a reason for the family and for the assisting doctor to be worried, since the newborn is especially vulnerable to bacterial, viral or fungal infection. However, the majority of neonatal skin pustules is not infectious, comprising the benign neonatal pustulosis. Benign neonatal pustuloses are a group of clinical disease characterized by pustular eruptions in which a contagious agent is not responsible for its etiology. The most common ones are erythema toxicum neonatorum, the transient neonatal pustular melanosis and the benign cephalic pustulosis. These dermatoses are usually benign, asymptomatic and self-limited. It is important that the dermatologist and the neonatologist can identify benign and transient lesions, those caused by genodermatoses, and especially differentiate between neonates with systemic involvement from those with benign skin lesions, avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and worries. PMID:27192509

  16. Comparison of microscopic vascularity in benign and malignant prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Bigler, S A; Deering, R E; Brawer, M K

    1993-02-01

    A variety of malignant neoplasms have been shown to induce capillary neovascularization, and in some cases the degree of vascularization appears to correlate with aggressive behavior and risk of metastasis. We hypothesized that carcinoma of the prostate also induces the formation of new capillaries, and we developed a method to quantify the relative density of microscopic vessels in carcinoma of the prostate compared with benign prostatic glandular tissue. The number of microvessel profiles in tissue sections was quantified by marking the vascular endothelial cells with antibodies to factor VIII-related antigen using standard immunohistochemistry techniques and comparing fields of adenocarcinoma with benign glandular tissue in 15 radical prostatectomy specimens. The analysis was facilitated by using the Optimas computerized image analysis system (Bioscan, Seattle, WA) with software written for this investigation. Fourteen of the 15 cases demonstrated significantly higher vascular density in the areas of carcinoma than in the benign tissues. Overall, the ratio of vessels per unit area in sections of carcinoma versus benign tissue was approximately double (ratio = 2.02; P < .001). In benign tissues the capillaries are restricted for the most part to the periglandular stroma immediately adjacent to the epithelium, whereas the distribution in carcinoma appears to be more random. The data demonstrate the increased density of capillaries in prostatic carcinoma when compared with benign prostate tissue. PMID:8432518

  17. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  18. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  19. Control of Metal Arrays Based on Heterometallics Masquerading in Heterochiral Aggregations of Chiral Clothespin-Shaped Complexes.

    PubMed

    Naito, Masaya; Inoue, Ryo; Iida, Masayuki; Kuwajima, Yuuki; Kawamorita, Soichiro; Komiya, Naruyoshi; Naota, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Heterometal arrays in molecular aggregations were obtained by the spontaneous and ultrasound-induced gelation of organic liquids containing the chiral, clothespin-shaped trans-bis(salicylaldiminato) d8 transition-metal complexes 1. Heterometallic mixtures of complexes 1 a (Pd) and 1 b (Pt) underwent strict heterochiral aggregation entirely due to the organic shell structure of the clothespin shape, with no effect of the metal cores. This phenomenon provides an unprecedented means of generating highly controlled heterometallic arrangements such as alternating sequences [(+)-Pd(-)-Pt(+)-Pd(-)-Pt⋅⋅⋅] as well as a variety of single metal-enriched arrays (e.g., [(+)-Pt(-)-Pd(+)-Pd(-)-Pd(+)-Pd(-)-Pd⋅⋅⋅] and [(+)-Pd(-)-Pt(+)-Pt(-)-Pt(+)-Pt(-)-Pt⋅⋅⋅]) upon the introduction of an optically active masquerading unit with a different metal core in the heterochiral single-metal sequence. The present method can be applied to form various new aggregates with optically active Pd and Pt units, to allow 1) tuning of the gelation ultrasound sensitivity based on the different hearing abilities of the metal units; 2) aggregation-induced chirality transfer between heterometallic species; and 3) aggregation-induced chirality enhancement. A mechanistic rationale is proposed for these molecular aggregations based on the molecular structures of the units and the morphologies of the aggregates. PMID:26212577

  20. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events in Metabolically Benign Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Kim, Mimi; McGinn, Aileen; Muntner, Paul; Khan, Unab I.; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE While several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of metabolically benign obesity, little is known about the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this group. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using pooled data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Studies, we assessed the association of metabolically benign obesity with incident CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) using three existing definitions of metabolically benign obesity: (1) the ATP-III metabolic syndrome definition (≤2 of the ATP-III components, excluding waist), (2) the expanded ATP-III definition (≤1 of: the ATP-III components, HOMA-IR>75th percentile, systemic inflammation [WBC>75th percentile]), and (3) the insulin resistance (IR) based definition (sex-specific lowest quartile of the HOMA-IR distribution among non-diabetic obese). RESULTS The sample included 4,323 normal weight and 6,121 obese individuals. Among obese, 27.0%, 18.1%, and 20.4% were metabolically benign by the three definitions, respectively. CVD incidence among metabolically benign obese defined by the three definitions (mean follow-up 11.8 years) was 8.7%, 7.2%, and 10.3%, respectively, versus 7.9% in low-risk normal weight individuals. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident CVD in metabolically benign obese compared to low-risk normal weight individuals were 1.24 (0.99-1.57), 1.16 (0.86-1.56), and 1.28 (1.01-1.62), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Regardless of the definition used, we observed a high prevalence of metabolically benign obesity. All three commonly used definitions were similar in terms of both classification and subsequent risk of CVD, with the expanded ATP-III criteria perhaps identifying the obese group at lowest risk of CVD. PMID:21799477

  1. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: An underdiagnosed condition.

    PubMed

    Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Efstathiou, Elisavet; Neubauer, David

    2015-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal torticollis is probably an under-diagnosed condition of infancy. It is a self-limiting disorder characterised by periods of unusual, sustained posture of the head and neck, during which the head tilts to one side. Episodes are often accompanied by marked autonomic features, irritability, ataxia, apathy and drowsiness. They last several hours to a few days and are often recurring every few weeks. They subside within the pre-school years; however, during later childhood, there is a tendency to develop migraine. Three cases of benign paroxysmal torticollis are presented and are compared with cases in the literature. A telephone survey has been conducted to determine what is the general awareness of paediatricians of this condition in Cyprus. Eighty-two paediatricians were randomly selected out of 235 paediatricians. All of them agreed to participate. Our cases revealed that benign paroxysmal torticollis may coexist with other problems during infancy. The telephone survey showed that only two out of eighty-two (2.4%) of the paediatricians are aware of the condition, and none of them was confident regarding the management. Our telephone survey clearly shows that Cypriot paediatricians are not familiar with benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy which is a benign, self-limiting disorder. It is essential to recognise the condition and to reassure parents of its benign course and not to be misdiagnosed for other disorders, such as epileptic seizures. We have shown again that benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy may coexist with motor delay and hearing problems. PMID:25644090

  2. Lack of a Benign Interpretation Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69–93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741–756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799–825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135–1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

  3. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tacklind, James; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. Objectives This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH. Search strategy Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature. Selection criteria Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers. Data collection and analysis Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects. Main results In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour masquerading as a cyst in the lesser sac

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Ahmed Mahmoud; Ayyash, Emad Helmi; Alzafiri, Raed; Francis, Issam; Asfar, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are solid tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, mostly found in the stomach and intestine. They rarely present as cystic lesions. A 74-year-old woman referred to the hepatopancreaticobiliary unit, with 3 months history of upper abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed a large cystic lesion in the epigastric region suggestive of a pancreatic pseudocyst. The CT-scan showed a 6.6×6×6.3 cm size cyst related to the pancreas and extending to the hepatogastric omentum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) scan was suggestive of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Aspirated Cyst fluid via EUS showed benign cytology with normal amylase, lipase and tumour markers (CEA, CA-19.9 and CA-125). She was referred as a case of pancreatic pseudocyst. After surgical excision, the histopathology confirmed the presence GIST in the wall of the cystic lesion. The possibility of GIST should be kept in mind in the presence of unusual features of a cyst on abdominal imaging. PMID:27469382

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour masquerading as a cyst in the lesser sac.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Ahmed Mahmoud; Ayyash, Emad Helmi; Alzafiri, Raed; Francis, Issam; Asfar, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are solid tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, mostly found in the stomach and intestine. They rarely present as cystic lesions. A 74-year-old woman referred to the hepatopancreaticobiliary unit, with 3 months history of upper abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed a large cystic lesion in the epigastric region suggestive of a pancreatic pseudocyst. The CT-scan showed a 6.6×6×6.3 cm size cyst related to the pancreas and extending to the hepatogastric omentum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) scan was suggestive of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Aspirated Cyst fluid via EUS showed benign cytology with normal amylase, lipase and tumour markers (CEA, CA-19.9 and CA-125). She was referred as a case of pancreatic pseudocyst. After surgical excision, the histopathology confirmed the presence GIST in the wall of the cystic lesion. The possibility of GIST should be kept in mind in the presence of unusual features of a cyst on abdominal imaging. PMID:27469382

  6. Single-port approach to benign gynecologic pathology. A review.

    PubMed

    Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Frydman, R; Yazigi, A; Ayoubi, J M

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopy is the gold standard in gynecological surgery. Single-port laparoscopic surgery, has been developed in order to improve minimally invasive surgery. We analyzed single-port approach in benign gynecologic pathology and made a bibliographic research on Pubmed and Medline from January 2000 to January 2015. From what emerges from the papers taken into consideration, single-port laparoscopy can be used for salpingostomy or salpingectomy to treat tubal ectopic pregnancy, benign adnexal disease (ovarian cystectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy), and for hysterectomy. We do not have enough data for complex procedures like myomectomy or hysteropexy. Robotic single-port laparoscopy seems to be a very attractive perspective and its use in benign gynecology surgery is expanding. More and more ergonomic limitations of single-port laparoscopy are corrected by development of articulated or flexible instruments and camera. Beyond these preliminary results, more ample prospective studies with an adapted and standardized instrumentation are thus essential to highlight real profits. PMID:25714874

  7. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia: a treatable disease not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tachikawa, Kanako; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal bowing of the long bones is often associated with severe bone dysplasias. We report a child who presented marked bowing of the long bones at birth but showed a relatively benign postnatal course with spontaneous improvement of bowing. The fetal imaging showed normal skeletal mineralization and normal chest and abdominal circumferences despite the limb bowing and shortening. Decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity and elevated urine phosphoethanolamine was biochemically evident, and compound heterozygous mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene were identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of a benign form of prenatal hypophosphatasia. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital bowing of the long bones. PMID:24145968

  8. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil. PMID:27066288

  9. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-01-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  10. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil. PMID:27066288

  11. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Armağan; Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-08-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  12. The Conundrum of Genetic "Drivers" in Benign Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Lippman, Scott M; Flaherty, Keith T; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-08-01

    Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those inBRAF,RAS,EGFR,HER2,FGFR3,PIK3CA,TP53,CDKN2A, andNF1/2, all of which are considered hallmark drivers of specific cancers, can also be identified in benign and premalignant conditions, occasionally at frequencies higher than in their malignant counterparts. Targeting these genomic drivers can produce dramatic responses in advanced cancer, but the effects on their benign counterparts are less clear. This benign-malignant phenomenon is well illustrated in studies ofBRAFV600E mutations, which are paradoxically more frequent in benign nevi (∼80%) than in dysplastic nevi (∼60%) or melanoma (∼40%-45%). Similarly, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is more commonly overexpressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (∼27%-56%) when compared with invasive breast cancer (∼11%-20%).FGFR3mutations in bladder cancer also decrease with tumor grade (low-grade tumors, ∼61%; high-grade, ∼11%). "Driver" mutations also occur in nonmalignant settings:TP53mutations in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis andFGFR3mutations in seborrheic keratosis. The latter observations suggest that the oncogenicity of these alterations may be tissue context-dependent. The conversion of benign conditions to premalignant disease may involve other genetic events and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Putative driver mutations can also be germline and associated with increased cancer risk (eg, germlineRASorTP53alterations), but germlineFGFR3orNF2abnormalities do not predispose to malignancy. We discuss the enigma of genetic "drivers" in benign and premalignant conditions and the implications for prevention strategies and theories of tumorigenesis. PMID:27059373

  13. The Conundrum of Genetic “Drivers” in Benign Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Keith T.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those in BRAF, RAS, EGFR, HER2, FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, CDKN2A, and NF1/2, all of which are considered hallmark drivers of specific cancers, can also be identified in benign and premalignant conditions, occasionally at frequencies higher than in their malignant counterparts. Targeting these genomic drivers can produce dramatic responses in advanced cancer, but the effects on their benign counterparts are less clear. This benign-malignant phenomenon is well illustrated in studies of BRAF V600E mutations, which are paradoxically more frequent in benign nevi (∼80%) than in dysplastic nevi (∼60%) or melanoma (∼40%-45%). Similarly, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is more commonly overexpressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (∼27%-56%) when compared with invasive breast cancer (∼11%-20%). FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer also decrease with tumor grade (low-grade tumors, ∼61%; high-grade, ∼11%). “Driver” mutations also occur in nonmalignant settings: TP53 mutations in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis and FGFR3 mutations in seborrheic keratosis. The latter observations suggest that the oncogenicity of these alterations may be tissue context–dependent. The conversion of benign conditions to premalignant disease may involve other genetic events and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Putative driver mutations can also be germline and associated with increased cancer risk (eg, germline RAS or TP53 alterations), but germline FGFR3 or NF2 abnormalities do not predispose to malignancy. We discuss the enigma of genetic “drivers” in benign and premalignant conditions and the implications for prevention strategies and theories of tumorigenesis. PMID:27059373

  14. [Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of familial benign pemphigus].

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, A; Alomar, A

    2012-01-01

    Familial benign pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease is a rare bullous disease that presents clinically with recurrent flares of erosions and vesicles that mainly affect the skinfolds. Many topical and systemic therapies have been proposed. Hyperhidrosis is one of the factors that can trigger or aggravate a flare-up, and its treatment is therefore important for controlling the disease and preventing further episodes. We report 3 patients with axillary and/or inguinal benign familial pemphigus that responded favorably to treatment with subcutaneous botulinum toxin. PMID:21872830

  15. Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs) were shown to induce cancer cells proliferation, mediate resistance to apoptosis, certain chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Therefore, MTs may be of utility in diagnosis and management of patients with benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid. PMID:23273222

  16. The pigmented portio: benign lentigo of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Schneider, V; Zimberg, S T; Kay, S

    1981-01-01

    The first case of benign lentigo of the uterine cervix is reported, providing further evidence that the cervix is able to form the entire spectrum of melanocytic lesions known to occur in the skin. Review of the literature reveals 19 cases of primary malignant melanoma of the cervix and 30 cases of blue nevus. The reported case offers support that benign lentigines may play a role as premalignant lesions of malignant melanoma not only in the skin, but aldo in mucous membranes. PMID:7327080

  17. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  18. Benign adrenal hemangiomas may mimic metastases on PET.

    PubMed

    Calata, Jed F; Sukerkar, Arun N; August, Carey Z; Maker, Ajay V

    2013-11-01

    CT or MRI are utilized in the initial evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas; however, overlap exists between benign and malignant lesions on these examinations. The American College of Radiology recommends PET scans to complement CT and MRI for patients with adrenal masses and a moderate-to-high likelihood of neoplastic disease. We present images of a PET-avid adrenal lesion in a patient with pulmonary and pancreatic neoplasms that mimicked metastasis, but was found to be a benign adrenal hemangioma on surgical resection. The use of PET for adrenal tumors, specifically adrenal hemangiomas, will be reviewed. PMID:24089061

  19. Role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Arena, Monica; Miraglia, Stefania; Consolo, Pierluigi; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Clara; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in stents design have led to a substantial increase in the use of stents for a variety of digestive diseases. Initially developed as a non-surgical treatment for palliation of esophageal cancer, the stents now have an emerging role in the management of malignant and benign conditions as well as in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the key-role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases. PMID:25992186

  20. Management of benign biliary strictures: current status and perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaffes, Arthur J

    2015-09-01

    Benign biliary strictures are common and occur either from hepato-biliary surgery or from diseases including chronic pancreatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others. The treatment of many such strictures is endoscopic with evolving new approaches especially with fully covered metal stents. The only classification system available is for postoperative strictures with the intention to guide surgical correction. There is no useful classification system to guide both assessment and management of benign biliary strictures. This proposed classification is relevant to patient care in assisting diagnosis and endoscopic management. PMID:26147976

  1. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sahadev T.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  2. Single benign metastasising leiomyoma of an inguinal lymph node.

    PubMed

    Laban, Kamil G; Tobon-Morales, Roberto E; Hodge, Janice A L; Schreuder, Henk W R

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasising leiomyoma (BML) is a rare benign disease associated with uterine leiomyoma and history of uterine surgery. It most frequently occurs in premenopausal woman, with a pulmonary localisation, and consisting of multiple nodules. We present an uncommon case of a 69-year-old woman with a single BML of an inguinal lymph node. CT scans of thorax and abdomen excluded other metastasis localisation. The patient was cured with surgical excision of the mass. Lymph node involvement has been reported incidentally in BML literature. Lymphangitic spread can be considered a possible mechanism of BML metastasis. PMID:27511755

  3. Benign vs. malicious ghosts in higher-derivative theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilga, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    Interacting theories with higher-derivatives involve ghosts. They correspond to instabilities that display themselves at the classical level. We notice that comparatively "benign" mechanical higher-derivative systems exist, where the classical vacuum is stable with respect to small perturbations and the problems appear only at the nonperturbative level. We argue the existence of benign higher-derivative field theories which are stable with respect to small fluctuations with nonzero momenta. A particular example is the 6D N=2 higher-derivative SYM theory, which is finite and unitary at the perturbative level. The instability with respect to small fluctuations of zero-momentum modes is always present, however.

  4. Unusual brachial plexus lesion: Hematoma masquerading as a peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    PubMed Central

    Krisht, Khaled M.; Karsy, Michael; Shah, Lubdha M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Dailey, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) of the brachial plexus have unique radiographic and clinical findings. Patients often present with progressive upper extremity paresthesias, weakness, and pain. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, lesions are isointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, while also demonstrating marked enhancement on MR studies with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. On the basis of their characteristic MR imaging features and rapid clinical progression, two brachial plexus lesions proved to be organizing hematomas rather than MPNST. Methods: A 51-year-old male and a 31-year-old female were both assessed for persistent and worsened left-sided upper extremity pain, paresthesias, and weakness. In both cases, the MR imaging of the brachial plexus demonstrated an extraspinal enhancing lesion located within the left C7–T1 neuroforamina. Results: Although the clinical and radiographic MR features for these 2 patients were consistent with MPNSTs, both lesions proved to be benign organizing hematomas. Conclusions: These two case studies emphasize that brachial plexus hematomas may mimic MPNSTs on MR studies. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is critical for determining the appropriate management options and treatment plans. Delaying the treatment of a highly aggressive nerve sheath tumor can have devastating consequences, whereas many hematomas resolve without surgery. Therefore, if the patient has stable findings on neurological examination and a history of trauma, surgical intervention may be delayed in favor of repeat MR imaging in 2–3 months to re-evaluate the size of the mass. PMID:26904368

  5. Optical discrimination between malignant and benign breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 82 subjects with breast lesions (45 malignant and 38 benign lesions). A perturbative approach based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion was applied to estimate differences between lesion and average healthy tissue of the same breast in terms of: i) absorption properties, and ii) concentration of the major tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen). The absorption difference Δμa between lesion and healthy tissue is significantly different for malignant vs. benign lesions at all wavelengths. Logistic regression fitted to the absorption data identifies 975 nm as the key wavelength to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. When the difference in tissue composition between lesion and healthy tissue is considered, malignant lesions are characterized by significantly higher collagen content than benign lesions. Also the best model for the discrimination of malignant lesions obtained applying regression logistic to tissue composition is based only on collagen. Including demographic information into the model improves its specificity.

  6. Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2008-01-01

    The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether…

  7. Fish-eye sign in scintigraphy of benign thyroid nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Vaqueiro, M.; Gharib, H.; Wahner, H.W.

    1985-11-01

    An unusual scintigraphic appearance of a benign adenomatous nodule in the thyroid is described which showed a central core of functional tissue surrounded by a rim of nonfunctioning tissue and degenerative changes. The descriptive term fish-eye sign is proposed. The characterization of tissue by scintigraphy prior to fine needle aspiration may be helpful in its interpretation.

  8. Benign breast disease and consumption of beverages containing methylxanthines.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Parazzini, F; Regallo, M; Decarli, A; Gallus, G; Di Pietro, S; Tognoni, G

    1985-05-01

    The relationship between methylxanthine (Mx) consumption and benign breast disease was evaluated in a case-control study of 288 women with histologically confirmed benign breast lumps (203 dysplastic lesions and 85 benign tumors) and 2 groups of control women--285 patients in the hospital for acute conditions apparently unrelated to the consumption of Mx-containing beverages and 291 outpatients. The relative risk estimates of dysplastic breast lesions (fibrocystic disease), with allowance for all identified potential distorting factors, for women who drank 1-2 or 3 or more cups of coffee per day were 4.1 and 6.4, respectively, when the hospital controls were the comparison group and 2.0 and 3.7, respectively, when the outpatient controls were the comparison group. The relationship was even stronger when the total consumption of Mx-containing beverages (coffee plus tea) was considered and increased with increasing duration of use. The association was not explained by any of the major risk factors for fibrocystic breast diseases or by differences in general characteristics or other lifestyle habits between cases and controls. Mx consumption was not related to the risk of benign breast tumors (fibroadenomas). These findings support the hypothesis that Mx consumption is related to the risk of dysplastic lesions of the breast. PMID:3858587

  9. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    "Giant hyperplasia" of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  10. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H. Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    “Giant hyperplasia” of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  11. Microwave applicators for thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bolmsjö, M B; Vrba, T

    2000-12-01

    Microwave thermotherapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is becoming increasingly more common. This article provides an introduction to the functional principles of microwave antennas for delivery of energy to the prostatic gland. Different antenna designs (monopole, dipole, and helical coil types) and impedance matching are discussed. PMID:11108559

  12. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments. PMID:26323261

  13. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fjaelling, M.T.; Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.; Hansson, G.; Lundberg, L.M.; Oden, A.

    1986-09-15

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life.

  14. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  15. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (p<0.05), verbal and visual-spatial memory abilities (p<0.01), visual perception and visual-motor integration global abilities (p<0.01), manual dexterity tasks (p<0.05), some language tasks (p<0.05), reading and writing abilities (p<0.01) and arithmetic ability (p<0.01). The presence of cognitive dysfunctions in subjects with EBOS supports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other

  16. Benign Osteoblastoma of Maxilla: A Case Report Emphasizing the Histopathological Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    P M, Shameena; Gulati, Saakshi; Banyal, Vishal Singh; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Benign osteoblastoma is a rare bone tumour characterized histologically by production of woven bone spicules, which are bordered by prominent osteoblasts. It mainly affects male teenagers and young adults. A case of benign osteoblastoma of maxilla in a nineteen years old male is reported here. Also, histological comparison is made between benign osteoblastoma, aggressive osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma. PMID:25478465

  17. Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Charaniya, Riyaz; Ahuja, Arvind; Mittal, Sakshi; Sahoo, Ratnakar

    2016-01-01

    Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis (BRIC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of cholestatic jaundice. The initial episode of jaundice generally occurs before second decade of life and can persist for several weeks to months before resolving spontaneously. It is a benign disease and even after repeated episodes of jaundice, fibrosis of liver cell does not occur. We had a young adult patient who was having recurrent episodes of cholestatic jaundice with intervening symptom free period for last 20 years. He had first episode of jaundice at the age of eight and since then had several similar episodes. Diagnosis was made by classical clinical presentation and histopathological findings. We intend to report this case due to rarity of this disease in India. PMID:27504332

  18. Benign (non-paroxysmal) familial chorea. Paediatric perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, G; Lindenbaum, R H

    1981-01-01

    We describe a non-progressive choreo-athetoid disorder of early onset, present in three families. There were no appreciable abnormalities in pregnancy, during the perinatal period, or in infancy. In each case the family history suggested transmission as an autosomal dominant trait, the gene showing diminished penetrance. Other families have been reported with the disorder and such titles as benign familial chorea, familial essential (benign chorea, or hereditary non-progressive chorea of early onset have been given to it. Our experience suggests that this is not a rare disorder, and that it is one likely to present in the paediatric age group; correct diagnosis is important so that unnecessary investigations are not undertaken, genetic counselling can be given, and proper management advice offered to families and schools. PMID:6455970

  19. Alternative donor transplant of benign primary hematologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, J; Sodani, P; Symons, H

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic SCT is currently the only curative therapy for a range of benign inherited and acquired primary hematologic disorders in children, including BM failure syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. The preferred HLA-matched sibling donor is available for only about 25% of such children. However, there has been substantial progress over the last four decades in the use of alternative donors for those without a matched sibling—including HLA-matched unrelated donors, HLA-haploidentical related donors and unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood—so that it is now possible to find a donor for almost every child requiring an allograft. Below, we summarize the relative merits and limitations of the different alternative donors for benign hematologic conditions, first generally, and then in relation to specific disorders, and suggest recommendations for selecting such an alternative donor. PMID:25665040

  20. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  1. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wiencek-Weiss, Alina Janina; Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  2. Diagnosis and management of long-standing benign oral ulceration.

    PubMed

    Birt, D; From, L; Main, J

    1980-05-01

    The authors formed a Mouth Clinic at Sunnybrook Hospital in 1973 since when there have been 3025 patient visits. Those patients with chronic ulceration present a challenge, the diagnosis sometimes being difficult and therapy not rapidly effective. The differential diagnosis includes lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, discoid lupus erythematosus, erythema multiforme, aphthous ulcers, Behcets disease, periadenitis mucosa necrotica recurrens, specific infections and iatrogenic causes. It is possible to reach a definite diagnosis in virtually every case by means of a good history and careful clinical examination supplemented by biopsies and in some cases direct and indirect immunofluorescent studies. Treatment emphasizes scrupulous attention to oral hygiene with baking soda mouthwashes and careful teeth cleaning to minimize the accumulation of dental plaque. Specific therapy includes topical steroids in lichen planus, intra muscular gold in benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, a previously unreported treatment which considerably improved seven out of ten patients, and tetracycline mouthwashes in aphthous ulcers. PMID:6990140

  3. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruno L.; Lima, Yara

    2015-01-01

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described. PMID:26788266

  4. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Todd J; Manigault, Kendra R; McBurrows, Niesha N; Wray, Tiffany L; Woodard, Laresa M

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a nonmalignant adenomatous overgrowth of the periurethral prostate gland commonly seen in aging men. Historically, it has been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostate enlargement. Symptoms such as urinary hesitancy, incomplete bladder emptying, dribbling or prolonged urination, nocturia, urinary urgency, and/or urge incontinence are common. Understanding the differential diagnosis and ordering appropriate laboratory tests are essential in accurately identifying a BPH diagnosis. Management can be broken down into medical or pharmacological and surgical therapies. This article aims to provide an overview of BPH and its management in older adults. PMID:27535076

  5. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  6. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Valcavi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio M.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Na, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation. PMID:21927553

  7. Hysterectomy for Benign Conditions of the Uterus: Total Vaginal Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jenifer N; Occhino, John A

    2016-09-01

    As minimally invasive technology continues to be developed and refined, surgeons must be discerning in choosing the safest, cost-effective surgical approach associated with the best outcomes for each individual patient. Vaginal hysterectomy can be successfully accomplished even in challenging situations, such as previous pelvic surgery, nulliparity, uterine enlargement, or obesity. Vaginal hysterectomy should be considered the primary route for treatment of benign disease. PMID:27521878

  8. Risperidone Induced Benign Intracranial Hypertension Leading to Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Sushil Thomas; Kattula, Dheeraj; Mannam, Pavithra; Iyyadurai, Ramya

    2016-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) is a rare but potentially serious condition causing visual loss. Occasionally, medication use has been associated with the occurrence of BIH. We report the case of a 40-year-old obese lady being treated with risperidone for schizophrenia who presented with features of BIH. We report this case, occurring for the 1st time in India, to emphasize that a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug can rarely cause BIH leading to visual loss. PMID:27335522

  9. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed. PMID:1712190

  10. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  11. Argon Laser Photoablation for Treating Benign Pigmented Conjunctival Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Gehedan, Saeed M.; Alasbali, Tariq; Alkuraya, Hisham S.; Lotfy, Nancy M.; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of argon laser photoablation of benign conjunctival pigmented nevi with different clinical presentations. Patients and Methods: This interventional case series was conducted between July 2014 and January 2015. Patients presenting with benign conjunctival nevi were included. Data were collected on the clinical features at presentation, argon laser photoablation, and follow-up at 8 and 24 weeks. Postoperative photography allowed recording of the success of each case and the overall success rate. Complete removal of conjunctival pigments was considered an absolute success. Partial pigmentation requiring repeat laser treatment was considered a qualified success. Results: There were 14 eyes (four right eyes and ten left eyes) with benign pigmented conjunctival nevi. There were three males and eight females in the study sample. The median age was 36 (25% percentile: 26 years). Three patients had bilateral lesions. The nevi were located temporally in nine eyes, nasally in three eyes, and on the inferior bulbar conjunctiva in two eyes. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of nevi were 5 ± 2 mm and 4 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 5 months. Following laser treatment, no eyes had subconjunctival hemorrhage, infection, scarring, neovascularization, recurrence, or corneal damage. The absolute success rate of laser ablation was 79%. Three eyes with elevated nevi had one to three sessions of laser ablation resulting in a qualified success rate of 100%. Conclusions: Argon laser ablation was a safe and effective treatment for the treatment of selective benign pigmented conjunctival nevi in Arab patients. PMID:27555708

  12. Parkin gene causing benign autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Nisipeanu, P; Inzelberg, R; Abo Mouch, S; Carasso, R L; Blumen, S C; Zhang, J; Matsumine, H; Hattori, N; Mizuno, Y

    2001-06-12

    Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) is an early-onset parkinsonism caused by exonic deletions or point mutations in the parkingene. The relationship between the type of the genetic defect and the clinical presentation, the response to therapy, and the evolution have not been yet determined. The authors describe a single-basepair deletion at nucleotide 202 in exon 2 of the parkin gene in a kindred with a benign clinical course. PMID:11402119

  13. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  14. Capillary hemangioma of the testis: A rare benign tumour

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan Colin; Dason, Shawn; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Greenspan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumour. We report a case of a 66-year-old man who underwent an uncomplicated radical orchiectomy for a painless left testicular mass. Pathology showed capillary hemangioma of the testis. There are only 22 cases reported in the English literature, including the presented case. Appropriate intra-operative recognition of this entity is vital to assess for potential testicular-sparing surgery. PMID:26085871

  15. Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis--25 years of follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Putterman, C.; Keidar, S.; Brook, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Only 70 cases of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis have been reported in the literature since the original description of this entity in 1959. The benign nature of the disease has been questioned, some authors suggesting progression to biliary cirrhosis. We report our follow-up of one such patient for over 25 years with no adverse physical consequences or histological deterioration. Sequential liver biopsies were obtained during this period. A conservative approach to diagnosis and treatment is therefore indicated. PMID:3684838

  16. Benign myoclonus of early infancy: an imitator of West's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maydell, B V; Berenson, F; Rothner, A D; Wyllie, E; Kotagal, P

    2001-02-01

    Benign myoclonus of early infancy is a rare condition characterized by nonepileptic spasms that may resemble the epileptic spasms seen in West's syndrome. The spells in benign myoclonus of early infancy begin before age 1 year and are self-limited. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is invariably normal, and neurologic development is not affected. West's syndrome is characterized by infantile spasms that appear before 1 year of age, an abnormal EEG with hypsarrhythmia, and a poor prognosis. We describe six infants who presented for evaluation of clusters of head, trunk or extremity spasms, eye blinking, brief jerking of upper extremities or trunk, and head nodding episodes. In most, a presumptive diagnosis of West's syndrome was made prior to the referral. One infant had been placed on valproate. Routine EEG recordings or prolonged video EEG monitoring were normal both during and between episodes. After the negative evaluations, the diagnosis of benign myoclonus of early infancy was made in each infant. Subsequently, no infant was treated with anticonvulsants. Follow-up revealed complete resolution of the episodes in all children within 2 weeks to 8 months of onset. All had normal neurologic development. Based on our cases and review of the literature, the prognosis for this disorder is excellent. Care should be taken to recognize this rare entity and avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful antiepileptic therapy. PMID:11292215

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy of pigmented cutaneous benign and malignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Jeliazkova, Al.; Pavlova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Kundurdjiev, T.; Pavlova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2014-10-01

    For the DRS measurements of skin benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions in vivo we applied halogen lamp (LS-1, OceanOptics Inc, Dunedin, Fl, USA) as a continuous light source in the region of 400-900 nm, optical probe (6+1 fibers) for the delivery of illumination and diffuse reflected light from the skin investigated and microspectrometer USB4000 (OceanOptics Inc., Dunedin, Fl, USA) for a storage and display of the spectra detected. As a diffuse reflectance standard Spectralon® plate was used to calibrate the spectrometer. The reflectance spectra obtained from normal skin in identical anatomic sites of different patients have similar spectral shape features, slightly differ by the reflectance intensity at different wavelengths, depending on the particular patient' skin phototype. One could find diagnostically important spectral features, related to specific intensity changes for a given wavelength due to specific pigments appearance, slope changes by value and sign for the reflectance spectra curves in a specific spectral range, disappearance or manifestation of minima, related to hemoglobin absorption at 410-420 nm, 543, 575 nm. Based on the observed peculiarities multispectral analysis of the reflectance spectra of the different lesions was used and diagnostically specific features are found. Discrimination using the DRS data obtained between benign compound and dermal nevi (45 cases), dysplastic nevi (17 cases) and pigmented malignant melanoma (41 cases) lesions is achieved with a diagnostic accuracy of 96 % for the benign nevi vs. MM, and 90 % for the dysplastic nevi vs. MM.

  18. Asymptomatic peritoneal carcinomatosis originating from benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Iacoponi, S; Calleja, J; Hernandez, G; de la Cuesta, R Sainz

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare tumour that originates from the abdominal peritoneum with a predisposition to the pelvic peritoneum. It typically affects women of reproductive age. There have been less than 200 cases of this rare neoplasia reported to date. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was referred to our centre because of the detection of a peritoneal carcinomatosis during a gynaecological exam. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. The findings included multiple cysts appearing as ‘a bunch of grapes’ occupying the omentum. Biopsies were taken during the surgery and the results showed benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Benign multicystic mesothelioma can simulate other conditions, such as malignant ovarian tumours or cystic lymphangioma. It is often diagnosed accidentally during surgery performed for another reason. The diagnosis is interoperative, observing multicystic structures grouped as a ‘bunch of grapes’ containing clear fluid with thin walls made of connective tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed mesothelial origin. Surgery is considered the treatment of choice and is based on the removal of the cysts from the abdominal cavity. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be considered as a primary treatment in patients with recurrences or even as a part of primary treatment associated with surgery. Survival at 5 years is 100% and invasive or malignant progression is extraordinary. The treatment approach should be multidisciplinary, and the patient should be referred to a referral centre. PMID:26715942

  19. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  20. Choledochoduodenostomy for benign and malignant biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, S; Serour, F; Levi, S; Abulafia, A; Balassiano, M; Krispin, M

    1988-04-01

    Although nonsurgical alternative treatments for primary or retained common bile duct stones--such as dissolution of gallstones with deoxycholic acids and, especially endoscopic papillotomy--have become available, choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) has been used with increasing frequency over the past decade, with extension of the indications for its use. We report our experience with side-to-side CDS in 116 patients with benign (65 patients) and malignant (46 patients) biliary diseases. Even though the mean age of our patients with benign disease--patients who underwent urgent operations because of obstructive jaundice (74%), liver damage (approximately 60%), and other biliary complications--was 66.8 years, the perioperative mortality was 3.07% and the long-term follow-up results were excellent with no biliary complications. In regard to the controversy about the use of CDS in malignant biliary obstructions, our experience shows that none of the 42 patients had any complication due to malignant invasion of the stoma, and only one patient had ascending cholangitis; the perioperative mortality in this group was 8.6%. In our opinion, CDS is a relatively safe, definitive procedure for treatment of benign and malignant biliary diseases, with good long-term results in high-risk, aged patients. PMID:3353854

  1. Fluorescence spectra of benign and malignant prostate tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, M. S.; Masilamani, V.; Atif, M.; Farhat, K.; Rabah, D.; Turki, M. R. Al

    2012-09-01

    In this study, fluorescence emission spectrum (FES), Stokes' shift spectrum (SSS), and reflectance spectrum (RS) of benign (N = 12) and malignant prostate tissues (N = 8) were investigated to discriminate the two types of tissues. The FES was done with the excitation at 325 nm only; SSS with Δλ = 70 and Δλ = 0, the latter being equivalent to reflectance spectra. Of the three modes of spectra, SSS with Δλ = 70 nm showed the best discrimination. There were four important bands, one at 280 nm (due to tryptophan); 320 nm (due to elastin & tryptophan); 355 and 385 (due to NADH) and 440 nm (due to flavin). From the relative intensities of these bands, three ratios were evaluated. Similarly another two ratios were obtained from reflectance spectra and one more from FES. Thus, there are 6 ratio parameters which represent the relative concentration of tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and flavin. A statistical analysis showed that benign and malignant tissues could be classified with accuracy greater than 90%. This report is only for in vitro analysis; but employing optical fiber, this can be extended to in vivo analysis too, so that benign tumor could be distinguished without surgery.

  2. Benign fasciculations and corticosteroid use: possible association? An update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Araújo Leite, Marco Antonio; Júnior, Salem Peter; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; Sholer, Marzia Puccioni; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Cardoso; de Menezes, Sara Lúcia Silveira; da Silva Catharino, Antonio Marcos; Bino, Fabrício

    2011-01-01

    Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose) indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation's, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation's are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS).We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation's, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation's are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation's, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously. PMID:22053258

  3. Proton Stereotactic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Benign Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Halasz, Lia M.; Bussiere, Marc R.; Dennis, Elizabeth R.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Chapman, Paul H.; Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Given the excellent prognosis for patients with benign meningiomas, treatment strategies to minimize late effects are important. One strategy is proton radiation therapy (RT), which allows less integral dose to normal tissue and greater homogeneity than photon RT. Here, we report the first series of proton stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) used for the treatment of meningiomas. Methods and Materials: We identified 50 patients with 51 histologically proven or image- defined, presumed-benign meningiomas treated at our institution between 1996 and 2007. Tumors of <4 cm in diameter and located {>=}2 mm from the optic apparatus were eligible for treatment. Indications included primary treatment (n = 32), residual tumor following surgery (n = 8), and recurrent tumor following surgery (n = 10). The median dose delivered was 13 Gray radiobiologic equivalent (Gy[RBE]) (range, 10.0-15.5 Gy[RBE]) prescribed to the 90% isodose line. Results: Median follow-up was 32 months (range, 6-133 months). Magnetic resonance imaging at the most recent follow-up or time of progression revealed 33 meningiomas with stable sizes, 13 meningiomas with decreased size, and 5 meningiomas with increased size. The 3-year actuarial tumor control rate was 94% (95% confidence interval, 77%-98%). Symptoms were improved in 47% (16/ 34) of patients, unchanged in 44% (15/34) of patients, and worse in 9% (3/34) of patients. The rate of potential permanent adverse effects after SRS was 5.9% (3/51 patients). Conclusions: Proton SRS is an effective therapy for small benign meningiomas, with a potentially lower rate of long-term treatment-related morbidity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess durability of tumor control and late effects.

  4. Role of metallic stents in benign esophageal stricture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Chan Sup

    2012-10-01

    Simple esophageal strictures, which are focal, straight, and large in diameter, usually require 1 - 3 dilation sessions to relieve symptoms. However, complex strictures, which are long, tortuous, or associated with a severely compromised luminal diameter, are usually more difficult to treat with conventional bougie or balloon dilation techniques, and often have high recurrence rates. Although the permanent placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been used to manage refractory benign esophageal strictures, this procedure is associated with additional problems, such as stricture from tissue hyperplasia, stent migration, and fistula formation. Thus, several new types of stents have been developed, including temporary SEMS, self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS), and biodegradable stents. The use of these new products has produced varied results. Temporary SEMS that have been used to relieve benign esophageal conditions have caused granulation tissue at both ends of the stent because of contact between the mucosa and the exposed metal components of the stent, thus hindering stent removal. We examined the tissue response to two new types of SEMS, a flange-type and a straighttype, each coated with a silicone membrane on the outside of the metal mesh. These two SEMS were evaluated individually and compared with a conventional control stent in animal experiments. Although the newly designed stents resulted in reduced tissue hyperplasia, and were thus more easily separated from the esophageal tissue, some degree of tissue hyperplasia did occur. We suggest that newly designed DES (drug-eluting stents) may provide an alternative tool to manage refractory benign esophageal stricture.

  5. Identification and Clinical Characterization of Children With Benign Ethnic Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Michael V; Meier, Emily R; Hsieh, Matthew M

    2016-04-01

    Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) is an asymptomatic condition reported in adults of African and Middle Eastern descent. The clinical description in children is currently lacking. In our urban outpatient pediatric hematology clinic, the median neutrophil count of children with BEN was lower than previous reports in adults at 893×10 cells/L, but increased with older age. There was an equal male to female ratio and 24% of our BEN children reported ethnicities other than African or Middle Eastern. Children with BEN had a clinical course comparable with other healthy children including otherwise normal blood counts, except for mild anemia. PMID:26925714

  6. [Benign pleural effusion in a carpenter exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rolf; Pedersen, Carsten Franck; Munch, Erik Peter

    2010-10-25

    A 55-year-old carpenter developed pleurisy with pleural effusion on the right side in 2000 and on the left side in 2003. No known causes of pleurisy were found. He had been occupationally exposed to asbestos during a 6-month-period in 1971 while working with roof sheets made of asbestos cement. In the literature there is evidence of asbestos being a cause of benign pleural effusion. We found it likely that the pleurisy with pleural effusion found in this patient was an occupational condition and it should therefore be notified as industrial injury. PMID:21040677

  7. Eutectic salt catalyzed environmentally benign and highly efficient Biginelli reaction.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  8. Eutectic Salt Catalyzed Environmentally Benign and Highly Efficient Biginelli Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  9. Hypervitaminosis A causing benign intracranial hypertension. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bhettay, E M; Bakst, C M

    1988-12-01

    Hypervitaminosis A is a well-recognized clinical entity, but the toxic manifestations develop so insidiously and involve so many systems that diagnosis can easily be missed or delayed. A patient with juvenile chronic arthritis developed benign intracranial hypertension and other manifestations of excessive vitamin A intake and made a complete recovery after it was withdrawn. Vitamin A is a non-prescription drug and any history of its ingestion must be obtained during evaluation of papilloedema. A plea is made for the public to be repeatedly reminded that no proposed remedy is safe or effective until it is demonstrated to be so. PMID:3194809

  10. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  11. Benign muscular dystrophy: risk calculation in families with consanguinity.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, G; Müller, C R; Grimm, T

    1989-01-01

    This report concerns two families in which the index patients are sporadic cases of a benign form of muscular dystrophy. In both families the sisters of the patients have married a close relative. The respective risks for a child of these consanguineous marriages being affected with either X linked Becker muscular dystrophy or autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy is calculated using pedigree information, results of serum creatine kinase determinations, and also, in one family, results of DNA typing using RFLPs from the short arm of the X chromosome. PMID:2732990

  12. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Linda M; Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-07-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090

  13. Benign duodenocolic fistula as a complication of peptic ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamani, Fereshteh; Abrishami, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old man with upper abdominal pain, diarrhea and 25 kg weight loss since 3 months ago was admitted. He had a history of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease 4 months before admission. Gastroduodenal endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal series with barium study were done. Biopsies and CT-scan ruled out malignancies. Endoscopy and radiology studies revealed a duodenocolic fistula. He underwent right hemicolectomy, fistula en bloc excision, and distal gastrectomy surgery with gastrojejunostomy and ileocolic anastomosis. Radiologic modalities are necessary before surgery. Surgery is the only curative treatment in benign cases and reconstruction method is dependent on patient's situation. PMID:25436101

  14. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  15. Endoscopic and Abdominal Management of Complete Benign Esophageal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Benign esophageal strictures leading to complete esophageal occlusion are well known. In the pre-endoscopic era, such cases required surgery, but over the last decade, various novel endoscopic techniques have been developed to prevent morbidity and mortality. A 37-year-old man presented after 1 year of dysphagia and weight loss, and was found to have complete esophageal obstruction, not allowing even passage of guidewire. We used a combination antegrade endoscopic abdominal procedures to deploy a stent, obviating the need for surgery. His symptoms improved dramatically, and the stent was successfully removed 12 weeks later. He is now swallowing normally and has gained significant weight. PMID:27144192

  16. Fertility following laparoscopic management of benign adnexal cysts.

    PubMed

    Canis, M; Bassil, S; Wattiez, A; Pouly, J L; Manhes, H; Mage, G; Bruhat, M A

    1992-04-01

    Fertility following laparoscopic treatment of benign adnexal cysts without ovarian suture was studied retrospectively. Patients with endometriomas or who were previously infertile were excluded. Thirty-eight patients treated conservatively were included, 10 after partial resection of functional cysts, 23 after an ovarian cystectomy and six after treatment of a paraovarian cyst. One patient had two cysts. The overall intrauterine pregnancy rate was 92%; one patient had an ectopic pregnancy (2.6%). From these results, we conclude that fertility following laparoscopic treatment of adnexal cysts appears to be normal. Technical guidelines to improve laparoscopic cystectomy are proposed. PMID:1387882

  17. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis.

  18. Environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michikazu

    2009-01-01

    Fuelling the future: The production of esters of higher fatty acids from plant materials is of great interest for the manufacture of biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalysts can provide new routes for the environmentally benign production of biodiesel. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction allowing the catalyst to be reused, generating less waste, and consuming less energy. Diesel engines are simple and powerful, and exhibit many advantages in energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, the production of higher fatty acid esters from plant materials has become of interest in recent years for the manufacture of biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel. The industrial production of biodiesel mostly proceeds in the presence of "soluble" catalysts such as alkali hydroxides and liquid acids. A considerable amount of energy is required for the purification of products and catalyst separation, and furthermore these catalysts are not reusable. This process results in substantial energy wastage and the production of large amounts of chemical waste. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction, allowing the catalyst to be reused and consuming less energy. This Minireview describes the environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts such as solid bases, acid catalysts, and immobilized enzymes. PMID:19180600

  19. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II; William Bogan

    2004-01-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

  20. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo

    2002-07-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Capsicum sp. extracts and pure compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against MIC causing bacteria. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays. Tests using laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds. Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo

    2002-11-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons. Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. desulfuricans was monitored and documented over a 7-day period. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth. Live/Dead BacLight was an efficient stain to determine cell viability. The extracts showed 9-25% biofilm formation inhibition against the two organisms, and 18-19% activity in detaching the already formed biofilm. Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones. Confirmatory tests are underway. A presentation was prepared and give at the US DOE NETL meeting on gas and petroleum infrastructure. The presentation is include as an addition to this report.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek

    2002-03-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied. The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study (first quarter), only preliminary results are available.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    2003-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.

  4. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Hyung Ji

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  5. Long-term results of choledochoduodenostomy in benign biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Rather, Shiraz A; Bari, Shams UL; Wani, Khursheed Alam

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term results of choledochodudenostomy in patients with benign billiary obstruction. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Srinagar Kashmir, India over a period of 10 years from January 1997 to December 2007. The total number of patients who underwent choledochoduodenostomy during this period was 270. On the basis of etiology of biliary tract obstruction, patients were divided into a calculus group, an oriental cholangiohepatitis group, a benign biliary stricture group and others. Patients were followed for a variable period of 13 mo to 15 years. RESULTS: Choledochoduodenostomy (CDD) with duo-denotomy was performend in four patients. CDD with removal of T- tube, CDD with left hepatic lobectomy and CDD with removal of intra biliary ruptured hydatid was performed in three patients each. In the remaining patients only CDD was performed. Immediate post operative complications were seen in 63 (23%) patients, while long-term complications were seen in 28 (11%) patients, which were statistically significant. Three patients died during hospitalization while four patients died in the late post-operative period. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that CDD is safe and produces good long term results when a permanent biliary drainage procedure is required. PMID:22408717

  6. Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma (HMH) - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaileshkumar Radheshyam; Misra, Vatsala; Verma, Kachnar; Gupta, Pooja; Dhingra, Vishal

    2014-03-01

    A one-year-old male child presented with progressive enlargement of abdomen and loss of appetite which he had suffered from, since 4 months. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in right hypochondrium. Ultrasonography and MRI showed a solid mass arising from right lobe of liver. The resected mass was well encapsulated, yellowish white in colour and it measured 20 x 18 x 17cm. Cut surface showed a Nutmeg like appearance. Histology showed a well-defined, fibrous capsule with numerous ducts which were lined by flat to low cuboidal epithelium and which were surrounded by concentric layers of fibrous tissue which showed myxoid changes at places. Intervening area showed normal appearing hepatocytes with clear cell changes, dilated congested sinusoids, along with extramedullary haematopoiesis. Based on distinctive morphological features, a histological diagnosis of Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma of liver was made. IHC was not done, as no specific marker has been described for making a differential diagnosis. Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamrtoma (HMH) of liver is an extremely rare tumour of childhood and therefore, the case was considered worth documentation. PMID:24783100

  7. Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery for benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Thijs; Klompmaker, Sjors; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Kendrick, Michael L; Busch, Olivier R; Besselink, Marc G

    2016-04-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for benign and malignant pancreatic lesions has slowly been gaining acceptance over the past decade and is being introduced in many centres. Some studies suggest that this approach is equivalent to or better than open surgery, but randomized data are needed to assess outcomes. In this Review, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in laparoscopic pancreatic surgery by aggregating high-quality published evidence. Various aspects, including the benefits, limitations, oncological efficacy, learning curve and latest innovations, are discussed. The focus is on laparoscopic Whipple procedure and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for both benign and malignant disease, but robot-assisted surgery is also addressed. Surgical and oncological outcomes are discussed as well as quality of life parameters and the cost efficiency of laparoscopic pancreatic surgery. We have also included decision-aid algorithms based on the literature and our own expertise; these algorithms can assist in the decision to perform a laparoscopic or open procedure. PMID:26882881

  8. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma in triple location: lungs, parametria and appendix

    PubMed Central

    Raś, Renata; Książek, Mariusz; Skręt-Magierło, Joanna; Kąziołka, Wojciech; Fudali, Ludmiła; Filipowska, Justyna; Skręt, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) usually are situated in one organ, most often in lungs. BML patients typically have a history of uterine leiomyoma treated with hysterectomy, myomectomy or subtotal hysterectomy. The aim of the study was to present the case of a 53-year-old woman with triple location in the lungs, parametria and appendix. She had undergone a myomectomy 26 years earlier. In 2015, she was admitted to the surgical department because of abdominal pain, whereupon a cholecystectomy was performed. CT scans showed pelvic mass with pulmonary metastasis. Upon discharge the patient was referred to the Gynecology Clinic, where a laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative findings were: 1) uterus with multiple leiomyomas, 2) four tumors in the parametria, 3) tumor connected to the appendix. A subtotal hysterectomy, with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, removal of the tumors from the parametria and appendectomy was performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemical staining (strongly positive for estrogen receptors and SMA, while Ki67 was very low, below 1%). Upon postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to the Thoracic Surgery Department. During the thoracotomy, multiple nodes, surrounded by lung parenchyma, were revealed. Wedge resection was performed, for localized pulmonary lesions, and sent for pathological examination. The final pathological diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis. In conclusion, the triple location of BML could possibly be a result of a parallel different metastasizing mechanism, although it is impossible to exclude one mechanism, which may be the cause of the metastases in three locations. PMID:27582687

  9. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  10. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma in triple location: lungs, parametria and appendix.

    PubMed

    Raś, Renata; Książek, Mariusz; Barnaś, Edyta; Skręt-Magierło, Joanna; Kąziołka, Wojciech; Fudali, Ludmiła; Filipowska, Justyna; Skręt, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) usually are situated in one organ, most often in lungs. BML patients typically have a history of uterine leiomyoma treated with hysterectomy, myomectomy or subtotal hysterectomy. The aim of the study was to present the case of a 53-year-old woman with triple location in the lungs, parametria and appendix. She had undergone a myomectomy 26 years earlier. In 2015, she was admitted to the surgical department because of abdominal pain, whereupon a cholecystectomy was performed. CT scans showed pelvic mass with pulmonary metastasis. Upon discharge the patient was referred to the Gynecology Clinic, where a laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative findings were: 1) uterus with multiple leiomyomas, 2) four tumors in the parametria, 3) tumor connected to the appendix. A subtotal hysterectomy, with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, removal of the tumors from the parametria and appendectomy was performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemical staining (strongly positive for estrogen receptors and SMA, while Ki67 was very low, below 1%). Upon postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to the Thoracic Surgery Department. During the thoracotomy, multiple nodes, surrounded by lung parenchyma, were revealed. Wedge resection was performed, for localized pulmonary lesions, and sent for pathological examination. The final pathological diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis. In conclusion, the triple location of BML could possibly be a result of a parallel different metastasizing mechanism, although it is impossible to exclude one mechanism, which may be the cause of the metastases in three locations. PMID:27582687

  11. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Liu, Rui-Ming; Li, Tian

    2014-06-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare condition that occurs in all age groups and that is particularly prevalent among women of late childbearing age. All patients have a history of uterine leiomyoma and/or myomectomy, often associated with distant metastases from the uterus, which commonly occurs in the lung. We report the case of a 32-year-old young woman suffering from chest stuffiness, labored respiration and weakness after a myomectomy performed one month earlier. The chest CT showed a diffuse miliary shadow in both sides of her lungs, but serum tumor markers such as CA125, CA199, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and CYFRA21-1 were normal. The patient underwent a lung biopsy by thoracoscopic surgery after four weeks of anti-TB treatment; there were no significant changes in the chest CT. H&E staining showed that the tumor cells had characteristics of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining showed a low tumor cell proliferation index, which indicated that the likelihood of a malignancy was not high. There was no expression of CD10, indicating a diagnosis of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin as specific markers of smooth muscle and the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were all strongly positive, which is characteristic of PBML. The patient was given the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for 3 months. With no radiological evidence of disease development and further distant metastasis, the patient will continue to be followed. PMID:24977035

  12. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  13. [Benign prostate hyperplasia: success and limitations of pharmacological therapy].

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, S; Marszalek, M

    2007-10-01

    A profound knowledge of pathogenesis and natural history enables a differentiated therapy for elderly men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The role of phytotherapy is still controversially discussed and, therefore, not clearly recommended by any BPH-guideline. alpha(1)-blockers are the therapy of choice for symptomatic patients at a low risk of disease progression (prostate volume <30-40 ml). 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) reduce the prostate volume by 20-25% and the risk for acute urinary retention/surgery by more than 50% compared to placebo. Combination therapy (alpha(1)-blocker plus 5ARI) is superior to either monotherapy, though this advantage is only demonstrable after a prolonged treatment period (>12 months). PMID:17426942

  14. Risk stratification for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment.

    PubMed

    Emberton, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John M; Rees, Jon

    2011-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. In the past, the aim of drug treatment was to relieve symptoms until surgery became necessary, predominantly using an α-blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) as monotherapy. • Together with improving knowledge about the pathogenesis of BPH, there is now strong evidence from large randomized trials that risk stratification and appropriate treatment with combined α-blocker/5ARI therapy can significantly reduce the risk of disease progression and avoid long-term complications such as acute urinary retention and surgery. • BPH will increasingly be managed in primary care in the future and, if new management strategies based on this evidence are to be implemented cost effectively, there is a need to introduce shared care between the primary and secondary care sectors to optimise use of resources and expertise. PMID:21265993

  15. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  16. Alpha Blockers for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of alpha blocker therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has focused on improving convenience and tolerability. Indications for treating BPH include reversing signs and symptoms or preventing progression of the disease. The indication that most commonly drives the need for intervention is relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with the intent of improving quality of life. Alpha blockers are the most effective, least costly, and best tolerated of the drugs for relieving LUTS. Four long-acting alpha 1 blockers are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of symptomatic LUTS/BPH: terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin. All are well tolerated and have comparable dose-dependent effectiveness. Tamsulosin and alfuzosin SR do not require dose titration. Alfuzosin, terazosin, and doxazosin have all been shown to be effective in relieving LUTS/BPH independent of prostate size. PMID:18231614

  17. Benign enlargement of sub-arachnoid spaces in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Linu Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Benign enlargement of sub-arachnoid spaces (BESS) is one of the causes of macrocephaly in infants. It is a self-limiting condition and does not require any active medical or surgical treatment. We report a case of an infant aged 4 months who was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain as the head circumference of the infant had increased rapidly from the 50th percentile in the 3rd month to more than the 95th percentile in the 4th month of age. MRI revealed enlarged anterior sub-arachnoid spaces and mild prominence of all the ventricles. A possibility of BESS was suspected since the child was neurodevelopmentally normal. A follow-up MRI done at the age of 18 months showed a reduction in the size of the sub-arachnoid spaces with normal sized ventricles. PMID:25250066

  18. Economic issues and the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1995-09-01

    Enormous financial resources are expended worldwide on the treatment of the urologic complications and symptoms induced by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Even for its surgical management, where the best data exist, current international accounting of these expenditures remains very poorly documented. On February 8, 1994, the Department of Health and Human Services of the US government released clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of BPH. Imaging of the upper urinary tract as a routine diagnostic procedure is not recommended in these guidelines unless a comorbidity indicating its need exists. Diagnostic cystoscopy to assist in the decision of the need to treat is not recommended. Adherence to these two principles along with adherence to the strategies of management presented in the guidelines and discussed herein has the potential of achieving profound financial savings without impairing quality of care worldwide. PMID:7544513

  19. Dermoscopy of benign and malignant neoplasms in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Haliasos, Helen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Malvehy, Josep; Lanschuetzer, Christoph; Hinter, Helmut; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Braun, Ralph; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2010-12-01

    Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique that enables visualization of subsurface colors and structures within the skin that are imperceptible to the naked eye. The dermatoscope allows the physician to examine both the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. Dermoscopic findings have been formulated into diagnostic criteria that assist experienced clinicians in differentiating benign and malignant neoplasms. In this review, clinical morphology of melanocytic nevi and melanoma in the pediatric population is examined and the relevant dermoscopic findings and histopathologic correlates that aid in the diagnosis and management of these lesions are described. PMID:21277535

  20. Hot water epilepsy: a benign and unrecognized form.

    PubMed

    Ioos, C; Fohlen, M; Villeneuve, N; Badinand-Hubert, N; Jalin, C; Cheliout-Heraut, F; Pinard, J M

    2000-02-01

    Hot water epilepsy is a reflex epilepsy. Seizures are provoked by hot water, and result from the association of both cutaneous and heat stimuli. Described mainly in India and Japan, the condition seems to be rare in Europe, where it occurs in young children. We report five infants aged from 6 months to 2 years. They had brief seizures during bathing with activity arrest, hypotonia, and vasoactive modification; clonic movements were observed. A simple treatment-decreasing the bath temperature-can be sufficient. Sometimes an antiepileptic drug is required. Seizure course and psychomotor development are favorable. Hot water epilepsy is a benign form of epilepsy. Its incidence could be underestimated because of confusion with febrile convulsions, vagal fits, or aquagenic urticaria. PMID:10695897

  1. Lymphoid proliferations in the orbit: malignant or benign?

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, R; Koornneef, L; van Heerde, P; Vroom, T M; Pegels, J H; Feltkamp, C A; Peeters, H J; Gillissen, J P; Bleeker, G M; Feltkamp, T E

    1984-01-01

    Clinical, pathological, and immunological analysis of 20 patients with ocular adnexal lymphoid disease has demonstrated several parameters which are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. Patients in the fourth or fifth decade of life presenting with an acute history of pain, oedema, epiphora, double vision, and ptosis, with a mass localised in the lacrimal gland area, are more likely to have a pseudolymphoma or a chronic inflammatory lesion than a true non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It is not possible to obtain a definite diagnosis without surgical intervention, because only three out of nine patients with orbital NHL had evidence of a monoclonal B cell population in peripheral blood on admission to the Orbital Centre. Furthermore it was confirmed that the identification of the various orbital lymphoid infiltrates becomes more distinct when immunological techniques are added to the clinical and histopathological methods of investigation. Multidisciplinary cooperation leads to further improvement of diagnosis and treatment of ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disease. Images PMID:6391535

  2. Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowersky, O.; Hayden, M.R.; Martin, W.R.; Stoessl, A.J.; Hildebrand, A.M.; Pate, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC.

  3. Benign anlage tumour: a very unusual neck mass.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Shivani; Gohil, Rohit; Oparka, Richie; Kennedy, Ceilidh

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented with a slow-growing asymptomatic neck swelling at the left medial clavicle. Haematological and biochemical work up was normal and an ultrasound confirmed the swelling, but needle aspiration was non-diagnostic. As lymphoma was the main differential diagnosis, the swelling was completely excised. Immunohistochemistry yielded a rare lesion, suspected to represent a myoepithelial/mixed cellularity tumour of soft tissue. The extreme rarity of these tumours required a confirmatory secondary opinion, which ultimately led to it being identified as a benign anlage tumour (previously known as an ectopic hamartomatous thymoma) This case highlights the fact that thorough assessment of patients with neck swellings should be undertaken to rule out sinister causes-keeping in mind more rare differentials-helping to guide final management. PMID:27194678

  4. Lacunar infarcts: no black holes in the brain are benign.

    PubMed

    Norrving, Bo

    2008-08-01

    Lacunar infarcts--small subcortical infarcts that result from occlusion of a single penetrating artery--account for about one quarter of all ischaemic strokes. However, there are many diagnostic pitfalls, and causes other than penetrating small vessel disease in up to one third of cases. Recent studies have shown that the prognosis after lacunar infarcts is not benign; the risk of recurrent stroke is no lower than for other ischaemic stroke subtypes, and there is an increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia and death in the long term. Furthermore, silent small vessel disease in the brain at the time of an index stroke has significant prognostic implications. In the acute phase, response to intravenous thrombolysis appears to be similar to other subtypes of ischaemic strokes. Antiplatelet drugs, careful blood pressure control, statins and modification of lifestyle risk factors are key elements in secondary prevention after lacunar infarcts. PMID:18644908

  5. Uncommon benign tumour of the skin: infraorbital pilomatricoma.

    PubMed

    Erol, Behcet; Kucukkurt, Sercan; Bicer Aytugar, Tugce; Aksakallı, Nihan

    2016-01-01

    Pilomatricoma is a relatively rare tumour of the skin derived from primitive basal cells of epidermis that differentiate into hair matrix cells. It comprises approximately 1% of all benign skin tumours. The most common sites for pilomatricomas are the head, neck and upper extremities. A 44-year-old woman, admitted to our department, underwent an orthopantomography examination, which revealed a well-circumscribed 1.6×1.4 mm radiopaque mass superimposed between the medial wall of the right maxillary sinus and lateral wall of the nasal cavity. Clinically, it was firm and mobile, and remained attached to the underlying skin when palpated. A cone beam CT scan was performed to ascertain its location and anatomic relations. Subsequently, it was totally excised under local anaesthesia. Histopathological evaluation of the lesion reported it to be a pilomatricoma. PMID:26740272

  6. Trends in Simple Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Joseph J; Packiam, Vignesh T; Adamsky, Melanie A; Bales, Gregory T

    2016-08-01

    The definitive treatment for symptomatic large volume (>80 mL) benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is simple prostatectomy (SP). This can be performed by utilizing a retropubic, suprapubic, or a combined approach. The latter two approaches allow for the management of concomitant bladder diverticulum or stones through the same incision. Each approach affords unique technical strengths and weaknesses that must be considered in light of patient characteristics and concomitant pathology. SP allows for removal of the entire prostatic adenoma while obviating some of the neurovascular and continence issues that can arise from radical prostatectomy. Concerns with SP include its relatively high perioperative morbidity, notably bleeding. Therefore, there is increasing interest in less invasive options, including enucleation procedures and minimally invasive SP. This review presents an update regarding trends and outcomes of SP, as well as the effectiveness and popularity of alternative treatments. PMID:27294802

  7. Agriculture and the Recent "Benign Climate" in Minnesota.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Donald G.; Ruschy, David L.; Skaggs, Richard H.

    1993-06-01

    A little noticed but remarkably consistent and agriculturally favorable climatic period existed for approximately 18 years, beginning in the mid-1950s in the U.S. Corn Belt and perhaps even earlier in Minnesota. The full application of technology to agriculture was delayed due to world political events (World War II and the Korean conflict, for example) until the 1950s. From then until about 1974, the interaction between this favorable climatic period and the applied technology and the enthusiasm they engendered in agricultural circles were subtle and unrealized factors that helped lead to the agricultural inflation of the 1970s, while the unexpected and generally unrecognized cessation of the "benign" climate must be considered as a factor leading to the agricultural depression in the 1980s.

  8. Synthesis of a Potent Vinblastine: Rationally Designed Added Benign Complexity.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Oliver; Brutsch, Manuela; Lukesh, John C; Brody, Daniel M; Boger, Dale L

    2016-07-13

    Many natural products, including vinblastine, have not been easily subjected to simplifications in their structures by synthetic means or modifications by late-stage semisynthetic derivatization in ways that enhance their biological potency. Herein, we detail a synthetic vinblastine that incorporates added benign complexity (ABC), which improves activity 10-fold, and is now accessible as a result of advances in the total synthesis of the natural product. The compound incorporates designed added molecular complexity but no new functional groups and maintains all existing structural and conformational features of the natural product. It constitutes a member of an analogue class presently inaccessible by semisynthetic derivatization of the natural product, by its late-stage functionalization, or by biosynthetic means. Rather, it was accessed by synthetic means, using an appropriately modified powerful penultimate single-step vindoline-catharanthine coupling strategy that proceeds with a higher diastereoselectivity than found for the natural product itself. PMID:27356080

  9. ENVIROMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic

    2003-10-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation. We initiated the delivery system for these new biocides in the test cell and in mixtures of foam components and biocides/anti-biofilms. A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, Chile de Arbol) were subjected to growth inhibition tests against two SRB strains, D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans. Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. desulfuricans only. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results. The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition. The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis on a number of fractions is underway

  10. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic; Teri Storino

    2003-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of new methods of Capsicum sp. (pepper) extraction by soxhlet method and analysis of a new set of extracts by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples; and evaluation of antimicrobial activities of the old set of pepper extracts in comparison with major components of known biocides and corrosion inhibitors. Twelve new extracts from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, and Chile de Arbol) were obtained by soxhlet extraction using 4 different solvents. Results of TLC done on these extracts showed the presence of capsaicin and some phenolic compounds, while that of HPLC detected capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin peaks. More tests will be done to determine specific components. Additional isolates from the group of heterotrophic, acid-producing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria were obtained from the pipeline samples submitted by gas companies. Isolates of interest will be used in subsequent antimicrobial testing and test-loop simulation system experiments. Results of antimicrobial screening of Capsicum sp. extracts and components of known commercial biocides showed comparable activities when tested against two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  11. Robotic Trachelectomy After Supracervical Hysterectomy for Benign Gynecologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Joelle; Hanna, Rabbie; Papalekas, Eleni; Schiff, Lauren; Theoharis, Evan; Eisenstein, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A renewed interest in the supra cervical approach to hysterectomy has created a cohort of patients with a retained cervix at risk of persistent symptoms requiring a subsequent trachelectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of robotic trachelectomy after a previous supracervical hysterectomy. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of women who had robotic trachelectomy after supracervical hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease from January 2009 through October 2014. Results: Eleven patients underwent robotic trachelectomy for benign conditions during the observed period. Prior supracervical hysterectomy had been performed for pelvic pain (8/11, 73%), abnormal uterine bleeding (7/11, 64%), and dysmenorrhea (5/11, 45%). In 10 of 11 patients, the symptoms leading to robotic trachelectomy were the same as those leading to supracervical hysterectomy. The time from hysterectomy to recurrence of symptoms ranged from 0.5 to 26 months (median, 6), whereas the time interval from previous surgery to robotic trachelectomy ranged from 1 to 57 months (median, 26). Mean age and body mass index at robotic trachelectomy were 42 ± 5.4 years and 32 ± 6.1 kg/m2. Mean length of surgery was 218 ± 88 minutes (range, 100–405). There was 1 major postoperative complication involving bladder perforation and subsequent vesicovaginal fistula (VVF). Endometriosis was seen in 27% of pathologic specimens and cervicitis in another 27%; 45% showed normal tissue histology. In 6 (55%) cases, symptoms leading to trachelectomy resolved completely after surgery, and the other 5 (45%) patients reported a significant improvement. Conclusions: Although trachelectomy can be a challenging surgery, our experience suggests that the robotic approach may be a valuable means of achieving safe and reproducible outcomes. PMID:27493470

  12. Perioperative Outcomes of Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Benign Disease

    PubMed Central

    As-Sanie, Sawsan; Smorgick, Noam; Song, Arleen H.; Advincula, Arnold P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: We compared the perioperative outcomes of hysterectomy performed by robotic (RH) versus laparoscopic (LH) routes for benign indications using the Dindo-Clavien scale for classification of the surgical complications. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent robotic (n=288) and laparoscopic (n=257) hysterectomies by minimally invasive surgeons at the University of Michigan from March 2001 until June 2010. Results: Age, body mass index, operative time, and estimated blood loss were not statistically different between groups. The RH subgroup had a larger uterine weight (LH 186.4±130.6 g vs RH 234.9±193.9 g, P=.001), higher prevalence of severe adhesions (13.2% vs 23.3%, respectively, P=.003), and stage III–IV endometriosis (4.7% vs 15.3%, respectively, P<.05). There were no differences in the rates of Dindo-Clavien grade I, grade II, and grade III surgical complications between the RH and LH groups (9.7%, 13.2%, and 3.1%, respectively, in the RH group vs 6.2%, 9.3%, and 5.8%, respectively, in the LH group, P>.05). However, the rates of urinary tract infection were higher in the RH group (LH 2.7% vs RH 6.9%, P=.02), whereas the conversion to laparotomy rate was higher in the LH group (LH 6.2% vs RH 1.7%, P=.007). Conclusions: Perioperative outcomes for laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomy for benign indications appear to be equivalent. PMID:23743379

  13. Differentiation Potential of Urothelium from Patients with Benign Bladder Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Jennifer; Varley, Claire L; Garthwaite, Mary AE; Hinley, Jennifer; Marsh, Fiona; Stahlschmidt, Jens; Trejdosiewicz, Ludwik K; Eardley, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Objective Benign dysfunctional bladder diseases encompass a number of poorly understood clinically-defined conditions, including interstitial cystitis (IC), idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We developed a novel in vitro approach to test the hypothesis that failure of urothelial differentiation underlies the aetiopathology of IC, where there is evidence of compromised urinary barrier function. Materials and Methods Biopsy-derived urothelial cells from dysfunctional bladder biopsies were propagated as finite cell lines and examined for their capacity to undergo differentiation in vitro, as assessed by acquisition of a transitional cell morphology, a switch from a CK13lo/CK14hi to a CK13hi/CK14lo phenotype, expression of claudin 3, 4 and 5 proteins and induction of uroplakin gene transcription. Results 2/12 SUI cell lines showed early senescent changes in culture and were not characterised further; 1/7 IC, 1/5 IDO and a further 3 SUI cell lines displayed some evidence of senescence at passage 3. Of the IC-derived cell lines, 4/7 showed a near normal range of differentiation-associated responses, but the remainder of IC lines showed little or no response. A majority of IDO cell lines (4/5) showed a normal differentiation response, but at least 3/10 SUI cell lines showed some compromise of differentiation potential. Conclusion Our study supports the existence of a subset of IC patient in whom a failure of urothelial cytodifferentiation may contribute to the disease and provides a novel platform for investigating the cell biology of urothelium from SUI and other benign dysfunctional conditions. PMID:17537219

  14. ADCY5 mutations are another cause of benign hereditary chorea

    PubMed Central

    Mencacci, Niccolo E.; Wiethoff, Sarah; Hersheson, Joshua; Ryten, Mina; Balint, Bettina; Ganos, Christos; Stamelou, Maria; Quinn, Niall; Houlden, Henry; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the contribution of ADCY5 mutations in cases with genetically undefined benign hereditary chorea (BHC). Methods: We studied 18 unrelated cases with BHC (7 familial, 11 sporadic) who were negative for NKX2-1 mutations. The diagnosis of BHC was based on the presence of a childhood-onset movement disorder, predominantly characterized by chorea and no other major neurologic features. ADCY5 analysis was performed by whole-exome sequencing or Sanger sequencing. ADCY5 and NKX2-1 expression during brain development and in the adult human brain was assessed using microarray analysis of postmortem brain tissue. Results: The c.1252C>T; p.R418W mutation was identified in 2 cases (1 familial, 1 sporadic). The familial case inherited the mutation from the affected father, who had a much milder presentation, likely due to low-grade somatic mosaicism. The mutation was de novo in the sporadic case. The clinical presentation of these cases featured nonparoxysmal generalized chorea, as well as dystonia in the most severely affected, but no facial myokymia. We observed significant progression of symptoms in ADCY5 mutation carriers, in contrast to BHC secondary to NKX2-1 mutations. The difference in the clinical course is mirrored by the brain expression data, showing increasing ADCY5 expression in the striatum during brain development, whereas NKX2-1 shows an opposite trend. Conclusions: Our study identifies mutations in ADCY5, the gene previously linked to familial dyskinesia with facial myokymia, as a cause of familial and sporadic BHC. ADCY5 genetic analysis should be performed in cases with a benign choreiform movement disorder even in the absence of facial myokymia. PMID:26085604

  15. Masquerading optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Katherine; Vakros, Georgios; Girgis, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the ophthalmology emergency department with a 10-day history of blurred vision. The best-corrected visual acuities and Ishihara colour vision were bilaterally reduced with a left relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination was otherwise normal. Retrobulbar optic neuritis (ON) was presumed as she had suffered with this previously and was known to have multiple sclerosis (MS). She was recalled the following week for visual field (VF) testing, which was not available at the time of presentation. VFs demonstrated an incongruous left homonymous hemianopia. She was immediately referred to the medical team to investigate for a stroke, which was subsequently excluded. Thereafter, a trial of pulsed methylprednisolone was commenced, resulting in near complete resolution of the hemianopia. This case demonstrates not only the importance of VF testing, but also how ON may present with any field defect, including mimicking a stroke, a point valuable to ophthalmologists and medics alike. PMID:26240099

  16. Malicious masquerade: myxoid melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, M G; White, W L

    1998-08-01

    The morphological spectrum of malignant melanoma is broad. Unusual stromal changes can distract pathologists from the correct diagnosis. Fibroblastic, chondroid, osteoid, and myxoid stroma have been documented in melanomas. Myxoid melanoma is problematic--introducing carcinomas and soft tissue sarcomas into the differential diagnosis. This review examines the clinicopathologic aspects of myxoid malignant melanoma, with emphasis on its differential diagnosis. PMID:9711669

  17. Masquerading as a Merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGN), an intermediary product of galaxy mergers, can give us a better understanding of what happens when two galaxies collide. But because the angular separation of the two galactic nuclei is so small at this stage, identifying these systems is very difficult. In a recent study, a team of authors proposes a new technique for confirming dual AGN candidates.Signatures in SpectraTotal-intensity VLA image for J1023+3243. This system is confirmed as a dual AGN; the two compact radio cores are separately identifiable here. [Mller-Snchez et al. 2015]One approach commonly used to identify dual AGN candidates is to look for signatures in the spectra of these galaxies. Light is emitted by ionized gas in the narrow-line region (NLR), the region that extends from a few hundreds of parsecs to ~30kpc from the nuclei. The spatially-averaged spectrum of this region for dual AGN, however, appears double-peaked due to the motion of the two nuclei rotating around each other.But theres a problem with using this technique to identify dual AGN: other processes also produce double-peaked narrow-line emission, mimicking the behavior of dual AGN. These processes include the rotation of ionized gas in the galactic disk, and the motion of radio jets emitted from the AGN.A team of scientists led by Francisco Mller-Snchez (University of Colorado Boulder) have proposed that the use of a combination of high-resolution radio observations and spatially-resolved spectroscopy could be used to discern between these possible cases.Dual AGN or Moving Gas?To test this method, the group examined a sample of 18 active galactic nuclei from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These AGN had previously been identified as candidate dual AGN with double-peaked narrow emission lines. The team obtained both optical long-slit spectroscopy and high-resolution Very Large Array observations of these AGN. They then combined this information to identify the cause of the double-peaked lines in each case.Total-intensity VLA image for J00090036. This system contains a two-sided radio jet, causing the extended radio emission seen here. [Mller-Snchez et al. 2015]Mller-Snchez and collaborators found the following:Roughly 15% are confirmed to be dual AGN. In these cases, distinctly separated radio cores are visible in the Very Large Array data, but their spectra are similar to those of single AGN.Roughly 75% have double-peaked lines due to gas kinematics, instead. These kinematics include jets, rotating NLR regions, and wind-driven outflows. The jets are identifiable by their extended radio emission and steeper spectra, whereas the rotating NLR regions and wind-driven outflows are identifiable by their lack of additional radio cores or extended emission, and the morphology of their spectra.Only two cases of the 18 were ambiguous and couldnt be identified. The authors conclude that their method of confirming dual AGN is therefore a powerful means of identifying dual AGN that have very small angular separations.CitationF. Mller-Snchez et al 2015 ApJ 813 103. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/813/2/103

  18. Social Perception in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: The Interpretation of Benign and Hostile Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffert, J. S.; Siperstein, G. N.; Widaman, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A key aspect of social perception is the interpretation of others' intentions. Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have difficulty interpreting benign intentions when a negative event occurs. From a cognitive processing perspective, interpreting benign intentions can be challenging because it requires integration of…

  19. 77 FR 42504 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign Versus Malignant Thyroid Lesions AGENCY: National Institutes of Health.../024,845 and foreign equivalents thereof entitled ``Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

  20. [Urination disorders in the man: differential diagnoses and therapy of benign prostate syndrome].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms in men are highly associated with benign prostate syndrome. Nevertheless, a correct diagnosis is required to exclude other pathologies. In addition to neurogenic causes other urological differential diagnoses can be clarified and treated. If diagnosis of benign prostatic syndrome is confirmed, various medical and surgical treatment options are available. PMID:24088234

  1. Paneth cell-like change in benign prostate can account for P504S (AMACR) reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Iczkowski, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine metaplasia of benign and cancerous prostate was described in 1992. Here, we note that P504S (AMACR), the cytoplasmic marker for prostate cancer used alone or in concert with basal cell markers, can be strongly reactive in benign prostatic acini with Paneth cell-like change. PMID:25031776

  2. Caffeine consumption and benign breast disease: a case-control comparison.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J; Graham, S; Swanson, M

    1982-06-01

    In this case-control comparison of 323 women with benign breast disease and 1,458 controls, no differences were noted in the coffee and tea consumption patterns of the cases and controls. These findings do not support the recent suggestion of Minton, et al, that methylxanthine ingestion is causally related to benign breast disease or breast cancer. PMID:7072882

  3. Facilitating a benign interpretation bias in a high socially anxious population.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rebecca; Hirsch, Colette R; Mathews, Andrew; Smith, Keren; Clark, David M

    2007-07-01

    Previous research has shown that high socially anxious individuals lack the benign interpretation bias present in people without social anxiety. The tendency of high socially anxious people to generate more negative interpretations may lead to anticipated anxiety about future social situations. If so, developing a more benign interpretation bias could lead to a reduction in this anxiety. The current study showed that a benign interpretation bias could be facilitated (or 'trained') in a high socially anxious population. Participants in the benign training groups had repeated practice in accessing benign (positive or non-negative) interpretations of potentially threatening social scenarios. Participants in the control condition were presented with the same social scenarios but without their outcomes being specified. In a later recognition task, participants who received benign interpretation training generated more benign, and less negative, interpretations of new ambiguous social situations compared to the control group. Participants who received benign training also predicted that they would be significantly less anxious in a future social situation than those in the control group. Possible implications of the findings for therapeutic interventions in social phobia are discussed. PMID:17349970

  4. Comparison between children and adolescents with and without chronic benign pain: consultation rate and pain characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    van Eekelen, Francijna C A; Perquin, Christel W; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was drawn from the records of ten general practices. According to their responses to a pain questionnaire, subjects were assigned to the chronic benign pain group (n = 95) if they had pain of more than three months' duration, or to the control group (n = 105) if they had pain of less than three months' duration or no pain at all. All the subjects had an average GP consultation rate of 2.6 contacts per year. No significant age and sex differences were found. Chronic benign pain in childhood and adolescence is not related to increased use of healthcare services, suggesting that somatisation does not play a major role in children with chronic benign pain. PMID:12030664

  5. Incidental Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma in a Patient with Bone Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    del Real-Romo, Zanndor Jacob; Montero-Cantú, Carlos; Villegas-Cabello, Oscar; Díaz-Elizondo, José Antonio; Reyes-Salas, Danae; Palomo-Hoil, Rene; Peralta-Castillo, Guillermo; Martínez-Sánchez, David; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The benign metastasizing leiomyoma is an exceptionally rare entity; it presents with ectopic leiomyoma nodules with a benign pattern. Symptoms vary according to the anatomic location. The diagnosis is histopathological, usually in patients with history of hysterectomy. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old female with 2-month history of left knee pain was diagnosed with bone fibrosarcoma. A CT scan showed pulmonary nodules. The patient started neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conservative surgery of pelvic limb was achieved. A new CT scan reported pulmonary nodules that remained in relation to the previous CT. A nodule resection by thoracotomy and TOB (transoperative biopsy) was performed. The final pathology report described benign proliferative lesions consistent with benign metastatic leiomyoma. Conclusions. Benign metastatic leiomyoma is a rare condition presenting with uterine and extrauterine nodules most commonly in the lung. The diagnosis is histopathological. The surgical procedure must be reserved for selected patients. PMID:25221682

  6. Malignant and benign ganglioglioma: A pathological and molecular study1

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Ajay; Balasubramaniam, Anandh; Perrin, Richard; Shannon, Patrick; Guha, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    Gangliogliomas are generally benign tumors, composed of transformed neuronal and glial elements, with rare malignant progression of the glial component. The current study of a rare case of a woman harboring a ganglioglioma with areas of malignant transformation addresses two fundamental questions: (1) Are the ganglioglioma and its malignant component clonal in origin? (2) What are the genetic alterations associated with the initiation and subsequent malignant progression of ganglioglioma? By using the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) assay, we found the ganglioglioma and the malignant component to be clonal in origin, suggestive of initial transformation of a single neuroglial precursor cell with subsequent malignant progression. Conventional and array comparative genomic hybridization (approximately 2.5-Mb resolution) analyses found chromosomal losses to be predominant in the benign areas of the ganglioglioma, with gains more prevalent in the malignant component. Regions of chromosomal loss, postulated to harbor genes involved in the initiation of ganglioglioma, included 1p35-36, 2p16-15, 3q13.1-13.3, 3q24-25.3, 6p21.3-21.2, 6q24-25.2, 9p12, Xp11.3-11.22, and Xq22.1-22.3. Direct analysis demonstrated loss of p19 expression and p53 mutation in the malignant areas, highly suggestive of these alterations being involved in the malignant progression of the ganglioglioma. Additional chromosomal alterations specific to the malignancy involved gains on 1p35-34.2, 2q24.1-32.3, 3q13.1-13.3, 6q13-16.2, 7q11.2-31.3, 8q21.1-23, 11q12-31, and 12q13.2-21.3. This molecular-pathological study has provided insight into the pathogenesis of gangliogliomas and associated rare malignant progression. Deciphering the specific genes residing in these chromosomal regions may further our understanding of not only these rare tumors but also the more common gliomas. PMID:17259542

  7. Cervical removal at hysterectomy for benign disease. Risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M

    1993-10-01

    An assessment of the risks and benefits of total and subtotal hysterectomy for benign disease was performed using the published literature, including a MEDLINE search, on all studies dealing with hysterectomy and related topics from 1946 to 1992. The shift from subtotal to total hysterectomy occurred before cytologic screening was accepted. Currently, SIL is diagnosed by cytology, evaluated by colposcopy and treated preferentially with cone biopsy. Prophylactic removal of the cervix does not eliminate the risk of cancer: it may shift the risk to the vaginal epithelium. The cervix has a role in sexual arousal and orgasm, probably due to stimulation of the Frankenhauser uterovaginal plexus. Bladder and bowel dysfunction following total hysterectomy may be related to loss of nerve ganglia closely associated with the cervix. Increased operative and postoperative morbidity, vaginal shortening, vault prolapse, abnormal cuff granulations and oviductal prolapse are other disadvantages of total hysterectomy. The cervix is not a useless organ and should not be removed during hysterectomy without a proper indication. PMID:8263867

  8. [Contemporary medical management of the benign prostatic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, S; Michel, M C; Dreikorn, K

    2008-02-01

    Two groups of drugs, alpha blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI), are currently widely used for the medical treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Alpha blockers are characterized by a rapid onset of efficacy. If given at an adequate dose, all alpha blockers have a similar efficacy, yet quantitative differences regarding side effects exist. The onset of clinical efficacy of 5ARIs is delayed and dependent on prostate volume. Symptom improvement is generally less pronounced than with alpha blockers, yet this difference declines with time. 5ARI, in contrast to alpha blockers, reduce prostate volume and the risk of long-term BPS complications such as prostate surgery or acute urinary retention. The combination therapy of alpha blockers and 5ARI is superior to either monotherapy; however, this superiority becomes evident only after prolonged (>1 year) therapy. Because of additive side effects, this combination should be reserved for BPS patients with a high risk of progression. Regarding plant extracts, no definitive recommendation can be given because of a limited number of high-quality clinical trials. The use of antimuscarinics in men with BPS with a dominance of storage symptoms and without significant obstruction is promising, although further trials, particularly with a longer study duration, are required. PMID:18210072

  9. Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2001-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  10. What do we know about phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Allkanjari, Olta; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urological diseases in aging men. Because of its long latency, BPH is a good target for prevention. The aim of the study has been to review the various options of treatment, currently available, in the field of phytotherapy. Watchful waiting, pharmacological therapy, and surgery are also helpful, depending on the severity of the disease. Although drug therapy (alpha1-blockers, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors) and surgery (prostatectomy, transurethral resection, etc.) seem to be most effective for patients with moderate-severe BPH, herbal medicines (i.e., Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica) are also commonly used in patients with mild-moderate symptoms. On the basis of preclinical studies several mechanisms of action have been postulated, including 5alpha-reductase inhibition, alpha-adrenergic antagonism, dihydrotestosterone and estrogen receptor inhibition. Randomized clinical trials indicate significant efficacy in improving urinary symptoms and mild adverse effects for some phytotherapeutic agents, while further clinical evidence is needed for others (e.g., Epilobium spp., Secale cereale, Roystonea regia). Healthcare professionals should be constantly informed about BPH phytotherapy, taking into account the risk/benefit profile of the use of medicinal plants in the management of BPH. PMID:25703069

  11. Extraosseous Benign Notochordal Cell Tumor Originating in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Motoi, Toru; Harada, Masahiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Horio, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Benign notochordal cell tumors (BNCTs) are tumors originating in the axial skeleton, where chordomas occur. Although very rare, some cases of extraosseous chordoma, such as in the soft tissue and lungs, have been reported. We report a case of a primary tumor showing the notochordal characteristics of BNCTs within the axial skeleton. An asymptomatic 57-year-old woman presented with an abnormal shadow on her chest radiograph; chest computed tomography revealed a well-defined round nodule. The resected sample tissue contained a jelly-like small nodule. Histologically, it was identified as a BNCT, based on minimal nuclear atypia, extremely low mitotic activity within the tumor cells lying in a sheet-like arrangement, and focal immunopositivity for brachyury. This is the third case report of BNCT originating in the lungs; BNCTs are considered asymptomatic tumors that are identified by using highly developed chest imaging technology; however, our findings also suggest that these notochordal tumors may potentially originate from extraosseous sites that lack ideal precursor cells. Our case suggests that notochordal tumors can arise from organs that are unrelated to known notochordal development. PMID:25569657

  12. Doxazosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Timothy J; MacDonald, Roderick

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a1 - blocker doxazosin for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) compatible with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Fourteen randomized controlled trials enrolled 6261 men, average age 64 years, who had moderately severe LUTS and flow impairment. Compared with baseline measures and placebo effect, doxazosin resulted in a statistically significant improvement in both LUTS and flow. However, when compared with placebo, the average magnitude of symptom improvement (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] improvement <3 points) typically did not achieve a level detectable by patients. Combined doxazosin and finasteride therapy improved LUTS and reduced the risk of overall clinical progression of BPH compared to each drug separately in men followed over 4 years. Reported mean changes from baseline in the IPSS were −7.4, −6.6, −5.6, and −4.9 points for combination therapy, doxazosin, finasteride, and placebo, respectively. Combination therapy reduced the need for invasive treatment for BPH and the risk of long-term urinary retention. The absolute reductions compared with placebo were less than 4% and primarily seen in men with prostate gland volume >40 mL or PSA levels >4 ng/mL. Efficacy was comparable with other a1–blockers. Withdrawals from treatment for any cause were comparable to placebo. Dizziness and fatigue occurred more frequently with doxazosin compared to placebo. PMID:18046916

  13. Extensive cytogenetic heterogeneity in a benign retroperitoneal schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Gorunova, L; Dawiskiba, S; Andrén-Sandberg, A; Höglund, M; Johansson, B

    2001-06-01

    A benign retroperitoneal schwannoma from a patient without prior exposure to radiotherapy or chemotherapy was analyzed by chromosome banding after short-term culture. An extensive intratumor heterogeneity in the form of 29 karyotypically related as well as unrelated clones was found. The aberrant clones were diploid or near-diploid and displayed both numerical and structural changes. All chromosomes, except 11, 16, and 20, were affected. Numerical changes included trisomies X, 7, 9, 17, and 18, and monosomies 13 and 18. No clonal loss of chromosome 22, the most characteristic abnormality in schwannomas of other locations, was, however, detected. The structural aberrations resulted in a total of 58 chromosomal breakpoints, with chromosomes 18, 1, and 15 participating in rearrangements most frequently, followed by chromosomes 14, 2, and 22. A striking finding was the clonal involvement of 18p11 in eight rearrangements affecting different chromosomes, suggesting alteration of telomeric function. The molecular mechanisms underlying the observed massive polyclonality in the schwannoma, particularly the presence of cytogenetically unrelated clones, are unknown and probably heterogeneous. PMID:11425455

  14. Endoscopic incisional therapy for benign esophageal strictures: Technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Jayanta; Dhaka, Narendra; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Benign esophageal strictures refractory to the conventional balloon or bougie dilatation may be subjected to various adjunctive modes of therapy, one of them being endoscopic incisional therapy (EIT). A proper delineation of the stricture anatomy is a prerequisite. A host of electrocautery and mechanical devices may be used, the most common being the use of needle knife, either standard or insulated tip. The technique entails radial incision and cutting off of the stenotic rim. Adjunctive therapies, to prevent re-stenosis, such as balloon dilatation, oral or intralesional steroids or argon plasma coagulation can be used. The common strictures where EIT has been successfully used are Schatzki’s rings (SR) and anastomotic strictures (AS). Short segment strictures (< 1 cm) have been found to have the best outcome. When compared with routine balloon dilatation, EIT has equivalent results in treatment naïve cases but better long term outcome in refractory cases. Anecdotal reports of its use in other types of strictures have been noted. Post procedure complications of EIT are mild and comparable to dilatation therapy. As of the current evidence, incisional therapy can be used for management of refractory AS and SR with relatively short stenosis (< 1 cm) with good safety profile and acceptable long term patency. PMID:26722613

  15. Review of controversies in management of non-benign meningioma.

    PubMed

    Paldor, Iddo; Awad, Mohammed; Sufaro, Yuval Z; Kaye, Andrew H; Shoshan, Yigal

    2016-09-01

    Meningiomas are one of the most common brain tumors. World Health Organisation (WHO) Grade II and Grade III meningiomas are grouped together as non-benign meningioma (NBM). There are several controversies surrounding NBM management, including the significance of extent of resection and the efficacy of post-operative radiation and drug treatment. We reviewed the literature to develop recommendations for management of NBM. The questions we sought to answer were: Does gross total resection (GTR) improve patient outcome? Is radiation therapy (RT) warranted after complete or after incomplete resection of NBM? What drug therapies have been proven to improve outcome in patients with NBM? We found that GTR improves outcome in WHO Grade II meningioma, and should be attempted whenever considered safe. GTR correlates less closely to outcome in Grade III meningioma compared to subtotal resection (STR). Extreme measures to completely resect Grade III meningioma are not warranted. RT following GTR of Grade II meningioma does not improve patient outcome, and may be reserved for recurrence. RT improves outcome following STR of Grade II meningioma. RT improves outcome after resection of Grade III meningioma. No drug therapy has been shown to improve outcome in NBM. This review elucidates recommendations for some of the controversies involving NBM. PMID:27338209

  16. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  17. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuya; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Matsumura, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5α-reductase (5αR) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5αR inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger's method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5αR than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH. PMID:24174827

  18. Recent advancement of therapeutic endoscopy in the esophageal benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Robert; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2015-05-16

    Over the past 30 years, the field of endoscopy has witnessed several advances. With the advent of endoscopic mucosal resection, removal of large mucosal lesions have become possible. Thereafter, endoscopic submucosal resection was refined, permitting en bloc removal of large superficial neoplasms. Such techniques have facilitated the development of antireflux mucosectomy, a promising novel treatment for gastroesophageal reflux. The introduction and use of over the scope clips has allowed for endoscopic closure of defects in the gastrointestinal tract, which were traditionally treated with surgical intervention. With the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), the treatment of achalasia and spastic disorders of the esophagus have been revolutionized. From the submucosal tunnelling technique developed for POEM, Per oral endoscopic tumor resection of subepithelial tumors was made possible. Simultaneously, advances in biotechnology have expanded esophageal stenting capabilities with the introduction of fully covered metal and plastic stents, as well as biodegradable stents. Once deemed a primarily diagnostic tool, endoscopy has quickly transcended to a minimally invasive intervention and therapeutic tool. These techniques are reviewed with regards to their application to benign disease of the esophagus. PMID:25992187

  19. Recent advancement of therapeutic endoscopy in the esophageal benign diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bechara, Robert; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the field of endoscopy has witnessed several advances. With the advent of endoscopic mucosal resection, removal of large mucosal lesions have become possible. Thereafter, endoscopic submucosal resection was refined, permitting en bloc removal of large superficial neoplasms. Such techniques have facilitated the development of antireflux mucosectomy, a promising novel treatment for gastroesophageal reflux. The introduction and use of over the scope clips has allowed for endoscopic closure of defects in the gastrointestinal tract, which were traditionally treated with surgical intervention. With the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), the treatment of achalasia and spastic disorders of the esophagus have been revolutionized. From the submucosal tunnelling technique developed for POEM, Per oral endoscopic tumor resection of subepithelial tumors was made possible. Simultaneously, advances in biotechnology have expanded esophageal stenting capabilities with the introduction of fully covered metal and plastic stents, as well as biodegradable stents. Once deemed a primarily diagnostic tool, endoscopy has quickly transcended to a minimally invasive intervention and therapeutic tool. These techniques are reviewed with regards to their application to benign disease of the esophagus. PMID:25992187

  20. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  1. Tadalafil: a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Matthew A; Baye, Jordan; Vouri, Scott Martin

    2013-06-01

    Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lower urinary tracts symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanism for improved LUTS is thought to be related to three principal theories: alterations in nitric oxide levels, Rho-associated protein kinase deactivation, and reductions in pelvic atherosclerosis. The efficacy of PDE-5 inhibitors for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH has been demonstrated in several randomized placebo-controlled trials. Tadalafil is thought to be superior based on an extended half-life; however, other PDE-5 inhibitors have positive results in BPH and have not been proved to be inferior to tadalafil. Before administration, concomitant use of medications such as nonselective α-adrenergic antagonists, nitrates, and cytochrome P450 inhibitors should be assessed for possible drug interactions. Potential adverse drug events seen in Food and Drug Administration-approved tadalafil include back pain, dyspepsia, headache, and dizziness. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil represents a reasonable alternative for selected male patients with LUTS associated with BPH, especially with concomitant erectile dysfunction. PMID:23529917

  2. Endoscopic incisional therapy for benign esophageal strictures: Technique and results.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Jayanta; Dhaka, Narendra; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-12-25

    Benign esophageal strictures refractory to the conventional balloon or bougie dilatation may be subjected to various adjunctive modes of therapy, one of them being endoscopic incisional therapy (EIT). A proper delineation of the stricture anatomy is a prerequisite. A host of electrocautery and mechanical devices may be used, the most common being the use of needle knife, either standard or insulated tip. The technique entails radial incision and cutting off of the stenotic rim. Adjunctive therapies, to prevent re-stenosis, such as balloon dilatation, oral or intralesional steroids or argon plasma coagulation can be used. The common strictures where EIT has been successfully used are Schatzki's rings (SR) and anastomotic strictures (AS). Short segment strictures (< 1 cm) have been found to have the best outcome. When compared with routine balloon dilatation, EIT has equivalent results in treatment naïve cases but better long term outcome in refractory cases. Anecdotal reports of its use in other types of strictures have been noted. Post procedure complications of EIT are mild and comparable to dilatation therapy. As of the current evidence, incisional therapy can be used for management of refractory AS and SR with relatively short stenosis (< 1 cm) with good safety profile and acceptable long term patency. PMID:26722613

  3. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Part I: Background and clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Gabrielle M

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To review recent theories regarding the aetiology and pathophysiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), including its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis. Data sources: Relevant studies were identified by searching MEDLINE from 1966 - March, 1997. Study selection: A total of 35 studies were selected on the basis of their relevance to Part I of this review. Data extraction: The findings and results of relevant studies and their subsequent theories and conclusions are discussed and compiled into a general overview of BPPV. Results of data synthesis: BPPV is considered the most common cause of vertigo of peripheral origin. A potential causal association has been observed with numerous apparent aetiological factors, all of which may lead to peripheral vestibular trauma. Findings of densities within the posterior semi-circular canal have given rise to the most recent theories regarding the pathophysiology for BPPV, canalithiasis and cupulolithiasis. Conclusions: BPPV is a multiaetiological peripheral vestibular disease whose underlying cause remains an enigma. The existing evidence supports two recent pathophysiological theories, cupulolithiasis and canalithiasis. Two conditions of special concern to the chiropractor, vertebrobasilar insufficiency and cervicogenic vertigo, closely ressemble BPPV, and can be differentiated by certain identifying features. BPPV may be diagnosed clinically, after ruling out conditions in which vertigo is a central feature. A review of the treatment for BPPV, focusing on recent physical treatments will be discussed in Part II of this paper.

  4. Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Aging Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all men will develop histological benign prostatic hyperplasia by the age of 80, but the degree of prostatic enlargement resulting from the hyperplasia is highly variable. Historically, it has often been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostatic enlargement. The observation that prostatic enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction, and LUTS are all age-dependent has been interpreted to indicate that these phenomena were causally related, but there is insufficient evidence for this. Undoubtedly, some men' prostatic enlargement causes obstruction and symptoms. Based upon the available data, however, this subset appears to be extremely small. Because of the many urological and nonurological conditions that cause LUTS and age-dependent changes in bladder and neurological function, it is unlikely that there exists a single dominant etiology for the aging male population. If this is the case, then the optimal management of LUTS will require different and possibly combination therapies. PMID:16986052

  5. Surgical therapy for benign prostatic hypertrophy/bladder outflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Thiruchelvam, Nikesh

    2014-01-01

    Monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with endoscopic electrocautery remains the gold standard surgical technique for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) by which all new procedures are compared. We reviewed the current literature, and international urological guidelines and consensus opinion on various surgical options for BPH and present a brief overview of alternative techniques including bipolar TURP, transurethral incision of the prostate, transurethral vaporization of the prostate, laser prostatectomy (with holmium, thulium and potassium titanyl phosphate greenlight lasers) and open prostatectomy (with mention of new techniques including laparoscopic and robotic prostatectomy). Emerging, experimental and less established techniques are also described including endoscopic heat generation (transurethral microwave thermotherapy, radiofrequency transurethral needle ablation of the prostate, high intensity focused ultrasound, hot water induced thermotherapy, pulsed electromagnetic radiofrequency), injection therapy (transurethral ethanol ablation and botulinum toxin) and mechanical devices (intraprostatic stents and urethral lift devices). Despite a plethora of surgical options, none have realistically improved outcomes in the long-term compared with TURP. Improvements have been made on improving surgical morbidity and time in hospital. Questions remain in this area, including what specific elements of bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) result in damage to the urinary tract, how does BPH contribute to BOO and how much prostate volume reduction is necessary to relieve BOO or lower urinary tract symptoms. Given these unanswered questions and the multitude of procedures available, it is clear that appropriate counselling is necessary in all men who undergo BPH surgery. PMID:24744521

  6. A Geriatric Perspective on Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Parham, Kourosh; Kuchel, George A

    2016-02-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo in older adults. Beyond the unpleasant sensation of vertigo, BPPV also negatively affects older adults' gait and balance and increases their risk of falling. As such it has a profound effect on function, independence, and quality of life. Otoconia are the inner ear structures that help detect horizontal and vertical movements. Aging contributes to the fragmentation of otoconia, whose displacement into the semicircular, most commonly posterior canals, can produce rotatory movement sensations with head movement. BPPV is more commonly idiopathic in older adults than in younger individuals, can present atypically, and has a more-protracted course and higher risk of recurrence. Medications such as meclizine that are commonly prescribed for BPPV can be associated with significant side effects. Dix-Hallpike and Head Roll tests can generally identify the involved canal. Symptoms resolve as otoconia fragments dissolve into the endolymph, but appropriate canalith repositioning (e.g., Epley maneuver) can expedite recovery and reduce the burden of this disorder. Observations suggesting an association between idiopathic BPPV and vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis indicate that BPPV may share risk factors with other common geriatric conditions, which highlights the importance of moving beyond purely otological considerations and addressing the needs of older adults with vertigo through a systems-based multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26804483

  7. Combination pharmacological therapies for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Seth A; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2012-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent condition of older men caused by unregulated growth of the prostate gland. Clinical trials of medical therapy for BPH have consistently demonstrated that combined therapy with an α(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor is superior to either agent alone. The addition of anticholinergic therapy to a treatment regimen could effectively improve symptoms in men with persistent storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who have not seen a benefit with an α(1)-AR antagonist or 5α-reductase inhibitor. Among α(1)-AR antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin, although with slight differences in adverse event profiles, are equivalent in effectiveness and efficacy. No data in the form of direct comparator trials exist to suggest a difference in clinical efficacy of finasteride and dutasteride, the two 5α-reductase inhibitors currently available. Current American Urological Association guidelines do not recommend phytotherapy or dietary supplements in any combination for the medical management of BPH. The current literature supports the safety and efficacy of the combination of an α(1)-AR antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of symptomatic BPH and, in select patients, the use of an α(1)-AR antagonist and anticholinergic medication in the treatment of LUTS suggestive of BPH. PMID:22428659

  8. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Anil

    2012-10-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH. PMID:23089343

  9. Fractionated Proton Radiotherapy for Benign Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Chung, Arthur; Bush, David A.; Patyal, Baldev; Johnson, Walter D.; Hsu, Frank P.K.; Slater, James M.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of fractionated proton radiotherapy for a population of patients with benign cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 72 patients were treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center with proton therapy for cavernous sinus meningiomas. Fifty-one patients had biopsy or subtotal resection; 47 had World Health Organization grade 1 pathology. Twenty-one patients had no histologic verification. Twenty-two patients received primary proton therapy; 30 had 1 previous surgery; 20 had more than 1 surgery. The mean gross tumor volume was 27.6 cm{sup 3}; mean clinical target volume was 52.9 cm{sup 3}. Median total doses for patients with and without histologic verification were 59 and 57 Gy, respectively. Mean and median follow-up periods were 74 months. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial control rate was 96%; the control rate was 99% in patients with grade 1 or absent histologic findings and 50% for those with atypical histology. All 21 patients who did not have histologic verification and 46 of 47 patients with histologic confirmation of grade 1 tumor demonstrated disease control at 5 years. Control rates for patients without previous surgery, 1 surgery, and 2 or more surgeries were 95%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Fractionated proton radiotherapy for grade 1 cavernous sinus meningiomas achieves excellent control rates with minimal toxicities, regardless of surgical intervention or use of histologic diagnosis. Disease control for large lesions can be achieved by primary fractionated proton therapy.

  10. Deep brain stimulation for levodopa-refractory benign tremulous parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Ross, Owen A; Wharen, Robert E; Uitti, Ryan J; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2016-01-01

    Benign tremulous parkinsonism (BTP) is characterized by prominent resting tremor combined with action and postural components, and with only subtle rigidity and bradykinesia. This tremor is frequently disabling and poorly responsive to therapy with levodopa. Thus, BTP could be considered either as a distinct clinical disorder or a variant of PD. We present a case of a 57-year-old man who had a 3-year history of severe and functionally disabling resting tremor with action and postural features bilaterally but with left dominant hand predominance. There was only very mild rigidity and bradykinesia and no postural instability. His tremor was refractory to dopaminergic therapy, including carbidopa/levodopa. The dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging showed reduced tracer uptake in the putamen bilaterally, more so on the right side. He was treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the right ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. His tremor resolved immediately after procedure. The DAT imaging abnormalities indicate the presynaptic dopamine deficiency. In some autopsied BTP cases classic alpha-synuclein pathology of PD was observed. Thus, despite the lack of levodopa responsiveness BTP likely represents a variant of PD and not a distinct neurodegenerative disorder. DBS should be considered for patients with BTP PD variant despite their poor responsiveness to levodopa treatment. PMID:27591066

  11. Environmentally-benign conversion of biomass residues to electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Andrew

    As petroleum resources are finite, it is imperative to use them wisely in energy conversion applications and, at the same time, develop alternative energy sources. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels. Biomass-based fuels can be produced domestically and can reduce dependency on fuel imports. Due to their abundant supply, and given that to an appreciable extent they can be considered carbon-neutral, their use for power generation is of technological interest. However, whereas biomasses can be directly burned in furnaces, such a conventional direct combustion technique is ill-controlled and typically produces considerable amounts of health-hazardous airborne compounds [1,2]. Thus, an alternative technology for biomass utilization is described herein to address increasing energy needs in an environmentally-benign manner. More specifically, a multi-step process/device is presented to accept granulated or pelletized biomass, and generate an easily-identifiable form of energy as a final product. To achieve low emissions of products of incomplete combustion, the biomass is gasified pyrolytically, mixed with air, ignited and, finally, burned in nominally premixed low-emission flames. Combustion is thus indirect, since the biomass is not directly burned, instead its gaseous pyrolyzates are burned upon mixing with air. Thereby, combustion is well-controlled and can be complete. A demonstration device has been constructed to convert the internal energy of plastics into "clean" thermal energy and, eventually to electricity.

  12. Critical review of lasers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Gravas, Stavros; Bachmann, Alexander; Reich, Oliver; Roehrborn, Claus G; Gilling, Peter J; De La Rosette, Jean

    2011-04-01

    • Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia has challenged transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to advances in laser technology, better understanding of tissue-laser interactions and growing clinical experience. • Various lasers have been introduced including neodymium: yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), holmium (Ho):YAG, potassium titanyl phosphate:YAG, thulium(Tm) and diode laser. Based on the different wave-length dependent laser-prostatic tissue interactions, the main techniques are coagulation, vaporization, resection and enucleation. • The present review aims to help urologists to distinguish and to critically evaluate the role of different laser methods in the treatment by using an evidence-based approach. It also details further evidence for use in specific patient groups (in retention, on anticoagulation) and addresses the issues of cost and learning curve. • Coagulation-based techniques have been abandoned; holmium ablation/resection of the prostate has been superseded by the enucleation technique Ho-laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). The short-term efficacy of the emerging laser treatments such as diode and Tm prostatectomy has been suggested by low quality studies. HoLEP and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) represent valid clinical alternatives to TURP. HoLEP is the most rigorously analysed laser technique with durable efficacy for any prostate size and low early and late morbidity. PVP has grown in acceptance and popularity but long-term results from high quality studies are pending. PMID:21438974

  13. Localized Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Wu, Yi-Der; Kuo, Chun-Lang; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis X, refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes that produce either focal (localized LCH) or systemic manifestations (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease). Localized LCH accounts for approximately 60-70 % of all LCH cases. Osseous involvement is the most common manifestation and typically involves the flat bones, along with lesions of the skull, pelvis, and ribs. Localized LCH in bone shows a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and radiologic features that may mimic those of infections as well as benign and malignant tumors. The diagnostic imaging findings of localized LCH are also diverse and challenging. The penumbra sign is a common and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of Brodie's abscess, but is rarely seen in localized LCH. In this report, we describe a case of localized LCH misdiagnosed as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child based on clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and pre-diagnostic MRI findings (penumbra sign). Therefore, the penumbra sign is not sufficient to clearly establish the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess, and the differential diagnosis of localized LCH should be considered when a child with an osteolytic lesion presents with a penumbra sign. PMID:27065773

  14. Metatarsal leiomyosarcoma masquerading as acute osteomyelitis - A diagnostic trap unveiled by vigilant clinical, radiologic and pathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Due to overlapping clinical and radiological features, the differentiation between osteomyelitis and bone tumor can be challenging. A 48-year-old lady presented with intermittent left foot pain for a few months. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion affecting the proximal diaphysis of the left fourth metatarsal bone, with thinning and irregularities of the cortex and focal periosteal reaction. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse subcutaneous edema in the dorsum of the left foot, cortical irregularities along the mid-shaft of the left fourth metatarsal bone, and surrounding periosteal collection. Computed tomography showed medullary expansion along the shaft and base of the left fourth metatarsal bone with cortical irregularities and defects suggestive of cloaca, and focal mild periosteal new bone formation. The clinico-radiologic diagnosis was acute osteomyelitis with periosteal collection. During open biopsy, the finding of intramedullary fleshy tissue in the absence of significant inflammatory edema and purulent discharge, and subsequent negative culture result prompted a review of the histologic slides which was initially reported as benign fibroblastic tissue proliferation. Careful analysis of the histomorphology disclosed a spindle cell sarcoma for which ray amputation of the fourth and fifth metatarsal was performed. The final diagnosis was grade 1 leiomyosarcoma and the patient remained well 33 months after the operation. PMID:26802815

  15. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis. PMID:25433854

  16. A Thorough Assessment of Benign Genetic Variability in GRN and MAPT

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Rita J.; Washecka, Nicole; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in APP, PSEN1, MAPT and GRN are the most common genetic causes of dementia. The previous miss-assignment of pathogenicity to benign variants in these genes stresses the importance of discerning between disease causing mutations and benign variants with no pathogenic effect on the function of the respective protein. In this study we sequenced GRN and MAPT in 282 samples from the Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain - Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, in order to identify benign variants that could otherwise be mistaken for pathogenic mutations. We found sixteen different non-synonymous changes, eleven of which are novel variants. PMID:20020531

  17. Multiple metastases from histologically benign intraarticular diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naofumi; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takehiko; Kawai, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TGCT) is a relatively rare mesenchymal tumor. It is a locally aggressive but virtually nonmetastasizing neoplasm and thus regarded as benign. Only a few D-TGCTs with benign histology have been reported to metastasize. We report an extremely rare case of benign D-TGCT in which multiple metastases developed 9 years after surgery for the primary tumor. The present case suggests that conventional D-TGCT has the potential to form distant metastases, albeit exceptionally rarely, and that this probable implantation phenomenon can be managed conservatively. PMID:25130396

  18. Benign Vulvar Adnexal Tumours - A 5 year Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tiwana, Kanwardeep Kaur; Nibhoria, Sarita; Kaur, Harpreet; Bajaj, Akanksha; Phutela, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the fact that the vulva contains a high density of apocrine and anogenital mammary glands in addition to eccrine glands and folliculosebaceous units, the benign vulvar adnexal tumours are rare. Though the varied clinical presentation and diverse histopathological spectrum of vulvar neoplasms has amazed the pathologists, only few studies have been reported in literature. The present five year study consists of only five cases of benign vulvar neoplasms depicting their rarity. Hidradenoma papilliferum and syringoma were the most common entities followed by Chondroid syringoma. The aim of our study is to explore and highlight the histopathological diversity of benign vulvar adnexal tumours reflecting the relative frequency of these structures. PMID:27047567

  19. Ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy for benign non-thyroid cystic mass in the neck

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Surgical excision has traditionally been the treatment of choice for benign non-thyroid cystic neck masses, including lymphatic malformation, ranula, branchial cleft cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst, and parathyroid cyst. However, there is a tendency toward recurrence after surgery, and surgery may be accompanied by complications, including nerve injuries, vascular injuries, and scar formation. Ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy using various agents has been challenged and successfully applied as an alternative treatment for benign non-thyroid cystic neck masses. This report reviews the available sclerosing agents and describes the applications of sclerotherapy to the treatment of benign cystic masses in the neck. PMID:24936500

  20. Unilateral Conjunctival in situ Squamous Carcinoma with Bilateral Conjunctival Chlorpromazine-Induced Secondary Melanosis Masquerading as in situ and Invasive Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Katharine S.; Rennie, Ian G.; Mudhar, Hardeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical and histopathological features of a 61-year-old male with a history of eczema, asthma and schizophrenia on long-term chlorpromazine medication, who developed a unilateral limbal tumour in association with bilateral melanosis. Procedures The patient was referred for a routine cataract assessment, and an incidental pink gelatinous limbal lesion was detected on the left side, associated with bilateral speckled brown conjunctival pigmentation. The limbal lesion and brown pigmentation were biopsied. The tissue was fixed in standard buffered formalin and processed to paraffin wax, and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Tissue from the pigmented area was also processed for transmission electron microscopy. Results The biopsy from the limbal lesion showed an in situ squamous carcinoma associated with prominent numbers of intra-epithelial eosinophils. The biopsy of the pigmented area showed bilateral melanosis without atypia. The latter was attributable to an increase in melanin production rather than to melanocyte hyperplasia. Melanophages were also present in the adjacent substantia propria. These pigment changes were entirely compatible with chlorpromazine-induced secondary melanosis. Conclusions This paper highlights the first documented occurrence of in situ squamous carcinoma with bilateral chlorpromazine-induced conjunctival secondary melanosis. This clinically masqueraded as in situ melanoma/primary acquired melanosis and invasive melanoma. Bilateral melanosis is rare, has many causes and, in this case, was drug induced. This highlights the importance of thorough history taking and illustrates that not all pigmented and amelanotic lesions are in situ melanomas, primary acquired melanosis or invasive melanomas. Lastly, atopy was a risk factor for the development of this in situ squamous carcinoma. PMID:27171521

  1. A Case of Primary Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the Thyroid Masquerading as Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Potentially More than a One Off.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S; Shaheen, M; Olson, G; Barry, M; Wu, J; Bocklage, T

    2016-09-01

    We present the second reported mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) apparently arising in the thyroid and propose a potential close relationship to ETV6-NTRK3 fusion papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient, a 36 year old woman, presented with a neck mass of 1 year's duration. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving most of the thyroid with enlarged regional lymph nodes. FNA biopsy yielded a diagnosis of "papillary thyroid carcinoma". Resection revealed a 4.5 cm infiltrative tumor. Final diagnosis was "papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) consistent with diffuse sclerosing variant" with positive lymph nodes (2+/4) and margins. Histologic features included mixed microcystic, solid, follicular and papillary architecture, prominent nucleoli, abundant nuclear grooves and rare nuclear pseudo-inclusions. Despite radioactive iodine, radiotherapy and multiagent chemotherapy, the patient progressed over 6 years with local recurrence and additional lymph node involvement finally developing widespread distant metastases. Prompted by the breast carcinoma-like histopathology of a metastasis, immunohistochemical staining was performed and revealed strong expression of GATA3 and mammaglobin with no reactivity for thyroglobulin or TTF-1. The original tumor was then tested and showed the same immunoprofile. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion consistent with a diagnosis of MASC. Our patient's clinical, imaging and morphologic features remarkably mimicked papillary thyroid carcinoma. At the molecular level, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in this patient involved exons reported in the rare "papillary thyroid carcinoma" with this translocation. Given the immunophenotype of this case, it is possible that at least some ETV6-NTRK3 fusion positive PTC are actually MASC masquerading as papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27075025

  2. The role of combination medical therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Greco, K A; McVary, K T

    2008-12-01

    To review key trials of monotherapy and combination therapy of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha(1)-ARAs), 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5alphaRIs) and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess the safety and efficacy of combination therapies for LUTS associated with BPH, a search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases (1976-2008) was conducted for relevant trials and reviews using the terms benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, anti-muscarinics, anticholinergics, combination therapy, alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, dutasteride, finasteride, tolterodine, flavoxate, propiverine, oxybutynin, erectile dysfunction, sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. Data from the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) study indicated a role for long-term use of alpha(1)-ARAs and 5alphaRIs in combination. In the MTOPS study, combination therapy with the alpha(1)-ARA doxazosin and the 5alphaRI finasteride was significantly more effective than either component alone in reducing symptoms (P=0.006 vs doxazosin monotherapy; P<0.001 vs finasteride monotherapy) and in lowering the rate of clinical progression (P<0.001 vs either monotherapy). These findings were confirmed by the 2-year preliminary results of the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin study. In this study, combination therapy of the alpha(1)-ARA tamsulosin and the 5alphaRI dutasteride resulted in a significantly greater decrease in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) when compared with either monotherapy. Several recent trials have studied the efficacy of combining alpha(1)-ARAs and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of BPH. These studies have found this combination to result in statistically significant benefits in quality of life scores, patient satisfaction, urinary frequency, storage

  3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - progress in pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2015-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population, in affected individuals often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. BPH is manifested by a complex range of symptoms originating from the lower urinary tract (LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms), including disturbances resulting from impaired bladder compliance and bladder overactivity (e.g. frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, dysuria) and symptoms associated with the bladder outlet obstruction (e.g. the difficulty in voiding initiating, intermittency, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void). Despite numerous studies, the pathogenesis of BPH remains not completely understood, and the condition awaits a comprehensive description. The current pathophysiological view emphasizes the role of hormonal dysregulation, locally released in the prostate growth factors action and a complex inflammatory, BPH-associated process with the release of a number of pro-proliferative mediators. The current BPH pharmacotherapy involves administration of α-1-blockers, 5-α-reductase inhibitors, antimuscarinic drugs (cholinolytics) and phosphodiesterase- 5-inhibitors. Progress in the BPH pathophysiology allows the disclosure of additional, potential targets of pharmacological intervention, such as β-3 adrenoreceptor or CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists, P2X1 purinergic or ETA endothelin receptors antagonists, RhoA/Rho kinase system inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, drugs indirectly (luteinizing hormone - releasing hormone antagonists) or directly (antiandrogens) abolishing the effect of testosterone and its derivatives or agents blocking the action of proinflammatory cytokines. The article briefly discusses the pathophysiology of the aforementioned issues and the current BPH management along with the future, potential opportunities for pharmacotherapy of the. PMID:26637089

  4. Atrial fibrillation in the elderly -- not a benign condition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geraldine A; Stub, Dion; Ling, Han

    2012-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly seen arrhythmia and its prevalence increases with age. In the general population, rates of 1-2% are reported but in older patients, the rates increase to over 10% (in those aged 85years or older). Many older patients present to the emergency department (ED) with complaints that could be caused or associated with AF including valvular heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, an underlying infection (urinary or chest) and thyroid disorder. The most devastating complication of AF is stroke and early detection of AF and initiation of treatment (specifically the use of anti-coagulant medication) can significantly reduce the risk. AF is associated with high healthcare costs and has significant impacts on disability and quality of life especially if a stroke occurs. This review aims to describe the aetiology and treatment options for patients with newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed AF with an emphasis on how ED staff can manage older patients with AF and ensure optimal care is given. The treatment of AF has three main considerations (i) appropriateness for thromboembolic prophylaxis, (ii) rate control (including anti-arrhythmics, cardiac glycosides, B blockers and calcium channel blockers) and (iii) rhythm control with traditional cardioversion (either electrically or pharmacologically) or utilising interventional means to maintain sinus rhythm with cardiac surgery and more recently radio-frequency ablation. As anti-coagulation is widely implemented, the risks and benefits associated with warfarin and the newer agents will be described. Given that more than half of those with AF are over 75years and 30% of AF is diagnosed incidentally, there is an imperative for prompt diagnosis to reduce the risk of debilitating complications especially stroke. AF should not be viewed as yet another concomitant "benign" condition. Emergency staff are well placed to detect AF and ensure appropriate treatment is commenced to reduce the

  5. [Traumatic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gordon, Carlos R; Joffe, Vitaly; Levite, Ronen; Gadoth, Natan

    2002-11-01

    Although head trauma is the cause of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) in about 15% of cases, the clinical features and response to treatment in this particular group of patients was not previously evaluated. We present 20 cases of traumatic BPPV: 12 cases identified from 150 consecutive BPPV patients diagnosed in our Dizziness Clinic; and 8 cases diagnosed from 75 consecutive head trauma patients seen in the Emergency Room. In all patients the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and all were treated by the Epley procedure. Treatment results were compared to those of 40 consecutive patients with idiopathic BPPV. There was a wide spectrum and severity of head trauma including road accident (7), different falls (5), blow to the head (5) and miscellaneous (3). Two patients experienced brief loss of consciousness. Only two patients were diagnosed as BPPV before referral to our clinic. When presented to our Dizziness Clinic the patients were diagnosed as follows: unspecified dizziness (7), cervical vertigo (4) and transient ischemic attack (1). Five patients (25%) had bilateral BPPV. Eight patients (40%) had complete resolution of symptoms and signs following a single treatment while 12 patients (60%) required additional physical treatments until complete resolution of BPPV was achieved. During follow-up, 11 patients (55%) had recurrent attacks of BPPV. Thirty-four patients with idiopathic BPPV (85%) had a single successful treatment session while the others required repeated physical treatments until complete resolution of BPPV. We conclude that traumatic BPPV is probably under-recognized or misdiagnosed in clinical practice. Response to a single physical treatment seems to be less favorable than in idiopathic BPPV. The Dix-Hallpike maneuver is mandatory in all patients with dizziness and vertigo following head trauma. PMID:12476625

  6. Gender-Based Comorbidity in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Oluwaseye Ayoola; Janky, Kristen L.; Cohn, Edward S.; Büki, Bela; Lundberg, Yunxia Wang

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted that benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) may be associated with certain disorders and medical procedures. However, most studies to date were done in Europe, and epidemiological data on the United States (US) population are scarce. Gender-based information is even rarer. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the relative prevalence of each type of association based solely on literature data, because different comorbidities were reported by various groups from different countries using different patient populations and possibly different inclusion/exclusion criteria. In this study, we surveyed and analyzed a large adult BPPV population (n = 1,360 surveyed, 227 completed, most of which were recurrent BPPV cases) from Omaha, NE, US, and its vicinity, all diagnosed at Boys Town National Research Hospital (BTNRH) over the past decade using established and consistent diagnostic criteria. In addition, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients’ diagnostic records (n = 1,377, with 1,360 adults and 17 children). The following comorbidities were found to be significantly more prevalent in the BPPV population when compared to the age- and gender-matched general population: ear/hearing problems, head injury, thyroid problems, allergies, high cholesterol, headaches, and numbness/paralysis. There were gender differences in the comorbidities. In addition, familial predisposition was fairly common among the participants. Thus, the data confirm some previously reported comorbidities, identify new ones (hearing loss, thyroid problems, high cholesterol, and numbness/paralysis), and suggest possible predisposing and triggering factors and events for BPPV. PMID:25187992

  7. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  8. Robotic lung segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Ayalp, Kemal; Uyumaz, Elena; Kaba, Erkan; Demirhan, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical use of robots has evolved over the last 10 years. However, the academic experience with robotic lung segmentectomy remains limited. We aimed to analyze our lung segmentectomy experience with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Prospectively recorded clinical data of 21 patients who underwent robotic lung anatomic segmentectomy with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were done using the da Vinci System. A three incision portal technique with a 3 cm utility incision in the posterior 10th to 11th intercostal space was performed. Individual dissection, ligation and division of the hilar structures were performed. Systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling was performed in 15 patients either with primary or secondary metastatic cancers. Results Fifteen patients (75%) were operated on for malignant lung diseases. Conversion to open surgery was not necessary. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients. Mean console robotic operating time was 84±26 (range, 40-150) minutes. Mean duration of chest tube drainage and mean postoperative hospital stay were 3±2.1 (range, 1-10) and 4±1.4 (range, 2-7) days respectively. The mean number of mediastinal stations and number of dissected lymph nodes were 4.2 and 14.3 (range, 2-21) from mediastinal and 8.1 (range, 2-19) nodes from hilar and interlobar stations respectively. Conclusions Robot-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions appears to be practical, safe, and associated with few complications and short postoperative hospitalization. Lymph node removal also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer patients. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life needs a comparative, prospective series particularly with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:25093090

  9. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  10. [Benign proliferative breast disease with and without atypia].

    PubMed

    Coutant, C; Canlorbe, G; Bendifallah, S; Beltjens, F

    2015-12-01

    In the last few years, diagnostics of high-risk breast lesions (atypical ductal hyperplasia [ADH], flat epithelial atypia [FEA], lobular neoplasia: atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH], lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], radial scar [RS], usual ductal hyperplasia [UDH], adenosis, sclerosing adenosis [SA], papillary breast lesions, mucocele-like lesion [MLL]) have increased with the growing number of breast percutaneous biopsies. The management of these lesions is highly conditioned by the enlarged risk of breast cancer combined with either an increased probability of finding cancer after surgery, either a possible malignant transformation (in situ or invasive cancer), or an increased probability of developing cancer on the long range. An overview of the literature reports grade C recommendations concerning the management and follow-up of these lesions: in case of ADH, FEA, ALH, LCIS, RS, MLL with atypia, diagnosed on percutaneous biopsies: surgical excision is recommended; in case of a diagnostic based on vacuum-assisted core biopsy with complete disappearance of radiological signal for FEA or RS without atypia: surgical abstention is a valid alternative approved by multidisciplinary meeting. In case of ALH (incidental finding) associated with benign lesion responsible of radiological signal: abstention may be proposed; in case of UDH, adenosis, MLL without atypia, diagnosed on percutaneous biopsies: the concordance of radiology and histopathology findings must be ensured. No data is available to recommend surgery; in case of non-in sano resection for ADH, FEA, ALH, LCIS (except pleomorphic type), RS, MLL: surgery does not seem to be necessary; in case of previous ADH, ALH, LCIS: a specific follow-up is recommended in accordance with HAS's recommendations. In case of FEA and RS or MLL combined with atypia, little data are yet available to differ the management from others lesions with atypia; in case of UDH, usual sclerosing adenosis, RS without atypia, fibro cystic

  11. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  12. Does Dysphagia Indicate Recurrence of Benign Esophageal Strictures?

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Anders; Fork, Frans-Thomas; Lövdahl, Eje

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal dilatation in dysphagic patients with benign strictures is usually considered successful if the patients' dysphagia is alleviated. However, the relation between dysphagia and the diameter of a stricture is not well understood. Moreover, the dysphagia may also be caused by an underlying esophageal motor disorder. In order to compare symptoms and objective measurements of esophageal stricture, 28 patients were studied with interview and a radiologic esophagram. The latter included swallowing of a solid bolus. All patients underwent successful balloon dilatation at least one month prior to this study. Recurrence of a stricture with a diameter of less than 13 mm was diagnosed by the barium swallow in 21 patients. Recurrence of dysphagia was seen in 15 patients. Thirteen patients denied any swallowing symptoms. Chest pain was present in 9 patients. Of 15 patients with dysphagia 2 (13%) had no narrowing but severe esophageal dysmotility. Of 13 patients without dysphagia 9 (69%) had a stricture with a diameter of 13 mm or less. Of 21 patients with a stricture of 13 mm or less 14 (67%) were symptomatic while 7 (33%) were asymptomatic. Four of 11 patients with retrosternal pain had a stricture of less than 10 mm. Three patients with retrosternal pain and obstruction had severe esophageal dysmotility. Whether or not the patients have dysphagia may be more related to diet and eating habits than to the true diameter of their esophageal narrowing. We conclude that the clinical history is non-reliable for evaluating the results of esophageal stricture dilatation. In order to get an objective measurement of therapeutic outcome, barium swallow including a solid bolus is recommended. PMID:18493375

  13. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of

  14. Intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma: report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoshi; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanwei; You, Gan; Wang, Jiangfei; Wang, Junmei; Jiang, Zhongli; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primary benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the central nervous system is an exceedingly rare tumor with most cases originating from the dura or parenchymal tissue. Diagnosis of primary benign fibrous histiocytoma is difficult due to its confusing histopathological characteristics. Two cases of primary intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma are presented in this report. Both tumors were gross totally resected and the patients showed no evidence of recurrence at follow-up of 12 months. The clinical features and prognosis of this rare tumor that were reported previously in the literature were also reviewed. Histopathological examination coupled with immunohistochemical staining is proved to be the convincing diagnostic method for the primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. Surgical resection is the recommendation for the therapy of the tumor. PMID:26617915

  15. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED GREENER SYNTHESIS OF PHARMACEUTICALLY ACTIVE HETEROCYCLES UNDER BENIGN CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapidly developing new field that provides us a proactive avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. Environmentally benign protocols have been developed for the synthesis of various pharmaceutically active heterocycles namely ...

  16. Solvent-free and catalyst-free chemistry: A benign pathway to sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, alternative benign organic methodologies have become an imperative part of organic syntheses and novel chemical reactions. The various new and innovative sustainable organic reactions and methodologies using no solvents or catalysts and employing alternative ...

  17. Benign fibrous histiocytoma of parietal bone: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Feng, Yan; Yan, Xu; Li, Yanhui; Bie, Li

    2015-01-01

    A benign fibrous histiocytoma with primary site of origin in the parietal bone has not yet been reported in the literature. We report here a case concerning a 12-year-old girl with a 14-month history of an enlarging parietal bone mass. The tumor was excised after removal of the cortical bone and resection of the tumor surrounding the cortical bone erosion using pre-plasticity titanium repair. Both postoperative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with a benign fibrous histiocytoma. No clinical or computed tomography (CT) radiological signs of tumor recurrence and/or metastasis were observed at 12 months. Although a primary benign fibrous histiocytoma of the parietal bone is a rare tumor, it should be considered as a potential diagnosis for any cranial tumor. Surgical intervention is the most effective treatment technique for a benign fibrous histiocytoma. PMID:25951848

  18. Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid with advanced periodontal involvement: diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lilly, J P; Spivey, J D; Fotos, P G

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a case of benign mucous membrane pemphigoid which affected the periodontal tissues and complicated ocular prosthesis placement. The clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic management of this disorder are reviewed. PMID:7473017

  19. Dispositional envy revisited: unraveling the motivational dynamics of benign and malicious envy.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jens; Crusius, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has conceptualized dispositional envy as a unitary construct. Recently however, episodic envy has been shown to emerge in two qualitatively different forms. Benign envy is related to the motivation to move upward, whereas malicious envy is related to pulling superior others down. In four studies (N = 1,094)--using the newly developed Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS)--we show that dispositional envy is also characterized by two independent dimensions related to distinct motivational dynamics and behavioral consequences. Dispositional benign and malicious envy uniquely predict envious responding following upward social comparisons. Furthermore, they are differentially connected to hope for success and fear of failure. Corresponding to these links, dispositional benign envy predicted faster race performance of marathon runners mediated via higher goal setting. In contrast, dispositional malicious envy predicted race goal disengagement. The findings highlight that disentangling the two sides of envy opens up numerous research avenues. PMID:25534243

  20. Linking pre-diabetes with benign prostate hyperplasia. IGFBP-3: a conductor of benign prostate hyperplasia development orchestra?

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Ioannis; Ploumidis, Achilles; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Constantoulakis, Padelis; Tzirogiannis, Kostantinos; Kyprianidou, Chrysoula; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia K; Melidonis, Andreas; Delakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a pattern of non-malignant growth of prostatic fibromuscular stroma. Metabolic disturbances such us pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome may have a role in BPH pathophysiology. A potential explanation for the above relationship involves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis as well as IGF binding proteins, (IGFBPs) of which the most abundant form is IGFBP-3. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between intra-prostatic levels of IGF-1, IGF-2 as well as to evaluate the role of locally expressed IGFBP-3 in BPH development in pre-diabetes. A total of 49 patients admitted to the Urology department of a tertiary urban Greek hospital, for transurethral prostate resection, or prostatectomy and with pre-diabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both] were finally included. The majority of the sample consisted of subjects with IGT (51.0%), followed by IFG and IGT (32.7%) and isolated IFG (16.3%). For all participants a clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected. In addition, total prostate (TP) volume or transitional zone (TZ) volume were estimated by transrectal ultrasonography. The results of the multivariate analysis regarding TP volume showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p=0.007) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p<0.001) independently predicted higher TP volume. The results regarding the volume of the TZ showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p<0.001) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p=0.024) were independently associated with higher TZ volume. Our findings show that intra-prostatic levels of IGFBP-3, PSA and waist circumference, but not overall obesity, are positively associated with prostate volume. IGFBP-3 seems to be a multifunctional protein, which can potentiate or inhibit IGF activity. PMID:24367483

  1. Total thyroidectomy as the single surgical option for benign and malignant thyroid disease: a surgical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Tympa, Aliki; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Nikolakopoulos, Fotios; Petropoulou, Thalia; Smyrniotis, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Total thyroidectomy has been the treatment of choice for patients with malignant thyroid disease. However, the efficacy and safety of this procedure for patients with benign disease is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to show that total thyroidectomy can be safely performed for both malignant and benign disease. Material and methods A retrospective study on 216 patients was conducted. Once an indication for surgery was established, our single surgical treatment was total thyroidectomy. Age, sex, nature of thyroid disease, final pathology and postoperative complications were recorded. Results For both benign and malignant disease, total thyroidectomy resulted in no permanent laryngeal nerve injury and no permanent hypoparathyroidism. Temporary laryngeal nerve palsy occurred in 0.9% and 3% of patients with benign and malignant disease respectively (p = 0.245). Six percent of patients with benign and 10.0% of patients with malignant thyroid disease suffered temporary hypoparathyroidism (p = 0.280). Immediate reoperation for postoperative hemorrhage was performed in 1.7% of patients with benign disease and in 1.0% of patients with malignancy with an uneventful outcome (p = 0.650). Conclusions When performed by surgeons experienced in endocrine surgery, total thyroidectomy may be considered as the treatment of choice for both malignant and benign thyroid disease requiring surgical treatment. Total thyroidectomy virtually eliminates the requirement of completion thyroidectomy for incidentally diagnosed thyroid carcinoma and significantly reduces the rate of reoperation for recurrent disease, as it provides an immediate and permanent cure for all benign thyroid diseases, with a low incidence of postoperative complications. PMID:23515861

  2. Retroperitoneal nodular fasciitis: a benign etiology on the differential diagnosis of malignant gastric outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Coben, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a relatively rare, benign and proliferative lesion that is not typically found in the retroperitoneal (RP) space and has not been previously reported as a cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). GOOs are frequently associated with malignancies, however, benign etiologies should be considered as well. We report the first case of GOO secondary to nodular fasciitis in the form of a spontaneously regressing RP mass that was initially concerning for malignancy. PMID:25830048

  3. Retroperitoneal nodular fasciitis: a benign etiology on the differential diagnosis of malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kistler, C Andrew; Jiang, Wei; Coben, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a relatively rare, benign and proliferative lesion that is not typically found in the retroperitoneal (RP) space and has not been previously reported as a cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). GOOs are frequently associated with malignancies, however, benign etiologies should be considered as well. We report the first case of GOO secondary to nodular fasciitis in the form of a spontaneously regressing RP mass that was initially concerning for malignancy. PMID:25830048

  4. Treatment of benign urethral strictures using a sapphire tipped neodymium:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A

    1989-11-01

    Sapphire tips increase the energy density and cutting effect of a neodymium:YAG laser. Sapphire tipped neodymium:YAG laser fibers were used to perform urethrotomy in 24 men with benign urethral strictures. The cutting effect was inadequate in 10 patients. Of the 24 patients 16 (67%) had a recurrent stricture within 1 year. Sapphire tipped neodymium:YAG laser fibers offer no apparent advantage over cold knife urethrotomy for treatment of benign urethral strictures. PMID:2810498

  5. Solitary, multiple, benign, atypical, or malignant: the "Granular Cell Tumor" puzzle.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isidro; Cruz, Julia; Lavernia, Javier; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The clinical evolution and biology of granular cell tumors (GCT) are poorly understood and treatment remains an issue of discussion. The majority of GCT are benign, although some display malignant behavior. The distinction between benign, atypical, and malignant GCT is controversial due to morphological and immunohistochemical overlap and lack of consistent histological and phenotypic criteria that predict behavior. Although histological criteria may indicate increased risk of malignant evolution, some GCT with evident benign appearance exceptionally progress towards metastatic disease. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on GCT, including histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics and differential diagnosis. We focus on the following problematic items in GCT: (1) evolution of classification, (2) neural versus non-neural GCT, (3) neoplastic versus reactive disease, (4) malignant transformation of benign GCT, and (5) multiple versus metastatic GCT. We conclude that although a Ki-67 index >10 % and the presence of mitoses and/or of necrosis are frequently associated with malignant behavior, metastasis remains the only unequivocal sign of malignancy in GCT. An infiltrative growth pattern and vascular and/or perineural invasion are not indicative of malignancy. GCT with atypical/uncertain features almost never metastasize, and many of these tumors either behave in a benign fashion or only recur locally (similar to incompletely excised benign tumors). We therefore propose that classical and atypical histological variants form a single group of GCT. GCT with various unfavorable histological features might be labeled as "GCT with increased risk of metastasis" rather than malignant GCT. PMID:26637199

  6. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, CAISONG; LIU, WEI; YANG, JUN; YANG, JING; SHAO, KANGWEI; YUAN, LIXIN; CHEN, HAIRONG; LU, WEI; ZHU, YING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice. PMID:27347131

  7. Utility of opposed-phase magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating sarcoma from benign bone lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kenneally, Barry E.; Gutowski, Christina J.; Reynolds, Alan W.; Morrison, William B.; Abraham, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the utility of opposed-phase magnetic resonance imaging (OP MRI) in differentiating malignant from benign bone lesions. Materials and methods MRI scans of musculoskeletal lesions including opposed-phase imaging sequences were reviewed by both an experienced musculoskeletal attending radiologist, and a second year radiology resident. The change in signal from IP to OP images was measured. The reviewers' evaluation of the lesions based on T1 and T2-weighted images was compared to their evaluation with inclusion of the OP sequences. Results Twenty-seven lesions in bone were analyzed: 4 malignant primary bone lesions, 3 malignant soft tissue lesions to bone, 3 metastases from visceral malignancies, and 17 benign bone lesions. Benign lesions of bone dropped in signal on OP imaging by an average of 37.1%. Five of the benign lesions decreased in signal by less than 20%, and two increased. Malignant bone lesions dropped in signal by an average of 0.69% with one of the ten lesions showing a greater than 20% drop. When OP sequences were included, concern for malignancy decreased in benign lesions and increased in malignant lesions, for both the resident and attending. Compared with standard MRI, inclusion of these sequences increased the overall confidence in diagnosis for both reviewers. Conclusion Opposed-phase imaging is helpful in differentiating benign from malignant lesions in bone. Confidence in diagnosis rose for both the attending and the resident as result of the inclusion of OP sequences. PMID:26730359

  8. SSAT/AHPBA Joint Symposium on Evaluation and Treatment of Benign Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yun Shin; House, Michael G.; Kaur, Harmeet; Loyer, Evelyne M.; Paradis, Valérie; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background Benign liver lesions are common incidental radiologic findings. Methods Experts convened in 2011 at a Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract/ Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association joint symposium to discuss the evaluation and treatment of benign liver lesions. Results Most benign liver lesions can be accurately diagnosed with high-quality imaging, including ultrasonography, multiphase computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, particularly with hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. Percutaneous biopsy is reserved for lesions that cannot be characterized radiographically, and its accuracy is improved with immunophenotypic markers. Hepatic cysts are the most commonly diagnosed benign liver lesions; these must be distinguished from malignant cystic lesions, which are rare. Among the solid benign liver lesions, hemangiomas and focal nodular hyperplasia seldom require treatment. In contrast, hepatocellular adenomas are associated with a risk for complications. A new classification system for hepatocellular adenomas based on genetic and phenotypic features can help guide patient care. In patients who are symptomatic or at risk for complications, multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment based on clinicopathologic, radiographic, and molecular analysis is needed. Conclusions Most benign liver lesions can be accurately diagnosed radiographically and do not require treatment. Treatment is necessary for patients with symptoms or at risk for complications. PMID:23377783

  9. Effects of High-Intensity-Focused Ultrasound Treatment on Benign Uterine Tumor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment on benign uterine tumor patients were examined. A total of 333 patients diagnosed with fibroids or adenomyosis using diagnostic sonography, treated with HIFU between February 4, 2010 and December 29, 2014 at a hospital in Korea, and followed up for three or six months were selected for this study. Their benign uterine tumor volume was measured, and the effects of HIFU treatment on the volume were analyzed according to age, disease, fertility, and treatment duration. The volume of benign tumors of the uterus changed by age in all age groups after conducting HIFU treatment for 3 and 6 months, respectively. The rate of decrease in individuals' in their twenties was the largest, at 64.9%. When the decreasing volume of benign tumors of the uterus was analyzed by type of disease, the treatment efficacy for adenomyosis was the best, with a decrease of 164.83 cm3 after 6 months. Myoma had the fastest decreasing rate, at 68.5%. When evaluated on the basis of fertility, the volume of benign tumors of the uterus continued to decrease until 6 months after completing all procedures. The volume has continued to decrease for 6 months after all procedures. This study showed that HIFU treatments for uterine fibroid and adenomyosis is an effective non-invasive therapy via reducing the benign uterine tumor volume. Therefore, the HIFU method might replace other conventional treatment methods. PMID:27478340

  10. Effects of High-Intensity-Focused Ultrasound Treatment on Benign Uterine Tumor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyoon; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the effects of high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment on benign uterine tumor patients were examined. A total of 333 patients diagnosed with fibroids or adenomyosis using diagnostic sonography, treated with HIFU between February 4, 2010 and December 29, 2014 at a hospital in Korea, and followed up for three or six months were selected for this study. Their benign uterine tumor volume was measured, and the effects of HIFU treatment on the volume were analyzed according to age, disease, fertility, and treatment duration. The volume of benign tumors of the uterus changed by age in all age groups after conducting HIFU treatment for 3 and 6 months, respectively. The rate of decrease in individuals' in their twenties was the largest, at 64.9%. When the decreasing volume of benign tumors of the uterus was analyzed by type of disease, the treatment efficacy for adenomyosis was the best, with a decrease of 164.83 cm(3) after 6 months. Myoma had the fastest decreasing rate, at 68.5%. When evaluated on the basis of fertility, the volume of benign tumors of the uterus continued to decrease until 6 months after completing all procedures. The volume has continued to decrease for 6 months after all procedures. This study showed that HIFU treatments for uterine fibroid and adenomyosis is an effective non-invasive therapy via reducing the benign uterine tumor volume. Therefore, the HIFU method might replace other conventional treatment methods. PMID:27478340

  11. Risk factors for deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism in benign ovarian tumor.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Mitsuru; Kotani, Yasushi; Umemoto, Masahiko; Tobiume, Takako; Tsuritani, Mitsuhiro; Shimaoka, Masao; Hoshiai, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) is a serious postoperative complication. Reported rates of PE following gynecologic surgery are between 0.3% and 0.8%, with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) as the major cause (via seeding of the lungs). Benign ovarian tumors are treated principally by surgery. Possible risk factors for DVT and PE in patients with benign ovarian tumors include tumor size, patient age, and obesity. To date, however, there has been no report addressing the association of these risk factors in patients with benign ovarian tumors. This study offers a retrospective analysis of the incident of preoperative DVT by age, tumor size, and BMI in patients undergoing surgery for benign ovarian tumors. A total of 843 Japanese patients with a preoperative diagnosis of benign ovarian tumor who underwent tumorectomy or adnexectomy at our institution between July 2003 and December 2010 were enrolled. The incidence of preoperative DVT was monitored and statistically stratified by age (< 50 years and ≥ 50 years), largest tumor diameter (< 10 cm and ≥ 10 cm), and BMI (< 25 and ≥ 25). The result indicates that tumor diameter of ≥ 10 cm is not a risk factor for preoperative DVT in patients with benign ovarian tumor. On the other hand, age ≥ 50 years and BMI > 25 are independent risk factors for preoperative DVT in Japan. The patients with each risk factor should be treated with preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative precautions against development of PE. PMID:21817850

  12. Imaging of the thyroid in benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Dam, Hung Q; Manzone, Timothy A; Kim, Sung M

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus

  13. Scalable and Environmentally Benign Process for Smart Textile Nanofinishing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jicheng; Hontañón, Esther; Blanes, Maria; Meyer, Jörg; Guo, Xiaoai; Santos, Laura; Paltrinieri, Laura; Ramlawi, Nabil; Smet, Louis C P M de; Nirschl, Hermann; Kruis, Frank Einar; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2016-06-15

    A major challenge in nanotechnology is that of determining how to introduce green and sustainable principles when assembling individual nanoscale elements to create working devices. For instance, textile nanofinishing is restricted by the many constraints of traditional pad-dry-cure processes, such as the use of costly chemical precursors to produce nanoparticles (NPs), the high liquid and energy consumption, the production of harmful liquid wastes, and multistep batch operations. By integrating low-cost, scalable, and environmentally benign aerosol processes of the type proposed here into textile nanofinishing, these constraints can be circumvented while leading to a new class of fabrics. The proposed one-step textile nanofinishing process relies on the diffusional deposition of aerosol NPs onto textile fibers. As proof of this concept, we deposit Ag NPs onto a range of textiles and assess their antimicrobial properties for two strains of bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The measurements show that the logarithmic reduction in bacterial count can get as high as ca. 5.5 (corresponding to a reduction efficiency of 99.96%) when the Ag loading is 1 order of magnitude less (10 ppm; i.e., 10 mg Ag NPs per kg of textile) than that of textiles treated by traditional wet-routes. The antimicrobial activity does not increase in proportion to the Ag content above 10 ppm as a consequence of a "saturation" effect. Such low NP loadings on antimicrobial textiles minimizes the risk to human health (during textile use) and to the ecosystem (after textile disposal), as well as it reduces potential changes in color and texture of the resulting textile products. After three washes, the release of Ag is in the order of 1 wt %, which is comparable to textiles nanofinished with wet routes using binders. Interestingly, the washed textiles exhibit almost no reduction in antimicrobial activity, much as those of as-deposited samples. Considering that a realm

  14. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    el Din, Amina A. Gamal; Badawi, Manal A.; Aal, Shereen E. Abdel; Ibrahim, Nihad A.; Morsy, Fatma A.; Shaffie, Nermeen M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKDROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is a leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy. Ovarian surface epithelial serous and mucinous tumours are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant. The identification of borderline tumours most likely to act aggressively remains an important clinical issue. AIM: This work aimed to study DNA ploidy and nuclear area in ovarian serous and mucinous; benign, borderline and malignant tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included forty ovarian (23 serous and 17 mucinous) tumours. Paraffin blocks were sectioned; stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and morphometric studies and with blue feulgen for DNA analysis. RESULTS: All four serous and six out of nine mucinous benign tumours were diploid. All eight serous and five mucinous malignant tumours were aneuploid. Nine of eleven (81.8%) serous and all three mucinous borderline tumours were aneuploid. There were highly significant differences in mean aneuploid cells percentage between serous benign (1.5%), borderline (45.6%) and malignant (74.5%) (p = 0.0001) and between mucinous benign (13.2%) and both borderline (63.7%) and malignant (68.4%) groups (p = 0.0001). There were significant differences in nuclear area between serous benign (26.191%), borderline (45.619%) and malignant (67.634 %) and a significant positive correlation between mean percentage aneuploid value and mean nuclear area in all serous and mucinous groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours. PMID:27275284

  15. Differentiating Benign from Malignant Bone Tumors Using Fluid-Fluid Level Features on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Cui, Sheng-Jie; Sun, Ying-Cai; Cui, Feng-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the χ2 test. Results The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. Conclusion The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors. PMID:25469087

  16. Benign breast lesions in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Nigeria: a 5 year multicentre histopathological audit

    PubMed Central

    Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. Methods This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. Results A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Conclusion Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state. PMID:25995790

  17. Bile proteomics for differentiation of malignant from benign biliary strictures: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; GK Venkatesh, Preethi; Willard, Belinda; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R; Parsi, Mansour A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Determining the etiology of biliary strictures is challenging, and the sensitivities of the current tests to diagnose them are low. Protein biomarkers in bile, in combination with other tests, may improve sensitivity in diagnosing biliary strictures. Objective: To analyse the differential abundance of proteins in benign and malignant biliary strictures through proteomic analysis of bile. Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, bile was aspirated in 24 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) including six patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), three with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), ten with pancreatic cancer, and five with benign biliary conditions. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the bile for differential abundance of protein biomarkers. The relative abundance of various proteins was compared in the malignant vs. benign groups and in CCA vs. PSC. Results: The majority of the proteins identified in bile were similar to those of the plasma (plasma proteins) and certain proteins were differentially expressed among the different groups (CCA, pancreatic cancer, PSC or benign). A total of 18 proteins were identified as being more abundant in the malignant group (CCA and pancreatic cancer) than in the benign strictures group, including myeloperoxidase, complement C3, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, apolipoprotein B-100, and kininogen-1 isoform 2. A total of 30 proteins were identified to be less abundant in the malignant group than in the benign group, including trefoil factor 2, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], kallikrein-1, carboxypeptidase B and trefoil factor 1. Conclusions: Protein biomarkers in bile may differentiate malignant from benign biliary strictures. Larger studies are warranted to validate these observations. PMID:25304323

  18. Benign infantile convulsion as a diagnostic clue of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is characterized by sudden attacks of involuntary movements. It is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness, which distresses the patients to a great extent. A correct diagnosis will improve the quality of life in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia because treatment with low doses of anticonvulsants is effective for eliminating the clinical manifestations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia can occur independently of or concurrently with benign infantile convulsion. Identification of PRRT2 as the causative gene of benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia allows genetic confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Case presentation We describe the clinical features of a Japanese family with either paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or benign infantile convulsion. A PRRT2 missense mutation (c.981C > G, p.Ile327Met) was identified in two patients with benign infantile convulsion and three patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia as well as in two unaffected individuals. Allowing incomplete penetrance in the mutation carriers, this mutation co-segregated completely with the phenotype. The patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia had been misdiagnosed with psychogenic illness for many years. They were correctly diagnosed with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia when their children visited a pediatrician for benign infantile convulsion. Treatment with carbamazepine controlled their involuntary movements completely. Conclusions Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a treatable movement disorder that is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness. It is important to note that two clinically distinct disorders, benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, are allelic conditions caused by PRRT2 mutations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia should be suspected in families with a child with benign infantile convulsion. PMID:24886244

  19. Personalized Medicine for Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Ge, Rongbin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects over 50 percent of men by age 60 and is the cause of millions of dollars of healthcare expenditure for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary obstruction. Despite the widespread use of medical therapy, there is no universal therapy that treats all men with symptomatic BPH, and at least 30% of patients do not respond to medical management and a subset require surgery. Significant advances have been made in understanding the natural history and development of the prostate, such as elucidating the role of the enzyme 5α reductase Type 2 (5AR2), and advances in genomics and biomarker discovery offer the potential for a more targeted approach to therapy. We review the current understanding of BPH progression as well as key genes and signaling pathways implicated in the process such as 5α reductase. We also explore the potential of biomarker screening and gene-specific therapies as tools to risk stratify BPH patients and identify those with symptomatic or medically resistant forms. Materials and Methods A PubMed® literature search of current and past peer-reviewed literature on prostate development, lower urinary tract symptoms, BPH pathogenesis, targeted therapy, biomarkers, epigenetics, 5AR2 and personalized medicine was performed. An additional Google Scholar™ search was conducted to broaden the scope of the review. Relevant reviews and original research articles were examined as well as their cited references, and a synopsis of original data was generated with the goal of informing the practicing urologist of these advances and their implications. Results BPH is associated with a state of hyperplasia of both the stromal and epithelial compartments, with 5AR2 and androgen signaling playing key roles in development and maintenance of the prostate. Chronic inflammation, multiple growth factor and hormonal signaling pathways, and medical comorbidities play an intricate role in prostate tissue

  20. Lumen-apposing covered self-expanding metal stent for management of benign gastrointestinal strictures

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Shounak; Buttar, Navtej S.; Gostout, Christopher; Levy, Michael J.; Martin, John; Petersen, Bret; Topazian, Mark; Wong Kee Song, Louis M.; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are safe and effective for endoscopic management of malignant gastrointestinal strictures, but there is limited experience with their use in refractory benign strictures. We assessed the use of a new lumen-apposing covered SEMS for the management of benign gastrointestinal strictures. Methods: A single-center case-series of five patients who underwent lumen-apposing covered SEMS placement for benign gastrointestinal strictures. Results: Three patients had a benign gastroduodenal stricture, one had a distal colonic anastomotic stricture, and one with complete gastrojejunal anastomotic stenosis underwent endoscopic creation of a new gastrojejunostomy. None of the patients developed any immediate or delayed stent-related adverse events. In two patients, the stents were left in place indefinitely. Stents were removed from the other three patients with successful resolution of their symptoms during follow-up. Conclusion: Lumen-apposing, fully covered SEMS appear to be safe and effective for management of selected benign gastrointestinal strictures. PMID:26793793

  1. The Profile of Heparanase Expression Distinguishes Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma from Benign Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Leandro Luongo; Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Oliveira, Olivia Capela Grimaldi; Matos, Maria Graciela Luongo; Kanda, Jossi Ledo; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The search for a specific marker that could help to distinguish between differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign lesions remains elusive in clinical practice. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-beta-glucoronidase implicated in the process of tumor invasion, and the heparanase-2 (HPSE2) modulates HPSE activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of heparanases in the development and differential diagnosis of follicular pattern thyroid lesions. Methods HPSE and HPSE2 expression by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry evaluation, western blot analysis and HPSE enzymatic activity were evaluated. Results The expression of heparanases by qRT-PCR showed an increase of HPSE2 in thyroid carcinoma (P = 0.001). HPSE activity was found to be higher in the malignant neoplasms than in the benign tumors (P<0.0001). On Western blot analysis, HPSE2 isoforms were detected only in malignant tumors. The immunohistochemical assay allowed us to establish a distinct pattern for malignant and benign tumors. Carcinomas showed a typical combination of positive labeling for neoplastic cells and negative immunostaining in colloid, when compared to benign tumors (P<0.0001). The proposed diagnostic test presents sensitivity and negative predictive value of around 100%, showing itself to be an accurate test for distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Conclusions This study shows, for the first time, a distinct profile of HPSE expression in thyroid carcinoma suggesting its role in carcinogenesis. PMID:26488476

  2. Chronic and recurrent benign lymphadenopathy without constitutional symptoms associated with human herpesvirus-6B reactivation.

    PubMed

    Forghieri, Fabio; Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Morselli, Monica; Bigliardi, Sara; Quadrelli, Chiara; Vallerini, Daniela; Maccaferri, Monica; Coluccio, Valeria; Paolini, Ambra; Colaci, Elisabetta; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Maiorana, Antonino; Tagliazucchi, Sara; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Mattioli, Francesco; Presutti, Livio; Gelmini, Roberta; Cermelli, Claudio; Rossi, Giulio; Comoli, Patrizia; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Potenza, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    Chronic/recurrent behaviour may be encountered in some distinct atypical or malignant lymphoproliferations, while recurrences are not generally observed in reactive/benign lymphadenopathies. We retrospectively analysed a consecutive series of 486 human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults, who underwent lymphadenectomy. Neoplastic and benign/reactive histopathological pictures were documented in 299 (61·5%) and 187 (38·5%) cases, respectively. Of note, seven of the 111 (6·3%) patients with benign lymphadenopathy without well-defined aetiology, showed chronic/recurrent behaviour, without constitutional symptoms. Enlarged lymph nodes were round in shape and hypoechoic, mimicking lymphoma. Reactive follicular hyperplasia and paracortical expansion were observed. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6B positive staining in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) was documented in all seven patients. Serological, molecular and immunological examinations suggested HHV-6B reactivation. Among the remaining 104 cases with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the absence of well-known aetiology and without recurrences, positivity for HHV-6B on FDCs was found in three cases, whereas in seven further patients, a scanty positivity was documented in rare, scattered cells in inter-follicular regions. Immunohistochemistry for HHV-6A and HHV-6B was invariably negative on 134 lymph nodes, with either benign pictures with known aetiology or malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, tested as further controls. Future studies are warranted to investigate a potential association between HHV-6B reactivation and chronic/recurrent benign lymphadenopathy. PMID:26684692

  3. Benign scalp lump as an unusual presentation of extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min Wei; King, Nicolas K. K.; Selvarajan, Sathiyamoorthy; Low, David C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare benign histioproliferative disease. It is typically characterized by benign histiocyte proliferation with lymphadenopathy, fever, and leukocytosis and was first described in 1969 by Rosai and Dorfman. Extranodal involvement has been reported in approximately up to 43% of the cases with isolated central nervous system (CNS) manifestations being even rarer. Case Description: We report our management of a 41-year-old female with extranodalpurely CNS RDD presenting as a benign scalp lump. Her lump progressed from an asymptomatic benign lesion to one causing localized cerebral edema. Treatment was surgical excision of both the cervical and CNS lesions achieving complete removal of the lesions and resolution of her symptoms. Conclusion: RDD is a rare condition and isolated CNS RDD is even less common. Benign scalp lumps have a myriad of differential diagnoses, but RDD should be a consideration in the presence of preexisting RDD lesions at other sites given its potential to progress and result in morbidity. It is imperative to be aware that symptoms may be especially deceiving as the absence of lymphadenopathy may point away from RDD as the diagnosis. PMID:25024899

  4. Hypervascular Benign and Malignant Liver Tumors That Require Differentiation from Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Key Points of Imaging Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takamichi; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu

    2014-01-01

    Most liver tumors are benign and hypervascular, and it is important to avoid unnecessary interventions for benign lesions. This review describes the typical and atypical imaging features of common hypervascular benign liver tumors and outlines a general approach to distinguishing between benign and malignant hepatic lesions. There are many types of benign liver tumors that need to be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, it is very important to know the imaging characteristics of benign tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is helpful in diagnosing hypervascular pseudotumors, focal nodular hyperplasia, and nodular lesions associated with alcohol-induced hepatitis. There are also some hypervascular malignant tumors, such as cholangiocarcinoma, cholangiolocellular carcinoma, mixed type tumors, and metastatic liver tumors, which also required differentiation from HCC. PMID:24944999

  5. Some Renal Masses Did Not "Read the Book": A Case of a High Grade Hybrid Renal Tumor Masquerading as a Renal Cyst on Non-contrast Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Hal D; Parker, Daniel C; Gohil, Dharam; Musial, Rachel; Edwards, Kristin; Kutikov, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid renal tumors (HRT) are rare neoplasms that contain both benign and malignant components. Sporadic solitary HRT that contain high-grade malignant pathology appear to be extremely rare [1]. We describe a case at our institution of a tumor that was characterized as a type-2 papillary RCC and atypical oncocytoma hybrid that mimicked a simple cyst on non-contrast computed tomography. PMID:26793558

  6. Mesothelial Cells Within Vascular Transformation of Mediastinal Lymph Node Sinuses: An Unusual Benign Collision Mimicking Colliding Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Mark N; Tawil, Ayman N; Boulos, Fouad I

    2016-04-01

    Vascular transformation of lymph node sinuses represents a rare benign entity mimicking malignant counterparts such as nodal Kaposi sarcoma. The presence of mildly atypical benign mesothelial cells within nodal sinuses raises the possibility of metastatic malignancy. Herein, a rare case of vascular transformation of lymph node sinuses with reactive sinusoidal mesothelial cells is outlined as a unique benign pathology and a potential mimicker of a malignant collision tumor. PMID:26689690

  7. Time resolved optical biopsy spectroscopy of normal, benign and malignant tissues from NADH and FAD changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, V.; Das, B. B.; Secor, J.; AlSalhi, M.; Amer, S. B.; Farhat, K.; Rabah, D.; Alfano, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Histo pathological examination is the gold standard to discriminate between benign and malignant growth of tissue. But this is invasive and stressful. Hence many non invasive imaging techniques, such as CT, MRI, PET, etc are employed, each having certain advantages and disadvantages. In this context optical biopsy is a newly emerging technique, since it employs non-ionizing radiation like light or laser, which could be shined directly or launched through optical fiber to reach any part of the body. This paper reports results of time resolved emission spectra of 24 excised tissue sample (normal control=12; benign=4; malignant=8) of breast and prostate, employing a 390nm, 100 fs, Ti-Sapphire laser pulses. The fluorescence decay times were measured using streak camera and fitted for single and bi- exponential decays with reliability of 97%. Our results show the distinct difference between normal, benign and malignant tissues attributed changes of NADH and FAD levels.

  8. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    SciTech Connect

    Millunchick, Cheryl Hope

    2013-07-01

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant.

  9. Discrimination between benign and malignant lesions of the breast using ultrasound disparity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.; Carlson, Donald L.; Birnbaum, Julia A.

    2001-05-01

    A technique called disparity mapping (DM) processes pairs of ultrasound B-scan images collected while a sonographer varies the probe pressure slightly on the breast surface. Dm measures the apparent displacement of the tissue about each image point and subsequently constructs a correlation map which represents the similarity between the speckle patterns around each point. The continuity of the lesion perimeter in the correlation image is used to separate benign from malignant lesions, with high continuity corresponding well with benign lesions and highly segmented perimeters correlating with malignancies. Twenty five solid masses were evaluated, and the results were compared with histology from core or surgical biopsy, or with cytology from fine needle aspiration. The results analyzed all lesions correctly (15 cancers and 10 benign lesions). There were no false positives or false negatives. The results suggest that DM may be a useful tool in digitally diagnosing breast lesions and consequently in reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  10. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting in the Management of a Benign Colonic Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jessamy, Kegan; Ozden, Nuri; Simon, Howard M.; Kobrossi, Semaan; Ubagharaji, Ezinnaya

    2016-01-01

    Colonic postanastomotic strictures occur in 1.5–8% of patients following colorectal surgery. Traditionally, colonic strictures were treated by multiple modalities including endoscopic dilatation. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have been indicated in the management of benign colonic strictures; however, there are limited available data with regard to their efficacy. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who had perforated sigmoid diverticulitis followed by Hartmann's procedure with eventual reanastomosis 6 months later. He subsequently developed benign colonic stricture, which was treated with a metal stent. SEMS are associated with a low mortality rate and are appropriate in treating acute colonic obstruction as a result of benign stricture in the setting of postanastomosis. PMID:27403114

  11. Ductal carcinoma in situ in a benign phyllodes tumor of breast: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2014-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor (PT) is an uncommon tumor of female breast. The tumor clinically, radiologically, cytologically as well as histologically can mimic fibroadenoma which is a common tumor of fibroepithelial group. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the epithelial component of PT is very rare. We report a rare case of intermediate grade DCIS arising in a benign PT in a 42-year-old lady. The patient presented with a small nodule in right breast along with serosanguineous discharge from nipple. Ultrasonography and cytology failed to distinguish between fibroadenoma and PT. Histopathological examination following wide local excision displayed the biphasic tumor comprising of benign looking cellular stroma and epithelial lining. It also demonstrated the foci of intermediate grade DCIS without any invasive component. Considering the clinicoradiological profile along with histopathological features, the diagnosis of DCIS in a benign PT of breast was made. PMID:25097439

  12. Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood: two cases with positive evolution.

    PubMed

    Villéga, Frédéric; Picard, Fabienne; Espil-Taris, Caroline; Husson, Marie; Michel, Véronique; Pedespan, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia (BNAH) of childhood is distinct from the classic form of malignant alternating hemiplegia of childhood [1]. It is characterized by hemiplegic attacks occurring exclusively during sleep [2]. It can be misdiagnosed as migraine, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, benign rolandic epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, or sleep-related movement disorder [1-4]. Only nine patients have been described to date, with typically, a normal development [1,5-7]. In order to insist about the benignity of the affection, we report two cases: a new three-year-old boy suffering from BNAH and a patient already published to show positive evolution at fourteen years of age. BNAH is a rare disorder but may be underdiagnosed. Making an early diagnosis can help to describe to the parents the good prognosis without treatment. PMID:20817433

  13. Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2011-09-01

    Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

  14. [Benign and malignant granular cell tumors. An immunohistochemical classification of tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1987-06-15

    Eight benign and three malignant granular cell tumors were characterized by means of antibodies and antisera against keratin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, factor VIII-related protein, lysozyme, myelin basic protein, myoglobin, neurone-specific enolase, S 100 protein, myelin-associated protein (Leu 7), glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and neurofilament. All benign granular cell tumours showed positive staining of the tumor cells to antibodies against vimentin, S 100 protein, and neurone-specific enolase; myelin-associated protein (Leu 7), in contrast, was only detectable in a few tumor sections. Histogenetically the granular cells may be classified as Schwann's cells which lost their expression of laminin. The three malignant granular cell tumors showed a staining pattern significantly different from that of the benign tumours. Thus, only neurone-specific enolase was detectable in all the tumors, whereas S 100 protein and vimentin could not be demonstrated but in one and two, resp., out of three tumors. PMID:3303714

  15. [Do envious people show better performance?: Focusing on the function of benign envy as personality trait].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Masato; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the differences between two, subtypes of envy known as "benign envy" and "malicious envy" as personality traits, and examined the effects of these traits on academic achievement. Two hundred fifty-one university students participated in the study. Both benign envy and malicious envy were found to be independent as also found in a previous study by Lange & Crusius (2015), and a high criterion-related validity was revealed by an association with characteristic variables such as dispositional envy and self-esteem. The students with higher levels of benign envy were found to set goals higher, and as a result achieved higher levels of academic performance. In contrast, no such effect was found for malicious envy. The importance of focusing more attention on the positive aspects of the emotion of envy is discussed. PMID:27476271

  16. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M; Bryson, E I; Kark, A E

    1980-01-01

    Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed in 42 patients with cancer and 24 with benign conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The relations of dietary intake to body composition was examined. Resulting metabolic rate was measured in 51 patients. No significant differences in dietary intake or metabolic rate were found between patients with cancer and those with benign disease. There were significant positive correlations between protein and energy intakes and the ratio of total body potassium to total body water in patients with benign disease but not in those with cancer. Weight loss was probably due to inadequate food intake, the main defect being energy deficiency, since protein intake was usually well maintained. Supplementing with energy the voluntary ingested diet of patients with cancer would probably prevent weight loss in most cases. PMID:7427083

  17. Can Spectral CT Imaging Improve the Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Solitary Pulmonary Nodules?

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xiaolan; Yu, Mingji; Xu, Chengdong; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Jianrong; Wu, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To quantitatively assess the value of dual-energy CT (DECT) in differentiating malignancy and benignity of solitary pulmonary nodules. Materials and Methods Sixty-three patients with solitary pulmonary nodules detected by CT plain scan underwent contrast enhanced CT scans in arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP) with spectral imaging mode for tumor type differentiation. The Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) viewer was used for image display and data analysis. Region of interest was placed on the relatively homogeneous area of the nodule to measure iodine concentration (IC) on iodine-based material decomposition images and CT numbers on monochromatic image sets to generate spectral HU curve. Normalized IC (NIC), slope of the spectral HU curve (λHU) and net CT number enhancement on 70keV images were calculated. The two-sample t-test was used to compare quantitative parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Results There were 63 nodules, with 37 malignant nodules (59%) and 26 benign nodules (41%). NIC, λHU and net CT number enhancement on 70keV images for malignant nodules were all greater than those of benign nodules. NIC and λHU had intermediate to high performances to differentiate malignant nodules from benign ones with the areas under curve of 0.89 and 0.86 respectively in AP, 0.96 and 0.89 respectively in VP. Using 0.30 as a threshold value for NIC in VP, one could obtain sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 85.7% for differentiating malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules. These values were statistically higher than the corresponding values of 74.2% and 53.8% obtained with the conventional CT number enhancement. Conclusions DECT imaging with GSI mode provides more promising value in quantitative way for distinguishing malignant nodules from benign ones than CT enhancement numbers. PMID:26840459

  18. Obesity and future prostate cancer risk among men after an initial benign biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background In general population studies, obesity has been associated with risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa), but little is known about obesity and future PCa risk among men with an initial benign biopsy of the prostate; a high risk population. Methods Within a cohort of 6,692 men followed up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 494 PCa cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy vs. TURP and date of procedure. Body mass index at the time of the initial procedure was abstracted from medical records and initial biopsy specimens were reviewed for the presence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Results Obesity was associated with the presence of PIN in the initial benign specimen (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.13, 4.11). After adjustment for the matching variables, family history of PCa, PSA levels at the initial procedure, the number of PSA tests and DRE during follow-up, obesity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.07, 2.30) at the time of the initial procedure was associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Risk associated with obesity was confined to cases with follow-up less than 1,538 days, the median duration of follow-up among cases (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.09, 3.48). Conclusions Obesity is associated with the presence of PIN in benign specimens and with future PCa risk after an initial benign finding. Impact Obesity may be a factor to consider when planning clinical follow-up after a benign biopsy. PMID:23613026

  19. Evaluation of the results of surgery treatment in patients with benign lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri; Nasiri, Zakiyeh; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16. Results: The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%). Conclusions: Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method. PMID:25624593

  20. Value of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Differentiating Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt Bostan, Tuğba; Koç, Gonca; Sezgin, Gülten; Altay, Canan; Fazıl Gelal, M.; Oyar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a diagnostic and problem solving method for the breast examinations in addition to conventional breast examination methods. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) adds valuable information to conventional MRI. Aims: Our aim was to show the impact of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values acquired with DWI to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Forty-six women with 58 breast masses (35 malignant, 23 benign) were examined on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. The morphologic characteristics of the lesions on conventional MRI sequences and contrast uptake pattern were assessed. ADC values of both lesions and normal breast parenchyma were measured. The ADC values obtained were statistically compared with the histopathologic results using Paired Samples t-Test. Results: Multiple lesions were detected in 12 (26%) of the patients, while only one lesion was detected in 34 (74%). Overall, 35 lesions out of 58 were histopathologically proven to be malignant. In the dynamic contrast-enhanced series, 5 of the malignant lesions were type 1, while 8 benign lesions revealed either type 2 or 3 time signal intensity curves (85% sensitivity, 56% spesifity). Mean ADC values were significantly different in malignant vs. benign lesions. (1.04±0.29×10−3 cm2/sec vs. 1.61±0.50×10−3 cm2/sec for the malignant and benign lesions, respectively, p=0.03). A cut-off value of 1.30×10−3 mm2/sec for ADC detected with receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded 89.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusion: ADC values improve the diagnostic accuracy of solid breast lesions when evaluated with the conventional MRI sequences. Therefore, DWI should be incorporated to routine breast MRI protocol. PMID:27308073

  1. Integrated imaging of hepatic tumors in childhood. Part II. Benign lesions (congenital, reparative, and inflammatory)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenspan, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have encountered benign liver masses as frequently as malignant lesions in children with hepatomegaly. Lesions studied included abscesses, cavernous hemangioma/hemangioendothelioma, adenoma of glycogen storage disease, choledochal cysts, focal nodular hyperplasia, cystic hepatoblastoma, and hamartoma. An intergrated imaging protocol involving ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy proved to be more helpful than any one modality in establishing the benign or malignant nature of a hepatic neoplasm and the type of tumor, which is of particular importance when surgical exploration and/or biopsy is contraindicated.

  2. Benign liver lesions: grey-scale and contrast-enhanced ultrasound appearances

    PubMed Central

    Obaro, A E

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is often the first point of detection of liver lesions, with up to 75% of liver lesions detected at ultrasound having benign histology. In 2012, NICE issued recommendations that ultrasound contrast be used for the evaluation of incidentally discovered liver lesions. This has been demonstrated to provide a rapid and cost-effective evaluation for incidental liver lesions, in many cases precluding the need for further CT or MRI scans. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the ultrasound features of benign liver lesions, and to demonstrate their further characterisation with contrast ultrasound.

  3. A solitary pleural metastasis of benign giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Ai; Doi, Masatomo; Hoshikawa, Masahiro; Hayashi, Akinobu; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) usually appears as a benign tumor. We describe an extremely rare case of a metastatic pleural tumor arising from a benign GCTB. The patient had undergone radial resection of a GCTB in his left wrist. After 6 years, he was sent to us for diagnosis of a large mass detected upon routine radiographic screening. We resected the tumor, which was found to be a solitary pleural metastasis of GCTB and had evidently spread arterially. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind. PMID:27516881

  4. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition. PMID:27476121

  5. Nocturnal variant of benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy: a case series.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Aparna M; Pathak, Sheel; Khurana, Divya; Legido, Agustin; Carvalho, Karen; Valencia, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Myoclonus is a brief, rapid, involuntary muscle jerk originating in the central nervous system that can be physiological or a symptom of disease. We report a group of five children with excessive myoclonic jerks, only during sleep, and abnormal EEG during the events. Although only one third of the events had EEG epileptiform correlate, the presence of myoclonus without epileptiform EEG correlate has been described in patients with benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. We hypothesize that these findings may represent a variant of benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. PMID:24691296

  6. [A paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome reversible after resection of a benign schwannoma: a paraneoplastic syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Slimani, S; Sahraoui, M; Bennadji, A; Ladjouze-Rezig, A

    2014-08-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes commonly occur in malignancies and often precede the first symptoms of the tumor. By definition, paraneoplastic syndromes are only associated with malignancies although some exceptions have been reported, occurring with benign tumors. We report a patient presenting with a clinical and serological Sharp syndrome, followed a few months later by a cervical schwannoma. Curative surgical resection of the mass resulted in a clinical and serological healing from the Sharp syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a benign schwannoma complicated by a possible paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome. PMID:24951380

  7. Outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic stenting has become a widely method for the management of various malignant and benign pancreatico-biliary disorders. Biliary and pancreatic stents are devices made of plastic or metal used primarily to establish patency of an obstructed bile or pancreatic duct and may also be used to treat biliary or pancreatic leaks, pancreatic fluid collections and to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases. PMID:26290631

  8. Which Is the Ideal Treatment for Benign Diffuse and Multinodular Non-Toxic Goiters?

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Patients with large benign goiters often present local compressive symptoms that require surgical treatment, including dysphagia, neck tightness, and airway obstruction. In contrast, patients with such goiters who remain asymptomatic may be observed after exclusion of malignancy. The use of levothyroxine (LT4) to reduce the volume of the goiter is still a controversial treatment for large goiters, and the optimal surgical procedure for multinodular goiter is still debatable. Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment option when used alone or in combination with recombinant human TSH. This review discusses current therapeutic options to treat diffuse and multinodular non-toxic benign goiters. PMID:27242669

  9. Mechanical characterization of benign and malignant urothelial cells from voided urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Geddie, William B.; Sun, Yu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether mechanical differences exist between benign and malignant urothelial cells in voided urine. The Young's modulus of individual cells was measured using the micropipette aspiration technique. Malignant urothelial cells showed significantly lower Young's modulus values compared to benign urothelial cells. The results indicate that Young's modulus as a biomechanical marker could possibly provide additional information to conventional urinary cytology. We hope that these preliminary results could evoke attention to mechanical characterization of urine cells and spark interest in the development of biomechanical approaches to enhance non-invasive urothelial carcinoma detection.

  10. Contact method to allow benign failure in ceramic capacitor having self-clearing feature

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, John D.; Taylor, Ralph S.

    2012-06-26

    A capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode has a first electrode layer, a first ceramic dielectric layer deposited on a surface of the first electrode, and a second electrode layer disposed on the ceramic dielectric layer, wherein selected areas of the ceramic dielectric layer have additional dielectric material of sufficient thickness to exhibit a higher dielectric breakdown voltage than the remaining majority of the dielectric layer. The added thickness of the dielectric layer in selected areas allows lead connections to be made at the selected areas of greater dielectric thickness while substantially eliminating a risk of dielectric breakdown and failure at the lead connections, whereby the benign failure mode is preserved.

  11. Outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-08-14

    Endoscopic stenting has become a widely method for the management of various malignant and benign pancreatico-biliary disorders. Biliary and pancreatic stents are devices made of plastic or metal used primarily to establish patency of an obstructed bile or pancreatic duct and may also be used to treat biliary or pancreatic leaks, pancreatic fluid collections and to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases. PMID:26290631

  12. Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Diseases: What is the Price to be Paid?

    PubMed Central

    Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Chowdary, Prashanth Basappa; Patanki, Adithya Malolan; Ishwar, Mahalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Total thyroidectomy has been used to treat patients with malignant thyroid disease. But for patients with benign thyroid disease, the safety and efficacy of total thyroidectomy is a matter of debate. Subtotal thyroidectomy that was previously the treatment of choice for benign thyroid disease has been associated with high recurrence rates. The risk of permanent complications is greatly increased in patients who undergo surgery for recurrence of benign thyroid disease. Total thyroidectomy is an operation that can be safely performed, with low incidence of permanent complications, which allows one to broaden its indications in various benign thyroid diseases, thus avoiding future recurrences and reoperations. Aim To assess the benefits of total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid diseases. Materials and Methods This randomized prospective study was conducted between Feb 2013 and Nov 2014 in the Department of General Surgery at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute. It included 116 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy procedure for benign thyroid disease. All cases were followed-up for a period of 6 months for incidence of RLN palsy, hypoparathyroidism, disease recurrence and number of incidental malignancies detected on postoperative histological analyses of the thyroid specimens. Results Most of the patients were in the third decade of their lives. The female to male ratio was 6.7:1. Total thyroidectomy was done for 116 benign thyroid diseases with multinodular goiter as the most common diagnosis. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcaemia was 16.37% (however, only 1 patient developed permanent hypocalcaemia) and that of wound infection was 2.58% and seroma formation was 2.58%. None of the patients included in this study had haematoma formation or RLN paralysis. An incidental malignancy was identified in 11.20% patients. Conclusion Total thyroidectomy shows benefits in eradicating multinodular goiter, alleviating Grave’s opthalmopathy

  13. Social perception in children with intellectual disabilities: the interpretation of benign and hostile intentions.

    PubMed

    Leffert, J S; Siperstein, G N; Widaman, K F

    2010-02-01

    A key aspect of social perception is the interpretation of others' intentions. Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have difficulty interpreting benign intentions when a negative event occurs. From a cognitive processing perspective, interpreting benign intentions can be challenging because it requires integration of conflicting information, as the social cues accompanying the negative event convey non-hostile intentions. The present study examined how children with ID process conflicting social information in a more diverse set of situational circumstances than was investigated previously, including situations involving hostile intentions. We hypothesised that when conflicting information in a social situation consists of mixed social cues that convey insincere benign intentions (a type of hostile intentions), children with ID would have difficulty arriving at an accurate interpretation, just as they do when a negative event is accompanied by cues that convey benign intentions. We also hypothesised that when a negative event is accompanied by cues that convey benign intentions, the presence of a highly salient negative event would pose added interpretation difficulty for these children. Methods Participants (58 children with ID and 189 children without ID in grades 2-6) viewed 13 videotaped vignettes. In each vignette, social cues that accompanied a negative event provided information about the intentions of the character that caused the event. After presenting each vignette, we asked the child questions designed to assess aspects of social perception, including his/her interpretation of intentions. Vignettes represented three types of situations that pose conflicting information: (1) a conflict between a negative event and social cues, which conveyed benign intentions (five items); (2) the presence of conflicting social cues that conveyed insincere benign intentions (four items); and (3) additional items designed to examine the effect of the salience of

  14. Benign liver tumors in pediatric patients - Review with emphasis on imaging features.

    PubMed

    Chiorean, Liliana; Cui, Xin-Wu; Tannapfel, Andrea; Franke, Doris; Stenzel, Martin; Kosiak, Wojciech; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jüngert, Jörg; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-07-28

    Benign hepatic tumors are commonly observed in adults, but rarely reported in children. The reasons for this remain speculative and the exact data concerning the incidence of these lesions are lacking. Benign hepatic tumors represent a diverse group of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. In pediatric patients, most benign focal liver lesions are inborn and may grow like the rest of the body. Knowledge of pediatric liver diseases and their imaging appearances is essential in order to make an appropriate differential diagnosis. Selection of the appropriate imaging test is challenging, since it depends on a number of age-related factors. This paper will discuss the most frequently encountered benign liver tumors in children (infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatocellular adenoma), as well as a comparison to the current knowledge regarding such tumors in adult patients. The current emphasis is on imaging features, which are helpful not only for the initial diagnosis, but also for pre- and post-treatment evaluation and follow-up. In addition, future perspectives of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in pediatric patients are highlighted, with descriptions of enhancement patterns for each lesion being discussed. The role of advanced imaging tests such as CEUS and magnetic resonance imaging, which allow for non-invasive assessment of liver tumors, is of utmost importance in pediatric patients, especially when repeated imaging tests are needed and radiation exposure should be avoided. PMID:26229397

  15. Partial sialoadenectomy for the treatment of benign tumours in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Ge, N; Peng, X; Zhang, L; Cai, Z-G; Guo, C-B; Yu, G-Y

    2016-06-01

    The conventional treatment for benign tumours arising in the submandibular gland (SMG) has always involved whole gland excision with the tumour. In light of developments in parotid gland functional surgery, this prospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of partial sialoadenectomy (PS) for benign tumours in comparison with conventional total sialoadenectomy (TS). Thirty-one consecutive patients with a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumour in the SMG were included in the study from December 2008 to December 2010. Eleven patients were treated with PS and 20 patients underwent conventional TS. Salivary gland function and surgery-related complications were assessed. No difference in resting saliva flow was found between the two groups before the operation, while this was significantly higher in the PS group than in the TS group at 1 year after surgery (P=0.009). With regard to complications, there was less deformity in facial appearance in the PS group. There was no recurrence in any of the 31 patients during the follow-up period (range 41-82 months). It is believed that this modification to SMG surgery is consistent with the idea of functional and minimal invasive salivary gland surgery. This technique represents a good choice for the management of benign tumours of the SMG for appropriately selected cases. PMID:26970852

  16. Language in Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centro-Temporal Spikes Abbreviated Form: Rolandic Epilepsy and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monjauze, C.; Tuller, L.; Hommet, C.; Barthez, M.A.; Khomsi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Although Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) has a good prognosis, a few studies have suggested the existence of language disorders relating to the interictal dysfunction of perisylvian language areas. In this study, we focused on language assessment in 16 children aged 6-15 currently affected by BECTS or in remission. An…

  17. Benign liver tumors in pediatric patients - Review with emphasis on imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, Liliana; Cui, Xin-Wu; Tannapfel, Andrea; Franke, Doris; Stenzel, Martin; Kosiak, Wojciech; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jüngert, Jörg; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    Benign hepatic tumors are commonly observed in adults, but rarely reported in children. The reasons for this remain speculative and the exact data concerning the incidence of these lesions are lacking. Benign hepatic tumors represent a diverse group of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. In pediatric patients, most benign focal liver lesions are inborn and may grow like the rest of the body. Knowledge of pediatric liver diseases and their imaging appearances is essential in order to make an appropriate differential diagnosis. Selection of the appropriate imaging test is challenging, since it depends on a number of age-related factors. This paper will discuss the most frequently encountered benign liver tumors in children (infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatocellular adenoma), as well as a comparison to the current knowledge regarding such tumors in adult patients. The current emphasis is on imaging features, which are helpful not only for the initial diagnosis, but also for pre- and post-treatment evaluation and follow-up. In addition, future perspectives of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in pediatric patients are highlighted, with descriptions of enhancement patterns for each lesion being discussed. The role of advanced imaging tests such as CEUS and magnetic resonance imaging, which allow for non-invasive assessment of liver tumors, is of utmost importance in pediatric patients, especially when repeated imaging tests are needed and radiation exposure should be avoided. PMID:26229397

  18. Fully versus partially covered self-expandable metal stents in benign esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, A; Lecleire, S; Di Fiore, A; Huet, E; Iwanicki-Caron, I; Antonietti, M; Michel, P

    2015-10-01

    Self-expandable plastic stents are currently recommended for refractory benign esophageal strictures but they show disappointing results in terms of migration and long-term efficacy. We report here our experience in the management of benign esophageal strictures with partially covered (PCSEMS) and fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS). We performed a retrospective analysis of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placements for benign esophageal strictures from 1998 to 2011 in Rouen University Hospital. Twenty-two patients (15 men, 7 women) attempted 40 esophageal SEMS placements (17 PCSEMS, 23 FCSEMS) during this period. All technical complications were migrations. Migration was noted after 3/17 PCSEMS (17.6%) and 4/23 FCSEMS placement (17.4%, P = ns). Clinical complications occurred after 6/17 PCSEMS and 2/23 FCSEMS placements (35.3% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.053). PCSEMS caused two major complications (fistulae) whereas FCSEMS did not cause any major complication (11.7% vs. 0%). Mean dysphagia score was significantly lower after SEMS placement (1.68 vs. 3.08, P < 0.001) with similar results for PCSEMS and FCSEMS. Stent placement resulted in long-term clinical success for 23.5% of PCSEMS and 34.7% of FCSEMS (P = 0.0505). FCSEMS provide satisfying clinical success rate with an acceptable complication rate and they could constitute a relevant therapeutic option in the management of benign esophageal strictures. PMID:25168061

  19. Cranialization of the Frontal Sinus for Secondary Mucocele Prevention following Open Surgery for Benign Frontal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Gilad; Amit, Moran; Ben-Ari, Oded; Gil, Ziv; Abergel, Abraham; Margalit, Nevo; Cavel, Oren; Wasserzug, Oshri; Fliss, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. Study Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Patients Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. Interventions Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59%) or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%). Main Outcome Measures The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. Results Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%), mucocele (n = 27, 39%), fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%), and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%). Complications included skin infections (n = 6), postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1), telecanthus (n = 4), diplopia (n = 3), nasal deformity (n = 2) and epiphora (n = 1). None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001). Conclusion Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions. PMID:24376760

  20. [FEATURES MICROECOLOGY GENITAL TRACT IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE WITH BENIGN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Koblosh, N D

    2015-01-01

    In the article we may see the results of microbiological investigation of secretion from genital tracts in women with the benign pathology of uterus cervix. The outcomes specify the disorders of microecology of genital tracts in these women following the proliferation of conditionally pathogenic flora, the increase of viral infection and the increase in the frequency of diagnostic of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:27491159