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Sample records for benoxaprofen human polymorphonuclear

  1. Glucuronidation and Covalent Protein Binding of Benoxaprofen and Flunoxaprofen in Sandwich-Cultured Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jennifer Q.

    2009-01-01

    Benoxaprofen (BNX), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that was withdrawn because of hepatotoxicity, is more toxic than its structural analog flunoxaprofen (FLX) in humans and rats. Acyl glucuronides have been hypothesized to be reactive metabolites and may be associated with toxicity. Both time- and concentration-dependent glucuronidation and covalent binding of BNX, FLX, and ibuprofen (IBP) were determined by exposing sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes to each NSAID. The levels of glucuronide and covalent protein adduct measured in cells followed the order BNX > FLX > IBP. These results indicate that 1) BNX-glucuronide (G) is more reactive than FLX-G, and 2) IBP-G is the least reactive metabolite, which support previous in vivo studies in rats. The proportional increases of protein adduct formation for BNX, FLX, and IBP as acyl glucuronidation increased also support the hypothesis that part of the covalent binding of all three NSAIDs to hepatic proteins is acyl glucuronide-dependent. Moreover, theses studies confirmed the feasibility of using sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes for studying glucuronidation and covalent binding to hepatocellular proteins. These studies also showed that these in vitro methods can be applied using human tissues for the study of acyl glucuronide reactivity. More BNX-protein adduct was formed in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes than FLX-protein adduct, which not only agreed with its relative toxicity in humans but also was consistent with the in vitro findings using rat hepatocyte cultures. These data support the use of sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes as an in vitro screening model of acyl glucuronide exposure and reactivity. PMID:19773537

  2. Intracellular Penetration and Activity of Gemifloxacin in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    García, Isabel; Pascual, Alvaro; Ballesta, Sofía; Joyanes, Providencia; Perea, Evelio J.

    2000-01-01

    The intracellular penetration and activity of gemifloxacin in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were evaluated. Gemifloxacin reached intracellular concentrations eight times higher than extracellular concentrations. The uptake was rapid, reversible, and nonsaturable and was affected by environmental temperature, cell viability, and membrane stimuli. At therapeutic extracellular concentrations, gemifloxacin showed intracellular activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:11036051

  3. Effect of plastic catheters on the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    López-López, G; Pascual, A; Perea, E J

    1990-05-01

    The effect of five kinds of plastic catheters (polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, polyurethane, Vialon and siliconized latex) on the phagocytic and bactericidal function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was evaluated. In the presence of the polyvinyl chloride, Teflon and siliconized latex catheters, superoxide radical production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes was significantly inhibited. The effect of the siliconized latex catheter was presumably mediated by products eluted from the catheter into the medium, since the incubation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in eluates obtained from the incubation of this catheter in buffer induced a similar inhibitory effect. This phenomenon was not observed with polyurethane or Vialon catheters. Neither the catheters evaluated nor their eluates affected the uptake of opsonized Staphylococcus aureus by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is concluded that the polyvinyl chloride, Teflon and siliconized latex catheters used in this study could impair the respiratory burst of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:2164932

  4. Phospholipid turnover during phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    García Gil, Merche; Alonso, Fernando; Alvarez Chiva, Vicente; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano; Mato, José M.

    1982-01-01

    We have previously observed that the phagocytosis of zymosan particles coated with complement by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes is accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation [García Gil, Alonso, Sánchez Crespo & Mato (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101, 740–748]. The present studies show that phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a cholinephosphotransferase reaction is enhanced, up to 3-fold, during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. This effect was tested by both measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine in cells labelled with [Me-14C]choline, and by assaying the activity of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. The time course of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activation by zymosan mirrors the inhibition of phospholipid methyltransferase activity previously reported. The extent of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine induced by various doses of zymosan correlates with the physiological response of the cells to this stimulus. This effect was specific for phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine turnover was not affected by zymosan. The purpose of this enhanced phosphatidylcholine synthesis is not to provide phospholipid molecules rich in arachidonic acid. The present studies show that about 80% of the arachidonic acid generated in response to zymosan derives from phosphatidylinositol. A transient accumulation of arachidonoyldiacylglycerol has also been observed, which indicates that a phospholipase C is responsible, at least in part, for the generation of arachidonic acid. Finally, isobutylmethylxanthine and quinacrine, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol turnover, inhibit both arachidonic acid generation and phagocytosis, indicating a function for this pathway during this process. PMID:6181780

  5. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. , Decatur, GA )

    1990-06-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses the oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Criss, Alison K.; Seifert, H. Steven

    2008-01-01

    Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) results in a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-driven inflammatory response, but the mechanisms by which Gc withstands PMN attack are poorly defined. Here we report that Gc can suppress the PMN oxidative burst, a central component of the PMN antimicrobial arsenal. Primary human PMNs remained viable after exposure to liquid-grown, exponential-phase, opacity-associated protein (Opa)-negative Gc of strains FA1090 and MS11 but did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), even after bacterial opsonization. Liquid-grown FA1090 Gc expressing OpaB, an Opa protein previously correlated with PMN ROS production, elicited a minor PMN oxidative burst. PMN ROS production in response to Opa− and OpaB+ Gc was markedly enhanced if bacteria were agar-grown or if liquid-grown bacteria were heat killed. Liquid-grown Opa- Gc inhibited the PMN oxidative burst elicited by isogenic dead bacteria, formylated peptides or Staphylococcus aureus but did not inhibit PMN ROS production by OpaB+ Gc or phorbol esters. Suppression of the oxidative burst required Gc-PMN contact and bacterial protein synthesis but not phagocytosis. These results suggest that viable Gc directly inhibits PMN signaling pathways required for induction of the oxidative burst, which may contribute to gonococcal pathogenesis during inflammatory stages of gonorrheal disease. PMID:18684112

  7. Aggregation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes during phagocytosis of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Henricks, P A; van der Tol, M E; Verhoef, J

    1984-01-01

    The process of aggregation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) during the uptake of bacteria was studied. Radiolabelled S. aureus were opsonized in different sera, washed, resuspended in buffer and added to the PMN. Uptake of the bacteria and aggregation of the PMN were measured simultaneously. Maximal aggregation occurred within 6 min, when 5 X 10(6) PMN had phagocytosed 2.5 X 10(8) S. aureus. Also the effects of serum concentrations and different sera for opsonization of the bacteria on PMN aggregation were studied. Despite normal uptake, aggregation of PMN was low when bacteria were opsonized in complement-deficient sera. Furthermore when PMN were treated with pronase to inactivate complement receptors on the cell surface of the PMN, and bacteria preopsonized in immune serum were added, no change in uptake occurred, although the degree of aggregation halved compared to control PMN. So, interaction between the bacteria and the complement receptor of the PMN cell membrane is needed for triggering the process of aggregation. By using dansylcadaverin and diphenylamine to modulate lysosomal enzyme release, azide or PMN from a chronic granulomatous disease patient to study the effect of the formation of oxygen species, and theophylline, DB-cAMP or 8 Br-cAMP to increase cAMP levels, it was concluded that aggregation of PMN during phagocytosis was not dependent on oxygen metabolism, degranulation or cAMP levels of PMN. PMID:6086503

  8. Mechanism Underlying Levofloxacin Uptake by Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Vazifeh, Doina; Bryskier, André; Labro, Marie-Thérèse

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of radiolabeled levofloxacin ([3H]levofloxacin) uptake by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was investigated by a classical velocity centrifugation technique. PMNs were incubated with levofloxacin for 5 to 180 min under various conditions before centrifugation through an oil cushion. Radioactivity was measured in the cell pellet to determine the amount of cell-associated drug. The uptake of levofloxacin was moderate with a cellular concentration/extracellular concentration ratio of about 4 to 6. Levofloxacin accumulated in PMNs parallel to the extracellular concentration, without saturation, over the range of 2.5 to 200 mg/liter (linear regression analysis: r = 0.92; P < 0.001). The activation energy was low (36 ± 7.2 kJ/mol). Levofloxacin uptake was increased in Ca2+-depleted, EGTA-containing medium by approximately 33% (P = 0.022), while Ni2+, a Ca2+ channel inhibitor, inhibited it in a concentration-dependent manner, with the concentration that inhibited 50% of control uptake being approximately 2.65 mM. Verapamil (an l-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor) and other pharmacologic agents which modify Ca2+ homeostasis did not modify levofloxacin uptake. Interestingly, Ca2+ and Mg2+ inhibited levofloxacin uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. EGTA, Ni2+, and verapamil did not modify levofloxacin efflux; thapsigargin, a Ca2+ pool-releasing agent, modestly increased the intracellular retention of levofloxacin. In addition, contrary to other fluoroquinolones, probenecid at 1 to 10 mM did not modify either levofloxacin uptake or efflux. These data are consistent with a mechanism of passive accumulation of levofloxacin in PMNs. Extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ may influence the structural conformation of levofloxacin or the lipophilicity of PMN membranes, thus explaining their effect on levofloxacin uptake. PMID:9925513

  9. Influence of tetracyclines on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Glette, J; Sandberg, S; Hopen, G; Solberg, C O

    1984-01-01

    Low concentrations of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline (less than 10 micrograms/ml) did not influence in vitro polymorphonuclear leukocyte random migration, chemiluminescence, or glucose oxidation. At high concentrations of doxycycline or minocycline (greater than 10 micrograms/ml), chemiluminescence and glucose oxidation were impaired. High concentrations of doxycycline also reduced random migration. Oxytetracycline did not influence these functions in concentrations up to 100 micrograms/ml. The inhibiting effect of doxycycline and minocycline was abolished when 4 mM Mg2+ was added to the reaction mixture, and 4 mM Ca2+ partly restored minocycline-inhibited polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions. This indicates that the major effect of tetracyclines on in vitro polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions is mediated by their divalent cation chelating effect and that the results of in vitro experiments are highly dependent on the concentration of divalent cations in the reaction mixtures. The difference between the tetracyclines may be due to differences in lipid solubility, with solubility being highest for minocycline and lowest for oxytetracycline, or to different divalent cation chelating ability. PMID:6721468

  10. Analysis of cell locomotion. Contact guidance of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Matthes, T; Gruler, H

    1988-01-01

    The methods of statistical physics have been applied to the analysis of cell movement. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were exposed to different surfaces possessing parallel oriented physical structures (scratched glass surface, machine drilled aluminum surface, optical grid and stretched polyethylene foil) and cell migration was observed using time-lapse photography. We demonstrate that in cell migration along physical structures, referred to as contact guidance, two subgroups can be distinguished: 1) The nematic type where the cell size is large in relation to the grid distance of the undulate surface. 2) The smectic type where the cell size is small in relation to the grid distance of the substrate. Nematic contact guidance is characterized by an anisotropic random walk. In all substrates investigated the diffusion process parallel to the lines was faster than the diffusion process perpendicular to them. The angular dependent diffusion coefficient was described by an ellipse. Deviation from a circle defined an apolar order parameter, whose value was about 0.3. The amount of information which the cells collected from, the undulate surface was very low, between 0.1 and 0.2 bits. We demonstrate that cells do not recognize all the details of their surroundings and that their migration can be compared to the "groping around" of a short sighted man. The blurred environment can be described by a mean field whose strength is proportional to the apolar order parameter. It is argued that the anisotropic surface tension is the basic source for nematic contact guidance. Smectic contact guidance is characterized by an anisotropic random walk and is quantified by a density order parameter which is 0.28 in the case of the scratched glass surface of a Neubauer counting chamber. The information which the cells collect from their environment is very low (0.03 bits). The lines seen by the cell can be described by a mean field whose strength is proportional to the density oder

  11. Generation of slow-reacting substance (leukotrienes) by endotoxin and lipid A from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bremm, K D; König, W; Spur, B; Crea, A; Galanos, C

    1984-01-01

    Leukotrienes were released from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes on incubation with endotoxins and lipid A. The analysis was performed by their smooth muscle contracting properties, reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay for leukotrienes C4 and D4. The active component of the lipopolysaccharides seems to be the lipid A portion. PMID:6490085

  12. Fucose-binding Lotus tetragonolobus lectin binds to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and induces a chemotactic response.

    PubMed

    VanEpps, D E; Tung, K S

    1977-09-01

    Fucose-binding L. tetragonolobus lectin to the surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and induces a chemotactic response. Both surface binding and chemotaxis are inhibited by free fucose but not by fructose, mannose, or galactose. The lectin-binding sites on PMN are unrelated to the A, B, or O blood group antigen. Utilization of this lectin should be a useful tool in isolating PMN membrane components and in analyzing the mechanism of neutrophil chemotaxis. PMID:330752

  13. Benoxaprofen: side-effect profile in 300 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, J P; Cardoe, N

    1982-01-01

    Out of 300 patients who had taken benoxaprofen for a mean of 6.4 months, 196 (65.3%) reported side effects, resulting in 104 patients (34.6%) having the drug withdrawn. Out of 42 patients aged over 70, 35 (83.3%) had side effects and 29 (69.0%) had the drug withdrawn because of them. cutaneous side effects accounted for 180 (69.5%) of all 259 side effects reported. The commonest cutaneous side effect was photosensitivity, which occurred in 86 patients (28.6%). Photosensitivity, which occurred in half of the patients treated in the summer, resulted in withdrawal of benoxaprofen in 26 (30.2%) of the patients who experienced it. Onycholysis was observed in 38 patients (12.6%) and was frequently unnoticed by patients. The overall incidence of gastric side effects was 12.6% (38 patients), and the figure rose to 40.5% (17 cases) in patients over 70. During treatment with benoxaprofen one patient developed an active duodenal ulcer but no cases of major gastrointestinal haemorrhage occurred. Multiple subepidermal cysts (milia) were observed in 16 patients, who had been treated for a mean of 10.8 months. These findings show that benoxaprofen is a potent phototoxic drug and that the manufacturers' recommended dosage of 600 mg daily is associated with an unacceptable incidence of side effects in the elderly. Images p1366-a PMID:6803978

  14. Preliminary studies of absorption and excretion of benoxaprofen in man.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G L; Goulbourn, R A; Burt, R A; Chatfield, D H

    1977-01-01

    1 Benoxaprofen is a new acidic anti-inflammatory compound which was well absorbed after oral administration to man. 2 Single doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg produced mean peak concentrations in the plasma of 13.0, 33.5 and 45.3 microgram respectively, and the plasma half-life of the compound was between 30 and 35 hours. 3 Multiple dosing with 25 and 50 mg every 24 h achieved an equilibrium conentration in the plasma after 6-8 days, while dosing with 100 mg every 12 h enabled equilibrium to be reached in 3-6 days. Plasma concentrations between 35 and 45 microgram/ml were achieved by giving 100 mg doses every 12 hours. 4 Absorption of benoxaprofen was delayed when the drug was given with food, but the total amount absorbed remained the same. 5 The effect of milling the material to small particle size (19 micron) was to increase the rate of absorption compared to that of unmilled material (58 micron). 6 Benoxaprofen was well tolerated by healthy male subject in the doses given. PMID:303115

  15. CD66 carcinoembryonic antigens mediate interactions between Opa-expressing Neisseria gonorrhoeae and human polymorphonuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Gray-Owen, S D; Dehio, C; Haude, A; Grunert, F; Meyer, T F

    1997-06-16

    Colonization of urogenital tissues by the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is characteristically associated with purulent exudates of polymorphonuclear phagocytes (PMNs) containing apparently viable bacteria. Distinct variant forms of the phase-variable opacity-associated (Opa) outer membrane proteins mediate the non-opsonized binding and internalization of N. gonorrhoeae by human PMNs. Using overlay assays and an affinity isolation technique, we demonstrate the direct interaction between Opa52-expressing gonococci and members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family which express the CD66 epitope. Gonococci and recombinant Escherichia coli strains synthesizing Opa52 showed specific binding and internalization by transfected HeLa cell lines expressing the CD66 family members BGP (CD66a), NCA (CD66c), CGM1 (CD66d) and CEA (CD66e), but not that expressing CGM6 (CD66b). Bacterial strains expressing either no opacity protein or the epithelial cell invasion-associated Opa50 do not bind these CEA family members. Consistent with their different receptor specificities, Opa52-mediated interactions could be inhibited by polyclonal anti-CEA sera, while Opa50 binding was instead inhibited by heparin. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we observed a marked recruitment of CD66 antigen by Opa52-expressing gonococci on both the transfected cell lines and infected PMNs. These data indicate that members of the CEA family constitute the cellular receptors for the interaction with, and internalization of, N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:9218786

  16. The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Luini, Alessandra; Bombelli, Raffaella; Corasaniti, Maria T; Bagetta, Giacinto; Marino, Franca

    2014-08-01

    Bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia) essential oil (BEO) is used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and anthelminthic and to facilitate wound healing. Evidence indicates that BEO has substantial antimicrobial activity; however its effects on immunity have never been examined. We studied the effects of BEO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the role of Ca(2+) in the functional responses evoked by BEO in these cells. Results show that BEO increased intracellular ROS production in human PMN, an effect that required the contribution of extracellular (and, to a lesser extent, of intracellular) Ca(2+) . Bergamot essential oil also significantly increased ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and reduced the response to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the ability of BEO to increase ROS production in human PMN. This effect could both contribute to the activity of BEO in infections and in tissue healing as well as underlie an intrinsic proinflammatory potential. The relevance of these findings for the clinical uses of BEO needs careful consideration. PMID:24458921

  17. Inhibition of eicosanoid formation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by high concentrations of magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, P; Petrich, K; Schewe, T; Diezel, W

    1995-12-01

    The cutaneous antiinflammatory action of Dead-Sea brine is thought to be due to magnesium ions. To elucidate their mode of action, we studied the influence of isotonic solutions containing high concentrations of Mg2+ (up to 115mM) on the formation of 5-lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The cells were stimulated by either ionophore A23187 or the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine. We observed a pronounced inhibition of the formation of leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from either added [1-14C] or endogenously liberated arachidonic acid. In the latter case, the sum of arachidonic acid and its oxygenation products was also markedly diminished. The inhibitory effects of Mg2+ depended in a reciprocal manner on the concentration of Ca2+ in the incubation medium. An unspecific damage to cells as reason for the inhibitory effects was excluded. Human recombinant 5-lipoxygenase was also inhibited by Mg2+ in the same concentration range (IC50 16 mM). These data suggest that high concentrations of Mg2+ inhibit the eicosanoid metabolism both at the level of the liberation of arachidonic acid and by direct inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. PMID:9072050

  18. Modulation of human lymphocyte mitogen responsiveness and interleukin-2 production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Lyte, M

    1990-06-01

    The response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to the mitogenic lectins phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) was examined in the presence of autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Experiments were performed at sub-optimal and optimal mitogen concentrations employing lymphocyte: PMN ratios over a three log cell concentration range. Increases of up to 25,000-fold in mitogen stimulated lymphocyte proliferation as determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation were observed in PMN supplemented lymphocyte cultures as compared to lymphocytes cultured in the absence of PMN or with irradiated lymphocytes serving as filler cells. Similar results were obtained for PHA stimulated IL-2 production. The degree of enhancement of lymphocyte reactivity by PMN was also shown to be dependent on the source of serum supplementation (autologous versus xenogeneic). These results indicate that cell ratio is a critical factor in examining lymphocyte-PMN interactions as well as serum supplementation used. Early reports which have indicated a suppressive or no effect of PMN on lymphocyte reactivity based on a single lymphocyte: PMN cell ratio may need to be re-evaluated. PMID:1967045

  19. Localization of NADH oxidase on the surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a new cytochemical method.

    PubMed

    Briggs, R T; Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L; Karnovsky, M J

    1975-12-01

    The ultrastructural localization of NADH oxidase, a possible enzyme in the increased oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during phagocytosis, was studied. A new cytochemical technique for the localization of H2O2, a product of NADH oxidase activity, was developed. Cerous ions, in the presence of peroxide, form an electron-dense precipitate. Resting and phagocytically stimulated PMN were exposed to cerous ions at pH 7.5 to demonstrate sites of NADH-dependent, cyanide-insensitive H2O2 production. Resting PMN exhibites slight activity on the plasma membrane; phagocytizing PMN had extensive deposits of reaction product localized within the phagosome and on the plasma membrane. Peroxide involvement was demonstrated by the inhibitory effect of catalase on cerium precipitation; the surface localization of the enzyme responsible was confirmed by using nonpenetrating inhibitors of enzymatic activity. A correlative study was performed with an NADH-dependent, tetrazolium-reduction system. As with cerium, formazan deposition on the surface of the cell was NADH dependent, cyanide insensitive, and stimulated by phagocytosis. Superoxide dismutase did not inhibit tetrazolium reduction, as observed cytochemically, indicating direct enzymatic dye reduction without superoxide interposition. These findings, combined with oxygen consumption studies on resting and stimulated PMN in the presence or absence of NADH, indicate that NADH oxidase is a surface enzyme in human PMN. It is internalized during phagocytosis and retains its peroxide-generating capacity within the phagocytic vacuole. PMID:407

  20. Effect of complement and of the carbohydrate components of sputum on phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, T. D.

    1964-01-01

    The phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte preparations, which were free from plasma, has been estimated by direct determination under phase contrast of the number of living cells containing test particles. Spores of Aspergillus fumigatus were phagocytosed in the absence of added serum but phagocytosis of paraffin wax particles occurred only in the presence of serum containing the heat-labile and C′4 components of complement. In view of the unreactive nature of the paraffin hydrocarbons, it was considered unlikely that natural antibody played any part in the phenomenon. Although no phagocytosis of wax particles occurred in the absence of serum, almost 100 per cent of cells were phagocytic in preparations containing adequate concentrations of serum. It was therefore possible to determine the serum concentration necessary for 50 per cent of the polymorphs to phagocytose wax particles. By this means it was demonstrated that the addition of the carbohydrate components of sputum had a small but significant inhibitory effect on phagocytosis and that dextran had no such effect. The sputum mucoprotein depressed the complement titre of serum and this might have accounted for the reduction in the ability of a serum to promote phagocytosis when this complex was added. The sputum mucopolysaccharide had no such effect on the complement titre of serum and must have exerted its inhibitory action in some other way. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:14239838

  1. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits apoptosis in human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of intracellular cyclic AMP levels.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Gonella, R; Dapino, P; Sacchetti, C; Dallegri, F

    1998-08-01

    Human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) are terminally differentiated cells that die by undergoing apoptosis. At present, the intracellular pathways governing this process are only partially known. In particular, although the adenylate cyclase-dependent generation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) has been implicated in the triggering of apoptosis in lymphoid cells, the role of the intracellular cAMP pathway in neutrophil apoptosis remains controversial. In the present study, we found that two cAMP-elevating agents, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the phosphodiesterase type IV inhibitor RO 20-1724, inhibit neutrophil apoptosis without inducing cell necrosis. When administered in combination, PGE2 and RO 20-1724 displayed additive effects. Moreover, neutrophil apoptosis was inhibited by a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP, dibutyryl-cAMP, in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, treatment of neutrophils with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 prevented PGE2- and RO 20-1724-induced inhibition of cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taking into account that PGE2 and other cAMP-elevating agents are well known downregulators of neutrophil functions, our results suggest that conditions favoring a state of functional rest, such as intracellular cAMP elevation, prolong the life span of neutrophils by delaying apoptosis. PMID:9694511

  2. Generation and secretion of eosinophilotactic activity from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by various mechanisms of cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    König, W; Frickhofen, N; Tesch, H

    1979-01-01

    An eosinophil chemotactic factor(s) (ECF) can be generated from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by the calcium ionophore, phagocytosis, arachidonic acid and hypotonic lysis. In kinetic studies it is observed that peak ECF activity is released prior to the maximum of lysosomal enzyme release with the calcium ionophore, phagocytosis and arachidonic acid, while under conditions of hypotonic exposure ECF activity appears after the maximum of enzyme release. The ECF obtained by hypotonic exposure shows a fluctuating pattern with sharp peaks and steep fall-offs in activity. The ECF-release for each stimulus is temperature dependent; extracellular calcium is required when the ionophore or phagocytosis are used as stimuli, while with arachidonic acid and hypotonic exposure no extracellular calcium is necessary for ECF-release. On Sephadex G-25 each preparation of ECF eluted in the low molecular weight range at approximately 500 daltons. Eosinophils can be deactivated and cross-deactivated with the various ECF-preparations indicating either a molecular identity or a common mode of action on eosinophils. PMID:437847

  3. Group A streptococcal peptidoglycan-polysaccharide inhibits phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Leong, P A; Cohen, M S

    1984-01-01

    Injection of sterile aqueous preparations of the peptidoglycan-polysaccharide of group A streptococci (PG-APS) produces chronic inflammation in several animal models. Chronic bacterial infection may be involved in some aspects of the pathogenesis of inflammation associated with the accumulation of PG-APS. Accordingly, the effect of PG-APS on human neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) bactericidal activity was studied with the supposition that this interaction may contribute to the inflammation observed. Concentrations of PG-APS greater than 10 micrograms/ml inhibited the ability of PMNs to kill Staphylococcus aureus. This inhibition was not due to a cytotoxic effect of PG-APS on PMNs, nor did PG-APS inhibit PMN metabolism required for the formation of microbicidal oxygen reduction products. PG-APS concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml or greater in the presence of 10% normal serum inhibited the attachment of bacteria to PMNs by 49% as compared with control cell populations. The concentrations of PG-APS required to inhibit uptake of Staphylococcus aureus were identical to those required for inhibition of PMN bactericidal activity. This inhibition did not occur in the presence of serum-free medium or medium with sera that had been heated to inactivate complement. These results show that PG-APS interacts with serum to inhibit PMN-mediated killing of S. aureus, most probably by interfering with bacterial uptake. PMID:6378796

  4. Interaction of the two components of leukocidin from Staphylococcus aureus with human polymorphonuclear leukocyte membranes: sequential binding and subsequent activation.

    PubMed Central

    Colin, D A; Mazurier, I; Sire, S; Finck-Barbançon, V

    1994-01-01

    The sequential interaction between the two components S and F of leukocidin from Staphylococcus aureus and the membrane of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils has been investigated in the presence of 1 mM Ca2+. With 125I-labeled components, it has been shown that binding of the F component occurred only after binding of the S component. The kinetic constants of binding of both components were not statistically different (Kd, approximately 5 nM; Bm, approximately 35,000 molecules per cell), and both Hill coefficients were 1. The application of increasing concentrations of leukocidin provoked a dose-dependent secretion of the granule content, as determined by hexosaminidase and lysozyme activity measurements. Furthermore, the separate perfusion of S and F components on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils deposited on a filter induced secretion of the granules content only when the perfusion of the S component preceded that of the F component. We conclude, therefore, that (i) S-component binding is a prerequisite for F-component binding and for subsequent activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and (ii) there is a specific binding site for the S component in the plasma membrane. PMID:8039887

  5. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus conidial growth by lactoferrin-mediated iron depletion.

    PubMed

    Zarember, Kol A; Sugui, Janyce A; Chang, Yun C; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Gallin, John I

    2007-05-15

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold, rarely infects humans, except during prolonged neutropenia or in cases of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase that normally produces fungicidal reactive oxygen species. Filamentous hyphae of Aspergillus are killed by normal, but not CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN); however, the few studies on PMN-mediated host defenses against infectious conidia (spores) of this organism have yielded conflicting results, some showing that PMN do not inhibit conidial growth, with others showing that they do, most likely using reactive oxygen species. Given that CGD patients are exposed daily to hundreds of viable A. fumigatus conidia, yet considerable numbers of them survive years without infection, we reasoned that PMN use ROS-independent mechanisms to combat Aspergillus. We show that human PMN from both normal controls and CGD patients are equipotent at arresting the growth of Aspergillus conidia in vitro, indicating the presence of a reactive oxygen species-independent factor(s). Cell-free supernatants of degranulated normal and CGD neutrophils both suppressed fungal growth and were found to be rich in lactoferrin, an abundant PMN secondary granule protein. Purified iron-poor lactoferrin at concentrations occurring in PMN supernatants (and reported in human mucosal secretions in vivo) decreased fungal growth, whereas saturation of lactoferrin or PMN supernatants with iron, or testing in the presence of excess iron in the form of ferritin, completely abolished activity against conidia. These results demonstrate that PMN lactoferrin sequestration of iron is important for host defense against Aspergillus. PMID:17475866

  6. Mechanism of arachidonic acid liberation in platelet-activating factor-stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, S.; Suganuma, A.; Sato, M.; Tohmatsu, T.; Nozawa, Y. )

    1989-08-15

    Upon stimulation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids. The mechanism for AA liberation, a key step in the synthesis of biologically active eicosanoids, was investigated. PAF was found to elicit an increase in the cytoplasmic level of free Ca2+ as monitored by fluorescent indicator fura 2. When (3H) AA-labeled neutrophils were exposed to PAF, the enhanced release of AA was observed with a concomitant decrease of radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine fractions. The inhibitors of phospholipase A2, mepacrine and 2-(p-amylcinnamoyl)-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, effectively suppressed the liberation of (3H)AA from phospholipids, indicating that liberation of AA is mainly catalyzed by the action of phospholipase A2. The extracellular Ca2+ is not required for AA release. However, intracellular Ca2+ antagonists, TMB-8 and high dose of quin 2/AM drastically reduced the liberation of AA induced by PAF, indicating that Ca2+ is an essential factor for phospholipase A2 activation. PAF raised the fluorescence of fura 2 at concentrations as low as 8 pM which reached a maximal level about 8 nM, whereas more than nM order concentrations of PAF was required for the detectable release of (3H)AA. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin resulted in complete abolition of AA liberation in response to PAF. However, the fura 2 response to PAF was not effectively inhibited by toxin treatment. In human neutrophil homogenate and membrane preparations, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) stimulated AA release and potentiated the action of PAF. Guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) inhibited the effects of guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate).

  7. Identification and functional characterization of leukotriene B4 20-hydroxylase of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Soberman, R J; Harper, T W; Murphy, R C; Austen, K F

    1985-01-01

    A single reaction product was formed during the incubation of 1.5 microM (5S,12R)-dihydroxy-6,14-cis-8,10-trans-[3H]icosatetraenoic acid (leukotriene B4, LTB4) for 30 min at 37 degrees C in 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) with 100 microM NADPH and the 150,000 X g supernatant of sonicated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The reaction product exhibited the same mobility on reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) and TLC as standard 20-hydroxy-LTB4 (20-OH-LTB4). When the omega-oxidation product of [3H]LTB4 was eluted from a Sep-Pak, resolved by RP-HPLC, and analyzed by GC/MS, its structure was determined to be solely 20-OH-LTB4. The Km of the 20-hydroxylase for [3H]LTB4 at its optimal pH of 7.5 was 0.22 +/- 0.08 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 4) and the Vmax was 48 +/- 11 pmol/min X mg of protein (mean +/- SD, n = 4). When the concentration of [3H]LTB4 was fixed at 1.5 microM, the Km for NADPH was 1.01 +/- 0.59 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 3). The location in the 150,000 X g supernatant of the LTB4 20-hydroxylase distinguishes it from the cytochrome P-450 system of liver, lung, and kidney microsomes and from the NADPH oxidase-cytochrome b-245 system of the human PMN. The LTB4 20-hydroxylase is either a unique cytochrome P-450 or other monooxygenase. PMID:2986111

  8. Evaluation of human polymorphonuclear behavior on textured titanium and calcium-phosphate coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moura, Camilla C G; Machado, Juliana R; Silva, Marcos V; Rodrigues, Denise B R; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Jimbo, Ryo; Tovar, Nick; Coelho, Paulo G

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of titanium (Ti) surface modifications on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Human PMNs' viability and release of key mediators-such as IL1β, IL6, TNFα, IL12, IL10, IL4, TGFβ1, IL8, IP-10, and Mig-were evaluated on three different Ti surface treatments: (1) machined Ti; (2) alumina-blasted and acid-etched Ti (AB/AE); and (3) calcium phosphate coating of 300-500 nm by ion beam onto the AB/AE Ti surface (CaP). A polystyrene surface was used as a negative control. The PMNs were purified from whole human blood and cultured for 6 h. Cell viability was determined by flow cytometry, and the supernatant was evaluated to determine the levels of cytokines and chemokines. Results showed that the percentage of viable cells was significantly lower on the CaP surface compared to the control (p < 0.05) relative to the other groups. No differences in the levels of IL8, MIG, and IP10 were detected between groups. Significantly higher levels of IL1β (p = 0.046) and TNFα (p = 0.016) were detected for the CaP surfaces compared to AB/AE surface only. The levels of IL4, IL10, and TGFβ1 secreted from the PMNs in the CaP group were significantly lower than in the control and machined groups (p < 0.05) that were statistically comparable to AB/AE. Overall, the addition of a thin CaP coating to the AB/AE Ti surface influenced the secretion profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to the higher release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β and TNFα) on these surfaces. PMID:23598427

  9. Cellular Uptake of Two Fluoroketolides, HMR 3562 and HMR 3787, by Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghaffar, H.; Vazifeh, D.; Labro, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the cellular accumulation of two new fluoroketolides, HMR 3562 and HMR 3787, by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in vitro. Both compounds were rapidly taken up by PMN, with a cellular-to-extracellular concentration ratio (C/E) of about 141 (HMR 3562) and 117 (HMR 3787) at 5 min, and this was followed by a plateau at 60 to 180 min, with a C/E of >300 at 180 min. Both ketolides were mainly located in PMN granules (about 75%) and egressed slowly from loaded cells (about 40% at 60 min), owing to avid reuptake. Uptake was moderately sensitive to external pH, and activation energy was also moderate (about 70 kJ/mol). As with other macrolides and ketolides, the existence of an active transport system was suggested by (i) the strong interindividual variability in uptake kinetics, suggesting variability in the number or activity of a transport protein; (ii) the saturation kinetics characteristic of a carrier-mediated transport system (Vmax, about 2,300 ng/2.5 × 106 PMN/5 min; Km, about 50 μg/ml); (iii) the inhibitory effects of Ni2+ (a blocker of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger), phorbol myristate acetate (a protein kinase C activator), and H89 (a protein kinase A inhibitor). Although these two ketolides are more related to HMR 3647 (telithromycin), it is interesting that the presence of a fluoride gave these molecules a cellular pharmacokinetics more like those of HMR 3004 than those of HMR 3647. The macrolide transport system has not been yet elucidated, but our data confirm that, despite variations in chemical structure, all erythromycin A derivatives share a transmembrane transport system. PMID:11557472

  10. Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hwain; Mally, Manuela; Meyer, Salome; Fiechter, Chantal; Paroz, Cécile; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Cornelis, Guy R.

    2009-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis. 195:375-386, 2007). Here, we analyze their sensitivity to the innate immune system. Bacteria from the archetype strain Cc5 were highly resistant to killing by complement. There was little membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition in spite of C3b deposition. Cc5 bacteria were as resistant to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as Yersinia enterocolitica MRS40, endowed with an antiphagocytic type III secretion system. We isolated Y1C12, a transposon mutant that is hypersensitive to killing by complement via the antibody-dependent classical pathway. The mutation inactivated a putative glycosyltransferase gene, suggesting that the Y1C12 mutant was affected at the level of a capsular polysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. Cc5 appeared to have several polysaccharidic structures, one being altered in Y1C12. The structure missing in Y1C12 could be purified by classical LPS purification procedures and labeled by tritiated palmitate, indicating that it is more likely to be an LPS structure than a capsule. Y1C12 bacteria were also more sensitive to phagocytosis by PMNs than wild-type bacteria. In conclusion, a polysaccharide structure, likely an LPS, protects C. canimorsus from deposition of the complement MAC and from efficient phagocytosis by PMNs. PMID:19307219

  11. Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to killing by human complement and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwain; Mally, Manuela; Meyer, Salome; Fiechter, Chantal; Paroz, Cécile; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Cornelis, Guy R

    2009-06-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis. 195:375-386, 2007). Here, we analyze their sensitivity to the innate immune system. Bacteria from the archetype strain Cc5 were highly resistant to killing by complement. There was little membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition in spite of C3b deposition. Cc5 bacteria were as resistant to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as Yersinia enterocolitica MRS40, endowed with an antiphagocytic type III secretion system. We isolated Y1C12, a transposon mutant that is hypersensitive to killing by complement via the antibody-dependent classical pathway. The mutation inactivated a putative glycosyltransferase gene, suggesting that the Y1C12 mutant was affected at the level of a capsular polysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. Cc5 appeared to have several polysaccharidic structures, one being altered in Y1C12. The structure missing in Y1C12 could be purified by classical LPS purification procedures and labeled by tritiated palmitate, indicating that it is more likely to be an LPS structure than a capsule. Y1C12 bacteria were also more sensitive to phagocytosis by PMNs than wild-type bacteria. In conclusion, a polysaccharide structure, likely an LPS, protects C. canimorsus from deposition of the complement MAC and from efficient phagocytosis by PMNs. PMID:19307219

  12. Benoxaprofen stimulates proteoglycan synthesis in normal canine knee cartilage in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.

    1983-06-01

    Several nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs which are cyclooxygenase inhibitors (e.g., salicylates, fenoprofen, ibuprofen) have been shown to suppress proteoglycan synthesis by normal joint cartilage in vitro. We examined the effect of benoxaprofen, a long-acting proprionic acid derivative which inhibits lipoxygenase in addition to causing moderate cyclooxygenase inhibition. When added to the culture medium in concentrations comparable with those obtainable in serum of patients treated with the drug (e.g., 10 and 50 micrograms/ml), benoxaprofen increased proteoglycan synthesis in slices of normal canine knee cartilage to 126% and 135%, respectively, of control levels. These concentrations of the drug augmented net protein synthesis to 154% and 123%, respectively, of control levels. Incorporation of /sup 3/H glucosamine into 9-aminoacridine precipitable material was increased by benoxaprofen, showing that it stimulates net proteoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. At concentrations of either 10 or 50 micrograms/ml, the drug had no effect on proteoglycan catabolism or on the ability of proteoglycans to interact with cartilage hyaluronic acid to form macromolecular aggregates. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a free radical scavenger which, like benoxaprofen, inhibits the lipoxygenase as well as cyclooxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, also increased /sup 35/S glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cartilage slices. The stimulation of glycosaminoglycan and protein synthesis by benoxaprofen suggests that its action on the chondrocyte may be different from that of most other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

  13. Release of PAF by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated by immune complexes bound to Sepharose particles and human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Virella, G; Lopes-Virella, M F; Shuler, C; Sherwood, T; Espinoza, G A; Winocour, P; Colwell, J A

    1983-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) incubated with surface-bound immune complexes (IC) release a substance that induces platelet aggregation and serotonin-release. This substance was identified as platelet-activating factor (PAF) on the basis of its sensitivity to phospholipase A2 and of its purification by thin-layer chromatography in identical conditions to those used to purify zymosan-induced PAF. We used two types of substrates to absorb our IC:Sepharose particles to which we coupled human serum albumin, and which were later incubated with specific rabbit antiserum to form surface-bound immune complexes, and human erythrocytes, to which soluble IC can be passively adsorbed. Both types of surface-bound IC were found to stimulate the release of PAF by human PMN in the absence of complement. These results suggest that PMN may play a central role in the early stages of IC-induced inflammation: they recognize IC adsorbed to red cells or to any other cell able to adsorb IC, and they induce the activation of platelets and release of vasoactive amines, which leads to the increase of vascular permeability believed to be essential for extravascular IC deposition. PMID:6885111

  14. Stimulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte oxidative metabolism by type 1 pili from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, M B; Silverblatt, F J

    1987-01-01

    We compared the degree to which Escherichia coli phase variants which do (T1P+ E. coli) or do not (T1P- E. coli) express type 1 pili (T1P) stimulate human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) oxidative activity. Unopsonized T1P+ E. coli stimulated the release of 0.20 to 0.24 nmol of H2O2 per 10(6) PMN per min and the consumption of 1.4 to 4.0 nmol of O2 per 10(6) PMN per min; no measurable PMN oxidative activity was stimulated by unopsonized T1P- E. coli. In the presence of serum opsonins, T1P+ E. coli stimulated the release of 1.12 to 1.16 nmol of H2O2 per 10(6) PMN per min and the consumption of 5.0 to 6.0 nmol of O2 per 10(6) PMN per min, whereas T1P- E. coli stimulated the release of 0.42 to 0.43 nmol of H2O2 per 10(6) PMN per min and the consumption of 0.6 to 2.0 nmol of O2 per 10(6) PMN per min. Although unaggregated T1P did not stimulate PMN, latex beads coated with T1P (T1P-latex) stimulated alpha-methylmannoside-inhibitable, opsonin-independent PMN oxidative activity. The activity stimulated by either T1P+ E. coli or T1P-latex was susceptible to inhibition by cytochalasin B. Latex particles coated with bovine serum albumin or mannose-resistant pili did not stimulate PMN. These data indicate that T1P+ E. coli stimulate PMN oxidative metabolism more effectively than do T1P- E. coli and that a similar PMN oxidative response follows cellular stimulation by either unopsonized T1P+ or opsonized T1P- E. coli. Furthermore, T1P-latex faithfully mimics the ability of T1P+ E. coli to stimulate PMN oxidative metabolism. Such particles may be useful in further analyses of cellular responses to T1P+ E. coli. Images PMID:2880806

  15. Hydrogen peroxide signals E. coli phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear cells; up-stream and down-stream pathway.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Michalis; Karamolegkou, Georgia; Rosmaraki, Eleftheria; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (Η2Ο2) is produced during a variety of cellular procedures. In this paper, the regulatory role of Η2Ο2, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the human polymorphonuclears, was investigated. White blood cells were incubated with dihydrorhodamine (DHR) in order to study H2O2 synthesis and E. coli-FITC to study phagocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed increased synthesis of H2O2 in polymorphonuclears which incorporated E. coli-FITC. The blocking of H2O2 synthesis by specific inhibitors, N-ethylmaleimide (ΝΕΜ) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased E. coli phagocytosis, as well. Immunoblot analysis of white blood cell protein extracts revealed that the blocking of NADPH oxidase and SOD decreased ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while it had no effect on JNK and p38. Confocal microscopy showed that phosphorylation of MAPKs and phagocytosis solely occur in the polymorphonuclear and not in mononuclear cells. The use of specific MAPKs inhibitors showed that all of them are necessary for phagocytosis, but only phospho-p38 affects H2O2 synthesis. The blocking of JNK phosphorylation, in the presence of E. coli, evoked a further decrease of cytoplasmic p47 thus increasing its translocation onto the plasma membrane for the assembly of NADPH oxidase. It appears that newly synthesised H2O2 invigorates the phosphorylation and action of ERK-1/2 in E. coli phagocytosis, while phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 appear to regulate H2O2 production. PMID:26204503

  16. Bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activities of glaucine: In vitro studies in human airway smooth muscle and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cortijo, J; Villagrasa, V; Pons, R; Berto, L; Martí-Cabrera, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Domenech, T; Beleta, J; Morcillo, E J

    1999-08-01

    1. Selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors are of potential interest in the treatment of asthma. We examined the effects of the alkaloid S-(+)-glaucine, a PDE4 inhibitor, on human isolated bronchus and granulocyte function. 2. Glaucine selectively inhibited PDE4 from human bronchus and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in a non-competitive manner (Ki=3.4 microM). Glaucine displaced [3H]-rolipram from its high-affinity binding sites in rat brain cortex membranes (IC50 approximately 100 microM). 3. Glaucine inhibited the spontaneous and histamine-induced tone in human isolated bronchus (pD2 approximately 4.5). Glaucine (10 microM) did not potentiate the isoprenaline-induced relaxation but augmented cyclic AMP accumulation by isoprenaline. The glaucine-induced relaxation was resistant to H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Glaucine depressed the contractile responses to Ca2+ (pD'2 approximately 3.62) and reduced the sustained rise of [Ca2+]i produced by histamine in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells (-log IC50 approximately 4.3). 4. Glaucine augmented cyclic AMP levels in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes challenged with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) or isoprenaline, and inhibited FMLP-induced superoxide generation, elastase release, leukotriene B4 production, [Ca2+]i signal and platelet aggregation as well as opsonized zymosan-, phorbol myristate acetate-, and A23187-induced superoxide release. The inhibitory effect of glaucine on superoxide generation by FMLP was reduced by H-89. 5. In conclusion, Ca2+ channel antagonism by glaucine appears mainly responsible for the relaxant effect of glaucine in human isolated bronchus while PDE4 inhibition contributes to the inhibitory effects of glaucine in human granulocytes. The very low PDE4/binding site ratio found for glaucine makes this compound attractive for further structure-activity studies. PMID:10455321

  17. Bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activities of glaucine: In vitro studies in human airway smooth muscle and polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, J; Villagrasa, V; Pons, R; Berto, L; Martí-Cabrera, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Domenech, T; Beleta, J; Morcillo, E J

    1999-01-01

    Selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors are of potential interest in the treatment of asthma. We examined the effects of the alkaloid S-(+)-glaucine, a PDE4 inhibitor, on human isolated bronchus and granulocyte function.Glaucine selectively inhibited PDE4 from human bronchus and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in a non-competitive manner (Ki=3.4 μM). Glaucine displaced [3H]-rolipram from its high-affinity binding sites in rat brain cortex membranes (IC50∼100 μM).Glaucine inhibited the spontaneous and histamine-induced tone in human isolated bronchus (pD2∼4.5). Glaucine (10 μM) did not potentiate the isoprenaline-induced relaxation but augmented cyclic AMP accumulation by isoprenaline. The glaucine-induced relaxation was resistant to H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Glaucine depressed the contractile responses to Ca2+ (pD'2∼3.62) and reduced the sustained rise of [Ca2+]i produced by histamine in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells (−log IC50∼4.3).Glaucine augmented cyclic AMP levels in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes challenged with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) or isoprenaline, and inhibited FMLP-induced superoxide generation, elastase release, leukotriene B4 production, [Ca2+]i signal and platelet aggregation as well as opsonized zymosan-, phorbol myristate acetate-, and A23187-induced superoxide release. The inhibitory effect of glaucine on superoxide generation by FMLP was reduced by H-89.In conclusion, Ca2+ channel antagonism by glaucine appears mainly responsible for the relaxant effect of glaucine in human isolated bronchus while PDE4 inhibition contributes to the inhibitory effects of glaucine in human granulocytes. The very low PDE4/binding site ratio found for glaucine makes this compound attractive for further structure-activity studies. PMID:10455321

  18. Effects of SCA40 on human isolated bronchus and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: comparison with rolipram, SKF94120 and levcromakalim.

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, J.; Villagrasa, V.; Navarrete, C.; Sanz, C.; Berto, L.; Michel, A.; Bonnet, P. A.; Morcillo, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. SCA40 (0.1 nM-0.1 mM) produced concentration-dependent suppression of the spontaneous tone of human isolated bronchus (-log EC50 = 6.85 +/- 0.09; n = 10) and reached a maximal relaxation similar to that of theophylline (3 mM). The potency (-log EC50 values) of SCA40 compared to other relaxants was rolipram (7.44 +/- 0.12; n = 9) > SCA40 > or = levcromakalim (6.49 +/- 0.04; n = 6) > SKF94120 (5.87 +/- 0.10; n = 9). 2. When tested against the activity of the isoenzymes of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isolated from human bronchus, SCA40 proved highly potent against PDE III (-log IC50 = 6.47 +/- 0.16; n = 4). It was markedly less potent against PDE IV (4.82 +/- 0.18; n = 4) and PDE V (4.32 +/- 0.11; n = 4). 3. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) stimulated with N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) produced a concentration-dependent superoxide anion generation and elastase release. SCA40 (1 nM-10 microM) produced a concentration-related inhibition of FMLP (30 nM approximately EC50)-induced superoxide production (-log IC50 = 5.48 +/- 0.10; n = 6) and elastase release (-log IC50 = 5.50 +/- 0.26; n = 6). Rolipram was an effective inhibitor of superoxide generation and elastase release (-log IC50 values approximately 8) while SKF94120 and levcromakalim were scarcely effective. 4. FMLP (30 nM) and thimerosal (20 microM) induced leukotriene B4 production and elevation of intracellular calcium concentration in human PMNs. The production of leukotriene B4 was inhibited by SCA40 in a concentration-related manner (-log IC50 = 5.94 +/- 0.22; n = 6) but SCA40 was less effective against the elevation of intracellular calcium. Rolipram was an effective inhibitor of leukotriene B4 synthesis (-log IC50 approximately 7) and intracellular calcium elevation (-log IC50 approximately 6) while SKF94120 and levcromakalim were scarcely effective. 5. It is concluded that SCA40 is an effective inhibitor of the inherent tone of human isolated bronchus. The

  19. Inhibition of PAF synthesis by stimulated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes with cloricromene, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 activation.

    PubMed Central

    Ribaldi, E.; Mezzasoma, A. M.; Francescangeli, E.; Prosdocimi, M.; Nenci, G. G.; Goracci, G.; Gresele, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) represents the key enzyme in the remodelling pathway of platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis in human polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes. 2. PLA2 activation is also the rate-limiting step for the release of the arachidonic acid utilized for the synthesis of leukotrienes in stimulated leucocytes; however, it is unknown whether the PLA2s involved in the two biosynthetic pathways are identical. 3. Cloricromene (8-monochloro-3-beta-diethylaminoethyl-4-methyl-7-ethoxy- carbonylmethoxy coumarin) is an antithrombotic coumarin derivative which inhibits platelet and leucocyte function and suppresses arachidonic acid liberation by interfering with PLA2 activation. 4. The aim of the present study was to assess whether chloricromene inhibits PAF synthesis by stimulated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). 5. Cloricromene (50-500 microM) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the release of PAF, as measured by h.p.l.c. bioassay, from A23187-stimulated PMNs. Significant inhibition (45%) of PAF-release was obtained with 50 microM cloricromene and the IC50 was 85 microM. Mepacrine (500 microM), a non-specific PLA2 inhibitor, strikingly reduced PAF release. 6. The incorporation of [3H]-acetate into [3H]-PAF induced by serum-treated zymosan in human PMNs was also inhibited concentration-dependently by cloricromene, with an IC50 of 105 microM. Mepacrine also suppressed [3H]-acetate incorporation into [3H]-PAF. 7. Cloricromene did not affect the activities of the enzymes involved in PAF-synthesis acetyltransferase or phosphocholine transferase. 8. Our data demonstrate that cloricromene, an inhibitor of PLA2-activation in human leucocytes, reduces the synthesis of PAF by stimulated PMNs. This finding has a twofold implication: the PLA2s (or the mechanisms that regulate their activation) involved in PAF synthesis and arachidonate release in human leucocytes are either identical or else indistinguishable by their sensitivity to cloricromene

  20. Tumorigenic conversion of a rat urothelial cell line by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Tamatani, T; Turk, P; Weitzman, S; Oyasu, R

    1999-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is a significant risk factor for the development of urinary bladder cancer. We have shown that inflammation induced by killed Escherichia coli and also by its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strikingly enhances N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-initiated rat bladder carcinogenesis. Aspirates from the bladder lumen contained a large quantity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and several cytokines. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) released from activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are involved in inflammation-associated bladder carcinogenesis. Using an immortalized nontumorigenic rat urothelial cell line, MYP3, we examined the effect of LPS-activated PMN on malignant transformation. MYP3 cells pretreated with or without MNU were exposed daily to LPS-activated PMN for one week and were then tested for growth in soft agar. In contrast to no colony formation by the parental cells, a varying number of colonies developed from cells treated with LPS-activated PMN. Although combined treatment with MNU and PMN was most effective (P<0.01), cells treated with LPS-activated PMN alone also formed a small number of colonies. Addition of catalase, which decomposes H2O2, and/or an antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol, reduced the number of colonies induced by LPS-activated PMN (P<0.05). Cells derived from colonies were tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. However, tumorigenicity in mice was greater with cells treated with both MNU and PMN than with cells treated with PMN alone. Our results suggest that ROI released from LPS-activated PMN may be one of the mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis associated with active urinary tract infection. PMID:10543254

  1. Effects of naftifine and terbinafine, two allylamine antifungal drugs, on selected functions of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vago, T; Baldi, G; Colombo, D; Barbareschi, M; Norbiato, G; Dallegri, F; Bevilacqua, M

    1994-01-01

    Many antimycotic agents negatively affect the natural immune response. Typically, these drugs impair polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) production of superoxide anion, chemotaxis, or the killing of pathogens. Allylamines are a new class of antimycotic compounds with a new mechanism of antifungal action, i.e., inhibition of the fungal squalene epoxidase. The trial that we describe aimed to evaluate the effects of two allylamines, terbinafine and naftifine, on selected functions of PMNs, i.e., superoxide anion production, chemotaxis, and killing of Candida albicans blastospores. Terbinafine and naftifine on their own did not affect superoxide anion production when they were added to PMNs. When PMNs were preincubated with allylamines and were then stimulated by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, superoxide anion production was increased (priming effect). Since intracellular free calcium (Ca2+i) is involved in the control of superoxide anion production, we evaluated the effects of the allylamines on the Ca2+i concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the presence of terbinafine or naftifine, the [Ca2+]i increased in a dose-dependent manner; the source of Ca2+i was not extracellular since it was not affected by extracellular calcium chelation with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. In the presence of terbinafine or naftifine, chemotaxis of PMNs was not impaired. Terbinafine and naftifine slightly but significantly increased the killing of C. albicans blastospores (P < 0.05 at 10 and 100 microM). In conclusion, in contrast to imidazole-like drugs, the allylamine antimycotic compounds terbinafine and naftifine enhance selected functions of PMNs. PMID:7872755

  2. CD44 is a cytotoxic triggering molecule on human polymorphonuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Pericle, F; Sconocchia, G; Titus, J A; Segal, D M

    1996-11-15

    In this study, we present evidence that CD44 is a cytotoxic triggering molecule on freshly isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). PMN constitutively express high levels of CD44 as determined by FACS analysis, and immunoprecipitation studies using PMN lysates and an anti-CD44 mAb show a band of 80 to 90 kDa that migrates slightly faster than CD44 from PBL. A bispecific Ab consisting of anti-CD44 Fab cross-linked to anti-DNP Fab (anti-CD44(Fab) x anti-DNP(Fab)) induces PMN to lyse DNP-coated tumor cells in an 18-h assay, and this lysis is specifically inhibited by a polyclonal anti-CD44 F(ab')2. A second bispecific Ab, anti-CD16(Fab) x anti-DNP(Fab), that binds to Fc(gamma)RIIIb on PMN does not induce lysis, indicating that the bridging of target cells to PMN per se is not sufficient for killing. Moreover, CD44-directed killing by PMN results in the lysis of bystander cells, suggesting that the mechanisms of tumor cytolysis by CD44-targeted PMN does not require cell-cell contact. Lastly, PMN lyse target cells coated with hyaluronic acid (HA), the principal ligand for CD44, and this cytolytic activity is specifically blocked by the polyclonal anti-CD44 F(ab')2 and by an anti-CD44 mAb. We suggest that the interaction of HA with CD44 on neutrophils might initiate cytotoxic or inflammatory responses in vivo when neutrophils encounter high amounts of HA, for example on tumor cells, or in the extracellular matrix. PMID:8906846

  3. A Novel Murine Anti-Lactoferrin Monoclonal Antibody Activates Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes through Membrane-Bound Lactoferrin and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Xu, Yan-Rui; Yan, Ru; Sun, Shu-Liang; Dong, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soluble lactoferrin (LTF) is a versatile molecule that not only regulates the iron homeostasis, but also harbors direct microbicidal and immunomodulating abilities in mammalian body fluids. In contrast, little is known about the function of membrane-bound LTF (mbLTF), although its expression on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (huPMNs) has been reported for decades. Given that LTF/anti-LTF antibodies represent a potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with immune disorders, we wished, in the present study, to generate a novel human LTF- (huLTF-) specific mAb suitable for detailed analyses on the expression and function of mbLTF as well as for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. By using the traditional hybridoma cell fusion technology, we obtained a murine IgG1 (kappa) mAb, M-860, against huLTF. M-860 recognizes a conformational epitope of huLTF as it binds to natural, but not denatured, huLTF in ELISA. Moreover, M-860 detects mbLTF by FACS and captures endogenous huLTF in total cell lysates of huPMNs. Functionally, M-860 induces the activation of huPMNs partially through TLR4 but independently of phagocytosis. M-860 is thus a powerful tool to analyze the expression and function of human mbLTF, which will further our understanding of the roles of LTF in health and disease. PMID:26649297

  4. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor does not enhance phagocytosis or microbicidal activity of human mature polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shimono, N; Okada, K; Takeda, D; Eguchi, K; Misumi, H; Sawae, Y; Niho, Y

    1994-01-01

    The direct effects of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) on mature polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in vitro were studied with regard to chemotaxis, superoxide production, and phagocytosis and microbicidal activity against the following viable microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, serum-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Recombinant hG-CSF (rhG-CSF) acted as a chemoattractant for human PMNs in a dose-dependent manner. The chemotactic response of PMNs to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) was not enhanced by rhG-CSF at any of the concentrations used. rhG-CSF did not induce the generation of superoxide by itself. However, rhG-CSF was able to prime human PMNs and to enhance O2- release stimulated by FMLP in a dose-dependent manner. rhg-CSF did not enhance phagocytosis or killing of the three species of microorganisms by normal PMNs. With PMNs obtained from patients who had hematological disorders or solid tumors, no enhancement of the microbicidal activity was observed in most cases. Microbial killing mediated by PMNs depended on the ratio of PMNs to target organisms. We concluded from these facts that the most important effect of rhG-CSF was to increase the number of the peripheral PMNs and not to enhance the functions of mature PMNs. PMID:8556501

  5. Effect of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes on chromosomal and plasmid DNA of Escherichia coli. Role of acid DNase

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenberg-Arska, M.; van Strijp, J.A.; Hoekstra, W.P.; Verhoef, J.

    1984-05-01

    Phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are important host resistance factors against invading microorganisms. Evidence showing that killing is rapidly followed by degradation of bacterial components is limited. Therefore, we studied the fate of Escherichia coli DNA following phagocytosis of E. coli by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (/sup 3/H)Thymidine-labeled, unencapsulated E. coli PC2166 and E. coli 048K1 were incubated in serum, washed, and added to leukocytes. Uptake and killing of the bacteria and degradation of DNA were measured. Although phagocytosis and killing by mononuclear leukocytes was less efficient than that by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, only mononuclear leukocytes were able to degrade E. coli PC2166 DNA. Within 2 h, 60% of the radioactivity added to mononuclear leukocytes was released into the supernate, of which 40% was acid soluble. DNA of E. coli 048K1 was not degraded. To further analyze the capacity of mononuclear leukocytes to degrade E. coli DNA, chromosomal and plasmid DNA was isolated from ingested bacteria and subjected to agarose gel-electrophoresis. Only chromosomal DNA was degraded after phagocytosis. Plasmid DNA of E. coli carrying a gene coding for ampicillin resistance remained intact for a 2-h period after ingestion, and was still able to transform recipient E. coli cells after this period. Although we observed no DNA degradation during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysates of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes contained acid-DNase activity with a pH optimum of 4.9. However, the DNase activity of mononuclear leukocytes was 20 times higher than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No difference was observed between DNase activity from polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes from a chronic granulomatous disease patient with DNase activity from control polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes.

  6. Role of the Yersinia YopJ protein in suppressing interleukin-8 secretion by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Justin L; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Shannon, Jeffrey G; Kobayashi, Scott D; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, in addition to their direct bactericidal activities, produce cytokines involved in the activation and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response to infection. In this study we evaluated the cytokine response of human PMNs following incubation with the pathogenic Yersinia species. Yersinia pestis strains with the pCD1 virulence plasmid, which encodes cytotoxic Yop proteins that are translocated into host cells, stimulated little or no cytokine production compared to pCD1-negative strains. In particular, PMNs incubated with pCD1-negative Y. pestis secreted 1000-fold higher levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8), a proinflammatory chemokine important for PMN recruitment and activation. Deletion of yopE, -H, -T, -M or ypkA had no effect on pCD1-dependent inhibition, whereas deletion of yopJ resulted in significantly increased IL-8 production. Like Y. pestis, the enteropathogenic Yersinia species inhibited IL-8 secretion by PMNs, and strains lacking the virulence plasmid induced high levels of IL-8. Our results show that virulence plasmid-encoded effector Yops, particularly YopJ, prevent IL-8 secretion by human PMNs. Suppression of the chemotactic IL-8 response by Y. pestis may contribute to the delayed PMN recruitment to the infected lymph node that typifies bubonic plague. PMID:26361732

  7. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  8. Effect of trans-resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Rotondo, Serenella; Rajtar, Grazyna; Manarini, Stefano; Celardo, Antonio; Rotilio, Domenico; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Evangelista, Virgilio; Cerletti, Chiara

    1998-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute coronary heart disease (CHD).Epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggests that red wine, by virtue of its polyphenolic constituents, may be more effective than other alcoholic beverages in reducing the risk of CHD mortality.The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of trans-resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol present in most red wines, on functional and biochemical responses of PMN, upon in vitro activation.trans-Resveratrol exerted a strong inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species produced by PMN stimulated with 1 μM formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalamine (fMLP) (IC50 1.3±0.13 μM, mean±s.e.mean), as evaluated by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence.trans-Resveratrol prevented the release of elastase and β-glucuronidase by PMN stimulated with the receptor agonists fMLP (1 μM, IC50 18.4±1.8 and 31±1.8 μM), and C5a (0.1 μM, IC50 41.6±3.5 and 42±8.3 μM), and also inhibited elastase and β-glucuronidase secretion (IC50 37.7±7 and 25.4±2.2 μM) and production of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 6-trans-LTB4 and 12-trans-epi-LTB4 (IC50 48±7 μM) by PMN stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 (5 μM).trans-Resveratrol significantly reduced the expression and activation of the β2 integrin MAC-1 on PMN surface following stimulation, as revealed by FACS analysis of the binding of an anti-MAC-1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and of the CBRM1/5 MoAb, recognizing an activation-dependent epitope on MAC-1. Consistently, PMN homotypic aggregation and formation of mixed cell-conjugates between PMN and thrombin-stimulated fixed platelets in a dynamic system were also prevented by trans-resveratrol.These results, indicating that trans-resveratrol interferes with the release of inflammatory mediators by activated PMN and down-regulates adhesion-dependent thrombogenic PMN functions, may provide some

  9. Purification of the active C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a receptor - G sub i complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, T.E.; Siciliano, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Cianciarulo, D.N.; Bonilla-Argudo, V.; Collier, K.; Springer, M.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors have isolated, in an active state, the C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The purification was achieved in a single step using a C5a affinity column in which the C5a molecule was coupled to the resin through its N terminus. The purified receptor, like the crude solubilized molecule, exhibited a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a K{sub d} of 30 pM. Further, the binding of C5a retained its sensitivity to guanine nucleotides, implying that the purified receptor contained a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). SDS/PAGE revealed the presence of three polypeptides with molecular masses of 42, 40, and 36 kDa, which were determined to be the C5a-binding subunit and the {alpha} and {beta} subunits of G{sub i}, respectively. The 36- and 40-kDa polypeptides were identified by immunoblotting and by the ability of pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate the 40-kDa molecule. These results confirm their earlier hypothesis that the receptor exists as a complex with a G protein in the presence or absence of C5a. The tight coupling between the receptor and G protein should make possible the identification of the G protein(s) involved in the transduction pathways used by C5a to produce its many biological effects.

  10. Potentiation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes respiratory burst and phagocytosis by a standardized liver and spleen fraction of peptides.

    PubMed

    Cramer, R; Dri, P; Spessotto, P; Mittenzwei, H; Patriarca, P

    1993-06-01

    The effect of Factor AF2 (AF2), a xenogeneic fraction of peptides with a molecular weight of < 10,000 Dalton obtained from livers and spleens of newborn lambs, on the oxygen consumption and the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was studied. AF2 increased the oxygen uptake of PMN exposed both to serum-treated zymosan (STZ), a phagocytosable stimulus, and phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), a soluble stimulus. The potentiating effect of the drug was dose-dependent and more pronounced when suboptimal amounts of either stimulus were used. The phagocytic activity of PMN, as measured by the rate of mineral oil particles ingestion, was also increased by AF2 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the drug may influence PMN behaviour in at least two ways: 1. by increasing the rate of phagocytosis, and 2. by potentiating the respiratory burst induced by soluble and particulate stimuli. The results are discussed in relation to the beneficial effects of AF2 in cancer patients under chemotherapy or radiation treatment. PMID:8352824

  11. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogels promote the release of primary granules from human blood-derived polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Hannah Caitlin; Lieberthal, Tyler Jacob; Kao, W. John

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are recruited to sites of injury and biomaterial implants. Once activated, PMNs can exocytose their granule subsets to recruit monocytes (MCs) and mediate MC/macrophage activation. We investigated the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a primary granule marker, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a tertiary granule marker, from human blood-derived PMNs cultured on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and gelatin-PEG (GP) hydrogels, with and without the presence of the bacterial peptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe. Supernatants from PMN cultures on PEG-containing hydrogels (i.e., PEG and GP hydrogels) had higher concentrations of MPO than those from PMN cultures on PDMS or TCPS at 2 hours. PMNs on all biomaterials released comparable levels of MMP-9 at 2 hours, indicating that PMNs cultured on PEG-containing hydrogels have different mechanisms of release for primary and tertiary granules. Src family kinases were involved in the release of MPO from PMNs cultured on PEG hydrogels, TCPS and GP hydrogels and in the release of MMP-9 from PMNs cultured on all four materials. The increased release of primary granules from PMNs on PEG-containing hydrogels did not significantly increase MC chemotaxis, indicating that additional co-effectors in the dynamic inflammatory milieu in vivo modulate PMN-mediated MC recruitment. PMID:24497370

  12. Enhancement by clofazimine and inhibition by dapsone of production of prostaglandin E2 by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R

    1985-01-01

    The effects of the antileprosy agents clofazimine and dapsone (1 to 10 micrograms/ml) on the spontaneous and stimulated release of prostaglandin E2 (PG E2) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in vitro have been investigated. PMNL were obtained from normal adult volunteers and three patients with leprosy (two borderline lepromatous and one subpolar lepromatous leprosy). The synthetic chemotactic tripeptide N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP) at a concentration of 10(-7) M was used as the stimulant of PG E2 synthesis. None of the test agents at the concentrations used inhibited the binding of radiolabeled FMLP to PMNL. However, dapsone at 5 and 10 micrograms/ml inhibited the spontaneous and FMLP-induced release of PG E2 by PMNL. Clofazimine, on the other hand, significantly increased both the spontaneous and the FMLP-induced synthesis of PG E2 by PMNL. The enhancing effects of clofazimine on FMLP-mediated synthesis of PG E2 were particularly striking and were observed at concentrations of 1 to 10 micrograms of the drug per ml. Measurements of PMNL spontaneous and FMLP-induced synthesis of PG E2 in the presence of both clofazimine and dapsone (5 micrograms/ml) indicated that the two drugs are mutually antagonistic. PMNL from both normal control subjects and patients with leprosy were equally sensitive to these effects of clofazimine and dapsone. The immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive properties of dapsone and clofazimine, respectively, may be related to the opposite effects of these agents on PG E2 synthesis in human leukocytes. PMID:3857019

  13. Carcinogenic sulfide salts of nickel and cadmium induce H2O2 formation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Z J; Troll, W; Koenig, K L; Frenkel, K

    1990-12-01

    Some derivatives of nickel, cadmium, and cobalt are carcinogenic in humans and/or animals but their mechanisms of action are not known. We show that they are capable of stimulating human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as measured by H2O2 formation, a known tumor promoter. Most effective were the carcinogens nickel subsulfide, which caused a 550% net increase in H2O2 over that formed by resting PMNs, followed by cadmium sulfide, 400%, and nickel disulfide, 200%. Nickel sulfide and cobalt sulfide caused statistically nonsignificant increases of 45 and 20%, respectively. Noncarcinogenic barium and manganese sulfides, and sulfates of nickel, cadmium, and cobalt were inactive. The enhancement of H2O2 formation by CdS and Ni3S2 (1 mumol/2.5 x 10(5) PMNs) was comparable to that mediated by the potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, used at 0.5 and 1 nM, respectively. Concurrent treatment of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated PMNs with Ni3S2 or NiS caused a decrease in H2O2 accumulation from that expected if the effects were additive. Including catalase in the reaction mixture proved that the oxidant formed by stimulated PMNs was H2O2, whereas adding superoxide dismutase showed that superoxide was also present in PMN samples treated with NiS but not with Ni3S2. Since nickel- and cadmium-containing particulates are deposited in the lungs and cause infiltration of PMNs, the ability to activate those cells and induce H2O2 formation may contribute to their carcinogenicity. PMID:2253206

  14. Activation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes by particulate zymosan is related to both its major carbohydrate components: glucan and mannan.

    PubMed

    Williams, J D; Topley, N; Alobaidi, H M; Harber, M J

    1986-05-01

    Unopsonized particulate zymosan and its major carbohydrate component glucan were phagocytosed under serum-free conditions by adherent polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Preincubation of PMN monolayers with mannan did not cause a reduction in the phagocytosis of either particle. The phagocytic response was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with trypsin at a concentration that did not inhibit the phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes coated with IgG or of latex particles. Homology of the recognition mechanisms for glucan and zymosan was confirmed when cells cultured on fixed glucan or on fixed zymosan failed to ingest either particle to more than 40% of control phagocytosis. Similarly, zymosan and glucan activated PMN in suspension, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, to generate reactive oxygen species which were measured as luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). There was, however, a four-fold greater CL response to zymosan. Preincubation of PMN with mannan resulted in a significantly decreased CL response to zymosan, while the response to glucan was unaffected. The CL response was also sensitive to a range of concentrations of trypsin. In contrast, two other complex polysaccharide particles (barley-derived beta-glucan and algae-derived laminarin) were not phagocytosed by PMN, nor did they cause the generation of CL, despite the fact that they possessed the capacity, in common with zymosan and glucan, to activate the alternative pathway of complement. The identification of a trypsin-sensitive recognition mechanism on the surface of human PMN for unopsonized zymosan and glucan represents a response not hitherto characterized. Furthermore, our data indicate that the phagocytosis of unopsonized zymosan by human PMN is dependent primarily on its glucan content, but that its capacity to activate the respiratory burst may involve mannan and the recruitment of a second cell surface recognition mechanism. PMID:3710519

  15. Major histocompatibility complex class II (DR) antigen and costimulatory molecules on in vitro and in vivo activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sandilands, Gavin P; McCrae, Jame; Hill, Kathryn; Perry, Martin; Baxter, Derek

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that normal human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) contain cytoplasmic ‘stores’ of three key molecules normally associated with antigen presentation and T-cell costimulation, i.e. major histocompatibility complex class II (DR) antigen, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). These cytoplasmic molecules were found to translocate to the cell surface within a few minutes following cross-linking (X-L) of Mac-1: an early neutrophil activation signal. In this study we have compared X-L of Mac −1 in parallel with four other well documented in vitro neutrophil activators: phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide, and phagocytosis of immunoglobulin G–Latex particles. In addition, we have used paired samples of neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood (as a control) and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis as a source of in vivo activated cells. With the exception of phagocytosis, all activators resulted in the rapid (within 30 min) generation of two populations of activated neutrophils (designated P1 and P2) based on flow-cytometry measurements of size, granularity and phenotype. Significant up-regulation of DR and costimulatory molecules was observed, predominantly on P2 cells, with all activators except phagocytosis. CD80 and CD86 were noted to respond to the various activation signals in a different pattern suggesting that their intracellular granule location may be different. Dual-staining confocal laser microscopy studies showed that CD80 is largely confined to secretory vesicles (SVs) while CD86 appears to have a much wider distribution being found in SVs and within secondary (specific) and primary (azurophilic) granules. Increased surface expression of these antigens was also observed on P2 synovial fluid neutrophils appearing as large heterogeneous clusters on the cell surface when visualized by confocal laser microscopy. PMID:17034427

  16. Modulation of leukotriene release from human polymorphonuclear leucocytes by PMA and arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Raulf, M; König, W

    1988-01-01

    Stimulation of human neutrophils (PMN) with Ca ionophore A23187, opsonized zymosan and formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) led to a time- and dose-dependent release of LTB4, 20-OH-LTB4, 20-COOH-LTB4, 6-trans-LTB4, 12-epi-6-trans LTB4 and LTC4, as detected by reverse-phase HPLC. Preincubation of the PMN suspension in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) did not release leukotrienes by itself, but modulated the subsequent Ca ionophore-induced leukotriene release. The release of LTC4, 20-OH-LTB4 and 20-COOH-LTB4 was significantly decreased. Lesser effects were observed for the release of LTB4 and the non-enzymatic LTB4 isomers. In contrast, opsonized zymosan and FMLP enhanced the release of LTB4 and LTB4-omega-oxidation products from cells pretreated with PMA. With arachidonic acid as prestimulus, the amounts of the LTB4 isomers (6-trans-LTB4 and 12-epi-6-trans-LTB4) were enhanced significantly on subsequent stimulation with Ca ionophore. Prestimulation of lymphocytes, monocytes and basophilic granulocytes (LMB) with PMA had no significant effects on the ionophore-induced release of LTC4 and LTB4. PMN, but not LMB, suspensions prestimulated with PMA convert exogenously added LTC4 to LTB4 isomers and LTC4 sulphoxide. Our data suggest that preincubation of human granulocytes with PMA modified leukotriene release by activation or inhibition of different metabolic pathways for LTC4 and LTB4. PMID:2838420

  17. Naringenin suppresses K562 human leukemia cell proliferation and ameliorates Adriamycin-induced oxidative damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; FENG, YING-QIAN; CHEN, JUN-HUI; GE, LIN-TONG; XIAO, SHU-YUAN; ZUO, XUE-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for leukemia remain unsatisfactory. Conventional chemotherapy agents that aim to kill tumor cells may also damage normal cells and thus result in severe side-effects. Naringenin, a natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant effects, has been revealed to have significant antitumor effects with low toxicity in preliminary studies. Thus, it is considered as one of the most promising flavonoids in the treatment of leukemia. In the present study, the effects of naringenin on the K562 human leukemia cell line and the underlying mechanisms were explored in vitro. In addition, human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were used as a normal control in order to evaluate the effects of naringenin on normal granulocytes and in the mediation of Adriamycin (ADM)-induced oxidative damage. The results revealed that K562 proliferation was significantly inhibited by naringenin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, minimal cytotoxic effects were observed in PMNs when naringenin was used at concentrations <400 μmol/l. Morphological changes indicative of apoptosis were observed in naringenin-treated K562 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the K562 cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a significantly upregulated rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, in the naringenin-treated K562 cells, the labeling index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was observed to be increased by immunochemical staining, the mRNA and protein expression levels of p21/WAF1 were strongly upregulated in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, whereas p53 gene expression was not significantly changed. In PMNs to which naringenin (50~80 μmol/l) was added 1 h subsequent to ADM, the cell damage induced by ADM was significantly reduced, coincident with reductions in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase and

  18. Effects of Montelukast on free radical production in whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Al Saadi, Muslim M.; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Mustafa, Ali; Shafi, Ahmed; Tuwajri, Ali S. Al

    2011-01-01

    Montelukast is a highly selective leukotriene-receptor antagonist (LTRA). It is widely used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, primarily as an adjunct to corticosteroids. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and oxidative stress contributing to the initiation and worsening of inflammatory respiratory disorders, such as asthma. Antioxidant drugs may have a role in minimizing or preventing damage in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effect of montelukast on the production of free radicals in the whole blood and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in asthmatic children. A group of 48 (38 males and 10 females), apparently healthy asthmatic children were recruited with ages ranging between 6 and 14 years. In asthmatic children, base line (premedication) and post medication free radicals activity in the whole blood and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was determined by measuring chemiluminescence (CL) response through chemiluminescence luminometer. Free radical productions were significantly decreased in the whole blood, when stimulated with Phorbol Myristate Acetate (p < 0.04) and Opsonised Zymosan (p < 0.05). The free radicals were also significantly decreased in isolated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) when stimulated with Opsonised Zymosan (p < 0.05) after the post medication treatment of montelukast in asthmatic children. Montelukast decreased the reactive oxygen species production, both in the whole blood as well as isolated PMNs in asthmatic children. PMID:23960762

  19. Release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and histamine. II. The cellular origin of human PAF: monocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and basophils.

    PubMed Central

    Camussi, G; Aglietta, M; Coda, R; Bussolino, F; Piacibello, W; Tetta, C

    1981-01-01

    The origin of platelet activating factor (PAF) from human leucocytes was investigated. Purified monocytes release PAF passively at pH 10.6, when challenged with Ionophore A 23187 or under phagocytic stimuli. Pure preparations of polymorphonuclear neutrophils liberate PAF passively, when challenged with C5a, neutrophil cationic proteins (CP), their carboxypeptidase B derived products (C5a des Arg, CP des Arg) or under phagocytic stimuli. Basophil rich buffy coat cells release PAF when challenged with C5a, CP, anti-IgE (in low amount) or Synacthen concomitantly with basophil degranulation and histamine release. Electron microscopy studies, carried out on Synacthen-stimulated basophil rich buffy coat, provide morphological evidence for platelet-basophil interaction. In conclusion our data demonstrate that PAF can be released from different leucocyte populations. However, the stimuli able to trigger such release appear to have some specificity for the cell target. Images Figure 5 PMID:6161885

  20. Modulation of human neutrophil polymorphonuclear leucocyte migration by human plasma alpha-globulin inhibitors and synthetic esterase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E J

    1975-01-01

    The exposure of isolated washed human neutrophils to purified human alpha1-antitrypsin resulted in a transient 2-fold enhancement of random migration and concomitant 70-90 per cent inhibition of chemotactic responsiveness to C5a or C3a, while treatment with alpha2-macroglobulin gave a less pronounced brief enhancement of random migration and prolonged 40-60 per cent suppression of chemotaxis. Peak effects occurred with concentrations of 1 mug/ml of alpha1-antitrypsin and 10 mug/ml of alpha2-macroglobulin. In contrast, the inhibitor of the activated first component of complement, at the highest concentration studied of 100/mug/ml, slightly enhanced chemotactic migration in response to C5a without influencing random migration. Preincubation of neutrophils with either L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl-chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) or N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) at concentrations of 10-8-10-4M suppressed chemotaxis with concomitant inhibition of random migration by TPCK and enhancement of random migration by TLCK. All agents worked directly and irreversibly on the cells but caused only slight stimulation of the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt of layers of adherent neutrophils. The results suggest that interaction of the plasma alpha-globulins or synthetic esterase inhibitors with surface receptors on neutrophils can influence both the random migration and responsiveness to chemotactic factors of these cells. PMID:49293

  1. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY Antibodies Induce Specific Bacterial Aggregation and Internalization in Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, K.; Christophersen, L.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Jensen, P. Ø.; Moser, C.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are essential cellular constituents in the innate host response, and their recruitment to the lungs and subsequent ubiquitous phagocytosis controls primary respiratory infection. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive pulmonary decline governed by a persistent, exaggerated inflammatory response dominated by PMNs. The principal contributor is chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection, which attracts and activates PMNs and thereby is responsible for the continuing inflammation. Strategies to prevent initial airway colonization with P. aeruginosa by augmenting the phagocytic competence of PMNs may postpone the deteriorating chronic biofilm infection. Anti-P. aeruginosa IgY antibodies significantly increase the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing of P. aeruginosa in vitro. The mode of action is attributed to IgY-facilitated formation of immobilized bacteria in aggregates, as visualized by fluorescence microscopy and the induction of increased bacterial hydrophobicity. Thus, the present study demonstrates that avian egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) targeting P. aeruginosa modify bacterial fitness, which enhances bacterial killing by PMN-mediated phagocytosis and thereby may facilitate a rapid bacterial clearance in airways of people with cystic fibrosis. PMID:25895968

  2. Formyl peptide-induced chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes does not require either marked changes in cytosolic calcium or specific granule discharge. Role of formyl peptide receptor reexpression (or recycling).

    PubMed Central

    Perez, H D; Elfman, F; Marder, S; Lobo, E; Ives, H E

    1989-01-01

    We examined the role of intracellular and extracellular calcium on the ability of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to migrate chemotactically and reexpress (or recycle) formyl peptide receptors when challenged with the synthetic chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Extracellular calcium was not required for either optimal chemotactic responses or receptor reexpression. Depletion and chelation of intracellular calcium resulted in significant diminution in the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the specific granule constituents lactoferrin and vitamin B12-binding protein during the process of chemotaxis, but had no effect on the capability of these cells to respond chemotactically. Similarly, chelation of intracellular calcium did not affect the ability of these cells to reexpress a population of formyl peptide receptors. Inhibition of receptor reexpression, by a nonagglutinating derivative of wheat-germ agglutinin, was associated with inhibition of chemotactic responses to FMLP. Thus, it appears that large changes in cytosolic free calcium are not necessary for formyl peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis. In contrast, continuous reexpression (or recycling) of formyl peptide receptors is required for polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotactic responses to FMLP, a process that appears to be independent from specific granule fusion with plasma membrane. PMID:2723068

  3. Intracellular calcium changes induced by the endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of protein kinase C and effect of calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Cattaneo, Simona; Frigo, Giuseppina; Fietta, Anna M; Lecchini, Sergio; Frigo, Gian Mario

    2004-01-01

    Background The endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN) induces intracellular calcium ([Ca++]i) changes followed by activation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of protein kinase (PK) C in the modulation of the response to TTN by human PMNs, and to examine the pharmacology of TTN-induced Ca++ entry through the plasma membrane of these cells. Results The PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) concentration-dependently inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise, and this effect was reverted by the PKC inhibitors rottlerin (partially) and Ro 32-0432 (completely). PMA also inhibited TTN-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. In the absence of PMA, however, rottlerin (but not Ro 32-0432) per se partially inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise. The response of [Ca++]i to TTN was also sensitive to mibefradil and flunarizine (T-type Ca++-channel blockers), but not to nifedipine, verapamil (L-type) or ω-conotoxin GVIA (N-type). In agreement with this observation, PCR analysis showed the expression in human PMNs of the mRNA for all the α1 subunits of T-type Ca++ channels (namely, α1G, α1H, and α1I). Conclusions In human PMNs TTN activates PKC-modulated pathways leading to Ca++ entry possibly through T-type Ca++ channels. PMID:15228623

  4. Proenkephalin system in human polymorphonuclear cells. Production and release of a novel 1.0-kD peptide derived from synenkephalin.

    PubMed Central

    Vindrola, O; Padrós, M R; Sterin-Prync, A; Ase, A; Finkielman, S; Nahmod, V

    1990-01-01

    In the hematopoietic system a pluripotent stem cell generates precursors for lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Proenkephalin-derived peptides were previously detected in differentiated lymphoid cells. We have studied whether the proenkephalin system is expressed in a typical differentiated cell of the myeloid lineage, the neutrophil. Human peripheral polymorphonuclear cells contain and release proenkephalin-derived peptides. The opioid portion of proenkephalin (met-enkephalin-containing peptides) was incompletely processed, resulting in the absence of low molecular weight products. The nonopioid synenkephalin (proenkephalin 1-70) molecule was completely processed to a 1.0-kD peptide derived from the COOH-terminal. This molecule was characterized in neutrophils by biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The chemotactic peptide FMLP and the calcium ionophore A23187 induced the release of the proenkephalin-derived peptides, and this effect was potentiated by cytochalasin B. The materials secreted were similar to those present in the cell, although in the supernatant a higher proportion corresponded to more processed products. The 1.0-kD peptide was detected in human, bovine, and rat neutrophils, but the chromatographic pattern of synenkephalin-derived peptides suggests a differential posttranslational processing among species. These findings demonstrate the existence of the proenkephalin system in human neutrophils and the production and release of a novel 1.0-kD peptide derived from the synenkephalin molecule. The presence of opioid peptides in neutrophils suggests their participation in the inflammatory process, including a local analgesic effect. Images PMID:2117023

  5. Regulation of 5-oxo-ETE synthesis by nitric oxide in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes upon their interaction with zymosan and Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Viryasova, Galina M.; Galkina, Svetlana I.; Gaponova, Tatjana V.; Romanova, Julia M.; Sud’ina, Galina F.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we have presented data on the regulation of LT (leukotriene) and 5-oxo-ETE (5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) syntheses in human neutrophils upon interaction with OZ (opsonized zymosan) or Salmonella typhimurium. Priming of neutrophils with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) elicits 5-oxo-ETE formation in neutrophils exposed to OZ, and the addition of AA (arachidonic acid) significantly increases 5-oxo-ETE synthesis. We found that NO (nitric oxide)-releasing compounds induce 5-oxo-ETE synthesis in neutrophils treated with OZ or S. typhimurium. Exposure of neutrophils to zymosan or bacteria in the presence of the NO donor DEA NONOate (1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitroso-hydrazine sodium) considerably increased the conversion of endogenously formed 5-HETE (5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) to 5-oxo-ETE. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that NO is a potent regulator of 5-oxo-ETE synthesis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes exposed to Salmonella typhimurium and zymosan. PMID:24712762

  6. Differential effects of nylon fibre adherence on the production of superoxide anion by human polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes stimulated with chemoattractants, ionophore A23187 and phorbol myristate acetate.

    PubMed Central

    Kownatzki, E; Uhrich, S

    1987-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes were made adherent by passing them over protein-coated nylon fibre columns and compared with suspended cells for their production of superoxide anion as measured by cytochrome C reduction. The cells were stimulated with chemotactic factors, the ionophore A 23187, and the tumour promoter phorbol myristate acetate. There was no increased O2-. production by adherent cells in the absence of a stimulus. Adherent cells produced considerably higher amounts of superoxide than suspended cells when stimulated with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, ionophore A 23187, C5a, C5adesArg, and the platelet activating factor 1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. In contrast, stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate did not result in higher superoxide release from adherent than from suspended cells, and leukotriene B4 and a mononuclear cell-derived chemotaxin did not stimulate either cell to release significant amounts of superoxide. It is suggested that the augmented production of oxygen radicals with certain stimuli contributes to inflammatory symptoms in situations involving adherent granulocytes. PMID:2820637

  7. Adhesion and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes across human brain microvessel endothelial cells are differentially regulated by endothelial cell adhesion molecules and modulate monolayer permeability.

    PubMed

    Wong, Donald; Prameya, Rukmini; Dorovini-Zis, Katerina

    2007-03-01

    The mechanisms by which polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) cross the human blood-brain barrier have not been fully elucidated. Using a well characterized in vitro model of the human BBB, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules on the adhesion and transendothelial migration of PMN across primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC). A small number of PMN (0.06%) adhered to unstimulated HBMEC, and the basal adhesion was not affected by anti-adhesion molecule antibodies. Treatment of HBMEC with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha resulted in increased PMN adhesion that was significantly inhibited by blocking antibodies to E-selectin and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1 or PECAM-1. A very small number of adherent PMN migrated across unstimulated HBMEC monolayers. Migration increased 2 to 20 fold following stimulation of HBMEC with TNF-alpha. Monoclonal antibody blocking studies showed that PMN used ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, E-selectin or PECAM-1 to move across activated monolayers. Anti-adhesion molecule antibodies did not diminish the basal PMN migration. Ultrastructurally, PMN often aggregated on top and between adjacent endothelial cells and adhered by first extending pseudopodia along the apical endothelial surface. They then flattened and inserted themselves between endothelial cells in order to migrate across the monolayers. At the end of the migration period, the cultures resumed their continuity with no evidence of disruption. Transendothelial migration of PMN decreased the transendothelial electrical resistance and increased the permeability to horseradish peroxidase, which penetrated alongside the migrating leukocytes. A blocking antibody to ICAM-1 that greatly decreased migration, had no effect on the permeability changes. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms that regulate the entry of PMN into the brain and the increased permeability of the BBB in CNS inflammation. PMID:17291598

  8. A Role for Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Cervical Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Atack, John M.; Ibranovic, Ines; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y.; Djoko, Karrera Y.; Chen, Nathan H.; vanden Hoven, Rachel; Jennings, Michael P.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate is an abundant metabolite, produced by host tissues and commensal organisms, and it represents an important potential carbon source for bacterial pathogens. In the case of Neisseria spp., the importance of the lactate permease in colonization of the host has been demonstrated, but there have been few studies of lactate metabolism in pathogenic Neisseria in the postgenomic era. We describe herein the characterization of genome-annotated, respiratory, and substrate-level lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) from the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Biochemical assays using N. gonorrhoeae 1291 wild type and isogenic mutant strains showed that cytoplasmic LdhA (NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase) and the membrane-bound respiratory enzymes, LdhD (D-lactate dehydrogenase) and LldD (L-lactate dehydrogenase) are correctly annotated. Mutants lacking LdhA and LdhD showed greatly reduced survival in neutrophils compared with wild type cells, highlighting the importance of D-lactate metabolism in gonococcal survival. Furthermore, an assay of host colonization using the well-established human primary cervical epithelial cell model revealed that the two respiratory enzymes make a significant contribution to colonization of and survival within the microaerobic environment of the host. Taken together, these data suggest that host-derived lactate is critical for the growth and survival of N. gonorrhoeae in human cells. PMID:24737798

  9. Effect of inhibitors of Na+/H+-exchange and gastric H+/K+ ATPase on cell volume, intracellular pH and migration of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, M; Schratzberger, P; Rossmann, H; Wöll, E; Seiler, K; Seidler, U; Reinisch, N; Kähler, C M; Zwierzina, H; Lang, H J; Lang, F; Paulmichl, M; Wiedermann, C J

    1998-01-01

    Stimulation of chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) with the chemoattractive peptide fMLP (N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) is paralleled by profound morphological and metabolic alterations like changes of intracellular pH (pHi) and cell shape. The present study was performed to investigate the interrelation of cell volume (CV) regulatory ion transport, pHi and migration of fMLP stimulated PMNs.Addition of fMLP to PMNs stimulated directed migration in Boyden chamber assays and was accompanied by rapid initial intracellular acidification and cell swelling.Inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger suppressed fMLP stimulated cell migration, accelerated the intracellular acidification and inhibited the fMLP-induced cell swelling.Step omission of extracellular Na+ caused intracellular acidification, which was accelerated by subsequent addition of gastric H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor SCH 28080, or by omission of extracellular K+ ions. In addition Na+ removal caused cell swelling, which was further enhanced by fMLP.H+/K+ATPase inhibitors omeprazole and SCH 28080 inhibited stimulated migration and blunted the fMLP-induced increase in CV.Increasing extracellular osmolarity by addition of mannitol to the extracellular solution caused cell shrinkage followed by regulatory volume increase, partially due to activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger. In fMLP-stimulated cells the CV increase was counteracted by simultaneous addition of mannitol. Under these conditions the fMLP stimulated migration was inhibited.The antibacterial activity of PMNs was not modified by Hoe 694 or omeprazole.Western analysis with a monoclonal anti gastric H+/K+ATPase β-subunit antibody detected a glycosylated 35 kD core protein in lysates of mouse and human gastric mucosa as well as in human PMNs.The results indicate that fMLP leads to cell swelling of PMNs due to activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and a K+-dependent H+-extruding mechanism, presumably an H+/K+ ATPase. Inhibition of these ion transporters

  10. Beta 2 (CD18) and beta 1 (CD29) integrin mechanisms in migration of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes through lung fibroblast barriers: shared and distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Shang, X Z; Issekutz, A C

    1997-01-01

    Accumulation of leucocytes in inflamed lung tissue and alveolar space involves their migration through vascular endothelium and then lung connective tissue. As a model of this process, we investigated human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) and monocyte migration through a biological barrier of human lung fibroblasts (HLF) grown on polycarbonate filters. Very few PMNL (1-2%) or monocytes (3-8%) migrated through the HLF barriers spontaneously. Migration increased to 48-53% of added PMNL and 17-24% of added monocytes, when a C5a chemotactic gradient was present. The monocyte migration induced by C5a was not inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to CD18 (beta 2 integrins). This CD18-independent migration was partially inhibited (35%) by mAb to gamma 5 of VLA-5 and completely inhibited by the combination of mAb to gamma 4 of VLA-4 with mAb to VLA-5, in the presence of mAb to CD18. In contrast, PMNL migration across HLF induced by C5a was partially inhibited by mAb to CD18 alone, but even with the addition of mAb to VLA-4, VLA-5 beta 1 and VLA-6, the greatest degree of inhibition was only 60%. Blocking the function of CD18 was not required to observe the inhibition by mAb to VLA-4, although the inhibitory effect of mAb to VLA-5 and VLA-6 alone or in combination was only observed when CD18 mechanisms were also blocked with anti-CD18 mAb. These results demonstrate that (a) both monocytes and PMNL can use either CD11/CD18 (beta 2 integrin) or beta 1 (CD49/CD29) integrins to migrate through HLF barriers; (b) in the case of monocytes, the VLA-4 and VLA-5 integrins account for essentially all the CD11/CD18-independent migration mechanisms; and (c) in contrast to monocytes, PMNL CD18-independent migration is mediated not only by VLA-4 and VLA-5, but also by VLA-6, and up to 40% of the migration appears to be via yet to be defined PMNL surface molecules. PMID:9497495

  11. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte migration through human dermal fibroblast monolayers is dependent on both beta 2-integrin (CD11/CD18) and beta 1-integrin (CD29) mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J X; Issekutz, A C

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of leucocytes in inflammation involves their migration through vascular endothelium and then in the connective tissue. We investigated human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) migration through a biological barrier of human dermal fibroblasts grown on microporous filters, as a model of PMNL migration in the connective tissue. PMNL did not migrate through a fibroblast monolayer unless a chemotactic factor, e.g. C5a, interleukin-8 (IL-8) or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP; C5adesArg), was added. This migration was partially inhibited (35-70%, depending on the stimulus) by treatment of PMNL with monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD18 (beta 2-integrins). Most of the CD18-independent migration was inhibited by mAb to beta 1-integrins (CD29). Inhibition by mAb to beta 1 was observed when the PMNL, but not the fibroblasts, were treated with mAb. The role of beta 1-integrins in PMNL transfibroblast migration was detectable only when the function of the CD11-CD18 complex was blocked, because mAb to beta 1-integrin alone had no significant effect on PMNL migration. Migration induced by C5a was more CD18-independent compared to IL-8 or C5adesArg. The CD18-independent migration was also inhibited by mAb to the beta 1-integrin subunits alpha 5 (of very late antigens-5; VLA-5) and alpha 6 (of VLA-6). Treatment of the fibroblasts (4 hr) with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-1 alpha enhanced C5a-induced PMNL transfibroblast migration and increased the proportion of migration utilizing the CD11-CD18 mechanism. However, TNF-alpha treatment had no effect on the degree of beta 1-integrin-dependent migration. These findings suggest that in response to the chemotactic factors C5a, IL-8 and C5adesArg, PMNL migration in the connective tissue is mediated by both CD11-CD18 (beta 2) and beta 1-integrins on the PMNL. The VLA-5 and VLA-6 members of beta 1-integrins are involved in this process. This is in contrast to PMNL migration across endothelium in this system, which

  12. Oxidant-dependent metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by phorbol ester-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: possible link between inflammation and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Trush, M.A.; Seed, J.L.; Kensler, T.W.

    1985-08-01

    Oxidants, such as those generated by metabolically activated phagocytes in inflammation, have been implicated in the metabolic activation of carcinogens, and in this study the authors demonstrate that the interaction of (+/-)-trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BP 7,8-dihydrodiol) with phorbol ester-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in the generation of both a chemiluminescent intermediate and one that covalently binds to DNA. Concordant with the formation of a carcinogen-DNA adduct, the admixture of BP 7,8-dihydrodiol and phorbol ester-stimulated PMNs elicited mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. These results demonstrate that oxidants generated by metabolically stimulated PMNs can activate penultimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to a genotoxic metabolite and further defines a role for inflammation in carcinogenesis.

  13. Oxidant-dependent metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by phorbol ester-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: possible link between inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Trush, M A; Seed, J L; Kensler, T W

    1985-01-01

    Oxidants, such as those generated by metabolically activated phagocytes in inflammation, have been implicated in the metabolic activation of carcinogens, and in this study we demonstrate that the interaction of (+/-)-trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BP 7,8-dihydrodiol) with phorbol ester-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in the generation of both a chemiluminescent intermediate and one that covalently binds to DNA. Cu(II)(3,5-diisopropylsalicylic acid)2 (CuDIPS), a biomimetic superoxide dismutase, and azide, a myeloperoxidase inhibitor, inhibited both of these reactions, indicating a dependency on oxygen-derived oxidants in these hydrocarbon-activation processes. Concordant with the formation of a carcinogen-DNA adduct, the admixture of BP 7,8-dihydrodiol and phorbol ester-stimulated PMNs elicited mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. 7,8-Dihydro-BP and BP cis-7,8-dihydrodiol were also mutagenic, whereas derivatives lacking a double bond at the 9,10 position were not. These results demonstrate that oxidants generated by metabolically stimulated PMNs can activate penultimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to a genotoxic metabolite and further defines a role for inflammation in carcinogenesis. PMID:2991910

  14. High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Farowski, Fedja; Cornely, Oliver A; Hartmann, Pia

    2016-06-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used antifungal for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular concentration of posaconazole in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was greatly increased compared to the plasma concentration. As these professional phagocytes are crucial to combat fungal infections, we set out to investigate if and how, beneficial or deleterious, this high loading of intracellular posaconazole impacts the functional capacities of these cells. Here, we show that high intracellular concentrations of posaconazole do not significantly impact PMN and monocyte-derived macrophage function in vitro In particular, killing capacity and cytoskeletal features of PMN, such as migration, are not affected, indicating that these cells serve as vehicles for posaconazole to the site of infection. Moreover, since posaconazole as such slowed the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, infected neutrophils released less reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these findings, we propose that the delivery of posaconazole by neutrophils to the site of Aspergillus species infection warrants control of the pathogen and preservation of tissue integrity at the same time. PMID:27021317

  15. Age-related differences in the metabolism of sulphite to sulphate and in the identification of sulphur trioxide radical in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Constantin, D; Bini, A; Meletti, E; Moldeus, P; Monti, D; Tomasi, A

    1996-07-01

    Sulphite oxidation and sulphur trioxide radical formation were studied in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) isolated from healthy young, old and centenarian donors and from patients with Down's syndrome. The sulphur radical formation measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy-spin trapping (EPR-ST) was correlated with the activity of sulphite oxidase and with the rate of sulphite oxidation to sulphate by PMNs. Sulphite metabolism was studied both in resting, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated freshly isolated cells. The rate of sulphur trioxide radical formation was demonstrated by use of the spin trapping agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroline-1-oxide (DMPO) with subsequent formation of an adduct. The intensity of adduct formation was most intense in cells with low sulphite oxidase activity, while a mixture of the adduct and of DMPO hydroxyl radical was mainly observed in cells with high sulphite oxidase activity. Furthermore, experiments carried out on purified sulphite oxidase showed that in the presence of sulphite the enzyme could also give rise to a DMPO-OH adduct. Sulphite oxidase activity in cells isolated from healthy young and old donors was positive correlated with both rates of sulphur trioxide radical formation and sulphite oxidation to sulphate, respectively. However, sulphite oxidase activity in cells isolated from centenarians and patients with Down's syndrome seems to loose partly its rate of oxidising sulphite to sulphate. The intensity of the sulphur centred radical adduct increased in the two latter groups of population and the radical observed was predominantly sulphur trioxide radical. PMID:8803926

  16. Monoclonal Lym-1 antibody-dependent lysis of B-lymphoblastoid tumor targets by human complement and cytokinine-exposed mononuclear and neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Morone, P; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

    1996-06-15

    Lym-1 is a murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a polymorphic variant of HLA-DR antigens on malignant B cells, with minimal cross-reactivity with normal tissues. Because it can be safely administered in vivo, a detailed knowledge of its ability to recruit and trigger the antitumor immune effector systems is required to optimize potential serotherapeutic approaches in B-lymphoma patients. By using Raji cells as a model of B-lymphoma targets, we found that Lym-1 activates complement-mediated lysis efficiently. Moreover, Lym-1 was capable of triggering the antibody-dependent cellular cytolysis (ADCC) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs). On the contrary, it failed to trigger neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-mediated ADCC activity. In an attempt to enhance Lym-1 ADCC by MNCs and PMNs, nine biologic response modifiers were tested. MNC-mediated Lym-1 ADCC was significantly stimulated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and unaffected by other mediators, including gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN), tumor necrosis factor a (TNFalpha), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). On the other hand, PMN-mediated Lym-1 ADCC was induced or significantly augmented by various cytokines, such as GM-CSF, TNFalpha, and gamma-IFN, and chemotaxins, such as formyl peptides (FMLP), complement fragment C5a, and IL-8. Both MNC- and PMN-mediated ADCC was unaffected by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G- CSF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Finally, only GM-CSF and TNFalpha augmented the number of PMNs actually engaged in the binding of Raji target cells. The findings presented here, in particular those showing stimulatory activity of biologic response modifiers, may inspire new attempts for developing Lym-1 antibody-based approaches to the therapy of B lymphomas. PMID:8652830

  17. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia and reduction of H2O2 concentration in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes by flavour components of Japanese-style fermented soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, S; Liu, W; Albright, K; Storkson, J; Pariza, M

    1997-05-01

    Previously it was reported that 4-hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), a characteristic flavour component of Japanese-style fermented soy sauce that exhibits antioxidant activity, inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in mice. The antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of other structurally similar soy sauce flavour components are now reported. 4-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) were found to be antioxidants. In particular, HMF and HDMF (as well as HEMF) reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated by arachidonic acid or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. HMF and HDMF were administered individually in semipurified diet to female ICR mice previously treated with benzo[a]pyrene (1.5 mg/wk, orally for 4 wk) to initiate forestomach neoplasia. The mice were killed at 30 wk of age. Both furanones reduced forestomach neoplasms, with HDMF exhibiting more potency. The data indicate that HDMF and HMF, like HEMF, inhibit carcinogenesis in this system by acting at the post-initiation stage. PMID:9216743

  18. Purification and characterization by fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry of the polymorphonuclear-leucocyte-elastase-generated A alpha (1-21) fragment of fibrinogen from human blood after incubation with calcium ionophore A23187.

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, R S; Liesch, J M; Williams, H R; Sugg, E E; Dolan, C A; Davies, P; Mumford, R A; Albers-Schönberg, G

    1992-01-01

    The stimulation of human blood with a Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, leads to activation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with release of small amounts of catalyticaly active elastase, as demonstrated by the formation of a characteristic product, the N-terminal A alpha (1-21) peptide of the Aa subunit of fibrinogen. The identity of the peptide was initially established by radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.) with an antibody raised to A alpha (1-21). We now provide independent confirmation of the formation of A alpha (1-21) by fast-atom-bombardment-m.s. analysis of the fractions separated chromatographically after spiking of plasma samples with peptide labelled with [2H8]Phe at position 8. Identity of the peptides was established on the basis of their chromatographic retention time and by the distinct peaks in the mass spectra of these fractions. The relative intensities of the molecular ions of natural and labelled peptides were measured. On the basis of a comparison of the peaks of similar intensities, the concentration of the natural peptide at the time of spiking was close (79%) to the amount obtained by r.i.a. An additional peptide, des-alanyl-A alpha (2-21), was also seen. The total amount of material measured by r.i.a. could be accounted for by the sum of these two provides. The addition of label and assay by m.s. has provided an independent physical-chemical method for identifying A alpha (1-21) as a characteristic product of PMN elastase release in whole blood, but which is absent in freshly drawn blood. PMID:1736899

  19. Lymphoblastoid cell supernatants increase expression of C3b receptors on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: direct binding studies with 125I-C3b.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M; Cross, A S

    1984-01-01

    Human PMN incubated in culture supernatants of the Raji long-term human lymphoblastoid cell line showed increased rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes coated with C3b (EIgM C4b3b) but no change in rosette formation with IgG-coated erythrocytes. This suggested a specific increase in cell surface C3b receptors, which was further investigated using 125I-C3b for direct binding studies. The results confirmed that specific binding of 125I-C3b to PMN incubated in culture supernatants increased up to three- to four-fold over binding to PMN incubated in control media alone. Scatchard analysis revealed that the apparent Ka for supernatant-treated cells, 3.36 +/- 0.89 X 10(7) L/M did not differ from the Ka for cells incubated in control media, 3.76 +/- 0.75 X 10(7) L/M, suggesting an increase in a single class of C3b receptors. Kinetic studies revealed that the active factor was present within 24 hr of culture of the Raji cells, and that neutrophils incubated in culture supernatants increased their C3b receptors continuously for up to 4 hr, the longest interval tested. The effect of the culture supernatant was lost with dilution beyond eight- to 10-fold. The results suggest that culture supernatants of this long-term lymphoblastoid cell line contain soluble factors that induce increased expression of C3b receptors on PMN and may thus serve as a model for study of important physiologic effects of lymphocyte products on PMN in vivo. PMID:6230308

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of the partially purified extract of radix Stephaniae tetrandrae: comparative studies of its active principles tetrandrine and fangchinoline on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y C; Chou, C J; Chiou, W F; Chen, C F

    2001-11-01

    We hypothesized that prevention of neutrophil from activation may underlie the myocardial protective effect of the specially processed extract of radix Stephaniae tetrandrae (SPRST). Inflammatory responses in isolated peripheral human neutrophils were studied in the presence or absence of SPRST. SPRST (1-10 microg/ml) concentration-dependently prevented N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- or leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))-induced neutrophil adhesion and transmigration. Comparable results were also observed in neutrophils pretreated with fangchinoline (Fan) or tetrandrine (Tet), two active components in SPRST. It has been reported that neutrophil adhesion/transmigration is mainly Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18)-dependent and could be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. SPRST, Tet, and Fan diminished fMLP- or LTB4-induced Mac-1 up-regulation and ROS production. SPRST, Fan, Tet, and verapamil impaired fMLP-induced rapid intracellular alkalization, an essential mechanism for neutrophil ROS production, and [Ca(2+)](i) increment, suggesting that a calcium dependent pathway might be involved. Direct G protein activation by AlF(4)(-) also triggered [Ca(2+)](i) increment and adhesion that could be abolished by pertussis toxin and were partially reversed by SPRST, Fan, and Tet. These results reveal that inhibition of neutrophil adhesion and transmigration may account for SPRST's myocardial protective effect. This effect of SPRST may be mediated by component(s) in addition to Tet and Fan because combination of 0.1 microg/ml of Tet and Fan did not mimic the effect of SPRST. We conclude that SPRST exerts anti-inflammatory effects by interfering with ROS production and Ca(2+) influx through G protein modulation to prevent Mac-1 up-regulation in neutrophil activation. PMID:11641437

  1. Purification of myeloperoxidase from equine polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mathy-Hartert, M; Bourgeois, E; Grülke, S; Deby-Dupont, G; Caudron, I; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1998-01-01

    Increases of plasma concentrations of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be used as markers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) activation in pathological situations (sepsis, acute lung injury, acute inflammation). To develop an assay for measurement of plasma MPO in horses during the above-mentioned infectious and inflammatory conditions, MPO was purified from equine PMN isolated from blood anticoagulated with citrate. PMN were extracted in a saline milieu (0.2 M Na acetate, 1 M NaCl, pH 4.7) to eliminate most of cellular proteins. Pellets were then extracted in the same buffer containing cationic detergent (1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide). The supernatant was further purified by ion exchange chromatography (Hiload S Sepharose HP column 0.5 x 26 cm, equilibrated with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7) with a NaCl gradient (until 1 M). Most of the peroxidase activity of MPO (spectrophotometrically measured by the oxidation of orthodianisidine by hydrogen peroxide) was eluted at 0.65 M NaCl. MPO was further purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S 200 column 2.6 x 42 cm with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7). MPO (specific activity: 74.3 U/mg) was obtained with a yield of 30% from the detergent extraction supernatant. Electrophoresis (non-reducing conditions) showed 3 bands identified, by comparison with human MPO, (i) the mature tetrameric enzyme (150 kDa) with 2 light and 2 heavy subunits, (ii) the precursor form (88 kDa) and (iii) a form of the heavy subunit without the prosthetic heme group (40 kDa). The mature enzyme and its precursor were glycosylated and possessed peroxidase activity. Equine MPO showed strong similarities with human and bovine MPO, with an absorption peak at 430 nm (Soret peak) characteristic of ferrimyeloperoxidase. Enzymatic activity was pH dependent (optimal value at pH 5.5). Images Figure 1. PMID:9553712

  2. Effects of eugenol on polymorphonuclear cell migration and chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Woolverton, C J; Van Dyke, K; Powell, R L

    1987-03-01

    In this study, the effects of eugenol on human polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell migration and chemiluminescence were examined in vitro. Utilizing zymosan-activated serum or crude Bacteroides sonicate fractions as chemotractants, we found that eugenol inhibits PMN migration at 6.6 X 10(-2) to 6.6 X 10(-5) mol/L (P less than 0.05). Also, similar effects were observed in PMNs pre-incubated in eugenol. Regardless of concentration, eugenol was not found to induce chemotaxis of PMNs. An examination of PMN membrane activation through chemiluminescence gave results consistent with the chemotaxis data, demonstrating a decrease in light emission at concentrations as low as 6.6 X 10(-6) mol/L (P less than 0.05). In view of these data, the potential effect of eugenol on in vivo (sulcular or periapical) PMN function deserves further study. PMID:3475310

  3. Alteration of rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte function after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Gruber, D F; D'Alesandro, M M

    1989-01-01

    One portion of host defense to bacterial challenge(s) involves the activation and infiltration of endogenous polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thermal injuries are frequently associated with immunologic abnormalities including alterations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-associated nonspecific resistance. We examined isolated peripheral rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes for alterations in membrane potential, oxidative capability, and locomotor function after the experimental application of 20% full-thickness body surface area thermal injury. Thermal injury resulted in significant reductions of peripheral red blood cell concentration(s) and increases in leukocyte and platelet concentrations for 42 days after injury. In addition to the quantitative changes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes also demonstrated altered qualitative functions. Compared with phorbol myristate acetate-induced activation of normal cells, polymorphonuclear leukocyte membranes from thermal-injured animals were electrophysiologically less responsive for 3 weeks after injury. The ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to produce intracellular H2O2, a measure of oxidative function, was also significantly decreased for 7 days after injury. The paradox in this paradigm of thermal injury was the demonstration of peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocyte quantitative increases with concurrent significant qualitative impairment. Qualitative lesions included altered states of membrane depolarization and depressed oxidative capability that may individually, or collectively, reduce nonspecific immune capabilities of the host to levels that are inadequate to combat infection. PMID:2793916

  4. Biphasic control of polymorphonuclear cell migration by Kupffer cells. Effect of exposure to metabolic products of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Fainsilber, Z.; Feinman, L.; Shaw, S.; Lieber, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the Kupffer cells in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis, rat liver Kupffer cells were cultured and exposed to products of ethanol metabolism. The resultant supernatants were tested to study their ability to stimulate or inhibit polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis. Kupffer cells produced increased chemokinetic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; when incubated with soluble products of microsomal peroxidation, the Kupffer cells engendered more chemokinetic activity than that produced by untreated Kupffer cells. When Kupffer cells were incubated with acetaldehyde, the chemokinetic activity that appeared in the supernatant did not differ from control. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells was not observed when the Kupffer cell supernatants were tested by checkerboard analysis.

  5. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Czirják, L; Dankó, K; Sipka, S; Zeher, M; Szegedi, G

    1987-01-01

    In vitro functions of polymorphonuclear (PMN) neutrophils were studied in 20 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). An increase in the basal chemiluminescence (CL) activity of peripheral blood PMNs was found, suggesting that these cells had been preactivated in vivo. Patients with more extensive skin disease or signs of disease progression tended to have higher basal CL values. Active oxygen products during the respiratory burst may increase the extent of inflammatory and fibrotic processes and could be involved in the endothelial injury in PSS. The stimulatory capacity of CL response was normal in our study. No alterations were found in the opsonised yeast phagocytic activity of granulocytes when compared with control values. The binding of erythrocyte-antibody particles was found also to be normal. A depressed chemotactic activity of PMN cells against zymosan activated serum was also shown. The cause of the decreased chemotaxis of PMNs remains to be elucidated. PMID:3592786

  6. Pulmonary accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the adult respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Powe, J.E.; Short, A.; Sibbald, W.J.; Driedger, A.A.

    1982-11-01

    The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) plays an integral role in the development of permeability pulmonary edema associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This report describes 3 patients with ARDS secondary to systemic sepsis who demonstrated an abnormal diffuse accumulation of Indium (/sup 111/In)-labeled PMNs in their lungs, without concomitant clinical or laboratory evidence of a primary chest infection. In one patient, the accumulation of the pulmonary activity during an initial pass suggested that this observation was related to diffuse leukoaggregation within the pulmonary microvasculature. A 4th patient with ARDS was on high-dose corticosteroids at the time of a similar study, and showed no pulmonary accumulation of PMNs, suggesting a possible reason for the reported beneficial effect of corticosteroids in human ARDS.

  7. Modulation of human eosinophil polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration and function.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Eosinophil migration toward a concentration gradient of a chemotactic factor is regulated at four levels. Diverse immunologic pathways generate stimuli with eosinophil chemotactic activity, including the complement products C5a and a fragment of C3a and the peptide products of mast cells and basophils activated by IgE-mediated reactions, such as eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) and other oligopeptides. The intrinsic preferential leukocyte activity of the chemotactic stimuli represents the second level of modulation, with ECF-A and other mast cell-derived peptides exhibiting the most selective action on eosinophils. The third level of control of eosinophil chemotaxis is composed of inactivators and inhibitors of chemotactic stimuli and is exemplified by degradation of C5a by anaphylatoxin inactivator or chemotactic factor inactivator and of ECF-A by carboxypeptidase-A or aminopeptidases. The activity of ECF-A is uniquely suppressed by equimolar quantities of its NH2- terminal tripeptide substituent, presumably by eosinophil membrane receptor competition. Factors comprising the fourth level of regulation, which alter eosinophil responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli, include the chemotactic factors themselves, through deactivation; nonchemotactic inhibitors such as the COOH-terminal tripeptide substituent of ECF-A, the neutrophil-immobilizing factor (NIF), the phagocytosis-enhancing factor Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg, and histamine at concentrations greater than 400 ng/ml; and nonchemotactic enhancing principles represented by ascorbate and by histamine at concentrations of 30 ng/ml or less. Local concentrations of eosinophils called to and immobilized at the site of a hypersenitivity reaction may express their regulatory functions by degrading the chemical mediators elaborated including histamine, slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) by way of their content of histaminase, arylsulfatase B, and phospholipase D, respectively. Immunologic pathways may thus provide the capability for early and specific host defense reactions with a later influx of eosinophils preventing irreversible local tissue alterations or distant organ effects. PMID:793410

  8. [Advances in researches on polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase in semen].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-xiang; Lu, Kun-gang; Zhang, Hong-ye; Lu, Jin-chun

    2011-11-01

    Reproductive tract infection is one of the important factors of male reproduction. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase (PMNE) in semen, as a marker of male reproductive tract inflammation, especially recessive infection, potentially affects male fertility. The concentration of PMNE in semen is correlated significantly not only with semen white blood cell count and seminal plasma ROS level, but also with the levels of other inflammation related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, PMNE has a negative impact on sperm quality by decreasing sperm motility, increasing the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm and interfering with DNA integrity. PMNE inhibitors in semen can form a compound with PMNE, and the imbalanced proportions of the two may promote the development of chronic inflammation, and consequently lead to male infertility. At present, PMNE in semen is detected mainly by enzyme immunoassay, but this method still needs to be standardized, and the diagnostic standards to be unified. PMID:22141276

  9. Re-evaluation of the culture condition of polymorphonuclear cells for the study of apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, M; Tajima, M; Shimojima, T; Kashimata, M; Miyata, T; Sakagami, H

    1998-01-01

    The culture conditions of human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the study of apoptosis induction were re-evaluated. The changes in the relative viable cell number of PMNs after tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment were colorimetrically investigated using a cell counting kit. The relative potency of PMNs to produce the superoxide anion (O2-) was measured as the reduction of color intensity by addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD). When the PMNs were cultured in conventional RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), the stimulation effect of TNF on O2- generation by PMNs was observed only for the first 6 hours. When FBS was replaced with human serum, the effect of TNF was maintained for longer incubation periods. Prolonged incubation of PMNs spontaneously produced large DNA fragments, and the extent of DNA fragmentation was relatively smaller in human serum-containing medium. TNF, LPS, hyperthermia or potassium thiocyanate slightly accelerated the production of large DNA fragments, as well as the induction of trace amounts of internucleosomal DNA cleavage in PMNs, which became detectable only after concentration by fractional isopropanol precipitation. The present study suggests the importance of the use of human serum rather than conventional FBS for the study of apoptosis induction in PMNs. PMID:9673409

  10. Subcellular localization and heterogeneity of neutral proteases in neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewald, B; Rindler-Ludwig, R; Bretz, U; Baggiolini, M

    1975-04-01

    The subcellular localization of elastase and of neutral proteases hydrolyzing histone and casein was determined in human and rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes using fractionation by isopycnic centrifugation. Granule-rich fractions obtained by this technique were extracted and analyzed by acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and proteolytic activity on the gels was demonstrated by staining with either N-acetyl-D,L-alanine alpha-naphthyl ester or naphthol AS-D acetate as substrate. In both species, all neutral proteases assayed were found to be localized exclusively in the azurophil granules. Specific activities were about 10-30 times higher in human than in rabbit preparations. In extracts of human azurophil granules up to 10 proteins exhibiting esterolytic activity could be demonstrated after electrophoretic separation. Three major and two or three minor components of these esterases were shown to possess elastase activity. Similar zymograms prepared with extracts from rabbit azurophil granules revealed only one major elastase band. The electrophoretic analysis further showed that the most strongly cationic proteins of both human and rabbit PMNs were also confined to the azurophil granules. PMID:236354

  11. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils in periodontitis and their possible modulation as a therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Nicu, Elena A; Loos, Bruno G

    2016-06-01

    The main focus of this review is polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils play a pivotal role in normal host resistance to subgingival dental-plaque biofilm. Both hyper- and hypo-responsiveness of the immune system toward the microbial challenge in periodontitis have been described. We review polymorphonuclear neutrophil physiology with emphasis on the role of neutrophil functions and dysfunctions in periodontitis. Text boxes are given at the end of each subsection, which present the current knowledge on neutrophil-modulating agents as a potential therapeutic approach in periodontitis. PMID:27045435

  12. Effect of diacetylrhein on the phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and its influence on the biosynthesis of hyaluronate in synovial cells.

    PubMed

    Schöngen, R N; Giannetti, B M; van de Leur, E; Reinards, R; Greiling, H

    1988-05-01

    1. The influence of diacetylrhein on the luminol-induced chemiluminescence of zymosan-activated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) was investigated. At a concentration of 4 x 10(-5) mol/l diacetylrhein an inhibition of about 40% was found. 2. A model for the degradation of hyaline cartilage by frustrated phagocytosis was developed, in which human polymorphonuclear leucocytes cause a release of glycosaminoglycan peptides from hyaline cartilage slices (bovine nasal septum). We observed a 20% inhibition of this release at a concentration of 10(-4) mol/l diacetylrhein. 3. Human synovial fibroblasts synthesize the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronate. As a parameter of the rate of hyaluronate synthesis we measured the incorporation of 14C-glucosamine into hyaluronate. At a concentration of 2 x 10(-4) mol/l diacetylrhein a 4-fold increase of 14C-glucosamine incorporation in the membrane fraction of the synovial cells (tryptic fraction) and a 1.6-fold elevation of glucosamine release into the medium was measured. The synovial fibroblasts show a higher (1.5-fold) glucose consumption and lactate production in the presence of diacetylrhein (2 x 10(-4) mol/l). PMID:3415721

  13. Group A Streptococcus Modulates Host Inflammation by Manipulating Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Cell Death Responses.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaronis, James A; Ly, Diane; Pupovac, Aleta; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Taylor, Jude M; Walker, Mark J; Medina, Eva; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell death strongly influences the resolution of inflammatory episodes, and may exacerbate adverse pathologies in response to infection. We investigated PMN cell death mechanisms following infection by virulent group A Streptococcus (GAS). Human PMNs were infected in vitro with a clinical, virulent GAS isolate and an avirulent derivative strain, and compared for phagocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptotic markers. C57BL/6J mice were then infected, in order to observe the effects on murine PMNs in vivo. Human PMNs phagocytosed virulent GAS less efficiently, produced less ROS and underwent reduced mitochondrial membrane depolarization compared with phagocytosis of avirulent GAS. Morphological and biochemical analyses revealed that PMNs infected with avirulent GAS exhibited nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activation consistent with an anti-inflammatory apoptotic phenotype. Conversely, virulent GAS induced PMN vacuolization and plasma membrane permeabilization, leading to a necrotic form of cell death. Infection of the mice with virulent GAS engendered significantly higher systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine release and localized infiltration of murine PMNs, with cells associated with virulent GAS infection exhibiting reduced apoptotic potential. Avirulent GAS infection was associated with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and tissue PMN apoptosis. We propose that the differences in PMN cell death mechanisms influence the inflammatory responses to infection by GAS. PMID:25997401

  14. Role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, I. Y.; Bowden, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Silicosis is usually attributed to fibroblast stimulation by secretion of damaged alveolar macrophages (AMs), but the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and of continuing cell injury in the pathogenesis has not been fully studied. Mice given intratracheal injections of 2 mg of silica received 3H-thymidine 1 hour before death at intervals to 20 weeks. Cellular populations and lysosomal content of lavage fluids were correlated with morphology, DNA synthesis, and collagen content of the lung. The initial response involved rapid PMN and AM recruitment to the alveoli. Some free particles crossed Type 1 epithelial cells, and silica was found in interstitial macrophages. Focal Type 1 cell damage was rapidly repaired by Type 2 cell proliferation. Although PMN numbers dropped after a few days, they never reached control levels and rose again after 8 weeks; the number of AMs fell to control values from 2 to 8 weeks, then increased again. Glucosaminidase and glucuronidase levels in the lavage fluid were much higher than control levels throughout the study. Increased DNA synthesis by interstitial cells occurred from 2 days to 20 weeks; increased collagen synthesis was found from 4 weeks onward. The continuing inflammatory response of the lung to silica suggests may contribute to fibroblastic stimulation. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6486244

  15. Role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, I.Y.; Bowden, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    Silicosis is usually attributed to fibroblast stimulation by secretion of damaged alveolar macrophages (AMs), but the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and of continuing cell injury in the pathogenesis has not been fully studied. Mice given intratracheal injections of 2 mg of silica received 3H-thymidine 1 hour before death at intervals to 20 weeks. Cellular populations and lysosomal content of lavage fluids were correlated with morphology, DNA synthesis, and collagen content of the lung. The initial response involved rapid PMN and AM recruitment to the alveoli. Some free particles crossed Type 1 epithelial cells, and silica was found in interstitial macrophages. Focal Type 1 cell damage was rapidly repaired by Type 2 cell proliferation. Although PMN numbers dropped after a few days, they never reached control levels and rose again after 8 weeks; the number of AMs fell to control values from 2 to 8 weeks, then increased again. Glucosaminidase and glucuronidase levels in the lavage fluid were much higher than control levels throughout the study. Increased DNA synthesis by interstitial cells occurred from 2 days to 20 weeks; increased collagen synthesis was found from 4 weeks onward. The continuing inflammatory response of the lung to silica suggests may contribute to fibroblastic stimulation.

  16. Superoxide-forming NADPH oxidase preparation of pig polymorphonuclear leucocyte.

    PubMed Central

    Wakeyama, H; Takeshige, K; Takayanagi, R; Minakami, S

    1982-01-01

    A phagocytic vesicle fraction with high NADPH-dependent superoxide-forming activity was obtained in large quantity from pig blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes, phagocytosing oil droplets in the presence of cyanide. The activity of the homogenate of the phagocytosing cells was 40 times that of the resting cells, and 70% of the activity in the homogenate was recovered in the phagocytic vesicle fraction. Essentially all of the superoxide-forming activity was extracted by repeated extraction with a mixture containing deoxycholate and Tween 20. The extract had a superoxide-forming activity of 1 mumol/min per mg of protein with NADPH, and one-fifth of this with NADH, Km values being similar to those of the vesicle fraction (40 microM for NADPH and 400 microM for NADH). A stoichiometric relationship of 1:2 for NADPH oxidation and superoxide formation was obtained, in agreement with the reaction NADPH +2O2 leads to NADP+ + 2O2 -. + H+. The activity of the extract was enhanced 2-fold by the addition of FAD, suggesting that the flavin is a component of the enzyme system. The Km value for FAD was 0.077 microM. The activities in both vesicle fraction and extract were labile even on refrigeration, but could be kept for several months at -70 degrees C. PMID:6293459

  17. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

  18. Interaction of Escherichia coli with Different Fimbriae and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Björkstén, Bengt; Wadström, Torkel

    1982-01-01

    The effects of Escherichia coli strains with various fimbriae on bacteria-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) interactions were studied. Strains of E. coli were cultivated at 37°C to express and at 18°C to suppress the formation of fimbriae. The presence of fimbriae was confirmed by electron microscopic studies and hemagglutination and salt aggregation tests. Fimbriated E. coli strains were more readily PMN associated than the nonfimbriated strains in the absence of opsonins, confirming the results of previous studies. However, the PMN chemiluminescence (CL) induced by the various strains in the absence of serum opsonins depended on the type of fimbriae they expressed. Strains with type 1 fimbriae expressing mannose-sensitive hemagglutination induced 5 to 15 times more CL than the same strains grown at 18°C, i.e., not expressing this type of fimbriae. For strains showing mannose-resistant hemagglutination, the differences between fimbriated and nonfimbriated variants of the same strains grown at 37 and 18°C, respectively, were less pronounced. Analysis of enterotoxigenic strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae showed that these induced only 25 to 33% of the CL induced by the same E. coli strains not expressing CFA/I, whereas enterotoxigenic strains expressing CFA/II fimbriae induced 100 to 200% of the CL induced by the nonfimbriated variants. Although less CL was induced by bacteria with CFA/I fimbriae than by nonfimbriated variants, this situation was reversed when the microorganisms were opsonized. Thus, CFA/I fimbriae, while enhancing adhesion to cells, induce less activation of PMN-killing mechanisms in a serum-free environment. These findings may be relevant for the virulence in certain body sites, since CFA/I fimbriae, while facilitating adhesiveness, may protect the bacteria from PMN killing. Our findings indicate that PMN interactions with fimbriated E. coli in the host defense may be complex. Certain fimbriae may indeed be

  19. Fracture initiates systemic inflammatory response syndrome through recruiting polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Haipeng; Liu, Jia; Yao, Jianhua; Zhong, Jianfeng; Guo, Lei; Sun, Tiansheng

    2016-08-01

    Fracture, a common type injury in trauma patients, often results in the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Though the mechanism of the fracture-initiated SIRS still remains not well characterized, it is well documented that the polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) play an important role in the inflammatory process. We hypothesize that fractures recruit PMN to the local tissue, which is followed by an increase in the number of peripheral PMN and initiation of SIRS. In the current study, we established a closed femoral fracture rat model. We evaluated the levels of MPO, IL-1β and CINC-1 in fractured tissue homogenate, and we measured the levels of IL-6 and IL-10, the biomarkers for systemic inflammatory response, in the rat sera. In clinical part of the study, we collected blood from patients with isolated closed femoral fractures and evaluated PMN-related chemoattractants (IL-8, IL-1β and G-CSF) and the number of peripheral PMN. We further evaluated the level of mitochondrial DNA in the local haematoma of fracture and the circulating plasma of the patients with fracture. In the animal model of closed femoral fracture, we found a significant recruitment of PMN to the local tissue after fracture, which correlates with the elevated MPO level. We also showed that the concentration of IL-1β and CINC-1 in local tissue is significantly increased and might be responsible for the PMN recruitment. Recruitment of PMN to the local tissue was accompanied with a significant increase in the systemic levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in serum. In the patients with closed femoral fracture, we observed an increase in the number of peripheral PMN and PMN-related chemoattractants, including IL-8, IL-1β and G-CSF. The level of mitochondrial DNA in the local haematoma of fracture and the circulating plasma of patients were significantly higher compared to the healthy volunteers. Our data suggest that fracture released mitochondrial DNA into the local haematoma of

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-dependent enhancement of adherence-mediated chemiluminescence response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Dwenger, A; Schweitzer, G; Funck, M

    1988-01-01

    Adherence of resting polymorphonuclear leukocytes to nylon fibre increased the chemiluminescence response (CL) from 99,400 to 910,300 cpm/25,000 PMNL. This effect could be amplified by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) priming of granulocytes in a dose-dependent fashion. The results of nylon fibre adherence experiments suggest an in vitro model that might approximate certain conditions of in vivo PMNL-endothelial adherence and respiratory burst activation, and these reactions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes may contribute to the pathomechanisms of the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome. PMID:3213589

  1. Alterations of the respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic children. A chemiluminescence study.

    PubMed

    Kantar, A; Wilkins, G; Swoboda, B; Littarru, G P; Bertoli, E; Catassi, C; Coppa, G; Giorgi, P L

    1990-05-01

    The respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was investigated in 24 children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and 24 healthy controls. This oxygen dependent, membrane associated process generates a number of toxic oxygen metabolites which are implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial damage. The activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied in terms of luminol amplified chemiluminescence. It was found that the resting luminol amplified chemiluminescence activity of isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic children was significantly higher than that of controls (342,000 +/- 174,000 cpm vs. 165,000 +/- 82,000 cpm, p less than 0.01). The addition of respiratory burst inhibitors caused a significant reduction of basal chemiluminescence (greater than 80%). When the ratio of phorbol myristate acetate stimulated activity to basal activity was calculated and used as an activation index, it was found to be significantly reduced in diabetics relative to controls (4.29 +/- 2.46 vs. 8.34 +/- 3.21, p less than 0.01). These observations suggest that increased release of toxic oxygen metabolites from polymorphonuclear leukocytes in diabetic subjects may play a role in the development of diabetic angiopathies. PMID:2166990

  2. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogels modulate α-defensin release from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lieberthal, Tyler Jacob; Cohen, Hannah Caitlin; Kao, W John

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) release granule proteins as the first line of defense against bacteria and set up chemotactic gradients that result in monocyte infiltration to the site of injury. Although well established, the role of biomaterials in regulating adherent PMN degranulation and subsequent PMN-monocyte paracrine interactions is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine how biomaterials affect the degranulation of selected biomarkers and downstream monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing hydrogels (PEG and an interpenetrating network of PEG and gelatin) promote the release of the α-defensins human neutrophil peptides 1-3, but not azurocidin or monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Although human neutrophil peptides 1-3 are monocyte chemoattractants, no subsequent effects on monocyte transmigration are observed in static conditions. Under flow conditions, monocyte adhesion on human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α is elevated in the presence of granule proteins from PMNs adherent on polydimethylsiloxane, but not from PMNs cultured on PEG hydrogels. These results suggest that PEG promotes PMN antimicrobial capacity without enhanced monocyte recruitment. PMID:26053326

  3. Defect of In Vitro Digestive Ability of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Goihman-Yahr, Mauricio; Essenfeld-Yahr, Ervin; De Albornoz, María C.; Yarzábal, Luis; De Gómez, MaríA H.; Martín, Blanca San; Ocanto, Ana; Gil, Francisco; Convit, Jacinto

    1980-01-01

    Selected functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis), in healthy control individuals, and in patients with diseases unrelated to paracoccidioidomycosis. Patients with paracoccidioidomycosis were also evaluated by standard immunological techniques. Phagocytosis and digestion of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeastlike cells in vitro was estimated by an original method. It was based on the appearance of phagocytosed P. brasiliensis in preparations stained by a modification of the Papanicolaou method and examined with phase-contrast optics. Interpretation of such findings was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two strains of P. brasiliensis were used. Strain 8506 was freshly isolated from a patient. Strain Pb9 was known to be nonpathogenic and to have a peculiar cell wall composition. Yeastlike cells of the Pb9 strain were digested significantly better than those of strain 8506. A higher number of leukocytes per fungus cells led to a higher proportion of digested P. brasiliensis. Leukocytes from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis phagocytosed the fungus in a normal way, but had a significant lower ability to digest it in vitro. When individual cases were analyzed, there was an excellent correlation between clinical evolution and digestive ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There was good correlation between both of these and immunological parameters. Leukocytes from all groups behaved comparably in tests of general leukocyte function and in their abilities to kill and digest Candida albicans. Our results indicate that, as a group, polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis had a significant, rather specific, defect in their in vitro digestive capacity against phagocytosed P. brasiliensis. There was also an inverse correlation between strain pathogenicity and its susceptibility to in vitro digestion by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Our findings are

  4. Double localization of F-actin in chemoattractant-stimulated polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Lepidi, H; Benoliel, A M; Mege, J L; Bongrand, P; Capo, C

    1992-09-01

    Uniform concentrations of chemoattractants such as formylpeptides induced a morphological polarization of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and a concentration of F-actin at the cell front. They also induced a transient increase in filamentous actin (F-actin) which preceded the cell shape change. We combined fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to study the localization of F-actin, as revealed by a specific probe (bodipyTM phallacidin) in suspended PMNs stimulated by chemoattractants. F-actin exhibited remarkable concentration in focal points after a 30 s exposure to 10(-8) M formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe), although no shape change of PMNs was detectable. A 10-min incubation with formylpeptide (10(-6) to 10(-9) M) induced the morphological polarization of PMNs and the appearance of a principal focus of F-actin in the cell head region and a secondary focus in the cell posterior end. The distribution of F-actin-associated fluorescence in 2D images of polarized PMNs might be due to an actual concentration of F-actin in privileged areas, to a local concentration of plasma membrane drawing filamentous actin or to variations in the cell volume. Then, we studied the distribution of a cytoplasmic marker, fluorescein diacetate and a membrane probe, TMA-DPH, in unstimulated rounded PMNs and in spherical and morphologically polarized PMNs stimulated by formylpeptide. The distribution of neither of these probes was correlated with F-actin distribution, especially in rounded PMNs stimulated 30 s with 10(-8) M fMet-Leu-Phe, suggesting that F-actin was concentrated in two foci located in the cell head region and in the cell posterior end. In addition, zymosan-activated serum induced the morphological polarization of PMNs and the appearance of two foci of filamentous actin, demonstrating that binding of formylpeptide to its specific receptor was not required for F-actin reorganization. We conclude that the accumulation of F-actin probably

  5. Synergistic Interaction of the Triple Combination of Amphotericin B, Ciprofloxacin, and Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils against Aspergillus fumigatus▿

    PubMed Central

    Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; Meletiadis, Joseph; Sein, Tin; Papaioannidou, Paraskevi; Walsh, Thomas J.; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus is damaged by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) by means of nonoxidative and oxidative mechanisms, which may be affected by antifungal and antibacterial agents that patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis often receive. The pharmacodynamic interactions among deoxycholate amphotericin B (AMB), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and human PMNs against Aspergillus fumigatus growth are unknown. We therefore studied the interactions between 0.032 to 2.0 μg/ml of AMB, 0.1 to 50 μg/ml of CIP at a fixed AMB/CIP ratio of 1:3.125, and PMNs from six donors at an effector-to-target (E:T) ratio of 400:1 against a clinical A. fumigatus isolate using an XTT metabolic assay and the Bliss independence pharmacodynamic-interaction model. CIP exhibited no antifungal activity alone or in combination with PMNs. Synergy was found between AMB and PMNs, with interaction indices (II) of 0.06 to 0.21; the highest interaction of 21% ± 3.6% was observed at 0.22 ± 0.09 μg/ml of AMB. The AMB and CIP (AMB+CIP) combination was synergistic (II = 0.39) at low AMB concentrations and antagonistic (II = 1.39) at high AMB concentrations, with a maximal synergistic interaction of 16% ± 3.7% observed at 0.16 ± 0.08 μg/ml of AMB. The triple combination AMB+CIP+PMNs was synergistic, with interaction indices of 0.05 to 0.20, and a maximal synergistic interaction of 24% ± 4% was observed at 0.20 ± 0.07 μg/ml of AMB. The increased percentage of Bliss synergy of the triple combination AMB+CIP+PMNs (24% ± 4%) was the product of those of the constituent double combinations AMB+PMNs (21% ± 3.6%) and AMB+CIP (16% ± 3.7%). Thus, the antifungal activity of AMB, at clinically relevant concentrations, was enhanced in combination with PMNs and CIP against A. fumigatus growth in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:21911564

  6. Quantitative investigations of the adhesiveness of circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes to blood vessel walls

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Anne; Born, G. V. R.

    1972-01-01

    1. A new simple method is described for quantitating the adhesiveness of circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes, or granulocytes, to the walls of blood vessels. The cheek pouch of anaesthetized hamsters or a small part of the mesentery of anaesthetized mice were prepared for continuous microscopic observation of selected venules. Those granulocytes which moved sufficiently slowly to be individually visible were counted for 1 or 2 min periods as they rolled past a selected point on one side of a vessel. The velocity distribution of these cells was determined by analysing films. Films were used also to measure mean blood flow velocity in the venules by observing embolizing platelet thrombi induced by the iontophoretic application of adenosine diphosphate. Emigration of granulocytes into the tissues was quantitated by enumerating them in standard areas of stained histological sections. 2. In control experiments with hamster cheek pouch venules, the rolling granulocyte count usually passed through a maximum shortly after the preparation was set up and then fell to a low constant value. In mouse mesentery venules the count remained at a low approximately constant value from the beginning for at least 3 hr. 3. The mean velocity of blood flow in the venules was between 900 and 200 μ/sec. All rolling granulocytes moved much more slowly; in hamster cheek pouch venules the mean velocity was about 20 μ/sec and in mouse mesentery venules about 10 μ/sec. Around these means the velocity distribution of individual cells was narrow. 4. Rolling of granulocytes was abolished by superfusing ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA, 0·1 M) suggesting that the phenomenon depends on calcium or magnesium ions. 5. Agents were applied locally to the observed venules. Human serum albumin, trypsin or histamine in high concentrations did not affect the rolling granulocyte count. 6. The rolling granulocyte count was increased during the application of Hammarsten casein or Escherichia coli

  7. Metabolism of platelet activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF in polymorphonuclear granulocytes from severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, W; Kasimir, S; Köller, M; Erbs, G; Müller, F E; König, W

    1990-12-01

    We studied the metabolism of 3H-platelet activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF in human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) from severely burned patients (n = 6) on days 1, 5, 9, 15, and 25 post-trauma. All patients suffered from a severe burn trauma of more than 30% total body surface area. Stimulation of PMN in healthy donors (n = 10) with the Ca-ionophore resulted in the conversion of 3H-lyso-PAF into PAF (18 +/- 2% of total radioactivity) and alkyl-acyl-glycero-phosphorylcholine (alkyl-acyl-GPC, 50 +/- 6%). In burned patients a significantly reduced formation of 3H-PAF was observed between days 1 and 15 post-trauma (day 9: 1 +/- 1%, p less than 0.0001). This pattern was normalized again in patients (n = 5) who survived the trauma after septic periods and was observed during the second week post-trauma. In one patient who succumbed to his injuries a sustained inhibition of PAF formation was observed up to his death. The decreased formation of PAF correlated weakly with the appearance of immature granulocytes within the analyzed cell fraction (ratio of immature cells versus PAF-formation, r = -0.55, p = 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2258972

  8. Adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to endothelium enhances the efficiency of detoxification of oxygen-free radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, R. L.; Robinson, J. M.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes can produce active oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide under various conditions. Because these substances can be toxic to cells, it is possible that the interaction between the circulating leukocytes and the blood vessel wall, either in normal circulation or during the acute inflammatory response, could damage the endothelial lining. Using an in vitro system of cultured endothelial cells and isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, we have measured the levels of detectable superoxide when neutrophils are attached to either endothelial monolayers or to plastic. Our results show that the levels of superoxide, on a per-cell basis, are lower when the neutrophils are attached to endothelium than when attached to plastic, even if the neutrophils are stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. This is also reflected in data showing that no injury occurs to the endothelial cells, as measured by 51Cr release, under these same conditions. When endothelial cells are pretreated with an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase, diethyldithiocarbamate, the levels of superoxide detected are the same for neutrophils stimulated on plastic and those on the endothelial monolayer, suggesting that endothelial superoxide dismutase may remove a portion of the neutrophil-generated superoxide from the detection system. Further evidence for the role of endothelium in destroying superoxide is suggested by results that show that the level of detectable superoxide released from neutrophils attached to formalin-fixed endothelial monolayers is the same as that for neutrophils attached to plastic. It is important to note that with the inhibitor of superoxide dismutase present, the endothelial monolayers do not display enhanced 51Cr release under the conditions employed. When both endothelial catalase and glutathione reductase are inhibited, we detect increased 51Cr release from endothelial cells in response to stimulated neutrophils. Our results show that

  9. Leukotriene B/sub 4/ production by stimulated whole blood: comparative studies with isolated polymorphonuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gresele, P.; Arnout, J.; Coene, M.C.; Deckmyn, H.; Vermylen, J.

    1986-05-29

    A new method was developed to study leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) production by stimulated whole blood. The calcium ionophore A23187 and serum-treated zymosan induced LTB/sub 4/ production, measured by radioimmunoassay, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The pattern of LTB/sub 4/ production by whole blood differed markedly from that observed with isolated, purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Higher levels of LTB/sub 4/ were reached and maintained in whole blood. The system allowed to detect drug effects on LTB/sub 4/ takes into account the complex interactions between different cell types which can modulate LTB/sub 4/ metabolism.

  10. Dithranol modulates the leukotriene B4-induced intraepidermal accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Alkemade, H; van de Kerkhof, P C

    1989-06-01

    Dithranol, with and without the addition of salicylic acid, was applied daily on normal skin according to a short contact protocol as used in the treatment of psoriasis. Sellotape stripping and epicutaneous application of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were carried out within these pretreated areas. The challenged skin was subsequently biopsied and the intraepidermal accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was quantified using the marker enzyme elastase. Dithranol pretreatment yielded a significant reduction of the LTB4-induced accumulation of PMN, whereas the tape stripping-induced accumulation of PMN was not affected by dithranol pretreatment. The addition of salicylic acid did not significantly enhance the effect of dithranol. PMID:2542415

  11. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Frank, Ami T.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Olsen, Steven C.; Alt, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains

  12. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H; Frank, Ami T; Hornsby, Richard L; Olsen, Steven C; Alt, David P

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains

  13. The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

  14. Chemotaxis of horse polymorphonuclear leukocytes to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Zinkl, J G; Brown, P D

    1982-04-01

    Horse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) isolated from horse blood by sedimentation and isotonic lysis and having about 25% accompanying lymphocytes were as effective at chemotaxis as nearly pure PMN isolated by density gradient techniques. N-Formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP), used as a representative of the formylmethionyl peptides (produced by prokaryocytic organisms), was effective as a chemoattractant only at the high concentration of 10(-4) M. When serum was preincubated with FMLP at concentrations as low as 10(-8) M, the serum attracted horse PMN. This activity was not generated when heat-inactivated (56 to 60 C for 30 minutes) serum was used. A combination of FMLP and zymosan was no more effective than zymosan alone in generating serum chemoattractants. The results of this study indicate that the FMLP is a weak chemoattractant for horse PMN, but that FMLP has the capability similar to that of zymosan to activate complement to produce PMN chemoattractants. PMID:7073083

  15. Decreased polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotactic response to leukotriene B4 in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, R H; Sorrelli, T C

    1992-01-01

    Evidence that leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a significant inflammatory mediator in chronic pseudomonal respiratory disease was sought in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis. Specific chemotaxis of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) was used as an indirect measure of remote in vivo exposure to LTB4. PMN from 17 patients showed a significant decrease in chemotaxis to 10(-7)-10(-9) M LTB4, but normal responses to 10(-8) M n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and 4 mg/ml casein, when compared with 17 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. This result is consistent with chronic production of LTB4, and specific deactivation of circulating PMN receptors for LTB4 in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of LTB4 production in vivo may help elucidate its role in the pathogenesis of lung damage in cystic fibrosis. PMID:1322257

  16. Arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear cells in headaches. A methodologic study.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Y D; Seim, A; Stovner, L J; Mack, M; Bjerve, K S; Sjaastad, O

    1988-09-01

    Prostaglandins and leukotrienes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various types of headache, mainly because some, but not all, cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors are effective in their treatment. We have therefore investigated whether a pathologically changed turnover of arachidonic acid (AA)-containing phospholipids can be seen in headache patients, using isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) from healthy controls and patients with chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) and cluster headache. PMNs from healthy controls incorporated 55% of the added (1-14C)AA into total lipids, and 0.5% +/- 0.14% of this radioactivity was found in the phosphatidylserine (PS) fraction. PMNs from a cluster headache and a CPH patient showed 300% and 900% increase in PS labeling from AA, respectively. No other phospholipids showed any difference between controls and patients. The results are discussed in connection with membrane signal transduction via the PS-dependent protein kinase C. PMID:3143481

  17. Suppression of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell function by neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dallegri, F; Dapino, P; Patrone, F; Sacchetti, C

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral blood neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were found to inhibit the cytolytic efficiency of interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes (LAK cells) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory activity of PMN was not merely due to PMN acting as cold alternative targets, PMN ingestion of the label released by target cells or cell overcrowding in test wells. Heat-treated (50 degrees C, 30 min) lysates from PMN maintained their ability to inhibit LAK cell cytotoxicity, whereas PMN supernatants were completely ineffective. Oxidant scavengers (catalase, superoxide, dismutase) did not affect the PMN-mediated inhibition of LAK cell function. The results suggest that PMN contain heat-stable factor(s) able to suppress LAK cytotoxicity and potentially capable of limiting the therapeutic efficacy of IL-2 and/or LAK cells. PMID:1667940

  18. Migration and chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes to Bacteroides sonicates.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Lewis, D M; Gerencser, V F; Gerencser, M A; Snyder, I S

    1992-01-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated that various preparations obtained from representatives of the genus Bacteroides are poorly phagocytized by polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and macrophages. Crude cell sonicates derived from Bacteroides have been examined for their ability to inhibit migration of PMN and monocytes using a modified migration under agarose in vitro assay. B. gingivalis and B. intermedius were found to be inhibitors of such migration while B. asaccharolyticus did not share this property (P less than 0.005). In addition, B. intermedius sonicates were found to inhibit PMN chemiluminescence to known stimulants (P less than 0.001). These data were not found to result from direct sonicate cytotoxicity and therefore lend additional support to the etiologic importance of specific Bacteroides strains in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic dentoalveolar infections. PMID:1321583

  19. Can spin trapping compounds like PBN protect against self-inflicted damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes?

    PubMed

    Seawright, L; Tanigawa, M; Tanigawa, T; Kotake, Y; Janzen, E G

    1995-07-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) have been suggested to be damaged by superoxide radical generated on their own. The protective capacity of a spin trapping compound, phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) was evaluated for this damage which occurs after the induction of superoxide generation. The life span of PMNs after superoxide generation was measured in the presence of PBN using the cell counting method, and effects of PBN on the amount of superoxide generated were quantitated using both cytochrome c reduction and spin trapping with DMPO. Results indicated significant extension of life span when PBN was present, and the extension was dose dependent. However, the magnitude of life span extension was not as large as expected from the decrease of superoxide generation. Possible mechanisms for the protection of PMNs by PBN are discussed. PMID:7647921

  20. Soluble Pityrosporum-derived chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear leukocytes of psoriatic patients.

    PubMed

    Bunse, T; Mahrle, G

    1996-01-01

    The chemoattraction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from psoriatic patients, atopic patients and healthy control persons by Pityrosporum orbicularelovale was investigated using the Boyden chamber method. The chemotactical attraction of PMNs from psoriatic patients by Pityrosporum (stimulation index SI = 58 +/- 50) was significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to PMNs from atopic patients (SI = 20 +/- 17) and control persons (SI = 26 +/- 24). This effect seems to be specific for Pityrosporum, since the chemotactical response to Staphylococcus epidermidis was not increased in psoriasis. The chemotactical factor produced by Pityrosporum is hydrophilic and is destroyed by acid hydrolysis, indicating its protein nature. The yeast Pityrosporum may thus play a role in the koebnerization of psoriasis. PMID:8721481

  1. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-07-15

    trapping. • Human peripheral blood leukocytes capture and concentrate quinacrine. • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes do so with higher apparent affinity. • Polymorphonuclear are also more competent than lymphocytes for pinocytosis.

  2. Antiinflammatory effects of endotoxin. Inhibition of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte responses to complement (C5)-derived peptides in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Hartiala, K. T.; Webster, R. O.; Howes, E. L.; Goldstein, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Although capable of provoking a variety of inflammatory effects, endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide) paradoxically has been reported to be antiinflammatory. The authors have found that single intravenous injections of Escherichia coli endotoxin, 24 hours before challenge, inhibit almost completely the vascular permeability changes and exudation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced in rabbit skin by reversed passive Arthus reactions. Whereas intravenous injections of endotoxin also caused modest inhibition of the vascular permeability changes induced in rabbit skin by the synthetic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), exudation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was unaffected. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rabbits given single injected doses of endotoxin exhibited markedly diminished chemotactic and degranulation responses to complement (C5)-derived peptides in vitro. Responses of these cells to FMLP, however, were normal. These data suggest that selective suppression of polymorphonuclear leukocyte responses to C5-derived peptides accounts, in part, for the antiinflammatory effects of endotoxin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6228151

  3. Impaired bactericidal but not fungicidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Georgiadou, Sarah P; Wierda, William G; Wright, Susan; Albert, Nathaniel D; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael; Lewis, Russell E

    2013-08-01

    We examined the qualitative polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-associated immune impairment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by characterizing phagocytic killing of key non-opsonized bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus) pathogens. Neutrophils were collected from 47 non-neutropenic patients with CLL (PMN count > 1000/mm(3)) and age-matched and young healthy controls (five each). A subset of patients (13%) had prior or subsequent infections. We found that the patients with CLL had diminished PMN microbicidal response against bacteria but not against fungi compared with the controls. Compared to patients with effective PMN responses, we did not identify differences of basal PMN pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor gene expression, soluble pathogen-associated molecular pattern gene expression or inflammatory cytokine signatures in patients with impaired PMN responses when PMNs were analyzed in multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. However, differences in PMN microbicidal response against A. fumigatus in patients with CLL were associated with the degree of hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:23163595

  4. Role of YopK in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Resistance against Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Defense

    PubMed Central

    Thorslund, Sara E.; Ermert, David; Fahlgren, Anna; Erttmann, Saskia F.; Nilsson, Kristina; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Urban, Constantin F.

    2013-01-01

    The enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can survive in the harsh environment of lymphoid compartments that abounds in immune cells. This capacity is dependent on the plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) that are delivered into the host cell via a mechanism involving the Yersinia type III secretion system. We show that the virulence protein YopK has a role in the mechanism by which Y. pseudotuberculosis avoids the polymorphonuclear leukocyte or neutrophil (PMN) defense. A yopK mutant, which is attenuated in the mouse infection model, where it fails to cause systemic infection, was found to colonize Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes more rapidly than the wild-type strain. Further, in mice lacking PMNs, the yopK mutant caused full disease with systemic spread and typical symptoms. Analyses of effects on PMNs revealed that both the wild-type strain and the yopK mutant inhibited internalization and reactive oxygen species production, as well as neutrophil extracellular trap formation by PMNs. However, the wild-type strain effectively avoided induction of PMN death, whereas the mutant caused a necrosis-like PMN death. Taken together, our results indicate that YopK is required for the ability of Yersinia to resist the PMN defense, which is critical for the virulence of the pathogen. We suggest a mechanism whereby YopK functions to prevent unintended Yop delivery and thereby PMN disruption, resulting in necrosis-like cell death, which would enhance the inflammatory response favoring the host. PMID:23090955

  5. Activated polymorphonuclear cells increase sickle red blood cell retention in lung: role of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Johnson; Obiako, Boniface

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the activated polymorphonuclear cell (APMN) products on sickle red blood cell (SRBC) retention/adherence in the pulmonary circulation. Isolated rat lungs were perfused with (51)Cr-labeled normal RBCs (NRBC) or SRBCs (10% hematocrit) suspensions +/- PMNs. Specific activities of lung and perfusate were measured and retention (the number of SRBC/g lung) was calculated. SRBC retention was 3.5 times greater than NRBC retention. PMN activation was required to increase SRBC retention. Supernatants from APMN increased SRBC retention, which suggested soluble products such as oxidants, PAF, and/or leukotriene (LTB(4)) are involved. Heat inactivation of PMN NADPH oxidase had no effect on retention. Whereas neither platelet-activating factor (PAF) nor LTB(4) (secreted by APMN) increased SRBC retention, PAF+LTB(4) did. The PAF antagonist, WEB-2170, attenuated SRBC retention mediated by PAF+LTB(4) and APMNs. Similarly, zileuton (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) attenuated APMN-mediated SRBC retention. We conclude the concomitant release of PAF and LTB(4) from APMN is involved in the initiation of microvascular occlusion by SRBCs in the perfused rat lung. PMID:11748055

  6. Modulation of pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation by polymorphonuclear cells: effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, C; Ottolenghi, A; Testa, A; Decandia, P; Jirillo, E; Antonaci, S

    1994-01-01

    The capacity of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells to release several cytokines stresses the potential immunomodulatory role of these cells. The effects mediated by purified PMN cell suspensions on pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-driven B cell differentiation was investigated. Results showed that the addition of increasing concentrations of resting PMN cells to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures gave rise to inhibition of immunoglobulin (Ig) production. At the same time, similar results were obtained using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-pretreated PMN cells. In contrast, when LPS, at different concentrations, and PMN cells were both added to PBMC cultures an enhancement of IgG or IgM release in comparison with cultures treated with PMN cells only occurred at low PMN cell/PBMC ratios (1:20 and 1:10), which was maximal in the presence of 10 or 100 ng/ml LPS. This effect was probably mediated by LPS-induced monocyte stimulation, since the supplementation of LPS-activated monocyte supernatants to PMN cell/PBMC cocultures led to an Ig synthesis which mimicked that seen in similarly-treated PBMC cultures. These data suggest the occurrence of various in vitro modulatory effects in the interactions between PMN, LPS and lymphocytes in a PWM-induced B cell polyclonal responsiveness system. PMID:8047026

  7. Role of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils in a Murine Model of Chlamydia psittaci-Induced Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Buendía, Antonio J.; Montes de Oca, Roberto; Navarro, Jose A.; Sánchez, Joaquín; Cuello, Francisco; Salinas, Jesús

    1999-01-01

    To assess the role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in Chlamydia psittaci infection in a pregnant mouse model, pregnant and nonpregnant Swiss OF1 mice were depleted of PMNs by treatment with the RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody before intraperitoneal infection with C. psittaci serotype 1. Nondepleted mice served as infection controls. Depleted mice aborted earlier and had a much higher mortality rate than nondepleted mice. Bacteriological analysis showed that the number of chlamydiae isolated from the spleens of depleted mice at 5 and 7 days postinfection was 100 times greater than that isolated from nondepleted mice. Histopathological analysis of the placentas of depleted mice showed widespread necrosis of the uteroplacental units, with weak immunoreaction to chlamydial antigen, while the placentas of nondepleted mice showed substantial neutrophil infiltration but no large areas of necrosis, with moderate to strong immunoreaction to chlamydial antigen. The livers of depleted mice showed numerous chlamydial inclusions in the hepatocytes, delayed microgranuloma formation, and in the pregnant animals extensive coagulative periportal necrosis. The livers of nondepleted mice displayed multiple small foci of PMNs and mononuclear cells with microgranuloma formation. Among this group of mice, the pregnant animals always had more hepatic damage than nonpregnant animals. Our results suggest that PMNs play an essential role in the response to C. psittaci primary infection, preventing the uncontrolled multiplication of chlamydiae in the liver and spleen. PMID:10225862

  8. Sustained Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration Induces Apoptosis in T84 Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Le'Negrate, Gaëlle; Selva, Eric; Auberger, Patrick; Rossi, Bernard; Hofman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Acute colitis is characterized by a large number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) migrating across the columnar epithelium in response to inflammatory stimuli. Several of these inflammatory factors have been characterized as proapoptotic inducers for intestinal epithelial cells. Our aim was to elucidate the role of PMNL transmigration in the onset of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis. We found that PMNL migration, in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine across monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells (T84), was associated with activation of caspase-2, -3, and -9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage within epithelial cells. Moreover, dihydrocytochalasin B treatment of T84 cells induced apoptosis with similar characteristics. Although Fas and Fas ligand were expressed on T84 cells and PMNLs, treatment of epithelial cells with an antagonistic anti-Fas antibody failed to prevent apoptosis induced by migrating PMNLs. Owing to the F-actin reorganization accompanying PMNL transmigration, these findings indicate a direct relationship between PMNL migration and induction of apoptosis in epithelial cells. This apoptotic process appears to involve remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton of enterocytes independent of the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. PMID:10995451

  9. Identification of CD14 transcript in blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes and functional variation in Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, J M; Wang, X G; Jiang, Q; Sun, Y; Yang, C H; Ju, Z H; Hao, H S; Wang, C F; Zhong, J F; Zhu, H B

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) leukocytes are primary phagocytic cells of the bovine mammary gland and a first line of defense against invading pathogens during bovine mastitis infection. Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is mainly expressed in macrophages and neutrophils and acts as a co-receptor that binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recruits PMNs to CD14-LPS complexes in mammary epithelial cells. In this study, we identified a novel splice variant in PMNs, named CD14-SV, characterized by a deleted region from c.143-579 nt compared to the CD14 reference mRNA sequence. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism (c.523 A>G) in exon 2 of CD14 was identified and found to modify the secondary structure and hydrophilicity of the CD14 protein. Association analysis also showed that the milk somatic cell score, an indicator of mastitis, of cows with the GG genotype was lower than that of cows with the AA and AG genotypes. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD14 in bovine blood PMNs is regulated by alternative splicing, and that CD14-SV is a candidate functional marker that may influence mastitis-resistance in dairy cows. PMID:27173290

  10. Cluster headache: incorporation of (1-14C)oleic acid into phosphatidylserine in polymorphonuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Y D; Stovner, L J; Bjerve, K S; Sjaastad, O

    1989-09-01

    As recently demonstrated by our group, polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) from cluster headache patients have an increased ability to incorporate arachidonic acid (AA) and L-serine into phosphatidylserine (PS). To evaluate whether there is an increased incorporation into PS also from fatty acids not involved in eicosanoid metabolism, PMNs from controls (n = 14) and cluster headache patients (n = 12) were incubated with (1-14C)oleic acid. After 1 h 2.7% +/- 1.1 (mean value +/- SD) of the glycerophospholipid radioactivity was found in PS in controls, whereas 4.2% +/- 1.2 was found in cluster headache patients (p less than 0.005). For phosphatidylcholine (PC) the corresponding figures were 74.2 +/- 5.4 in controls and 66.7 +/- 7.6 in cluster headache patients (p less than 0.01). The results suggest that the de novo biosynthesis of PS is increased and the biosynthesis of PC is decreased in cluster headache. The results may have an effect on the role of PS as an obligate protein kinase C activator. PMID:2507162

  11. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    PubMed Central

    Rampart, M.; Herman, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8) was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg), heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg) or fucoidan (1 mg/kg). PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1. PMID:18475729

  12. Dynamic component chemiluminescent sensor for assessing circulating polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, Daria; Rogachev, Boris; Vorobiov, Marina; Zlotnik, Moshe; Last, Mark; Lobel, Leslie; Marks, Robert S

    2008-07-01

    Recurrent bacterial peritonitis is a major complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, which is associated with polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) functional changes and can be assessed by a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction. We applied a new approach of a dynamic component chemiluminescence sensor for the assessment of functional states of PMNs in a luminol-amplified whole-blood system. This method is based on the evaluation of CL kinetic patterns of stimulated PMNs, while the parallel measurements of intracellular and extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the same sample can be conducted. Blood was drawn from diabetic and nondiabetic patients during follow-up, and during peritonitis. Healthy medical personnel served as the control group. Chemiluminescence curves were recorded and presented as a sum of three biological components. CL kinetic parameters were calculated, and functional states of PMNs were assessed. Data mining algorithms were used to build decision tree models that can distinguish between different clinical groups. The induced classification models were used afterward for differentiating and classifying new blind cases and demonstrated good correlation with medical diagnosis (84.6% predictive accuracy). In conclusion, this novel method shows a high predictive diagnostic value and may assist in detection of PD-associated clinical states. PMID:18510343

  13. Defective polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in dairy cows showing enhanced susceptibility to intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Cooray, R; Håkansson, L

    1995-12-01

    Polymorphonuclear-neutrophil (PMN) oxidative-burst activity, chemotactic and chemokinetic migratory responses, and surface-adhesion protein expression in a mastitis-prone group of dairy cows were compared with corresponding variables in healthy cows. The cows had a well-documented history of udder infection caused by major mastitis pathogens. Analysis of PMN functions revealed a deficiency in the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence responses that seemed to be associated with the mobilization of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the PMN of the patient group, as compared with the healthy controls. The migratory capacity of the PMN in response to a variety of chemotactic substances was enhanced in the patients. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the expression of surface-adhesion proteins (CD11a/CD18). It is proposed that the migratory activity of PMN cells was enhanced in order to compensate for their depressed respiratory-burst activity. Studies are under way to assess whether the defective mobilization of MPO in PMN of mastitis-prone cows is an acquired transient defect or a permanent hereditary defect. PMID:8594848

  14. Thermodynamic determination of beta-hexosaminidase isoenzymes in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocyte populations.

    PubMed

    Casal, J Antonio; Chabás, Amparo; Tutor, J Carlos

    2003-01-30

    Isoenzymes of beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) were determined in mononuclear (MN) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, with a thermodynamic method using the chromogenic substrate sodio-3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide. Imprecision was very satisfactory, and the results are very much in agreement with those obtained using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide and 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide 6-sulfate. In 163 healthy individuals we found, for the proportion as a percentage of the Hex A isoenzyme, significantly higher values (P < 0.001) in PMN than in MN cells (71.56 +/- 0.30% vs. 54.28 +/- 0.24%), meaning that it would not appear advisable to use total leukocyte lysates for evaluating this variable. The method is fast, precise, and highly suitable for the biochemical diagnosis and heterozygote screening of GM2 gangliosidoses, and would be applicable in cases of thermolabile Hex B and for detecting the B1 variant. PMID:12503097

  15. Low-level laser therapy attenuates LPS-induced rats mastitis by inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophil adhesion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueqiang; He, Xianjing; Hao, Dandan; Yu, Debin; Liang, Jianbin; Qu, Yanpeng; Sun, Dongbo; Yang, Bin; Yang, Keli; Wu, Rui; Wang, Jianfa

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The rat model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. The results showed that LPS-induced secretion of IL-1β and IL-8 significantly decreased after LLLT (650 nm, 2.5 mW, 30 mW/cm(2)). LLLT also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease of the expression of CD62L and increase of the expression of CD11b. Moreover, LLLT also suppressed LPS-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) entering the alveoli of the mammary gland. The number of PMNs in the mammary alveolus and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were decreased after LLLT. These results suggested that LLLT therapy is beneficial in decreasing the somatic cell count and improving milk nutritional quality in cows with an intramammary infection. PMID:25452258

  16. Rickettsial effects on leukotriene and prostaglandin secretion by mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, T S; Hoover, C S

    1991-01-01

    Typhus rickettsiae were incubated with mouse exudative polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and supernatants were examined for leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion by radioimmunoassay. PMN incubated with native rickettsiae secreted significantly more LTB4 and PGE2 than did those incubated with buffer alone. Autacoid secretion was dependent on both the time of PMN incubation with rickettsiae and the number of rickettsiae present in the incubation suspension. Rickettsial stimulation of LTB4 secretion was associated with rickettsial hemolytic activity; treatments which inactivated the rickettsial hemolysin abolished the ability of rickettsiae to stimulate PMN LTB4 secretion. Trifluoperazine, which did not alter the rate of phagocytosis of rickettsiae by PMN, stimulated rickettsial effects on secretion of both LTB4 and PGE2 but inhibited the PMN LTB4 response to A23187. This suggested that the PMN response to rickettsiae and to the calcium ionophore involved differing mechanisms of activation. Finally, rabbit antirickettsial antiserum, which inhibited rickettsial hemolysis and was opsonic, did not block the effects of rickettsiae on PMN LTB4 secretion. PMID:1846125

  17. [Analysis of platelet-derived factors that modulate functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes].

    PubMed

    Sasada, M; Asagoe, K

    1994-04-01

    Interactions between platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) modulate their functions and play a role in the development of pathogenesis of some disease. Platelets secret various kinds of factors that affect PMN functions. They seemed to have important role in vivo, but little has been elucidated on exact mechanism of action and physiological meaning of each factor in relation to PMN functions. We studied the effects of platelets and released substances from activated platelets on the functions of PMN. Results were as follows. 1) Platelets enhanced bactericidal activities of PMN against E.coli. 2) Platelets had effects on the generation of superoxide anion (O2-) of PMN. Their effects were quite different according to the assay condition of PMN, that is, platelets inhibited O2- generation when PMN were at rest or stimulated slightly and they enhanced O2-generation of PMN that were stimulated with optimal condition. 3) Thrombin-activated platelets and their supernatant elicited a transient elevation of [Ca2] of PMN. The activity of the supernatant decreased by treating with hexokinase that decomposed ATP. Further treatment with trypsin abolished its activity almost completely. Considering with our additional experiments, factors that induced [Ca2+] elevation of PMN were ATP, beta-thromboglobulin and some trypsin-sensitive factor(s). 4) Supernatant of thrombin-activated platelets decreased random migration and chemokinesis of PMN. PMID:8028184

  18. Heparin Interaction with the Primed Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte CD11b Induces Apoptosis and Prevents Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mazor, Meital; Mazor, Rafi; Kristal, Batya; Kistler, Erik B.; Ziv, Inbal; Chezar, Judith; Sela, Shifra

    2015-01-01

    Heparin is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, yet the mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that heparin has a direct effect on activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), changing their activation state, and can explain its anti-inflammatory effect. To test our hypothesis, we designed both in vitro and ex vivo studies to elucidate the mechanism by which heparin modulates PMNL functions and therefore the inflammatory response. We specifically tested the hypothesis that priming of PMNLs renders them more susceptible to heparin. Amplified levels of CD11b and increased rate of superoxide release manifested PMNL priming. Increase in cell priming resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heparin binding to PMNLs followed by augmented apoptosis. Blocking antibodies to CD11b inhibited heparin binding and abolished the apoptotic response. Moreover, heparin caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the rate of superoxide release from PMNLs, which was blunted by blocking antibodies to CD11b. Altogether, this study shows that the interaction of heparin with the PMNL CD11b results in cell apoptosis and explains heparin's anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26819958

  19. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay values are associated with antimicrobial peptides expression in  polymorphonuclear cells during latent tuberculous infection.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto; Serrano-Escobedo, Carmen J; Frausto-Lujan, Isabel; Rivas-Santiago, Cesar; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that patients with progressive tuberculosis (TB) express abundant amounts of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) cathelicidin (LL-37) and human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) in circulating cells, whereas latent TB infected donors showed no differences when compared with purified protein derivative (PPD) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT)-healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether LL-37 and HNP-1 production correlates with higher tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT values in TB household contacts. Twenty-six TB household contact individuals between 26-58 years old TST and QFT positive with at last two years of latent TB infection were recruited. AMPs production by polymorphonuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and correlation between TST and QFT values was analysed. Our results showed that there is a positive correlation between levels of HNP-1 and LL-37 production with reactivity to TST and/or QFT levels. This preliminary study suggests the potential use of the expression levels of these peptides as biomarkers for progression in latent infected individuals. PMID:24937049

  20. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay values are associated with antimicrobial peptides expression in  polymorphonuclear cells during latent tuberculous infection

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto; Serrano-Escobedo, Carmen J; Frausto-Lujan, Isabel; Rivas-Santiago, Cesar; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that patients with progressive tuberculosis (TB) express abundant amounts of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) cathelicidin (LL-37) and human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) in circulating cells, whereas latent TB infected donors showed no differences when compared with purified protein derivative (PPD) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT)-healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether LL-37 and HNP-1 production correlates with higher tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT values in TB household contacts. Twenty-six TB household contact individuals between 26-58 years old TST and QFT positive with at last two years of latent TB infection were recruited. AMPs production by polymorphonuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and correlation between TST and QFT values was analysed. Our results showed that there is a positive correlation between levels of HNP-1 and LL-37 production with reactivity to TST and/or QFT levels. This preliminary study suggests the potential use of the expression levels of these peptides as biomarkers for progression in latent infected individuals. PMID:24937049

  1. Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. IV. In vitro release of lysosomal constituents from polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to supragingival and subgingival bacterial plaque.

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, N S; Tsai, C C; Baehni, P C; Stoller, N; McArthur, W P

    1977-01-01

    The deposition of bacterial plaques on tooth surfaces appears to be responsible for the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. In this study, human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) actively released lysosomal constituents upon in vitro exposure to either viable or irradiated, supragingival or subgingival dental plaque. Plaques were obtained from the PMN donors (autologous plaque) or from pooled samples (homologous plaque) secured from patients with periodontal lesions. Fresh sera from PMN donors amplified the release reactions to supragingival and subgingival plaques. Heated (56 degrees C, 30 min) sera also enhanced release reactions, but not as consistently as fresh serum. It was postulated that modulation of PMN release by serum is mediated by complement components and/or antibodies to plaque bacteria. Electron microscopic observations indicated that degranulation and discharge of PMN lysosomal enzymes may be associated with phagocytosis of gram-positive and gram-negative plaque bacteria and with reverse endocytosis of lysosomes from cells contacting relatively large masses of aggregated plaque bacteria. These data suggest that PMN lysosome release in response to plaque may serve as a potential mechanism of tissue injury in the pathogenesis of gingival and periodontal inflammation. Images PMID:197005

  2. Apoptosis is associated with reduced expression of complement regulatory molecules, adhesion molecules and other receptors on polymorphonuclear leucocytes: functional relevance and role in inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J; Morgan, B P

    1995-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) express proteins that protect them from damage by homologous complement. Protection may be particularly important when these cells migrate to inflammatory sites where complement activation is taking place. Resolution of inflammation involves removal of these PMN. The major mechanism of removal is likely to involve PMN apoptosis followed by recognition and engulfment by macrophages. However, little attention has been paid to the possible relevance of apoptosis to PMN susceptibility to immune effectors. Here we describe a reduction in cell surface expression of two complement regulatory proteins, CD59, an inhibitor of the membrane attack complex and CD55 (decay accelerating factor), an inhibitor of the C3/C5 convertase, on a subpopulation of PMN aged in culture. Loss of these proteins, both attached to the membrane by glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors, correlated closely with the appearance of apoptotic morphology. We also observed a marked reduction in expression of the GPI-anchored molecule CD16 on apoptotic PMN. Reduced expression of membrane proteins was not confined to those anchored through GPI--several transmembrane molecules including CD11a CD11b and CD18 were also reduced on apoptotic PMN, whilst other were little changed (CD35, CD46). The precipitous fall in CD16 surface expression on PMN was not specific for apoptosis--in vitro incubation of PMN with lipopolysaccharide-inhibited apoptosis but caused a reduction in CD16 expression to 'apoptotic' levels. Images Figure 2 PMID:8567034

  3. Effect of the synthetic Toll-like receptor ligands LPS, Pam3CSK4, HKLM and FSL-1 in the function of bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Conejeros, Iván; Gibson, Amanda J; Werling, Dirk; Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; Burgos, Rafael A

    2015-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that sense microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMP) such as microbial membrane components and nucleic acids of bacterial origin. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cell of the innate immune system to arrive at the site of infection or injury and elicit oxidative and non-oxidative microbicidal mechanisms. Observations in human and mouse suggest that TLR ligands can induce direct responses in PMN. So far, there is no information of the effect of synthetic TLR ligands on the response of bovine PMN. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional response of bovine PMN incubated with four synthetic TLR ligands: ultrapure LPS (TLR4), Pam(3)CSK(4) (TLR2/1), HKLM (TLR2) and FSL-1 (TLR2/6). The results show that all the ligands increment cells size as identified by changes in the FSC-SSC as part of the flow cytometric analysis. Interestingly, only Pam(3)CSK(4) consistently induced a calcium influx, increased ROS production and secretion of gelatinase granules, whereas no response was seen using other ligands. Furthermore, exposure of bovine PMN to ultrapure LPS, Pam(3)CSK(4), HKLM or FSL-1 for 24 hours did not impact on apoptosis of these cells. Our data provide evidence for a selective response of bovine PMNs to TLR ligands. PMID:26026246

  4. Effects of cream on bactericidal and metabolic functions of bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Eshelman, J E; Eberhart, R J; Scholz, R W

    1981-05-01

    The effects of cream on the bactericidal capacity and on selected metabolic characteristics of bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were examined in vitro. These properties were also compared in blood PMN and PMN isolated from milk. Addition of 4% cream to the incubation medium reduced killing of Staphylococcus aureus by blood PMN. The PMN from milk were as bactericidal as blood PMN when incubated in a synthetic medium without cream. Cream reduced the phagocytosis-induced increment in O2 uptake in blood PMN. Compared to blood PMN in the absence of cream, PMN isolated from milk had reduced O2 uptake during phagocytosis. In all PMN preparations [14C]CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose was increased during phagocytosis. Rates of [14C]CO2 conversion from [1-C14]glucose were not significantly different among blood PMN, blood PMN plus cream, and milk PMN. Cream reduced [14C]CO2 conversion from [6-14C]glucose by blood PMN; milk PMN converted even less [6-14C]glucose to [14C]CO2 than did blood PMN in the presence of cream. Cream added to blood PMN preparations in the absence of other phagocytizable particles increased O2 uptake, increased (nonsignificantly) [14C]CO2 conversion from [1-14C]glucose, and reduced conversion from [6-14C]glucose. These studies confirm that cream reduces the bactericidal capacity of bovine PMN and reveal cream-induced alterations in selected metabolic pathways during phagocytosis. They show also that cream itself, in the absence of bacteria, alters PMN metabolism. PMID:7258794

  5. Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by Candidate Biomaterials for an Implantable Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Andrey; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Lambris, John D; Johannessen, Erik A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous monitoring of glucose by implantable microfabricated devices offers key advantages over current transcutaneous glucose sensors that limit usability due to their obtrusive nature and risk of infection. A successful sensory implant should be biocompatible and retain long-lasting function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a key role in the inflammatory system by releasing enzymes, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, typically as a response to complement activation. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of PMN activation as a marker for biocompatibility of materials and to evaluate the role of complement in the activation of PMN. Methods Fifteen candidate materials of an implantable glucose sensor were incubated in lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. The cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b) expression on PMN was analyzed with flow cytometry and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in plasma was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complement activation was prevented by the C3 inhibitor compstatin or the C5 inhibitor eculizumab. Results Three of the biomaterials (cellulose ester, polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, and polyamide thin film membrane), all belonging to the membrane group, induced a substantial and significant increase in CD11b expression and MPO release. The changes were virtually identical for these two markers. Inhibition of complement with compstatin or eculizumab reduced the CD11b expression and MPO release dose dependently and in most cases back to baseline. The other 12 materials did not induce significant PMN activation. Conclusion Three of the 15 candidate materials triggered PMN activation in a complement-dependent manner and should therefore be avoided for implementation in implantable microsensors. PMID:22226271

  6. Increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from asthmatic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mita, H.; Yui, Y.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasueda, H.; Shida, T.

    1985-09-09

    The formation of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE, was determined in 100,000 x g supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with extrinsic asthma and 15 patients with intrinsic asthma. After the supernatant was incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in the presence of calcium and indomethacin, the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated by thin layer chromatography. The results were expressed as the percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into the product per 10/sup 7/ cells. The formation of 5,12-diHETE, but not of the 5-HETE, was significantly increased in the cells from the group of patients with extrinsic asthma (4.38 +/- 0.78%, mean +/- S.E.; p < 0.01) and intrinsic asthma (6.09 +/- 1.11%; p < 0.01), when compared to normal subjects (1.74 +/- 0.30%). Both extrinsic and intrinsic asthmatics had significantly enhanced 5-lipoxygenase activity, which was expressed as the sum of percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE. The percentage conversion in normal subjects was 4.19 +/- 0.39%, 6.24 +/- 0.84% for 17 patients with extrinsic asthma (p < 0.05), and 8.59 +/- 1.29% for 15 patients with intrinsic asthma (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between these asthmatic groups. These results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activity is increased in patients with bronchial asthma. 22 references, 3 figures.

  7. Resistance of a Tn4351-generated polysaccharide mutant of Porphyromonas gingivalis to polymorphonuclear leukocyte killing.

    PubMed

    Genco, C A; Schifferle, R E; Njoroge, T; Forng, R Y; Cutler, C W

    1995-02-01

    In this study, we describe the development of an efficient transpositional mutagenesis system for Porphyromonas gingivalis using the Bacteroides fragilis transposon Tn4351. Using this system, we have isolated and characterized a Tn4351-generated mutant of P. gingivalis A7436, designated MSM-1, which exhibits enhanced resistance to polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) phagocytosis and killing. P. gingivalis MSM-1 was initially selected based on its colony morphology; MSM-1 appeared as a mucoid, beige-pigmented colony. Analysis of P. gingivalis MSM-1 by electron microscopy and staining with ruthenium red revealed the presence of a thick ruthenium red-staining layer that was twice the thickness of this layer observed in the parent strain. P. gingivalis MSM-1 was found to be more hydrophilic than strain A7436 by hydrocarbon partitioning. Analysis of phenol-water extracts prepared from P. gingivalis A7436 and MSM-1 by Western (immunoblot) analysis and immunodiffusion with hyperimmune sera raised against A7436 and MSM-1 revealed the loss of a high-molecular-weight anionic polysaccharide component in extracts prepared from MSM-1. P. gingivalis MSM-1 was also found to be more resistant to PMN phagocytosis and intracellular killing than the parent strain, as assessed in a fluorochrome phagocytosis microassay. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) when comparing PMN phagocytosis in nonimmune serum and intracellular killing in nonimmune and immune sera. P. gingivalis MSM-1 was also more resistant to killing by crude granule extracts from PMNs than was P. gingivalis A7436. These results indicate that the increased evasion of PMN phagocytosis and killing exhibited by P. gingivalis MSM-1 may result from alterations in polysaccharide-containing antigens. PMID:7822002

  8. Putative glycoprotein and glycolipid polymorphonuclear leukocyte receptors for the Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 fimbrial lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, A L; Ruhl, S; Joralmon, R A; Brennan, M J; Sutphin, M J; Cisar, J O

    1995-01-01

    Recognition of receptors on sialidase-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) by the Gal/GalNAc lectin associated with the type 2 fimbriae of certain strains of actinomyces results in activation of the PMNs, phagocytosis, and destruction of the bacteria. In the present study, plant lectins were utilized as probes to identify putative PMN receptors for the actinomyces lectin. The Gal-reactive lectin from Ricinus communis (RCAI), the Gal/GalNAc-reactive lectins from R. communis (RCAII) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), as well as the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-specific lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Agaricus bisporus (ABA) inhibited killing of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 by sialidase-treated PMNs. These five lectins detected a 130-kDa surface-labeled glycoprotein on nitrocellulose transfers of PMN extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This glycoprotein was revealed only after treatment of the transfers with sialidase, a condition analogous to the sialidase dependence of the lectin-mediated biological responses of the PMNs to the actinomyces. The mannose-reactive lectin concanavalin A did not inhibit killing of the actinomyces and failed to detect the 130-kDa glycoprotein but did block PMN-dependent killing of Escherichia coli B, a bacterium that possesses mannose-sensitive fimbriae. Therefore, the PMN glycoprotein receptor for A. naeslundii is clearly distinct from those recognized by E. coli. Two major putative glycolipid receptors were also identified by actinomyces and RCAI overlays on sialidase-treated thin-layer chromatograms of PMN gangliosides. Thus, both a 130-kDa glycoprotein and certain gangliosides are implicated in the attachment of the actinomyces to PMNs. PMID:7790078

  9. Altered polymorphonuclear leukocyte Fc gamma R expression contributes to decreased candicidal activity during intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, H.H.; D'Amico, R.; Monfils, P.; Burchard, K.W. )

    1991-03-01

    We investigated the effects of untreated intraabdominal sepsis on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) candicidal activity. Two groups of swine were studied. Group I (n=6) underwent sham laparotomy, group II (n=7) underwent cecal ligation and incision. Untreated intraabdominal sepsis resulted in a progressive decrease in PMN candicidal activity. Concomitant rosetting and phagocytosis assays demonstrated a decrease in both the attachment and phagocytosis of Candida albicans opsonized with both normal and septic swine serum by PMNs in group II. Iodine 125-labeled swine immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fluorescein isothioalanate (FITC)-labeled swine IgG were used to investigate Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions. Scatchard analyses demonstrated a progressive decline in both the binding affinity constant and number of IgG molecules bound per PMN. Stimulation of the oxidative burst markedly reduced 125I-labeled IgG binding in both group I and group II, with a greater decrement being seen in animals with intraabdominal sepsis. Further, in group II, PMN recycling of the Fc gamma receptor to the cell surface after generation of the oxidative burst was reduced by postoperative day 4. Binding of monoclonal antibodies to Fc gamma receptor II, but not Fc gamma receptor I/III markedly reduced intracellular candicidal activity. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a homogeneous pattern of FITC-IgG uptake by nearly all group I PMNs, whereas by postoperative day 8 a substantial number of PMNs from group II failed to internalize the FITC-IgG. These studies suggest that untreated intraabdominal sepsis reduces PMN candicidal activity and that this is due, in part, to altered PMN Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions.

  10. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  11. [Changes and significance of chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in endotoxin-induced lung injury in conscious sheep].

    PubMed

    Chen, J K

    1992-04-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and its relation with pulmonary microvascular permeability after endotoxin-induced lung injury in conscious sheep with lung lymph fistula were observed. Four hours after the injury the CL of PMNs increased from 0.27 cpm/PMN of baseline to 0.69 cpm/PMN (P < 0.05). The increment of the CL had positive correlation with the increment of lung lymph flow or permeability index (r = 0.632 0.638 P < 0.05), suggesting that the increase of pulmonary microvascular permeability after the endotoxin injury had relation with the increase of the respiratory tract of PMNs. PMID:1394599

  12. Stimulus specificity of prostaglandin inhibition of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion production.

    PubMed Central

    Fantone, J. C.; Marasco, W. A.; Elgas, L. J.; Ward, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) of the E series and PGI2 have been shown to inhibit acute inflammatory reactions in vivo and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), chemotaxis, lysosomal enzyme release, and superoxide anion (O-2) production in vitro. This inhibition of neutrophil stimulation by PGEs and PGI2 has been correlated with their ability to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. However, the mechanism(s) by which PGEs and PGI2 alter the complex biochemical and biophysical events associated with stimulus-response coupling in the neutrophil are not clear. It is reported here that both PGEs and PGI2 in micromolar concentrations inhibit formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)- and zymosan-induced lysosomal enzyme secretion and superoxide anion production in a dose-dependent manner. No preincubation time of PMNs with the prostaglandins is required for inhibition. Addition of PGEs 10 seconds or later after FMLP stimulation does not alter the biologic response of the neutrophils to the stimulus, suggesting that the prostaglandin inhibition effects early events associated with stimulus-response coupling in the neutrophil. Prostaglandin inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release by the calcium ionophore A23187 was overcome by increasing the extracellular ionophore and/or calcium concentration, suggesting that PGs may modulate intracellular free calcium levels in a manner similar to that observed with platelets. Inhibition of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced neutrophil lysosomal enzyme secretion by PGEs and PGI2 was overcome by increasing concentrations of PMA. However, neither PGEs nor PGI2 altered O-2 production by PMA-treated neutrophils. These data indicate a dissociation between PMA-stimulated O-2 production and lysosomal enzyme release. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of neutrophil stimulation by PGEs and PGI2 is a result of increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels and modulation of calcium

  13. Effects of polymorphonuclear neutrophile infiltration into the endometrial environment on embryonic development in superovulated cows.

    PubMed

    Drillich, M; Tesfaye, D; Rings, F; Schellander, K; Heuwieser, W; Hoelker, M

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies on bovine uterine disorders have demonstrated that endometrial infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the postpartum period or at the time of breeding negatively affects reproductive performance. The objective of the present study was therefore to analyze the effect of endometrial PMN infiltration on superovulation outcome. Cows were synchronized and superovulated receiving a total of three artificial inseminations within 24 h. Endometrial cytologic samples were collected by cytobrush technique at first artificial inseminations (AI) (d -1) and before embryo flush (d 7). Embryos were recovered by uterus flushing at Day 7 and evaluated for total cell number and apoptotic cell index. A total of 425 embryos were flushed out of 48 superovulated cows. The PMN dynamics from first AI to flushing had a significant effect on flushing outcome. Significant differences in terms of number of palpable corpora lutea (14.1 vs 7.2) and transferable embryos (8.8 vs 1.9) were found between cows with PMN proportions increasing from zero (0%) at AI to positive proportions (> 0%) at flushing (group PMNZP) and cows with higher endometrial PMN proportions decreasing to lower but still positive proportions from AI to flushing (group PMNHL). Moreover, cows classified to PMN class zero at first AI flushed a significant higher number of total embryos (10.3 vs 6.9) and transferable embryos (6.8 vs 3.7) compared to cows of PMN class positive at first AI (P > 0.05) in our study. Considering a significant interaction effect between PMN class at first AI and flush (P < 0.05), PMN class at first AI (d -1) correlated significantly with number of total flushed and transferable embryos only in combination with a positive PMN class at flush (d 7). Likewise, PMN class at flush (d 7) beard a significant effect on total number of flushed embryos only when classified to PMN class zero at first AI. Collectively, the present work is the first study that demonstrated a

  14. Interaction of Inflammatory Cells and Oral Microorganisms VII. In Vitro Polymorphonuclear Responses to Viable Bacteria and to Subcellular Components of Avirulent and Virulent Strains of Actinomyces viscosus

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Norton S.; Hammond, Benjamin F.; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Baehni, Pierre C.; McArthur, William P.

    1978-01-01

    Both virulent (V) and avirulent (AV) strains of Actinomyces viscosus T14 are capable of colonizing the oral cavity of gnotobiotic rats, but only T14-V causes destructive periodontal disease. The basis for this difference in in vivo pathogenicity has not been adequately defined. In the present study we compared the capacities of T14-AV and T14-V to provoke in vitro extracellular release of lysosomal constituents from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In serum-free cultures, viable T14-V but not T14-AV stimulated discharge of PMN lysosomes. The release response was correlated with PMN phagocytic activity; thus, PMNs readily ingested T14-V but not T14-AV. To explain these differences in PMN-bacteria interactions, subcellular fractions of T14-AV or T14-V were incubated with PMNs. A crude, insoluble sonic extract derived from T14-V caused PMN lysosome release, but a similar fraction from T14-AV was inactive. However, following extensive washing and treatment with deoxyribonuclease or sodium dodecyl sulfate, cell wall fractions of T14-AV stimulated lysosome release. These procedures apparently removed an extracellular polysaccharide slime which is synthesized by T14-AV but not by T14-V. There was a significant reduction in the capacities of viable T14-V or cell wall fractions of T14-V or T14-AV to provoke PMN lysosome release when these agents were preincubated with a slime material isolated from T14-AV. This inhibitory influence of slime was overcome by the addition of fresh or heated (56°C, 30 min) serum to the PMN-bacteria cultures. The data suggest a relationship between the abilities of the avirulent and virulent strains of A. viscosus T14 to act as periodontal pathogens in vivo and to serve as stimuli for PMN lysosome release in vitro. Images PMID:689737

  15. Rifampin affects polymorphonuclear leukocyte interactions with bacterial and synthetic chemotaxins but not interactions with serum-derived chemotaxins.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G D; Smith, C W; Hollers, J C; Chenoweth, D E; Fiegel, V D; Nelson, R D

    1983-01-01

    Three independent experimental approaches support the hypothesis that rifampin competes for receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMLs) with small peptide chemoattractants, e.g., N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), but not with serum-derived chemoattractants (C5a). First, rifampin inhibited chemotaxis induced with FMLP but reversed the immobilization of PMLs that occurred at high FMLP concentrations. Second, rifampin competed with radiolabeled FMLP for binding sites on PMLs and displaced already-bound radiolabeled FMLP. Third, rifampin blocked and reversed the bipolar shape changes induced in PMLs by FMLP. These effects occurred at concentrations attained during rifampin therapy and were not due to rifampin toxicity. In contrast, no effect of rifampin was observed on serum-derived chemoattractants (C5a) in any of the three systems. The evidence suggests, therefore, that rifampin is a ligand for FMLP-type receptors on PMLs. PMID:6318656

  16. Macrophages are stimulated by muramyl dipeptide to induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation in the peritoneal cavities of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nagao, S; Nakanishi, M; Kutsukake, H; Yagawa, K; Kusumoto, S; Shiba, T; Tanaka, A; Kotani, S

    1990-02-01

    N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide [MDP]) injected intraperitoneally significantly increased the number of cells entering the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs primed with liquid paraffin or thioglycollate. There was a close relationship between peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation and the uptake of glucosamine by macrophages in guinea pigs treated with a variety of bacterial cell surface components such as cell wall peptidoglycan subunits and bacterial or synthetic lipid A. The PMN accumulation was also facilitated by the intraperitoneal transfer of the peritoneal macrophages that had been stimulated by MDP in vitro. Furthermore, cell-free lavage fluids taken from the peritoneum of MDP-treated guinea pigs also initiated the influx of PMNs when introduced into the peritoneal cavities of liquid paraffin-pretreated guinea pigs. These results suggest that a soluble factor which attracts neutrophils is produced by MDP-treated macrophages. Partial characterization of the factor is described. PMID:2298491

  17. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies promote bacterial opsonization and augment the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Høiby, Niels

    2016-07-01

    Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from non-chronically infected CF patients. Thus, oral prophylaxis with anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY may boost the innate immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the CF setting by facilitating a rapid and prompt bacterial clearance by PMNs. PMID:26901841

  18. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes in Crohn's disease and ulcerative proctocolitis: association between enhanced adherence to nylon fibre and disease variables.

    PubMed

    Cason, J; Ainley, C C; Wolstencroft, R A; Thompson, R P

    1988-03-01

    The adherence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) to nylon fibre was investigated in patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative proctocolitis, and anorexia nervosa, and compared with changes of circulating PMNs, C reactive protein concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and clinical assessment of disease activity. PMN adherence was in excess of the maximum value detected for healthy subjects in 14 of 25 patients with Crohn's disease and two of 10 with proctocolitis, but it was within the normal range for all eight with anorexia nervosa. High adherence in Crohn's disease, however, was not associated with quantitative or qualitative changes of PMN populations, absolute concentrations of C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, disease severity, drug regimens, malnutrition, or zinc deficiency. High PMN adherence in Crohn's disease may therefore reflect the activation in vivo of normal PMN by humoral factors. PMID:3360954

  19. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn’s disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn’s disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn’s disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn’s disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn’s disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn’s disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn’s disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  20. Human anaplasmosis: the first Spanish case confirmed by PCR.

    PubMed

    García, J C; Núñez, M J; Castro, B; Fraile, F J; López, A; Mella, M C; Blanco, A; Sieira, C; Loureiro, E; Portillo, A; Oteo, J A

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of human anaplasmosis (HA) fulfilling the confirmation criteria: epidemiologic data and clinical picture compatible with HA; presence of a morulae within polymorphonuclear leukocyte; and positive PCR assay for Anaplasma phagocytophilum: This case report shows the presence of HA in Spain. PMID:17114773

  1. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte function and previous yersinia arthritis: enhanced chemokinetic migration and oxygen radical production correlate with the severity of the acute disease.

    PubMed Central

    Koivuranta-Vaara, P; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Repo, H

    1987-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) functions (migration in vitro, chemiluminescence, O-2 production, binding of chemotactic peptide, and aggregation) were studied in HLA-B27 positive patients with previous yersinia arthritis (YA). PMNs of patients whose disease had been severe showed chemokinetic and chemiluminescence responses significantly higher than the PMNs of those with a mild disease. The results support the view that enhanced PMN function contributes to inflammatory symptoms in patients with YA. PMID:3592787

  2. Membrane Transfer from Mononuclear Cells to Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Transduces Cell Survival and Activation Signals in the Recipient Cells via Anti-Extrinsic Apoptotic and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ko-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Han; Shen, Chieh-Yu; Kuo, Yu-Min; Yu, Chia-Li; Hsieh, Song-Chou

    2016-01-01

    The biological significance of membrane transfer (trogocytosis) between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) remains unclear. We investigated the biological/immunological effects and molecular basis of trogocytosis among various immune cells in healthy individuals and patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). By flow cytometry, we determined that molecules in the immunological synapse, including HLA class-I and-II, CD11b and LFA-1, along with CXCR1, are exchanged among autologous PMNs, CD4+ T cells, and U937 cells (monocytes) after cell-cell contact. Small interfering RNA knockdown of the integrin adhesion molecule CD11a in U937 unexpectedly enhanced the level of total membrane transfer from U937 to PMN cells. Functionally, phagocytosis and IL-8 production by PMNs were enhanced after co-culture with T cells. Total membrane transfer from CD4+ T to PMNs delayed PMN apoptosis by suppressing the extrinsic apoptotic molecules, BAX, MYC and caspase 8. This enhancement of activities of PMNs by T cells was found to be mediated via p38- and P44/42-Akt-MAP kinase pathways and inhibited by the actin-polymerization inhibitor, latrunculin B, the clathrin inhibitor, Pitstop-2, and human immunoglobulin G, but not by the caveolin inhibitor, methyl-β-cyclodextrin. In addition, membrane transfer from PMNs enhanced IL-2 production by recipient anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activated MNCs, and this was suppressed by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (PD98059) and protein kinase C (Rottlerin). Of clinical significance, decreased total membrane transfer from PMNs to MNCs in patients with active SLE suppressed mononuclear IL-2 production. In conclusion, membrane transfer from MNCs to PMNs, mainly at the immunological synapse, transduces survival and activation signals to enhance PMN functions and is dependent on actin polymerization, clathrin activation, and Fcγ receptors, while membrane transfer from PMNs to MNCs depends on MAP kinase and

  3. Human neutrophil peptide-1 decreases during ageing in selected Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; de Haro-Acosta, Jeny; Torres-Juarez, Flor; Frausto-Lujan, Isabel; Marin-Luevano, Paulina; González-Amaro, Roberto; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptide innate immunity plays a central role in the susceptibility to infectious diseases, as has been described extensively in different settings. However, the role that these molecules play in the immunity mediated by polymorphonuclear phagocytes as part of the innate immunity of ageing individuals has not been described. In the present study, we addressed the question whether antimicrobial activity in polymorphonuclear cells from elderly individuals was altered in comparison with young adults. We compared phagocytosis index, bacterial killing efficiency, myeloperoxidase activity and cathelicidin expression. Results showed that there were no statistical differences among groups. However, human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) was decreased in the elderly individuals group. Results suggest that the decreased HNP-1 production in the polymorphonuclear phagocytes form elderly individuals might have an important participation in the increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. PMID:26323500

  4. Plasma myeloperoxidase level and polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in horses suffering from large intestinal obstruction requiring surgery: preliminary results.

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, S; Benbarek, H; Caudron, I; Deby-Dupont, G; Mathy-Hartert, M; Farnir, F; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1999-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. PMID:10369573

  5. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  6. C5a-induced hemodynamic and hematologic changes in the rabbit. Role of cyclooxygenase products and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, C.; Marceau, F.; Hugli, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hematologic changes occurring after intravascular complement activation have implicated the anaphylatoxins in this response. In this study, the hemodynamic and hematologic effects of purified C5a were investigated in rabbits; and involvement of prostanoids, histamine, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were examined. The anaphylatoxin C5a induces a reversible systemic arterial hypotension which coincides with an increase in central venous pressure (CVP), decreased cardiac output (CO), increased plasma prostanoid levels, as well as neutropenia. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) remained unchanged. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin abolished the C5a-induced hypotension and normalized plasma prostanoid levels without altering the C5a-induced neutropenia. The thromboxane (Tx) A2 synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben reduced TxB2 plasma levels and increased 6-keto-prostaglandin PGF1 alpha and PGE2 levels without altering the hypotensive response. However, with dazoxiben treatment both TPR and CVP decreased. The H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine reduced C5a-induced hypotension and diminished prostanoid release. Both the hypotensive response and elevated prostanoid release were observed after C5a challenge in animals rendered neutropenic prior to challenge. It is concluded that C5a-induced arterial hypotension in the rabbit is a PMN-independent reaction, mediated through cyclooxygenase products and, to some degree, by histamine. The mechanism producing systemic arterial hypotension does not seem to involve peripheral vasodilation but appears to be a secondary effect of pulmonary vasoconstriction, possibly mediated by TxA2. PMID:3115110

  7. NADPH-dependent reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol by the phagocytic vesicles of pig polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wakeyama, H; Takeshige, K; Minakami, S

    1983-01-01

    NADPH-dependent 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (DCIP) reductase activity in the homogenate of phagocytosing pig polymorphonuclear leucocytes was twice that of the resting cells and the activity in the phagocytic vesicles corresponded to the activity increment due to phagocytosis. The apparent Km value of the reductase activity in the vesicles for NADPH was 30 microM, which is similar to that of the NADPH-dependent superoxide (O2-) formation. Increasing the DCIP reductase activity by increasing the DCIP concentration caused a decrease in the O2- -forming activity, the NADPH oxidation rate being constant and independent of the dye concentration. p-Chloromercuribenzoate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at low concentrations inhibited the O2- -forming activity of the vesicles without inhibiting the DCIP reductase. Quinacrine inhibited both O2- formation and DCIP reduction. The DCIP reductase activity could be extracted with a mixture of deoxycholate and Tween-20, which extracts the O2- -forming activity. The reductase activity in the extract was enhanced 2-fold by the addition of FAD, and its apparent Km was 0.085 microM. These results indicate that the NADPH-dependent DCIP reductase activity of the phagocytic vesicles is catalysed by a flavin-containing component of the O2- -forming system. PMID:6860311

  8. Unconventional apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): staurosporine delays exposure of phosphatidylserine and prevents phagocytosis by MΦ-2 macrophages of PMN.

    PubMed

    Franz, S; Muñoz, L E; Heyder, P; Herrmann, M; Schiller, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and subsequent 'silent' removal represents an important check-point for the resolution of inflammation. Failure in PMN clearance resulting in secondary necrosis-driven tissue damage has been implicated in conditions of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Apoptotic PMN undergo profound biophysical changes that warrant their efficient recognition and uptake by phagocytes before fading to secondary necrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that staurosporine (STS), a non-selective but potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase and protein kinase C, exerts a drastic impact on PMN apoptosis. PMN treated with STS underwent an unconventional form of cell death characterized by a delayed exposure of aminophospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine and an increased exposure of neo-glycans. STS caused an impaired cellular fragmentation and accelerated DNA fragmentation. Phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN lacking PS on their surfaces was decreased significantly, which highlights the importance of PS for the clearance of apoptotic PMN. Specific opsonization with immune complexes completely restored phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN, demonstrating the efficiency of back-up clearance pathways in the absence of PS exposure. PMID:24995908

  9. Harvesting the noncirculating pool of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in rats by hetastarch exchange transfusion (HET): yield and functional assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.H. Jr.; Moser, K.M.; Ulich, T.; Cairo, M.S.

    1987-11-01

    Isolation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) provides an opportunity to study PMN activity in vitro and to label PMN for study of in vivo kinetics. However, simple phlebotomy (SP) of a small animal frequently yields too few PMN for in vitro handling, while PMN harvested from an induced-peritonitis may not accurately reflect PMN in a less stimulated state. We report a novel method of harvesting PMN from the circulation of rats, using hetastarch exchange transfusion (HET), which is both time and animal sparing. HET harvested 8-fold more PMN than SP. In vitro cell function was examined with assays of adherence, chemotaxis, bacterial killing, and superoxide generation. No significant (p less than 0.05) difference was found between PMN obtained by HET and pooled-PMN obtained by SP. In vivo function was examined following labeling with indium 111-oxine. The kinetics pattern described suggested normal migratory activity when compared to previous reports. The data demonstrate that rats possess a relatively large, noncirculating pool of PMN which is readily accessible by HET.

  10. Population Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Whole Blood, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Polymorphonuclear Cells in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, M R; Dumitrescu, T P; Brouwer, K L R; Schmith, V D

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin's extensive distribution to proinflammatory cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), may be important to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The need to simultaneously predict azithromycin concentrations in whole blood (“blood”), PBMCs, and PMNs motivated this investigation. A single-dose study in 20 healthy adults was conducted, and nonlinear mixed effects modeling was used to simultaneously describe azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs (simultaneous PK model). Data were well described by a four-compartment mamillary model. Apparent central clearance and volume of distribution estimates were 67.3 l/hour and 336 l (interindividual variability of 114 and 122%, respectively). Bootstrapping and visual predictive checks showed adequate model performance. Azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs from external studies of healthy adults and cystic fibrosis patients were within the 5th and 95th percentiles of model simulations. This novel empirical model can be used to predict azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs with different dosing regimens. PMID:24599342

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese medicinal herbs on polymorphonuclear neutrophil immune activity and small intestinal morphology in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, C W; Lee, T T; Shih, Y C; Yu, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) supplementation composed of Panax ginseng, Dioscoreaceae opposite, Atractylodes macrocephala, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujube and Platycodon grandiflorum, on the performance, intestinal tract morphology and immune activity in weanling pigs. Two hundred and forty weaned pigs were assigned randomly to four dietary groups including the negative control (basal diet), 0.1% CMH, 0.3% CMH and 0.114% antibiotic (Chlortetracycline calcium Complex, Sulfathiazole and Procaine Penicillin G) supplementation groups for a 28-day feeding trial. Results indicated that both CMH supplementation groups had a better gain and feed/gain than control group (CT) during the first 2 weeks of the experimental period. The 0.3% CMH had a significant decrease in the diarrhoea score in first 10 days of experimental period when compared with other groups. The CMH supplementation groups had a higher villous height, increased lactobacilli counts in digesta of ileum and decreased coliform counts in colon compared with CT. The immune activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), including the respiratory burst and Salmonella-killing ability, were significantly enhanced in CMH supplementation groups at day 7 of experiment period. The CMH and antibiotic supplementations increased the nutrient digestibility such as dietary dry matter, crude protein and gross energy in weanling pigs. In conclusion, the dietary CMH supplementation improved intestinal morphology and immune activities of PMNs, thus giving rise to nutrient digestibility and reduce diarrhoea frequency in weanling pigs. PMID:21535231

  12. Unconventional apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): staurosporine delays exposure of phosphatidylserine and prevents phagocytosis by MΦ-2 macrophages of PMN

    PubMed Central

    Franz, S; Muñoz, L E; Heyder, P; Herrmann, M; Schiller, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and subsequent ‘silent’ removal represents an important check-point for the resolution of inflammation. Failure in PMN clearance resulting in secondary necrosis-driven tissue damage has been implicated in conditions of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Apoptotic PMN undergo profound biophysical changes that warrant their efficient recognition and uptake by phagocytes before fading to secondary necrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that staurosporine (STS), a non-selective but potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase and protein kinase C, exerts a drastic impact on PMN apoptosis. PMN treated with STS underwent an unconventional form of cell death characterized by a delayed exposure of aminophospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine and an increased exposure of neo-glycans. STS caused an impaired cellular fragmentation and accelerated DNA fragmentation. Phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN lacking PS on their surfaces was decreased significantly, which highlights the importance of PS for the clearance of apoptotic PMN. Specific opsonization with immune complexes completely restored phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN, demonstrating the efficiency of back-up clearance pathways in the absence of PS exposure. PMID:24995908

  13. Gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-like immunoreactivity in blood cells of human eosinophilic patients.

    PubMed

    Johansson, O; Virtanen, M; Hilliges, M; Hansson, L O

    1991-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of the peptide gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) within human polymorphonuclear leucocytes of blood from eosinophilic patients is described. The gamma-MSH immunoreactivity was observed only in neutrophilic granulocytes leaving all other cell types immuno-negative. PMID:1805488

  14. The temporo-spatial localization of polymorphonuclear cells related to the neurovascular unit after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nora; Strecker, Jan-Kolja; Minnerup, Jens; Schilling, Matthias

    2014-10-24

    Inflammatory responses after cerebral ischemia are important for the development of final infarct size but the role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) is still a matter of debate, since previously used antibodies were recently declared as non-specific. In the present study, we investigated the temporo-spatial localization of PMN related to the neurovascular unit using specific antibodies, 7/4 and Ly6G, and application of G-CSF to induce proliferation and mobilization of PMN precursors after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volumes, sensorimotor function, neurological outcome and immunohistochemical analysis of PMN were performed after G-CSF administration or placebo treatment. G-CSF-treated mice showed reduced infarct size (51.15±15.68 mm(2) vs. 39.31±16.13 mm(2) at day 1; 50.11±16.68 mm(2) vs. 33.16±4.86 mm(2) at day 4; p<0.05). They showed improved motor-function recovery and had a significantly better outcome compared to placebo-treated animals. Comparison of the two PMN detecting antibodies showed no difference in saturation plots or cell quantification. Studying the basement membrane-associated localization revealed ca. 60% extravascular PMN, independent of G-CSF administration. Extravascular PMNs were without any connection to laminin, but all near to the vessels. We conclude that 7/4 is a suitable marker to investigate PMN compared to Ly6G, which confirms results from former studies using the 7/4-antibody. Furthermore we report the observation that PMN were detected outside the laminin barrier but almost exclusively in close vicinity to the neurovascular unit. PMID:25152468

  15. Sensitivity of locally recurrent rat mammary tumour cell lines to syngeneic polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis.

    PubMed

    Aeed, P A; Welch, D R

    1988-12-01

    Using a recently developed model for studying the biology of locally recurrent (LR) mammary tumours in the 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma system, we examined the sensitivity to polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis. The parental MTF7(T20) cell line; the 'primary' tumours which arose following subcutaneous inoculation into the mammary fat pad, sc1 and sc3; and the local recurrences (following surgical excision) LR1 and LR1a from sc1, and LR3 from sc3 were all cells generally resistant to specific PMN cytolysis. LPS-activated macrophages caused 25.1%, 38.7% and 58.8% specific cytolysis in MTF7, sc1 and LR1 cells, respectively at E:T of 20:1 and 72 h co-incubation. LR1a, sc3 and LR3 lysis ranged from 0-4.4% under the same conditions. Non-activated macrophages did not lyse any of the cell lines. Locally recurrent and 'primary' tumour cell lines were also not lysed by naive NK cells (range 0.5-4.0% cytolysis). NK cells activated with bropirimine, a potent immunomodulator currently being studied in clinical trials, and/or interleukin-2 were mildly more effective at killing LR cells. Our results show that locally recurrent tumours exhibit heterogeneous sensitivities and are different from 'primary' tumour cells in sensitivities to immune cell killing, but they are not necessarily more or less sensitive. Results with bropirimine-activated or IL-2-activated NK cells emphasize that nonspecific activation is insufficient to eliminate all tumour subpopulations. PMID:3224080

  16. Effect of etizolam (Depas) on production of superoxide anion by platelet-activating factor and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Aratani, H; Nishida, Y; Terasawa, M; Maruyama, Y

    1988-06-01

    Effect of etizolam on platelet activating factor (PAF) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion (O2-) production in guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was investigated. Etizolam showed the inhibitory effect on PAF-induced O2- production concentration dependently, with an IC50 value of 4.7 microM, but it had no inhibitory effect on FMLP-induced O2- production at 100 microM. These results suggest that etizolam has a selectively strong inhibitory effect on PAF-induced O2- production in guinea pig PMNL. PMID:2848961

  17. Correlation between depression, anxiety, and polymorphonuclear cells’ resilience in ulcerative colitis: the mediating role of heat shock protein 70

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate whether anxiety and depression levels are associated with Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) induction in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods The design was cross-sectional. Clinical activity was assessed by the Rachmilewitz Index (CAI). Three psychometric questionnaires were used: Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS), Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Colon biopsies were obtained from each affected anatomical site. Severity of inflammation was assessed by eosin/hematoxylin. Constitutive (HSP70c) and inducible (HSP70i) HSP70 expression were immunohistochemically studied. Results 29 UC patients were enrolled (69% men). Mean age was 46.5 years (SD: 19.5). Inflammation severity was moderate in 17 patients, severe in 6, and mild in 6. The mean number of years since diagnosis was 7.9 (SD: 6.5). The mean CAI was 6.4 (SD: 3.1). In active UC, there was downregulation of HSP70c in inflamed epithelium, without significant HSP70 induction. In 22/29 cases of active cryptitis, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) clearly expressed HSP70i, with weak, focal positivity in the other 7 cases. Except for the hospital anxiety scale, scores in all psychometric tools were higher in patients with strong HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN. Logistic regression showed a strong positive relationship between HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN cells and scores in the trait anxiety, ZDRS, and hospital depression scales, (Odds ratios 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5; P = 0.018, 0.023, and 0.038; Wald test, 5.6, 5.2, and 4.3 respectively) and a weaker but significant positive correlation with the CAI (Odds ratio 1.654; P = 0.049; Wald test 3.858). Conclusion HSP70 is induced in PMN cells of UC patients and its induction correlates with depression and anxiety levels. PMID:24742079

  18. Nitric oxide production by rat bronchoalveolar macrophages or polymorphonuclear leukocytes following intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide or silica.

    PubMed

    Huffman, L J; Prugh, D J; Millecchia, L; Schuller, K C; Cantrell, S; Porter, D W

    2003-02-01

    Exposure of the lung to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or silica results in an activation of alveolar macrophages (AMs), recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into bronchoalveolar spaces, and the production of free radicals. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the free radicals generated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell populations following either LPS or silica exposure. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relative contributions of AMs and PMNs to the amounts of NO produced by BAL cells following intratracheal (IT) instillation of either LPS or silica. Male Sprague Dawley rats (265-340 g body wt.) were given LPS (10 mg/100 g body wt.) or silica (5 mg/100 g body wt.). BAL cells were harvested 18-24 h post-IT and enriched for AMs or PMNs using density gradient centrifugation. Media levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx; the stable decomposition products of NO) were then measured 18 h after ex vivo culture of these cells. Following IT exposure to either LPS or silica, BAL cell populations were approximately 20% AMs and approximately 80% PMNs. After density gradient centrifugation of BAL cells from LPS- or silica-treated rats, cell fractions were obtained which were relatively enriched for AMs (approximately 60%) or PMNs (approximately 90%). The amounts of NOx produced by the AM-enriched fractions from LPS- or silica-treated rats were approximately 2-4-fold greater than that produced by the PMN-enriched fractions. Estimations of the relative contribution of AMs or PMNs to the NOx produced indicated that: (i) following LPS treatment, 75%-89% of the NOx was derived from AMs and 11%-25% from PMNs; and (ii) following silica treatment, 76%-100% of the NOx was derived from AMs and 0-24% from PMNs. Immunohistochemistry for inducible NO synthase on lung tissue sections supported these findings. We conclude that AMs are the major source of the NO produced by BAL cells during acute pulmonary inflammatory responses to LPS or silica. PMID:12682422

  19. Cytochrome c modulates the mitochondrial signaling pathway and polymorphonuclear neutrophil apoptosis in bile duct-ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    DENG, XUESONG; DENG, TONGMING; NI, YONG; ZHAN, YONGQIANG; HUANG, WENLONG; LIU, JIANFENG; LIAO, CAIXIAN

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) increase in number and function during obstructive jaundice (OJ). However, the precise mechanisms underlying PMN apoptosis during OJ remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of cytochrome c (Cytc) on the mitochondrial signaling pathway in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats and the effect on PMN apoptosis following the intravenous administration of Cytc. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: A control group, a sham group, a BDL group and a BDL + Cytc group (rats with common bile duct ligation as well as Cytc intravenous injection). Blood samples were collected from the inferior vein cava for biochemical analysis and separation of the PMN. PMN apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of PMN was detected by rhodamine-123 staining. The Cytc protein expression levels were examined using western blotting. PMN mitochondria were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The results of the present study revealed that the PMN apoptosis rate in rats decreased gradually from 12 to 72 h following BDL to levels that were significantly lower than those of the control group and the sham group. Compared with the corresponding time point of the BDL group, the BDL + Cytc group showed a significantly increased PMN apoptosis rate. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of ΔΨm decreased from 12 to 72 h following BDL, and was significantly increased compared with the control and sham groups. MFI in the BDL + Cytc group was higher compared with that in the BDL group. Cytc expression levels increased in the mitochondria and decreased in the cytoplasm from the 12 to 72 h in the BDL group, which was significantly different from that in the control and sham groups at the corresponding time points. Compared with the BDL group, Cytc expression levels in the cytoplasm for the BDL + Cytc group tended to gradually and significantly

  20. Phospholipid metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients: effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Smith, D M; Gonzales, H; Johnson, J A; Franson, R C; Turner, R A

    1989-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity were measured in the peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) from ten patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on treatment with various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIA). AA metabolism and PLA2 activity were measured both initially and after treatment with either placebo or Clotrimazole, a broad spectrum anti-mycotic agent, as a possible anti-rheumatic drug. AA metabolism was also measured in PMNL from ten patients with active RA untreated with any NSAIA and ten normal volunteers. Using 3H-AA prelabeled cells, we show that there was a significantly higher (P less than 0.025) production of 3H-LTB4 in response to stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 in untreated RA patients than in normal volunteers (mean +/- S.D.:4.8 +/- 1.6% and 3.1 +/- 1.0%, respectively). The production of 3H-LTB4 by PMNL from patients on NSAIAs was less elevated (mean +/- S.D.:4.1 +/- 1.5%) and was not significantly different from normal controls. Concurrently we examined PLA2 activity in PMNL-sonicates from ten of our study patients using autoclaved [14C]oleate-labeled E. coli biomembranes as an exogenous substrate. Using linear regression analysis, we demonstrate a significant correlation between in vitro PLA2 activity and the release of 3H-AA from the cellular phospholipids (deacylation) in response to A23187 stimulation (r = -0.526, P less than 0.025). We also demonstrate significant correlations between the overall clinical state of the RA patient, as evaluated by a modified rheumatoid activity index (MRAI), and both the release of 3H-AA from the cellular phospholipids and its production of total [3H]eicosanoids (r = -0.557, P less than 0.025 and r = 0.644, P less than 0.005, respectively). This data suggests that: PLA2 activity may, in part, account for the higher generation of LTB4 by RA PMNL; NSAIAs may be capable of modulating this abnormality; and Clotrimazole may affect the

  1. Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Are Necessary for the Recruitment of CD8+ T Cells in the Liver in a Pregnant Mouse Model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Roberto Montes; Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Sánchez, Joaquín; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80+ cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8+ T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. PMID:10679002

  2. Mannose binding lectin plays a crucial role in innate immunity against yeast by enhanced complement activation and enhanced uptake of polymorphonuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    van Asbeck, Eveline C; Hoepelman, Andy IM; Scharringa, Jelle; Herpers, Bjorn L; Verhoef, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is an important host defence protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens. This carbohydrate-binding protein, an opsonin and lectin pathway activator, binds through multiple lectin domains to the repeating sugar arrays displayed on the surface of a wide range of clinically relevant microbial species. We investigated the contribution of MBL to antifungal innate immunity towards C. parapsilosis in vitro. Results High avidity binding was observed between MBL and C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. Addition of MBL to MBL deficient serum increased the deposition of C4 and C3b and enhanced the uptake of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and acapsular C. neoformans by polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Compared to other microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Cryptococcus neoformans, C. parapsilosis and Candida albicans were potent activators of the lectin pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that MBL plays a crucial role in the innate immunity against infections caused by yeast by increasing uptake by PMN. PMID:19094203

  3. Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC 3.1.3.5) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

  4. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  5. Influence of polyclonal immunoglobulins on the polymorphonuclear leukocyte response to lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella enteritidis as measured with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, D R; Heinrich, D

    1994-01-01

    In gram-negative sepsis, the activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the resulting production of superoxide and other oxygen radicals may be an important cause of tissue damage. A suppression of the PMN response to LPS stimulation would be therapeutically beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine whether different polyclonal immunoglobulins (Igs; 5S-Ig, 7S-Ig, and 19S-Ig) influence the PMN response to LPS of Salmonella enteritidis in vitro. The respiratory burst activity of PMN was measured with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. After addition of a 5S-Ig solution containing F(ab')2 fragments of IgG and a 19S-Ig solution containing 12% polyclonal IgM, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was reduced by 27% (P < 0.05) and 46% (P < 0.005), respectively. However, after addition of a 7S-Ig solution containing polyclonal IgG, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was increased fourfold (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the influence of polyclonal Igs on PMN response to LPS stimulation is dependent on the Ig class, F(ab')2 fragments of IgG and IgM leading to LPS neutralization and IgG leading to the production of potentially toxic oxygen radicals. PMID:7927690

  6. Relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bacterial content in Gram's stain and bacterial content in final microbiological report.

    PubMed

    Cavrić, Gordana; Mihalić, Slavica Naumovski; Tesanović, Sanda Janković; Dvorsćak, Matea Bogdanović; Erceg, Gorjana; Krkusek, Marijana Rehorić; Bartolek, Dubravka; Jurić, Klara; Nassabain, Khaled; Budimir, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Eighty samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained from the total of 48 patients (22 females and 26 males) and analyzed. Eighteen of those patients were organ transplant recipients. The relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in direct sample and semi quantitative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial content were analyzed in BALF samples. PMN count in direct sample and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial content of the final microbiological report was compared as well. On the total number of samples PMN count in direct samples of BALF was statistically significant regarding the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the same sample; it was nearly significant regarding the presence of Gram-negative bacteria; and it was statistically significant for the total bacterial content. If BALF samples are divided into those obtained from organ-transplant and those obtained from non-organ-transplant patients, positive, statistically significant relationship is found in the organ-transplant group, more specifically for the relationship between PMNs and total bacterial content. When PMN count in direct microbiological sample was compared with the results of the final microbiological report, statistically significant relationship was found neither with respect to all BALF samples, nor after dividing them into "organ-transplant" and "non-organ-transplant" group. We did not find differences caused by gender. PMID:20437633

  7. β2 integrins (CD11/18) are essential for the chemosensory adhesion and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Park, Hye Rim; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Cheung-Seog; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been studied widely for applications in biomedical materials such as prosthetic artificial blood vessels owing to its unique characteristics, which include nontoxicity and nonimmunogenicity as compared with synthetic biopolymers such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE). However, to date, studies on the relative effect of leukocytes on BC as a prosthetic vascular graft are insufficient. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a pivotal role in early-phase immune response to bacterial or periprosthetic infection. PMN recruitment at sites of infection or inflammation mediated by various integrins such as β2 integrin family (CD11/CD18 family). Therefore, we discuss our investigations into the mechanisms by which β2 integrins-mediated chemosensory adhesion and migration of PMN on the vascular graft surface, BC. Our results show that CD11b/CD18 components mainly mediate PMN adherence on BC. CD11b/CD18 displays weak coordination with the other two α subunits (CD11a and CD11c). Furthermore, it was found that the β subunit (CD18) plays a critical role in both the adhesion and migration of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN on BC. The activity of CD18 contrasts with that of the individual α subunits. Among these, only CD11b displayed inhibition of PMN migration on BC surfaces. PMID:25231265

  8. A new insight into phagocytosis of apoptotic cells: proteolytic enzymes divert the recognition and clearance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Guzik, K; Bzowska, M; Smagur, J; Krupa, O; Sieprawska, M; Travis, J; Potempa, J

    2007-01-01

    The recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of any apoptotic cell is considered to be a key event for its clearance. We challenge this concept by showing that pretreatment of neutrophils with either host or bacterial protease affects their uptake by human monocyte-derived macrophages without having an effect on cell-surface PS presentation. Specifically, whereas preincubation of apoptotic neutrophils with cathepsin G or thrombin significantly inhibited their uptake, gingipains R or clostripain enhanced phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, bacterial proteinases sensitized healthy neutrophils for uptake by macrophages, whereas endogenous proteinases were unable to elicit this effect. This stimulation was apparently owing to the combined effect of proteolytic cleavage of an antiphagocytic signal (CD31) and the generation of a novel 'eat-me' signal on the neutrophil surface. These results argue that neutrophil recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages is mediated by a protein ligand whose proteolytic modification could affect the local inflammatory process. PMID:16628232

  9. Regulatory peptides modulate adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to bronchial epithelial cells through regulation of interleukins, ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB/IkappaB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Tan, Yu-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang; Qin, Xiao-Qun

    2006-02-01

    A complex network of regulatory neuropeptides controls airway inflammation reaction, in which airway epithelial cells adhering to and activating leukocytes is a critical step. To study the effect of intrapulmonary regulatory peptides on adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and its mechanism, several regulatory peptides including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), were investigated. The results demonstrated that VIP and EGF showed inhibitory effects both on the secretion of IL-1, IL-8 and the adhesion of PMNs to BECs, whereas ET-1 and CGRP had the opposite effect. Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) antibody could block the adhesion of PMNs to ozone-stressed BECs. Using immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), it was shown that VIP and EGF down-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 in BECs, while ET-1 and CGRP up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. NF-kappaB inhibitor MG132 blocked ICAM-1 expression induced by ET-1 and CGRP. Furthermore, in electric mobility shift assay (EMSA), VIP and EGF restrained the binding activity of NF-kappaB to the NF-kappaB binding site within the ICAM-1 promoter in ozone-stressed BECs, while CGRP and ET-1 promoted this binding activity. IkappaB degradation was consistent with NF-kappaB activation. These observations indicate that VIP and EGF inhibit inflammation, while ET-1 and CGRP enhance the inflammation reaction. PMID:16474903

  10. Points of control exerted along the macrophage-endothelial cell-polymorphonuclear neutrophil axis by PECAM-1 in the innate immune response of acute colonic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naohito; Rui, Tao; Yang, Min; Bharwani, Sulaiman; Handa, Osamu; Yoshida, Norimasa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Kvietys, Peter R

    2008-08-01

    PECAM-1 is expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes. Its extracellular domain has been implicated in leukocyte diapedesis. In this study, we used PECAM-1(-/-) mice and relevant cells derived from them to assess the role of PECAM-1 in an experimental model of acute colonic inflammation with a predominant innate immune response, i.e., 2,4,6-trinitrobenzine sulfonic acid (TNBS). Using chimeric approaches, we addressed the points of control exerted by PECAM-1 along the macrophage-endothelial cell-polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) axis. In vivo, TNBS-induced colitis was ameliorated in PECAM-1(-/-) mice, an event attributed to PECAM-1 on hematopoietic cells rather than to PECAM-1 on endothelial cells. The in vivo innate immune response was mimicked in vitro by using a construct of the vascular-interstitial interface, i.e., PMN transendothelial migration was induced by colonic lavage fluid (CLF) from TNBS mice or macrophages (MPhi) challenged with CLF. Using the construct, we confirmed that endothelial cell PECAM-1 does not play a role in PMN transendothelial migration. Although MPhi activation (NF-kappaB nuclear binding) and function (keratinocyte-derived chemokine production) induced by CLF was diminished in PECAM-1(-/-) MPhi, this did not affect their ability to promote PMN transendothelial migration. By contrast, PECAM-1(-/-) PMN did not adhere to or migrate across endothelial cell monolayers in response to CLF. Further, as compared with PECAM-1(+/+) PMN, PECAM-1(-/-) PMN were less effective in orientating their CXCR2 receptors (polarization) in the direction of a chemotactic gradient. Collectively, our findings indicate that PECAM-1 modulation of PMN function (at a step before diapedesis) most likely contributes to the inflammation in a colitis model with a strong innate immune component. PMID:18641353

  11. Suppression of polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in vitro: a study of the mechanisms and the correlation with ring abscess in pseudomonal keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Kamata, R.; Nishino, N.; Okamura, R.; Kambara, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria, or the culture supernatants of an elastase non-producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elicited a chemotactic response from polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in vitro. The chemoattractive capacity was diminished under the presence of Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe, a receptor antagonist of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) which is a bacterial chemotactic peptide to PMN. This indicated that the chemoattractant derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was a fMLP-like molecule(s). In contrast, culture supernatants of an elastase producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced negligible chemotactic response from PMN. Indeed, an inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants or of purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE) on PMN chemotaxis was observed when fMLP was used as a chemoattractant. Another fMLP-induced function of PMN, respiratory burst activation, was also diminished by pretreatment of PMN with PAE. PAE hydrolysed fMLP at the Met-Leu bond and diminished the chemoattractant capacity. In addition, a receptor analysis with fML-3H-P demonstrated a decrease in numbers of fMLP receptors on PMN without changing the dissociation constant values after the treatment of the cells with PAE. In the primary structure of the fMLP receptor previously reported, a preferential amino acid sequence for cleavage by PAE was identified in what was believed to be an extracellular portion of the receptor molecule. These results suggested that PAE could diminish PMN infiltration in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo by cleavage of the fMLP-like pseudomonal chemotactic ligand and the receptors on PMN. Images Figure 4 PMID:7734333

  12. Derivative of wheat germ agglutinin specifically inhibits formyl-peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by blocking re-expression (or recycling) of receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, H.D.; Elfman, F.; Lobo, E.; Sklar, L.; Chenoweth, D.; Hooper, C.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanism of action of a derivative of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-D) which specifically and irreversibly inhibits N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis was examined. At a concentration that completely inhibited PMN chemotaxis, WGA-D had no effect on either the uptake or release of (/sup 3/H)-FMLP by PMN. Similarly, WGA-D did not affect either the short-term binding to, or internalization by, PMN of a fluoresceinated FMLP analog. WGA-D did interfere, however, with the re-expression (or recycling) of FMLP receptors by PMN that had been preincubated with 1 ..mu..M FMLP for 10 min at 4/sup 0/C. This effect was specific for WGA-D, because it was not observed when concanavalin A was used. Scatchard plot analysis of FMLP binding to PMN after receptor re-expression demonstrated that WGA-D-treated PMN had a significant diminution in the number of high affinity receptors. WGA-D-mediated inhibition of FMLP receptor re-expression was associated with inhibition of FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis, but had no effect on either FMLP-induced PMN superoxide anion generation or degranulation. Studies using (/sup 12/%I)-WGA-D demonstrated that PMN did not internalize WGA-D spontaneously. The data indicate that WGA-D perhaps by binding to the FMLP receptor, inhibits FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis by blocking the re-expression (or recycling) of a population of receptors required for continuous migration.

  13. Labeling of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes with indium-111: a new method for the quantitation of in-vivo accumulation of PMNLs in rabbit skin

    SciTech Connect

    Wahba, A.V.; Barnes, B.; Lazarus, G.S.

    1984-02-01

    A precise method for quantitation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation in skin in vivo, has been developed so that the proinflammatory effects of various agents can be compared. This method can also be used to evaluate the effect of therapeutic agents on PMNL accumulation in vivo. Rabbit PMNLs were purified from heparinized blood by dextran sedimentation, hypotonic lysis, and separation on Ficoll-Hypaque. The PMNLs were labeled with 3-5 microCi per 10(6) cells of /sup 111/In oxine and reinfused coincidentally with different concentrations of different chemotactic and proinflammatory materials injected intradermally into the back. In some experiments, varying concentrations of acetic acid were applied topically. Four to 18 hours later, the rabbits were sacrificed. Eight-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained from the injection sites and counted in a gamma counter. The number of PMNLs infiltrating the dermis was also quantitated in histologic sections. A significant correlation was found between the percent increase in radioactivity and the percent increase in PMNL accumulation morphologically. Dose-response curves were generated using such proinflammatory materials as formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide, activated serum, trypsin, glycogen, and acetic acid. These curves were highly reproducible from animal to animal. Using this assay, we found that as little as 1 microgram of trypsin induced detectable PMNL accumulation. This is 2-3 logs more sensitive than injecting mice intraperitoneally with trypsin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inactivation of trypsin inhibited PMNL accumulation. This sensitive and quantitative bioassay of PMNL accumulation permits evaluation of multiple agents in the same animal, which decreases animal to animal variation.

  14. Abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function associated with a heritable deficiency of high molecular weight surface glycoproteins (GP138): common relationship to diminished cell adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D C; Schmalstieg, F C; Arnaout, M A; Kohl, S; Tosi, M F; Dana, N; Buffone, G J; Hughes, B J; Brinkley, B R; Dickey, W D

    1984-01-01

    Investigations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function were performed in a 5-yr-old white female with delayed umbilical cord separation, impaired pus formation, and a severe defect of PMN chemotaxis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated an almost total deficiency of a high molecular weight glycoprotein(s) (GP138) in the granule and membrane fractions of the patient's cells, and NaB3H4-galactose oxidase labeling demonstrated the absence of a major glycoprotein complex on the surface of her PMNs. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were employed in flow cytometry experiments to demonstrate that two previously characterized glycoproteins (Mo1 and LFA1) were undetectable on the surface of the patient's PMNs and monocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled patient cells with subunit specific MAbs confirmed that the alpha-subunits of Mo1 (155 kD) and LFA1 (177 kD) and their common beta-subunit (94 kD) were totally deficient. Functional analyses of patient PMNs demonstrated severe impairment of adherence- and adhesion-dependent cell functions including spreading, aggregation, orientation in chemotactic gradients, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis of particles (Oil-Red-0-paraffin, zymosan) selectively opsonized with C3-derived ligands. Patient PMNs demonstrated a normal capacity to rosette with IgG or C3b-coated sheep erythrocytes, but rosette formation with C3bi-coated erythrocytes was profoundly diminished. Adhesion-independent functions including shape change, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-3H-phenylalanine binding, and O-2 generation or secretion elicited by soluble stimuli were normal. Membrane fluidity, surface charge, and microtubule assembly were also normal. These findings provide new evidence that critical PMN surface glycoproteins are required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent cellular functions of the inflammatory response. Images PMID:6746906

  15. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

  16. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-06-01

    A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of

  17. Occurrence of bacteria and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in fetal compartments at parturition; relationships with foal and mare health in the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Hemberg, E; Einarsson, S; Kútvölgyi, G; Lundeheim, N; Bagge, E; Båverud, V; Jones, B; Morrell, J M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of the health of the newborn foal and (1) number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in the amniotic fluid, (2) bacteria present in the amniotic fluid and the venous umbilical blood, and (3) bacteria present in the uterus of the newly foaled mare. A further aim was to investigate relationships between the bacteriologic findings in the amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, and uterus postpartum. Samples were taken from 50 Standardbred trotter foaling mares from a well-managed stud in Sweden. Parturition was spontaneous in all cases. Length of pregnancy, parturition and postpartum complications, health status of the foal, the time between foaling and the expulsion of the placenta, and the number of postfoaling mares becoming pregnant after insemination were recorded. Amniotic fluid was collected when the amniotic vesicle was clearly visible; it was analyzed for bacteriology and occurrence of PMNLs. Umbilical blood was analyzed for the presence of bacteria and the concentration of serum amyloid A. The uterus of the mare was swabbed for bacteriology 6 to 17 hours postpartum. A blood sample was taken from the foal before administering plasma. The foals were divided into two groups: group 1 required up to 2 hours to rise after birth (≤2 hours; 31 foals) and group 2 required more than two hours (>2 hours; 19 foals). The length of gestation varied between 332 and 356 days; there was no significant difference in gestation length between the two foal groups. Partus and postpartum complications occurred in a significantly higher proportion of mares giving birth to group 2 foals than group 1 foals (P = 0.02), although uterine culture postpartum and the subsequent pregnancy rate per season were not different between the groups. Compromised health status was significantly higher among foals belonging to group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.001). Most of the amniotic samples contained 5% or less PMNLs. Only three samples contained more than 30

  18. Oxidative DNA damage and cellular sensitivity to oxidative stress in human autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, S; Harris, G; Denman, M A; Blake, D R; Winyard, P G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the extent of genomic DNA damage and killing of lymphocytes by reactive oxygen intermediates in autoimmune diseases. METHODS--8-Oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a promutagenic DNA lesion induced by reactive oxygen intermediates, was measured by high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, in hydrolysates of DNA which had been extracted from lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear leucocyte fractions of human blood. In addition, human primary blood lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A were assayed for cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide on day 0, by assessing cell proliferation during seven days of culture. RESULTS--Constitutive 8-oxodG was detectable (mean (2 SEM) moles 8-oxodG/10(6) moles deoxyguanosine) in DNA isolated from normal human blood lymphocytes (68 (8), n = 26) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (118 (24), n = 24). Lymphocyte DNA from donors with the following inflammatory autoimmune diseases contained significantly higher levels of 8-oxodG than that from healthy donors: rheumatoid arthritis (98 (16)), systemic lupus erythematosus (137 (28)), vasculitis (100 (32)), and Behçet's disease (92 (19)). Lymphocyte 8-oxodG levels in non-autoimmune controls and patients with scleroderma were not significantly different from those of healthy controls. The levels of 8-oxodG were significantly higher in the DNA from normal polymorphonuclear leucocytes than in paired DNA samples from normal lymphocytes, but there were no differences between levels of 8-oxodG in polymorphonuclear leucocytes from normal subjects and the patients studied. Levels of 8-oxodG did not correlate with disease duration, disease severity, or age. Lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but not those with scleroderma, also showed cellular hypersensitivity to the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSION--There was increased genomic DNA damage, and increased susceptibility to

  19. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as “TBPATCH”) using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB. PMID:27065951

  20. Localized expression of mRNA for phagocyte-specific chemotactic cytokines in human periodontal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Tonetti, M S; Imboden, M A; Gerber, L; Lang, N P; Laissue, J; Mueller, C

    1994-01-01

    In bacterial infections, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes are key components of host defenses. Recent investigations have indicated that chemokines are able to recruit and activate phagocytes. In particular, interleukin-8 (IL-8) attracts polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is selective for cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this investigation, we analyzed the in situ expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNAs in human periodontal infections. Specific mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled riboprobes in frozen tissue sections. Phagocytes (PMNs and macrophages) were specifically detected as elastase-positive or CD68+ cells by a three-stage immunoperoxidase technique. Results indicated that expression of phagocyte-specific cytokines was confined to selected tissue locations and, in general, paralleled phagocyte infiltration. In particular, IL-8 expression was maximal in the junctional epithelium adjacent to the infecting microorganisms; PMN infiltration was more prominent in the same area. MCP-1 was expressed in the chronic inflammatory infiltrate and along the basal layer of the oral epithelium. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage were demonstrated to be present in the same areas. The observed expression pattern may be the most economic way to establish a cell-type-selective chemotactic gradient within the tissue that is able to effectively direct polymorphonuclear phagocyte migration toward the infecting microorganisms and modulate mononuclear phagocyte infiltration in the surrounding tissues. This process may optimize host defenses and contribute to containing leukocyte infiltration to the infected and inflamed area, thus limiting tissue damage. Images PMID:8063420

  1. Intracellular accumulation of azithromycin by cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Gladue, R P; Snider, M E

    1990-01-01

    Azithromycin was shown to achieve high concentrations in human skin fibroblasts. Intracellular penetration occurred rapidly (10 micrograms/mg of cellular protein after 3 h) and then increased progressively over a 3-day period; azithromycin accumulated up to 21 times more than erythromycin (61.1 versus 2.9 micrograms/mg of protein). Uptake was dependent on the extracellular concentration, was inhibited at 4 degrees C, did not occur in nonviable cells, and was reduced by a low pH. Intracellular accumulation was not affected by the metabolic inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol or sodium fluoride or by the nucleoside transport inhibitor 2-chloradenosine. Once concentrated in cells, azithromycin remained intracellular and was released slowly in the absence of extracellular drug, compared with erythromycin (17 versus 78% released after 1 h). After 48 h of incubation in drug-free medium, 27% of the initial amount of azithromycin remained cell associated. The release of azithromycin was not affected by various monokines reported to stimulate fibroblasts (interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor) or by exposure to bacteria. Incubation of azithromycin-loaded fibroblasts with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes resulted in a higher intracellular accumulation of azithromycin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes than in cells incubated with free nonintracellular azithromycin for the same time (8.3 versus 2.2 micrograms/ml after 2 h), suggesting a more efficient or rapid uptake through cell-to-cell interaction. The widespread distribution of fibroblasts in tissues suggests a potential for these cells, and possibly other lysosome-containing tissue cells, to serve as a reservoir for azithromycin, slowly releasing it for activity against extracellular organisms at sites of infection and passing it to phagocytes for activity against intracellular pathogens and potential transport to sites of infection. PMID:2168141

  2. Nonopsonic phagocytosis of nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa by human neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages is correlated with bacterial piliation and hydrophobicity.

    PubMed Central

    Speert, D P; Loh, B A; Cabral, D A; Salit, I E

    1986-01-01

    We have shown previously that some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis are phagocytized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the absence of serum opsonins. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial features which render certain strains susceptible to nonopsonic phagocytosis. Three strains were phagocytized by human neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages, and two were not, as determined by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, visual inspection of stained smears, and bactericidal assay. Strains that were phagocytized formed pellicles when grown in static broth, but the phagocytosis-resistant strains did not. The phagocytosis-susceptible strains were more heavily piliated and more hydrophobic than the resistant strains. Bacteria exposed to heat (60 degrees C) or UV irradiation were depiliated, as assessed by electron microscopy, and rendered resistant to phagocytosis. When P. aeruginosa was grown on agar, it was piliated, hydrophobic, and susceptible to nonopsonic phagocytosis, but when grown to stationary phase in shaken broth, it was nonpiliated, less hydrophobic, and resistant to phagocytosis. It appears that nonopsonic phagocytosis of certain P. aeruginosa strains by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages is facilitated by hydrophobic interactions which may be determined in part by pili. PMID:2873104

  3. Attachment of human C5a des Arg to its cochemotaxin is required for maximum expression of chemotactic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Perez, H D; Chenoweth, D E; Goldstein, I M

    1986-01-01

    The chemotactic activity of human C5a des Arg is enhanced significantly by an anionic polypeptide (cochemotaxin) in normal human serum and plasma. We have found that the cochemotaxin attaches to the oligosaccharide chain of native C5a des Arg to form a complex with potent chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Although capable of enhancing the chemotactic activity of native C5a des Arg, the cochemotaxin had no effect on the chemotactic activity of either deglycosylated C5a des Arg, native C5a, or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Of the known components of the oligosaccharide chain, only sialic acid prevented enhancement by the cochemotaxin of the chemotactic activity exhibited by native C5a des Arg. Sialic acid also prevented the formation of C5a des Arg-cochemotaxin complexes, detected by acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, molecular sieve chromatography on polyacrylamide gels, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Images PMID:3782473

  4. Effects of Parietaria judaica pollen extract on human microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Simona; Flugy, Anna; Colomba, Paolo; Barranca, Marilisa; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2008-08-01

    Pollinosis from Parietaria judaica is one of the main causes of allergy in the Mediterranean area. The present study is designed to assess if P. judaica pollens contain bioactive compounds able to elicit a functional response in endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that addition of pollen extract to human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) induces a modification of cell morphology, actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and an increase in endothelial cell permeability. We further showed that the treatment of endothelial cells with pollen extract causes an increase of E-selectin and VCAM-1 protein levels as well as an increase of IL-8 production. The stimulation of cell-cell adhesion molecules was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase of adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) to HMVEC-L monolayer. Our results suggest for the first time that pollen affect directly endothelial cells (EC) modulating critical functions related to the inflammatory response. PMID:18515075

  5. Identification of a superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase system in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, B; Cross, A R; Hancock, J T; Kaup, F J; Jones, O T

    1991-01-01

    Human fibroblasts have the capacity to release superoxide radicals upon stimulation of an electron transport system similar to the NADPH oxidase of leukocytes. Two components of the NADPH oxidase system, (1) a flavoprotein of 45 kDa which binds diphenylene iodonium (a compound described as a specific inhibitor of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase), and (2) a low-potential cytochrome b, are present in fibroblast membranes. Fibroblasts exhibit these compounds at lower concentrations than do polymorphonuclear leukocytes or B-lymphocytes. The superoxide-generating system is rather uniformly associated with the outer cell membrane, as shown by light and electron microscopy. Superoxide release upon stimulation with various agents was prevented by the addition of micromolar concentrations of diphenylene iodonium, making an NADPH oxidase a likely source. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1850240

  6. Optimal humanization of 1B4, an anti-CD18 murine monoclonal antibody, is achieved by correct choice of human V-region framework sequences.

    PubMed

    Singer, I I; Kawka, D W; DeMartino, J A; Daugherty, B L; Elliston, K O; Alves, K; Bush, B L; Cameron, P M; Cuca, G C; Davies, P

    1993-04-01

    The murine anti-CD18 mAb 1B4 has been humanized using CDR grafting. Three VH (Gal, Jon, and New) and two VL (Rei and Len) human frameworks, whose selection was based exclusively on their sequence identity with m1B4, were used to construct five human gamma 4/kappa recombinant antibodies: Gal/Rei, Gal/Len, Jon/Rei, and New/Rei, and a "hemichimeric" antibody pairing the VH of m1B4 with grafted Rei. Each of these h1B4 constructs completely inhibited the binding of m1B4 to activated human leukocytes with avidities (IC50) ranging from 1.5 to 8.0 nM, compared to 0.5 nM for m1B4. Replacement of three VH residues in the best VH framework, Gal, with the corresponding m1B4 "packing" (nonsolvent exposed) residues gave an h1B4 (mutant Gal/Rei) with the same avidity as m1B4. Avidity correlated with overall percent identity between the human and murine VH frameworks and, in particular, with conservation of "packing" residues. Rei and Len VL frameworks proved to be interchangeable. Further characterization showed that the Gal/Rei prototype was equipotent to m1B4 in blocking adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes to human vascular endothelium in vitro, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte extravasation into C5a-injected rabbit or monkey skin sites. Dual-label immunofluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cells with Gal/Rei h1B4 and m1B4 demonstrated that the fine specificity of the combining sites had not been altered by humanization. Reduced immunogenicity was demonstrated in rhesus monkeys that tolerated weekly treatment with h1B4 for 6 wk, whereas m1B4 induced profound anaphylaxis at 3 wk. Anti-1B4 titers in h1B4-treated rhesus were 50 to 66% lower and developed 1 wk later than in m1B4-treated monkeys. Crucially, the anti-h1B4 antibodies were anti-idiotypic while the anti-m1B4 antibodies were directed against constant and framework regions. We conclude that sequence identity searches are sufficient to identify suitable human frameworks for CDR-grafting of m1B4

  7. 78 FR 33426 - Eli Lilly and Co.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for ORAFLEX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for ORAFLEX (benoxaprofen) Tablets... (benoxaprofen) Tablets, a nonsteroidal ] anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the treatment of arthritis. On August 4, 1982, Lilly voluntarily withdrew ORAFLEX (benoxaprofen) Tablets from the market because...

  8. Lymphohaemopoietic antigens of cultured human glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, F. J.; Michael, A. F.; Muller, E.; van der Hem, G. K.; Vernier, R. L.; Kim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (GVEC) from normal human glomeruli were grown in tissue culture. Cell surface markers were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against lymphohaemopoietic differentiation antigens which are known to be present early (BA-1, OKB2, BA-2) and late (J5, anti CR1) in renal ontogenesis. Like foetal human glomerular epithelium, the cultured cells reacted with BA-1 and OKB2 (identifying an antigen expressed on B cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes), and BA-2 (leukaemia-associated antigen), but were consistently negative for CR1 (C3b receptor); J5 which identifies the common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen (CALLA) stained variably. Reactivity with antimyosin or anti factor VIII were absent. The cells produced an extracellular matrix containing laminin, type IV collagen, and fibronectin. This study supports the notion that GVEC undergo dedifferentiation as shown by the acquisition of lymphohaemopoietic differentiation antigens present early in renal ontogeny. In addition, the production of extracellular matrix constituents in vitro may be useful for the investigation of human glomerular basement membranes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2647119

  9. Human milk anti-inflammatory component contents during acute mastitis.

    PubMed

    Buescher, E S; Hair, P S

    2001-06-15

    Mastitis is a common complication of human lactation. We examined milk specimens from eight women with clinical mastitis to determine their content of anti-inflammatory components. Antioxidant activity (spontaneous cytochrome c reducing activity), selected pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta), selected endogenous cytokine control molecules (sIL-6R, sIL-1RII, and sTNFRI), lactoferrin, Na(+):K(+) ratios, and milk bioactivities that cause shedding of sIL-1RII from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), suppress PMN aggregation, and suppress PMN adherence responses were not increased compared to normal milks. Neither the bioactivities that deplete PMN intracellular Ca(2+) stores nor those that block Ca(2+) influx into fMLP-stimulated PMN were significantly increased in mastitis milks. In contrast, levels of TNFalpha, sTNFRII, and IL-1RA and bioactivities that cause shedding of sTNFRI from human PMN were significantly increased compared to normal milks. Mastitis milk has the same anti-inflammatory components and characteristics of normal milk, with elevations in selected components/activities that may help protect the nursing infant from developing clinical illness due to feeding on mastitis milk. PMID:11520075

  10. Human Olfactory Mucosa Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Ayala-Grosso, Carlos; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors. OM-MSCs share phenotypic and functional properties with bone marrow (BM) MSCs, which constitute fundamental components of the hematopoietic niche. In this work, we investigated whether human OM-MSCs may promote the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). For this purpose, human bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-cultured with OM-MSCs in the absence of exogenous cytokines. At different intervals, nonadherent cells (NACs) were harvested from BMC/OM-MSC co-cultures, and examined for the expression of blood cell markers by flow cytometry. OM-MSCs supported the survival (cell viability >90%) and proliferation of BMCs, after 54 days of co-culture. At 20 days of co-culture, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses showed a high percentage (73%) of cells expressing the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, and the presence of cells of myeloid origin, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. Likewise, T (CD3), B (CD19), and NK (CD56/CD16) cells were detected in the NAC fraction. Colony-forming unit–granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors and CD34+ cells were found, at 43 days of co-culture. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that OM-MSCs constitutively express early and late-acting hematopoietic cytokines (i.e., stem cell factor [SCF] and granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). These results constitute the first evidence that OM-MSCs may provide an in vitro microenvironment for HSCs. The capacity of OM-MSCs to support the survival and differentiation of HSCs may be related with the capacity of OM-MSCs to produce hematopoietic cytokines. PMID:22471939

  11. Control of pro-inflammatory cytokine release from human monocytes with the use of an interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hardik; Davidson, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The monocytes (MONOs) can be considered as "double-edge swords"; they have both important pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions manifested in part by cytokine production and release. Although MONOs are circulating cells, they are the major precursors of a variety of tissue-specific immune cells such as the alveolar macrophage, dendritic cells, microglial cells, and Kupffer cells. Unlike the polymorphonuclear leukocyte, which produces no or very little interleukin-10 (IL-10), the monocyte can produce this potent anti-inflammatory cytokine to control inflammation. IL-10, on an equimolar basis, is a more potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by monocytes than many anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids which are used clinically. This chapter describes how to isolate monocytes from human blood and the use of IL-10 monoclonal antibody to determine the effect and timing of endogenous IL-10 release on the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24908297

  12. Cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan induces interleukin (IL)-8 production by human microglia but inhibits neutrophil migration toward IL-8.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, M M; Gekker, G; Hu, S; Ehrlich, L C; Hoepelman, A I; Peterson, P K

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the clinical observation that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with cryptococcal meningitis contains high levels of the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 but few polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), the production of IL-8 by cultured brain glial cells after stimulation with two serotypes of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) was studied, followed by an assessment of the effect of GXM on PMNL migration toward IL-8. GXM serotype A but not D was capable of inducing IL-8 production in human fetal microglial cell but not in astrocyte cultures. When added directly to the PMNL, GXM (both serotypes) potently blocked PMNL migration toward IL-8. The mechanism of GXM's inhibitory effect appeared to involve cross-desensitization. These findings suggest that GXM can induce IL-8 production in the brain but that GXM in the systemic circulation inhibits migration of PMNL toward IL-8. PMID:9419203

  13. Erythropoietin receptor is expressed on human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes and monocytes and is modulated by recombinant human erythropoietin treatment.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Debska-Slizień, Alicja; Bryl, Ewa; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2010-08-01

    Erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) appears on the cell surface in the early stages of erythropoiesis. It has also been found on endothelial cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, suggesting erythropoietin (EPO) role beyond erythropoiesis itself. Earlier reports have shown that treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients improves interleukin-2 production and restores the T lymphocyte function. We decided to investigate possible expression of EPO-R on circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes of CRF patients in order to assess the possibility of rhEPO direct action on these cells. Flow cytometry was used for detection and quantification of EPO-R, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of the EPO receptor mRNA. Our results show for the first time the existence of EPO-R on cell surface of human T and B lymphocytes and monocytes as well as at the transcriptional activity of the EPO-R gene in these cells, both in healthy and CRF individuals. We have also found significant differences between the numbers of EPO-R molecules on T and B lymphocytes of CRF patients not treated and treated with rhEPO and healthy control. Discovery of EPO-R expression on human lymphocytes suggests that EPO is probably able to directly modulate some signaling pathways important for these cells. PMID:20528849

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Host Defense in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Charles, Tysheena P; Shellito, Judd E

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppression associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts all components of host defense against pulmonary infection. Cells within the lung have altered immune function and are important reservoirs for HIV infection. The host immune response to infected lung cells further compromises responses to a secondary pathogenic insult. In the upper respiratory tract, mucociliary function is impaired and there are decreased levels of salivary immunoglobulin A. Host defenses in the lower respiratory tract are controlled by alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. As HIV infection progresses, lung CD4 T cells are reduced in number causing a lack of activation signals from CD4 T cells and impaired defense by macrophages. CD8 T cells, on the other hand, are increased in number and cause lymphocytic alveolitis. Specific antibody responses by B-lymphocytes are decreased and opsonization of microorganisms is impaired. These observed defects in host defense of the respiratory tract explain the susceptibility of HIV-infected persons for oropharyngeal candidiasis, bacterial pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and other opportunistic infections. PMID:26974294

  15. [Normal values of cell distribution and function in the human alveolus. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a diagnostic tool in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Pison, U; Riewendt, H D; Stimming, W

    1987-10-01

    The cell distribution and cell function in the normal human alveolar were determined in 23 healthy subjects by obtaining the pulmonary lavage fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage. A uniform alveolar cell spectrum was found. (Alveolar macrophages 95-98%, polymorphonuclear neutrophils 2-3%, lymphocytes 0-2%.) The cell systems reacted reproducibly to a defined phagocytosis stimulation in luminol-enhanced chemoluminescence. The phospholipid lung profile, which is important for the function of the surfactant, was determined by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The typical inflammation mediators were not present in the humoral spectrum of the supernatant part of the lavage fluid. Albumin, transferrin, and alpha-1-antitrypsin were regularly seen in healthy adults in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The results supply the basis for the interpretation of the findings in polytraumatised patients in adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:2446522

  16. Cannabinoid-receptor expression in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Bouaboula, M; Rinaldi, M; Carayon, P; Carillon, C; Delpech, B; Shire, D; Le Fur, G; Casellas, P

    1993-05-15

    Marijuana and many of its constituent cannabinoids influence the central nervous system (CNS), probably through the cannabinoid receptor, which has recently been cloned in rat and human. While numerous reports have also described effects of cannabinoids on the immune system, the observation of both mRNA and cannabinoid receptor has hitherto been exclusively confined to the brain, a reported detection in the testis being the sole example of its presence at the periphery. Here we report the expression of the cannabinoid receptor on human immune tissues using a highly sensitive polymerase-chain-reaction-based method for mRNA quantification. We show that, although present in a much lower abundance than in brain, cannabinoid receptor transcripts are found in human spleen, tonsils and peripheral blood leukocytes. The distribution pattern displays important variations of the mRNA level for the cannabinoid receptor among the main human blood cell subpopulations. The rank order of mRNA levels in these cells is B cells > natural killer cells > or = polymorphonuclear neutrophils > or = T8 cells > monocytes > T4 cells. Cannabinoid-receptor mRNA, which is also found in monocytic, as well as T and B leukemia cell lines but not in Jurkat cells, presents a great diversity of expression on these cells as well, B-cell lines expressing a much higher level than T-cell lines. The cannabinoid receptor PCR products from leukocytes and brain are identical both in size and sequence suggesting a strong similarity between central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors. The expression of this receptor was demonstrated on membranes of the myelomonocytic U937 cells using the synthetic cannabinoid [3H]CP-55940 as ligand. The Kd determined from Scatchard analysis was 0.1 nM and the Bmax for membranes was 525 fmol/mg protein. The demonstration of cannabinoid-receptor expression at both mRNA and protein levels on human leukocytes provides a molecular basis for cannabinoid action on these cells. PMID

  17. Human See, Human Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  18. Neutrophils extracellular traps damage Naegleria fowleri trophozoites opsonized with human IgG.

    PubMed

    Contis-Montes de Oca, A; Carrasco-Yépez, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Pacheco-Yépez, J; Bonilla-Lemus, P; Pérez-López, J; Rojas-Hernández, S

    2016-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri infects humans through the nasal mucosa causing a disease in the central nervous system known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the early phase of N. fowleri infection. Recently, a new biological defence mechanism called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been attracting attention. NETs are composed of nuclear DNA combined with histones and antibacterial proteins, and these structures are released from the cell to direct its antimicrobial attack. In this work, we evaluate the capacity of N. fowleri to induce the liberation of NETs by human PMN cells. Neutrophils were cocultured with unopsonized or IgG-opsonized N. fowleri trophozoites. DNA, histone, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) were stained, and the formation of NETs was evaluated by confocal microscopy and by quantifying the levels of extracellular DNA. Our results showed N. fowleri induce the liberation of NETs including release of MPO and NE by human PMN cells as exposure interaction time is increased, but N. fowleri trophozoites evaded killing. However, when trophozoites were opsonized, they were susceptible to the neutrophils activity. Therefore, our study suggests that antibody-mediated PMNs activation through NET formation may be crucial for antimicrobial responses against N. fowleri. PMID:27189133

  19. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Binet, Francois; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenic trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2{alpha} are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.

  20. Effects of tiflucarbine as a dual protein kinase C/calmodulin antagonist on proliferation of human keratinocytes and release of reactive oxygen species from human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, L; Fruchtmann, R; Bonnekoh, B; Schmidt, B H; Traber, J; Mahrle, G; Müller-Peddinghaus, R; van Rooijen, L A

    1991-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that calmodulin (CaM) is involved in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is also accepted as playing a regulatory role in cell proliferation as well as in inflammatory processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the known CaM antagonist tiflucarbine (BAY/TVX P 4495) on two cellular systems related to the major clinical symptoms of psoriasis: proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes (HaCa T cell line) and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Tiflucarbine inhibited both cellular responses in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, tiflucarbine directly affected PKC, and may thus be considered to be a dual PKC/CaM antagonist with putative antipsoriatic activity. The effects of tiflucarbine on the different parameters were compared with those of the structurally unrelated dual PKC/CaM inhibitor W-7 and those of the potent PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The potencies of all three compounds were found to be in the same range as their PKC-inhibiting potency. Our data indicate that PKC, rather than CaM, may play a regulatory role in the release of ROS as well as in keratinocyte proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of PKC in general might have a therapeutic benefit in psoriasis. PMID:1801655

  1. Eugenol--the active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene-C4 in human PMNL cells.

    PubMed

    Raghavenra, H; Diwakr, B T; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K A

    2006-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play an important role in the modulation of inflammatory conditions in humans. PMNL cells recruited at the site of inflammation, release inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species. Among these, leukotrienes are implicated in pathophysiology of allergic and inflammatory disorders like asthma, allergic rhinitis, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis. 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme in biosynthetic pathway of leukotrienes. Our earlier studies showed that spice phenolic active principles significantly inhibit 5-LO enzyme in human PMNLs. In this study we have further characterized the inhibitory mechanism of eugenol, the active principle of spice-clove on 5-LO enzyme and also its effect on leukotriene C((4)) (LTC(4)). Substrate dependent enzyme kinetics showed that the inhibitory effect of eugenol on 5-LO was of a non-competitive nature. Further, eugenol was found to significantly inhibit the formation of LTC(4) in calcium ionophore A23187 and arachidonic acid (AA) stimulated PMNL cells. These data clearly suggest that eugenol inhibits 5-LO by non-competitive mechanism and also inhibits formation of LTC(4) in human PMNL cells and thus may have beneficial role in modulating 5-LO pathway in human PMNL cells. PMID:16216483

  2. O/sub 3/-induced change in bronchial reactivity to methacholine and airway inflammation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, J.; Bigby, B.G.; Stulbarg, M.; Holtzman, M.J.; Nadel, J.A.; Ueki, I.F.; Leikauf, G.D.; Goetzl, E.J.; Boushey, H.A.

    1986-04-01

    The increase in airway responsiveness induced by O/sub 3/ exposure in dogs is associated with airway epithelial inflammation, as evidenced by an increase in the number of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) found in epithelial biopsies and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We investigated in 10 healthy, human subjects whether O/sub 3/-induced hyperresponsiveness was similarly associated with airway inflammation by examining changes in the types of cells recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained after exposure to air or to O/sub 3/ (0.4 or 0.6 ppm). We also measured the concentrations of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid in lavage fluid. We measured airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine aerosol before and after each exposure and performed bronchoalveolar lavage 3 h later. We found more neutrophils in the lavage fluid from O/sub 3/-exposed subjects, especially in those in whom O/sub 3/ exposure produced an increase in airway responsiveness. We also found significant increases in the concentrations of prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha, and thromboxane B2 in lavage fluid from O/sub 3/-exposed subjects. These results show that in human subjects O/sub 3/-induced hyperresponsiveness to methacholine is associated with an influx of neutrophils into the airways and with changes in the levels of some cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa O-polysaccharide toxin A conjugate vaccine in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Cryz, S J; Fürer, E; Cross, A S; Wegmann, A; Germanier, R; Sadoff, J C

    1987-01-01

    Lipid A-free polysaccharide (PS) isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunotype 5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was covalently coupled to toxin A via reductive amination. The PS-toxin A conjugate was comprised of 29.8% PS and 70.2% toxin A, possessed a molecular weight of greater than 1 X 10(6), was nontoxic for animals and was nonpyrogenic for rabbits at a dose of 50 micrograms/kg body wt when administered intravenously. The conjugate evoked only mild, transient reactions upon subcutaneous administration to human volunteers. Vaccination engendered immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, which neutralized the cytotoxic effect of toxin A and promoted the uptake and killing of P. aeruginosa in the presence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Passively transferred IgG isolated from the serum of immunized donors was far more effective at preventing fatal P. aeruginosa burn wound sepsis than paired preimmunization serum. These studies establish the potential usefulness of such a PS-toxin A conjugate as a vaccine against P. aeruginosa. PMID:3110215

  4. Role of primary human alveolar epithelial cells in host defense against Francisella tularensis infection.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-08-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-kappaB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-kappaB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  5. Role of Primary Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells in Host Defense against Francisella tularensis Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B.; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-κB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-κB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  6. Human neutrophil peptides: a novel potential mediator of inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Kieran; Henriques, Melanie; Parker, Tom; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The traditional view of atherosclerosis has recently been expanded from a predominantly lipid retentive disease to a coupling of inflammatory mechanisms and dyslipidemia. Studies have suggested a novel role for polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-dominant inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs), also known as α-defensins, are secreted and released from PMN granules upon activation and are conventionally involved in microbial killing. Current evidence suggests an important immunomodulative role for these peptides. HNP levels are markedly increased in inflammatory diseases including sepsis and acute coronary syndromes. They have been found within the intima of human atherosclerotic arteries, and their deposition in the skin correlates with the severity of coronary artery diseases. HNPs form complexes with LDL in solution and increase LDL binding to the endothelial surface. HNPs have also been shown to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, lipid metabolism disorder, and the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Given the emerging relationship between PMN-dominant inflammation and atherosclerosis, HNPs may serve as a link between them and as a biological marker and potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery diseases and acute coronary syndromes. PMID:18805897

  7. Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.; Jenne, Dieter E.; Gauthier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive oxygen species to help degrade engulfed microorganisms inside phagolysosomes. These proteases are also externalized in an active form during neutrophil activation at inflammatory sites, thus contributing to the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. As multifunctional proteases, they also play a regulatory role in noninfectious inflammatory diseases. Mutations in the ELA2/ELANE gene, encoding neutrophil elastase, are the cause of human congenital neutropenia. Neutrophil membrane-bound proteinase 3 serves as an autoantigen in Wegener granulomatosis, a systemic autoimmune vasculitis. All three proteases are affected by mutations of the gene (CTSC) encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, a protease required for activation of their proform before storage in cytoplasmic granules. Mutations of CTSC cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Because of their roles in host defense and disease, elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are of interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the physicochemical functions of these proteases, toward a goal of better delineating their role in human diseases and identifying new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of their bioavailability and activity. We also describe how nonhuman primate experimental models could assist with testing the efficacy of proposed therapeutic strategies. PMID:21079042

  8. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a wholly new…

  9. CR2 is the primary acceptor site for C3 during alternative pathway activation of complement on human peripheral B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Marquart, H V; Svehag, S E; Leslie, R G

    1994-07-01

    Human cells infected with certain viruses acquire the ability to activate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Complement receptor 2 on EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines has been reported to act as the covalent binding site for C3b during AP activation. Using flow cytometry, we investigated the ability of normal human peripheral blood leukocytes to activate the AP in homologous serum. Deposition of C3 fragments was determined as a measurement of complement activation on each of the subpopulations of the blood cells. Incubating human peripheral blood leukocytes with homologous or autologous serum resulted in C3 deposition on B cells and, to a lesser extent, on monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Complement activation in the presence of Mg2+ ions and EGTA revealed major involvement of the AP in the case of B cells, and to a lesser extent for other leukocyte populations examined. Preincubation of the leukocytes with polyclonal anti-complement receptor 2 Ab markedly decreased the C3 fragment deposition, as a result of in vitro AP activation, on B cells, indicating that on normal human B cells this receptor may be involved in AP activation. Freshly isolated, normal human B cells also bear low but significant amounts of C3d,g fragments on their membranes, indicating that this AP activation also occurs in vivo. AP activation was partially decreased in the presence of autologous erythrocytes (RBC) suggesting that complement regulatory proteins on RBC play a role in limiting the AP activation in vivo. PMID:7515925

  10. Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of climate change Video not supported Human Health Climate change threatens human health and well-being ... Copy link to clipboard Key Message: Wide-ranging Health Impacts Climate change threatens human health and well- ...

  11. Antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytolysis (ADCC) with antibody-coated effectors: rat and human effectors versus tumor targets.

    PubMed

    Jones, J F; Titus, J A; Segal, D M

    1981-06-01

    We have previously described techniques that cause antibody molecules to remain bound to P388D1 cells for at least 18 hr, and enable these cells to lyse hapten-coated erythrocytes not sensitized with antibody. These methods collectively are called "franking." In this study, we have determined that these methods are applicable to other systems. We franked rat splenocytes and human peripheral blood leukocytes with rabbit anti-TNP antibody, and showed that they were capable of lysing TNP-tumor and erythrocyte targets (not coated with antibody) in a hapten-specific, antibody-dependent fashion. Both the mononuclear and the polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte fractions of the human cells were capable of mediating lysis. Additionally, human leukocytes franked with rabbit antibody were stained with fluorescent goat anti-rabbit IgG Fab, and were analyzed for fluorescence by flow microfluorometry. Nearly all of the PMN cells and about one-half of the mononuclear cells had IgG on their surfaces after franking. Clearly, not all cells can be franked, but those that can retain significant numbers of antibody molecules (approximately 5 X 10(4), in the case of PMN cells) on their surfaces. PMID:7014718

  12. In vitro Antioxidant and Enzymatic Approaches to Evaluate Neuroprotector Potential of Blechnum Extracts without Cytotoxicity to Human Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Juliana Maria de Mello; Biegelmeyer, Renata; Dresch, Roger Remy; Maurmann, Natasha; Pranke, Patrícia; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Investigation of selected plant extracts on multi-targets related to neurodegeneration, such as monoamine oxidases (MAO), cholinesterase enzymes, and antioxidant activities (AOA) is a useful tool for identification of new scaffolds. Objective: This work investigated biological effects of three Blechnum methanol extracts from Brazil and chemical profile of the most active sample. Materials and Methods: AOA included scavenging of hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals, also lipid peroxidation inhibition. Enzymatic modulation of Blechnum binervatum, Blechnum brasiliense, and Blechnum occidentale extracts on MAO and cholinesterases was conducted. Moreover, total phenol content was performed with all samples, and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-MS analysis was carried out with B. brasiliense. Possible toxic effects were evaluated on Wistar rats polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and human stem cells. Results: B. brasiliense extract presented the highest phenolic amount (9.25 g gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and lowest IC50 values (112.3 ± 2.61 and 176.1 ± 1.19 μg/mL) against hydroxyl radicals and on lipid peroxidation, respectively, showing strong AO effects. On nitric oxide assay and cholinesterase inhibition, all extracts were considered inactive. MAO-A selective action was evidenced, being B. brasiliense powerful against this enzyme (IC50: 72.7 μg/mL), followed by B. occidentale and B. binervatum (IC50: 130.85 and 165.2 μg/mL). No cytotoxic effects were observed on PMN and human stem cells treated with Blechnum extracts. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of B. brasiliense allowed the identification of chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Conclusion: Our results especially highlight B. brasiliense, with pronounced phenols content and strong effects on selected targets related to neurodegeneration, being characterized as a natural safe source of bioactive hydroxycinnamic acids. SUMMARY Blechnum crude extracts

  13. Binding of Human Fibrinogen to MRP Enhances Streptococcus suis Survival in Host Blood in a αXβ2 Integrin-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Pian, Yaya; Li, Xueqin; Zheng, Yuling; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), an important zoonotic pathogen, induces strong systemic infections in humans; sepsis and meningitis are the most common clinical manifestations and are often accompanied by bacteremia. However, the mechanisms of S. suis 2 survival in human blood are not well understood. In our previous study, we identified muramidase-released protein (MRP), a novel human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding protein (FBP) in S. suis 2 that is an important epidemic infection marker with an unknown mechanism in pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that the N-terminus of MRP (a.a. 283-721) binds to both the Aα and Bβ chains of the D fragment of hFg. Strikingly, the hFg-MRP interaction improved the survival of S. suis 2 in human blood and led to the aggregation and exhaustion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) via an αXβ2 integrin-dependent mechanism. Other Fg-binding proteins, such as M1 (GAS) and FOG (GGS), also induced PMNs aggregation; however, the mechanisms of these FBP-hFg complexes in the evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunity remain unclear. MRP is conserved across highly virulent strains in Europe and Asia, and these data shed new light on the function of MRP in S. suis pathogenesis. PMID:27231021

  14. Binding of Human Fibrinogen to MRP Enhances Streptococcus suis Survival in Host Blood in a αXβ2 Integrin-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Yaya; Li, Xueqin; Zheng, Yuling; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), an important zoonotic pathogen, induces strong systemic infections in humans; sepsis and meningitis are the most common clinical manifestations and are often accompanied by bacteremia. However, the mechanisms of S. suis 2 survival in human blood are not well understood. In our previous study, we identified muramidase-released protein (MRP), a novel human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding protein (FBP) in S. suis 2 that is an important epidemic infection marker with an unknown mechanism in pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that the N-terminus of MRP (a.a. 283–721) binds to both the Aα and Bβ chains of the D fragment of hFg. Strikingly, the hFg-MRP interaction improved the survival of S. suis 2 in human blood and led to the aggregation and exhaustion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) via an αXβ2 integrin-dependent mechanism. Other Fg-binding proteins, such as M1 (GAS) and FOG (GGS), also induced PMNs aggregation; however, the mechanisms of these FBP-hFg complexes in the evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunity remain unclear. MRP is conserved across highly virulent strains in Europe and Asia, and these data shed new light on the function of MRP in S. suis pathogenesis. PMID:27231021

  15. Creatine kinase expression and creatine phosphate accumulation are developmentally regulated during differentiation of mouse and human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the expression of creatine kinase (CK) and the accumulation of creatine phosphate during the differentiation of human and mouse peripheral blood monocytes. Mouse monocytes cultured for 24 h do not contain detectable levels of CK and creatine phosphate. However, resident tissue macrophages and inflammatory elicited macrophages obtained from the peritoneal cavities of mice have 70 and 300 mU per mg protein of CK activity and contain 3 and 6 mol of creatine phosphate per mol of ATP, respectively. The major isozyme of CK in these cells has been identified as the brain form. These findings suggest that the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages is associated with the expression of CK and the accumulation of creatine phosphate. We have found a similar pattern in human monocytes. Human blood monocytes, maintained in culture for 24 or 48 h, do not contain detectable levels of CK or creatine phosphate. Monocyte-derived macrophages (monocytes maintained in tissue cultures for 1 to 2 wk) have up to 100 mU per mg protein of CK activity and contain 0.5 mol of creatine phosphate per mol of ATP. Human macrophages express multiple isozymes of CK including the brain (BB) and possibly the mitochondrial forms of this enzyme. Thus, the expression of CK and the accumulation of creatine phosphate in human monocytes is induced by their in vitro cultivation. The induction of CK during in vitro cultivation occurs independently of the concentration of creatine in the medium. However, the size of the creatine phosphate pool varies with respect to extracellular creatine concentration. Creatine phosphate and CK are not detectable in freshly isolated human lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes or erythrocytes, but are found in freshly isolated human platelets. PMID:6699543

  16. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Protect against Oxidative Stress in Staphylococcus aureus Encountering Exogenous Oxidants and Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yun Yun; Schwartz, Jamie; Bloomberg, Sarah; Boyd, Jeffrey M; Horswill, Alexander R.; Nauseef, William M.

    2013-01-01

    To establish infection successfully, S. aureus must evade clearance by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We studied the expression and regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) that are involved in the repair of oxidized staphylococcal proteins and investigated their influence over the fate of S. aureus exposed to oxidants or PMN. We evaluated a mutant deficient in msrA1 and msrB for susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid and PMN. The expression of msrA1 in wild-type bacteria ingested by human PMN was assessed by real-time PCR. The regulation of msr was studied by screening a library of two-component regulatory system (TCS) mutants for altered msr responses. Relative to the wild-type, bacteria deficient in Msr were more susceptible to oxidants and to PMN. Upregulation of staphylococcal msrA1 occurred within the phagosomes of normal PMN and PMN deficient in NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, PMN granule-rich extract stimulated the upregulation of msrA1. Modulation of msrA1 within PMN was shown to be partly dependent on the VraSR TCS. Msr contributes to staphylococcal responses to oxidative attack and PMN. Our study highlights a novel interaction between the oxidative protein repair pathway and the VraSR TCS that is involved in cell wall homeostasis. PMID:24247266

  17. Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

  18. Neisseria gonorrhoeae phagosomes delay fusion with primary granules to enhance bacterial survival inside human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M Brittany; Criss, Alison K

    2013-08-01

    Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) promotes inflammation driven by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs, neutrophils), yet some Gc survive PMN exposure during infection. Here we report a novel mechanism of gonococcal resistance to PMNs: Gc phagosomes avoid maturation into phagolysosomes by delayed fusion with primary (azurophilic) granules, which contain antimicrobial components including serine proteases. Reduced phagosome-primary granule fusion was observed in gonorrheal exudates and human PMNs infected ex vivo. Delayed phagosome-granule fusion could be overcome by opsonizing Gc with immunoglobulin. Using bacterial viability dyes along with antibodies to primary granules revealed that Gc survival in PMNs correlated with early residence in primary granule-negative phagosomes. However, when Gc was killed prior to PMN exposure, dead bacteria were also found in primary granule-negative phagosomes. These results suggest that Gc surface characteristics, rather than active bacterial processes, influence phagosome maturation and that Gc death inside PMNs occurs after phagosome-granule fusion. Ectopically increasing primary granule-phagosome fusion, by immunoglobulin opsonization or PMN treatment with lysophosphatidylcholine, reduced intracellular Gc viability, which was attributed in part to serine protease activity. We conclude that one method for Gc to avoid PMN clearance in acute gonorrhoea is by delaying primary granule-phagosome fusion, thus preventing formation of a degradative phagolysosome. PMID:23374609

  19. ADP ribosylation of human neutrophil peptide-1 regulates its biological properties.

    PubMed

    Paone, Gregorino; Wada, Akihiro; Stevens, Linda A; Matin, Abul; Hirayama, Toshiya; Levine, Rodney L; Moss, Joel

    2002-06-11

    In human airways, epithelial cells lining the lumen and intraluminal cells (e.g., polymorphonuclear cells) participate in the innate immune response. These cells secrete or express on their surfaces arginine-specific ADP ribosyltransferases. Defensins, antimicrobial proteins secreted by immune cells, are arginine-rich, leading us to hypothesize that ADP ribosylation could modify their biological activities. We found that an arginine-specific ADP ribosyltransferase-1 present on airway epithelial cells modifies Arg-14 of alpha defensin-1. ADP-ribosylated defensin-1 had decreased antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities but still stimulated T cell chemotaxis and IL-8 release from A549 cells. Further, ADP-ribosylated defensin-1 inhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of unmodified defensin-1. We identified ADP-ribosylated defensin-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from smokers but not from nonsmokers, confirming its existence in vivo. Thus, airway mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases could have an important regulatory role in the innate immune response through modification of alpha defensin-1 and perhaps other basic molecules, with alteration of their biological properties. PMID:12060767

  20. Effects of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate ODN2216 on leukotriene synthesis in human neutrophils and neutrophil apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Viryasova, Galina M; Golenkina, Ekaterina A; Galkina, Svetlana I; Gaponova, Tatjana V; Romanova, Yulia M; Sud'ina, Galina F

    2016-06-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, neutrophils) play a major role in the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory response, and neutrophil apoptosis is a critical step in resolving inflammation. We examined the effects of oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) species with different numbers of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate bonds on leukotriene synthesis in PMNLs and on neutrophil apoptosis. Our modifications were based on the well-known ODN2216 molecule (Krug et al., 2001). Treatment of cultured human neutrophils with ODN2216 accelerated apoptosis except in the case of a species with only phosphodiester bonds. The ODNs with poly(g) (phosphorothioate) sequences at both ends and a phosphodiester inner core had maximal effects on leukotriene synthesis in neutrophils and inhibited formation of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites. Addition of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate ODNs to PMNLs produced distinct effects on superoxide and nitric oxide formation: phosphorothioate-containing ODNs concomitantly stimulated production of nitric oxide and superoxide, which may rapidly combine to generate peroxynitrite. Altogether, our results describe strong activation of neutrophil's cellular responses by phosphorothioate ODN2216. We propose that phosphorothioate modification of ODNs represents a potential mechanism of PMNL activation. PMID:27036535

  1. Human Synovial Lubricin Expresses Sialyl Lewis x Determinant and Has L-selectin Ligand Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunsheng; Ekwall, Anna-Karin Hultgård; Bylund, Johan; Björkman, Lena; Estrella, Ruby P.; Whitelock, John M.; Eisler, Thomas; Bokarewa, Maria; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lubricin (or proteoglycan 4 (PRG4)) is an abundant mucin-like glycoprotein in synovial fluid (SF) and a major component responsible for joint lubrication. In this study, it was shown that O-linked core 2 oligosaccharides (Galβ1–3(GlcNAcβ1–6)GalNAcα1-Thr/Ser) on lubricin isolated from rheumatoid arthritis SF contained both sulfate and fucose residues, and SF lubricin was capable of binding to recombinant L-selectin in a glycosylation-dependent manner. Using resting human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) from peripheral blood, confocal microscopy showed that lubricin coated circulating PMN and that it partly co-localized with L-selectin expressed by these cells. In agreement with this, activation-induced shedding of L-selectin also mediated decreased lubricin binding to PMN. It was also found that PMN recruited to inflamed synovial area and fluid in rheumatoid arthritis patients kept a coat of lubricin. These observations suggest that lubricin is able to bind to PMN via an L-selectin-dependent and -independent manner and may play a role in PMN-mediated inflammation. PMID:22930755

  2. Potential role of autophagy in the bactericidal activity of human PMNs for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Girish; Gade, Padmaja; Tsai, Pei; Lu, Wuyuan; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Rosen, Gerald M; Cross, Alan S

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is acquired by mammalian hosts from the environment, as quiescent endospores. These endospores must germinate inside host cells, forming vegetative bacilli, before they can express the virulence factors that enable them to evade host defenses and disseminate throughout the body. While the role of macrophages and dendritic cells in this initial interaction has been established, the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has not been adequately defined. We discovered that while B. anthracis 34F2 Sterne endospores germinate poorly within non-activated human PMNs, these phagocytes exhibit rapid microbicidal activity toward the outgrown vegetative bacilli, independent of superoxide and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that a non-free radical pathway kills B. anthracis bacilli. We also find in PMNs an autophagic mechanism of bacterial killing based on the rapid induction of LC-3 conversion, beclin-1 expression, sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) degradation and inhibition of bactericidal activity by the inhibitor, 3-methyladenine. These findings extend to PMNs an autophagic bactericidal mechanism previously described for other phagocytes. PMID:26424808

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Human Neutrophil Migration Across a Cultured Bladder Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Megan E.; Hunstad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the site of inflammation is an essential step in the innate immune response at any mucosal surface. During infection of the urinary bladder, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; neutrophils) migrate from the bloodstream and traverse the bladder epithelium. Failure to resolve infection in the absence of a neutrophilic response demonstrates the importance of PMN in bladder defense. To facilitate colonization of the bladder epithelium, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the causative agent of the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), dampen the acute inflammatory response using a variety of partially defined mechanisms. To further investigate the interplay between host and bacterial pathogen, we developed an in vitro model of this aspect of the innate immune response to UPEC. In the transuroepithelial neutrophil migration assay, a variation on the Boyden chamber, cultured bladder epithelial cells are grown to confluence on the underside of a permeable support. PMN are isolated from human venous blood and are applied to the basolateral side of the bladder epithelial cell layers. PMN migration representing the physiologically relevant basolateral-to-apical direction in response to bacterial infection or chemoattractant molecules is enumerated using a hemocytometer. This model can be used to investigate interactions between UPEC and eukaryotic cells as well as to interrogate the molecular requirements for the traversal of bladder epithelia by PMN. The transuroepithelial neutrophil migration model will further our understanding of the initial inflammatory response to UPEC in the bladder. PMID:24300797

  4. [The phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes in progressive periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Konopka, T; Zietek, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper was the evaluation of the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in blood and in gingival pocket fluid in patients suffering from rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and postjuvenile periodontitis (PJP). Prior to periodontal treatment the authors evaluated the capacity to phagocytose latex particles of peripheral blood neutrophils from 21 patients with RPP, 51 with PJP and 59 healthy subjects (control group) as well as the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in pocket fluid from 21 patients with RPP, 14 with PJP and from 20 healthy subjects. This phagocytic activity was significantly lower in all examined groups in comparison with the control group. A similar evaluation executed 3 months after treatment revealed normal phagocytosis of blood neutrophils from patients with RPP. In patients receiving complementary pharmacotherapy (spiramycine combined with metronidazol), a better improvement of phagocytosis was noted, than that observed in patients treated only surgically. PMID:7481699

  5. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A modulate inflammatory mediator release from human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Hensler, T; Köller, M; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E; König, W

    1993-01-01

    We studied the influence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and streptococcal erythrogenic (pyrogenic) toxin A (ETA) on intact and digitonin-permeabilized human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). As was shown by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 or ETA alone, in the absence of any additional stimulus, did not induce the generation of the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from PMNs in a wide range of concentrations. In addition, pretreatment of intact PMNs with either toxin potentiated formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- and washed Staphylococcus aureus cell-induced generation of LTB4 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This increase included LTB4 as well as its inactive omega-oxidated compounds. Further studies revealed evidence that toxin exposure was accompanied by enhanced cellular receptor expression for fMLP as well as for LTB4. The intrinsic GTPase activity of membrane fractions was modulated by both toxins. Short-term incubation with ETA increased the GTPase activity of PMNs up to 141%. Inhibitory effects were obtained when GTP-binding protein functions were stimulated with sodium fluoride (NaF). In addition, specific binding of Gpp(NH)p to GTP-binding protein was inhibited by both toxins during the first 10 min of incubation and was restored at later times of incubation. Our data therefore suggest that both toxins significantly affect the signal transduction pathways of human PMNs, which results in immunomodulatory functions. PMID:8381770

  6. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A modulate inflammatory mediator release from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hensler, T; Köller, M; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E; König, W

    1993-03-01

    We studied the influence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and streptococcal erythrogenic (pyrogenic) toxin A (ETA) on intact and digitonin-permeabilized human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). As was shown by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 or ETA alone, in the absence of any additional stimulus, did not induce the generation of the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from PMNs in a wide range of concentrations. In addition, pretreatment of intact PMNs with either toxin potentiated formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- and washed Staphylococcus aureus cell-induced generation of LTB4 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This increase included LTB4 as well as its inactive omega-oxidated compounds. Further studies revealed evidence that toxin exposure was accompanied by enhanced cellular receptor expression for fMLP as well as for LTB4. The intrinsic GTPase activity of membrane fractions was modulated by both toxins. Short-term incubation with ETA increased the GTPase activity of PMNs up to 141%. Inhibitory effects were obtained when GTP-binding protein functions were stimulated with sodium fluoride (NaF). In addition, specific binding of Gpp(NH)p to GTP-binding protein was inhibited by both toxins during the first 10 min of incubation and was restored at later times of incubation. Our data therefore suggest that both toxins significantly affect the signal transduction pathways of human PMNs, which results in immunomodulatory functions. PMID:8381770

  7. Evasion of human innate and acquired immunity by a bacterial homolog of CD11b that inhibits opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lei, B; DeLeo, F R; Hoe, N P; Graham, M R; Mackie, S M; Cole, R L; Liu, M; Hill, H R; Low, D E; Federle, M J; Scott, J R; Musser, J M

    2001-12-01

    Microbial pathogens must evade the human immune system to survive, disseminate and cause disease. By proteome analysis of the bacterium Group A Streptococcus (GAS), we identified a secreted protein with homology to the alpha-subunit of Mac-1, a leukocyte beta2 integrin required for innate immunity to invading microbes. The GAS Mac-1-like protein (Mac) was secreted by most pathogenic strains, produced in log-phase and controlled by the covR-covS two-component gene regulatory system, which also regulates transcription of other GAS virulence factors. Patients with GAS infection had titers of antibody specific to Mac that correlated with the course of disease, demonstrating that Mac was produced in vivo. Mac bound to CD16 (FcgammaRIIIB) on the surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibited opsonophagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species, which resulted in significantly decreased pathogen killing. Thus, by mimicking a host-cell receptor required for an innate immune response, the GAS Mac protein inhibits professional phagocyte function by a novel strategy that enhances pathogen survival, establishment of infection and dissemination. PMID:11726969

  8. Extracellular Fibrils of Pathogenic Yeast Cryptococcus gattii Are Important for Ecological Niche, Murine Virulence and Human Neutrophil Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Deborah J.; Ren, Ping; Raina, Ramesh; Dong, Yimin; Behr, Melissa J.; McEwen, Bruce F.; Bowser, Samuel S.; Samsonoff, William A.; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen of humans and animals, is found on a variety of trees in tropical and temperate regions. The ecological niche and virulence of this yeast remain poorly defined. We used Arabidopsis thaliana plants and plant-derived substrates to model C. gattii in its natural habitat. Yeast cells readily colonized scratch-wounded plant leaves and formed distinctive extracellular fibrils (40–100 nm diameter ×500–3000 nm length). Extracellular fibrils were observed on live plants and plant-derived substrates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by high voltage- EM (HVEM). Only encapsulated yeast cells formed extracellular fibrils as a capsule-deficient C. gattii mutant completely lacked fibrils. Cells deficient in environmental sensing only formed disorganized extracellular fibrils as apparent from experiments with a C. gattii STE12α mutant. C. gattii cells with extracellular fibrils were more virulent in murine model of pulmonary and systemic cryptococcosis than cells lacking fibrils. C. gattii cells with extracellular fibrils were also significantly more resistant to killing by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in vitro even though these PMN produced elaborate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These observations suggest that extracellular fibril formation could be a structural adaptation of C. gattii for cell-to-cell, cell-to-substrate and/or cell-to- phagocyte communications. Such ecological adaptation of C. gattii could play roles in enhanced virulence in mammalian hosts at least initially via inhibition of host PMN– mediated killing. PMID:20539754

  9. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to debt bondage or peonage in which traffickers demand labor as a means repayment for a real ... human smuggling are two separate crimes under federal law. There are several important differences between them. Human ...

  10. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... TRAFFICKING (English) Listen < Back to Search FACT SHEET: HUMAN TRAFFICKING (English) Published: August 2, 2012 Topics: Public Awareness , ... organizations that protect and serve trafficking victims. National Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1.888.373.7888 Last ...

  11. Variable opacity (Opa) outer membrane proteins account for the cell tropisms displayed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae for human leukocytes and epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kupsch, E M; Knepper, B; Kuroki, T; Heuer, I; Meyer, T F

    1993-01-01

    Opacity proteins (Opa) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a family of variant outer membrane proteins implicated in pathogenesis, are subject to phase variation. In strain MS11, 11 different opa gene alleles have been identified, the expression of which can be turned on and off independently. Using a reverse genetic approach, we demonstrate that a single Opa protein variant of strain MS11, Opa50, enables gonococci to invade epithelial cells. The remaining variant Opa proteins show no, or very little, specificity for epithelial cells but instead confer interaction with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Thus, depending on the opa allele expressed, gonococci are capable of invading epithelial cells or of interacting with human leukocytes. The respective properties of Opa proteins are maintained independent of the gonococcal strain; thus, the specificity for epithelial cells or leukocytes is intrinsic to Opa proteins. Significant homology exists in the surface exposed variable regions of two invasion supporting Opa proteins from independent strains. Efficient epithelial cell invasion is favoured by high level Opa production, however, a 10-fold reduction still allows significant invasion by gonococci. In contrast, recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Opa proteins adhered or invaded poorly under similar experimental conditions, thus indicating that additional factors besides Opa are required in the Opa-mediated interaction with human cells. Images PMID:8440254

  12. Human neutrophil Fc receptor-mediated adhesion under flow: a hollow fibre model of intravascular arrest.

    PubMed

    D'Arrigo, C; Candal-Couto, J J; Greer, M; Veale, D J; Woof, J M

    1995-04-01

    Human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) were found to adhere to a novel model of blood vessel wall-associated IgG. The internal surfaces of cellulose acetate hollow fibres, of comparable internal diameter to small blood vessels, were coated with normal serum human IgG, heat-aggregated IgG (HAIgG), laminin or fibrinogen. Under conditions of flow mimicking those in a small vessel, PMN were found to adhere markedly only to immunoglobulin-coated fibres. Arrest on HAIgG was inhibited by excess soluble IgG but not by bovine serum albumin (BSA), demonstrating that the adhesion was IgG-specific and presumably mediated by Fc gamma R on the PMN surface. Pre-adsorption of serum components onto HAIgG-coated fibres enhanced PMN arrest, due most probably to fixation of complement components by immobilized HAIgG, resulting in additional potential to entrap PMN via complement receptors such as CR3. Treatment of PMN with the regulatory neuropeptide substance P also enhanced adhesion to HAIgG-coated fibres and caused increased surface expression of Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII. A mouse cell line derived from L cells, hR4C6, stably transfected with human Fc gamma RII, was found to adhere under flow to HAIgG-coated fibres, whilst untransfected parent L cells did not. This adhesion was similarly inhibited by excess soluble IgG, confirming the capability of Fc gamma R to mediate cell arrest. The study strongly suggests that Fc gamma R may play an important role in intravascular PMN arrest and we speculate that in inflammatory diseases PMN may adhere via Fc gamma R to immobilized immunoglobulin on the vascular endothelium, with subsequent degranulation and tissue damage. PMID:7535210

  13. Maprotiline inhibits LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Laleh; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of the known anti-inflammatory potential of heterocyclic antidepressants, the mechanisms concerning their modulating effects are not completely known. In our earlier work, maprotiline, a heterocyclic antidepressants, considerably inhibited infiltration of polymorphonuclear cell leucocytes into the inflamed paw. To understand the mechanism involved, we evaluated the effect of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression in stimulated endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of maprotiline (10-8 to 10-6 M) and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Maprotiline significantly decreased the LPS-induced expression of VCAM-1 at all applied concentrations. The expression of ICAM-1 decreased in the presence of maprotiline at 10-6 M concentration (P<0.05). Since maprotiline inhibits the expression of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in LPS-stimulated human endothelial cells, it can be a possible way through which maprotiline exerts its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27168753

  14. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh G-CSF) on murine resistance against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Serushago, B A; Yoshikai, Y; Handa, T; Mitsuyama, M; Muramori, K; Nomoto, K

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh G-CSF) enhanced resistance of mice against Listeria monocytogenes (LM) as determined by survival and bacterial growth. Mice pretreated with rh G-CSF twice daily for 5 days survived better than untreated animals to the challenge with LM. Number of bacteria in peritoneal cavity (PC) and spleen was lower in treated mice than that in the control group. Rh G-CSF increased mainly polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in blood and spleen. After LM inoculation, a larger number of PMN and monocyte-macrophages accumulated in PC and spleen of tested mice. In addition, PMN primed in vivo with rh G-CSF released more superoxide anions when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The inhibition of bacterial growth in PC and spleen could be ascribed to the accumulation of phagocytic cells at the infection sites and the increased oxidative metabolism. The results provided further evidence of the important contribution of G-CSF and neutrophils, as target cells, to the host defence against the intracellular bacteria. PMID:1374055

  15. The anti-inflammatory pharmacology of Pycnogenol in humans involves COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNA expression in leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Canali, Raffaella; Comitato, Raffaella; Schonlau, Frank; Virgili, Fabio

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effects of Pycnogenol supplementation on the arachidonic acid pathway in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Pycnogenol is a standardised extract of French maritime pine bark consisting of procyanidins and polyphenolic monomers. Healthy volunteers aged 35 to 50 years were supplemented with 150 mg Pycnogenol a day for five days. Before and after the final day of supplementation, blood was drawn and PMNL were isolated. PMNL were primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and stimulated with the receptor-mediated agonist formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) to activate the arachidonic acid pathway and the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, thromboxane and prostaglandins. Pycnogenol supplementation inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. This effect was associated with a compensatory up-regulation of COX-1 gene expression. Interestingly, Pycnogenol suspended the interdependency between 5-LOX and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) expression. Pycnogenol supplementation reduced leukotriene production but did not leave prostaglandins unaltered, which we attribute to a decline of COX-2 activity in favour of COX-1. Here we show for the first time that Pycnogenol supplementation simultaneously inhibits COX-2 and 5-LOX gene expression and reduces leukotriene biosynthesis in human PMNL upon pro-inflammatory stimulation ex vivo. PMID:19508901

  16. Characterization of cDNA clones for human myeloperoxidase: predicted amino acid sequence and evidence for multiple mRNA species.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K R; Nauseef, W M; Care, A; Wheelock, M J; Shane, S; Hudson, S; Koeffler, H P; Selsted, M; Miller, C; Rovera, G

    1987-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a component of the microbicidal network of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The enzyme is a tetramer consisting of two heavy and two light subunits. A large proportion of humans demonstrate genetic deficiencies in the production of myeloperoxidase. As a first step in analyzing these deficiencies in more detail, we have isolated cDNA clones for myeloperoxidase from an expression library of the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Two overlapping plasmids (pMP02 and pMP062) were identified as myeloperoxidase cDNA clones based on the detection with myeloperoxidase antiserum of 70 kDa protein expressed in pMP02-containing bacteria and a 75 kDa polypeptide produced by hybridization selection and translation using pMP062 and HL-60 RNA. Formal identification of the clones was made by matching the predicted amino acid sequences with the amino terminal sequences of the heavy and light subunits. Both subunits are encoded by one mRNA in the following order: pre-pro-sequences--light subunit--heavy subunit. The molecular weight of the predicted primary translation product is 83.7 kDa. Northern blots reveal two size classes of hybridizing RNAs (approximately 3.0-3.3 and 3.5-4.0 kilobases) whose expression is restricted to cells of the granulocytic lineage and parallels the changes in enzymatic activity observed during differentiation. Images PMID:3031585

  17. Attachment role of gonococcal pili. Optimum conditions and quantitation of adherence of isolated pili to human cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, W A; Buchanan, T M

    1978-01-01

    Gonoccocal pili facilitate attachment of virulent Neisseria gonorrhoeae to human cells. To characterize this attachment function, purified gonococcal pili isolated from four strains possessing antigenically distinct pili were radiolabeled with 125I and used to measure the attachment of pili to various human cells in vitro. Human buccal and cervical-vaginal mucosal epithealial cells, fallopian tube mucosa, and sperm bound pili in greater numbers per micrometer2 of surface area (1--10) than fetal tonsil fibroblasts, HeLa M cells, erythrocytes, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This cell specificity of attachment suggests a greater density of membrane pili binding sites on cells similar or identical to cells from natural sites of infection. The pili binding sites were quantitated as 1 X 10(4) per cervical-vaginal squamous cell. Pili of all antigenic types attached equally to a given cell type, implying that the attachment moiety of each pilus was similar. Attachement of gonoccocal pili to human cells occurred quickly with saturation of presumed receptor sites within 20--60 min. Attachment was temperature dependent (37 degrees greater than 20 degrees greater than 4 degrees C), and pH dependent (3.5 less than 4.5 less than 5.5 less than 7.5). Attachment was inhibited by antibody to pili (homologous pili Ab greater than heterologous Ab). The extent of possible protection against gonococcal infection due to inhibition of pili-mediated attachment might prove limited as a result of the considerable antigenic heterogeneity among pili and the observation that blockage of pili attachment is maximal only with antibody to pili of the infecting strain. Images PMID:96134

  18. Human Issues in Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the report of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee in Human Rights which seeks to ease the plight of individual scientists, engineers, and medical personnel suffering severe repression. Case studies of instances of negligence of human rights are provided. (CP)

  19. HSPA12B inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Xuehan; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Surong; Tu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, He; Li, Rongrong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the HSP70 protein family. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12B on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible mechanisms involved. A HUVECs inflammatory model was induced by LPS. Overexpression of HSPA12B in HUVECs was achieved by infection with recombinant adenoviruses encoding green fluorescence protein-HSPA12B. Knockdown of HSPA12B was achieved by siRNA technique. Twenty four hours after virus infection or siRNA transfection, HUVECs were stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 4 hrs. Endothelial cell permeability ability was determined by transwell permeability assay. The binding rate of human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with HUVECs was examined using myeloperoxidase assay. Cell migrating ability was determined by the wound-healing assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of interested genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The release of cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α was measured by ELISA. HSPA12B suppressed LPS-induced HUVEC permeability and reduced PMN adhesion to HUVECs. HSPA12B also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine expression. By contrast, knockdown of HSPA12B enhanced LPS-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, HSPA12B activated PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by Wortmannin completely abrogated the protection of HSPA12B against inflammatory response in HUVECs. Our results suggest that HSPA12B attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in HUVECs via activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. PMID:25545050

  20. Aspirin triggers previously undescribed bioactive eicosanoids by human endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions.

    PubMed

    Clària, J; Serhan, C N

    1995-10-10

    Aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)], along with its analgesic-antipyretic uses, is now also being considered for cardiovascular protection and treatments in cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although many of ASA's pharmacological actions are related to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis, some of its beneficial therapeutic effects are not completely understood. Here, ASA triggered transcellular biosynthesis of a previously unrecognized class of eicosanoids during coincubations of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and neutrophils [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)]. These eicosanoids were generated with ASA but not by indomethacin, salicylate, or dexamethasone. Formation was enhanced by cytokines (interleukin 1 beta) that induced the appearance of prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PGHS-2) but not 15-lipoxygenase, which initiates their biosynthesis from arachidonic acid in HUVEC. Costimulation of HUVEC/PMN by either thrombin plus the chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or ionophore A23187 leads to the production of these eicosanoids from endogenous sources. Four of these eicosanoids were also produced when PMN were exposed to 15R-HETE [(15R)-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-cis-13-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid] and an agonist. Physical methods showed that the class consists of four tetraene-containing products from arachidonic acid that proved to be 15R-epimers of lipoxins. Two of these compounds (III and IV) were potent inhibitors of leukotriene B4-mediated PMN adhesion to HUVEC, with compound IV [(5S,6R,15R)-5,6,15-trihydroxy-7,9,13-trans-11-cis-eicosatetraenoi c acid; 15-epilipoxin A4] active in the nanomolar range. These results demonstrate that ASA evokes a unique class of eicosanoids formed by acetylated PGHS-2 and 5-lipoxygenase interactions, which may contribute to the therapeutic impact of this drug. Moreover, they provide an example of a drug's ability to pirate endogenous biosynthetic

  1. Differential response of human monocytes to Neisseria gonorrhoeae variants expressing pili and opacity proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Knepper, B; Heuer, I; Meyer, T F; van Putten, J P

    1997-01-01

    Experiments in vitro suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae surface variation plays a key role in gonococcal pathogenesis by providing the appropriate bacterial phenotypes to go through different stages of the infection. Here we report on the effects of phase and antigen variation of two major gonococcal adhesins, pili and opacity (Opa) outer membrane proteins, on the interaction of the gonococci with human monocytes. Using a set of recombinants of gonococcus strain MS11 that each express 1 of 11 genetically defined Opa proteins or a defined type of pilus, we found that both Opa proteins and pili promote bacterial phagocytosis by monocytes in the absence of serum and that this feature largely depends on the type of protein that is expressed. One of the Opa proteins (Opa[50]) strongly promoted uptake by monocytes but had little effect on the interaction with polymorphonuclear leukocytes under the conditions employed. Similarly, the phagocytosis-promoting effect of the pili was much more pronounced in monocytes than in neutrophils (4-fold versus 22-fold stimulation of uptake, respectively). Only a subpopulation of both types of phagocytes actively ingested bacteria, as has been observed during natural infections. Measurements of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence demonstrated that phagocytosis of opaque but not piliated gonococci was accompanied by an increase in oxygen-reactive metabolites. These findings demonstrate that the monocyte response towards gonococci is highly dependent on the bacterial phenotype and differs from the neutrophil response. This diversity in bacterial behavior towards various types of human phagocytic cells underlines the biological impact of gonococcal surface variation and may explain previous contradictory results on this subject. PMID:9317017

  2. Effects of Alchornea cordifolia on elastase and superoxide anion produced by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Sahpaz, Sevser; Nguessan, G Irié; Datté, Jacques Yao; Brou, Jérome Kablan; Gressier, Bernard; Bailleul, François

    2010-02-01

    The ability of Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. and Thonn.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves to inhibit human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)) activities was evaluated on aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts as they allow for a targeted extraction of polyphenols. The direct effect of A. cordifolia extracts on HNE and O(2)(*-) was assessed in an acellular system. Results showed that extracts scavenge HNE and O(2)(*-) in a dose-dependent manner. Better activity was exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract with lower IC(50) (2.2 and 4. 1 mg/L for HNE and O(2)(*-), respectively) than for the aqueous extract. Cellular systems including isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were investigated to assess the effect of extracts on PMN metabolism. PMN were stimulated with 4beta-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore (CaI), or N-formyl-methionyl-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP), each stimulant having its own stimulation pathway. From the IC(50) obtained, it can be concluded that A. cordifolia reduces HNE and O(2)(*-) liberation. Furthermore it was demonstrated that A. cordifolia extracts have no cytotoxic activity on PMN by measuring release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. As the ethyl acetate extract offers a higher rate of total phenols than the aqueous extract as well as better scavenging activity, it can be supposed that polyphenols, which are well known for their potent antioxidant and antielastase activity, are implicated in the activity of the plant. Phenolic substances such as quercetin, myricetin-3-glucopyranoside, myricetin-3-rhamnopyranoside, and proanthocyanidin A2 were identified in the ethyl acetate extract. In conclusion, the study provides proof of ethnomedical claims and partly explains the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory action of A. cordifolia leaves. PMID:20645828

  3. Bordetella parapertussis Survives inside Human Macrophages in Lipid Raft-Enriched Phagosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gorgojo, Juan; Harvill, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is a human pathogen that causes whooping cough. The increasing incidence of B. parapertussis has been attributed to the lack of cross protection induced by pertussis vaccines. It was previously shown that B. parapertussis is able to avoid bacterial killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) if specific opsonic antibodies are not present at the site of interaction. Here, we evaluated the outcome of B. parapertussis innate interaction with human macrophages, a less aggressive type of cell and a known reservoir of many persistent pathogens. The results showed that in the absence of opsonins, O antigen allows B. parapertussis to inhibit phagolysosomal fusion and to remain alive inside macrophages. The O antigen targets B. parapertussis to lipid rafts that are retained in the membrane of phagosomes that do not undergo lysosomal maturation. Forty-eight hours after infection, wild-type B. parapertussis bacteria but not the O antigen-deficient mutants were found colocalizing with lipid rafts and alive in nonacidic compartments. Taken together, our data suggest that in the absence of opsonic antibodies, B. parapertussis survives inside macrophages by preventing phagolysosomal maturation in a lipid raft- and O antigen-dependent manner. Two days after infection, about 15% of macrophages were found loaded with live bacteria inside flotillin-enriched phagosomes that had access to nutrients provided by the host cell recycling pathway, suggesting the development of an intracellular infection. IgG opsonization drastically changed this interaction, inducing efficient bacterial killing. These results highlight the need for B. parapertussis opsonic antibodies to induce bacterial clearance and prevent the eventual establishment of cellular reservoirs of this pathogen. PMID:25267839

  4. Expression of selected proteins of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in human leukocytes exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, A; Jabłońska, E; Jabłoński, J; Ratajczak-Wrona, W; Garley, M

    2015-06-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a xenobiotic widespread in human environment capable of regulating the lifespan of immune cells. In this study, we examined the roles of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/death receptor 5 (DR5) complex and the Fas molecule in the induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway in human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to NDMA. Also we assessed these proteins ability to trigger the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in those cells. For this purpose, we examined the expression of Fas-associated protein with death domain, truncated Bid (tBid) proteins, and apoptogenic factors such as apoptosis-inducing factor, Smac/Diablo, Omi/HtrA2, and caspase-3 as an indication of accomplished apoptosis phenomenon. PMNs and PBMCs were isolated from whole blood by density gradient centrifugation using Polymorphrep. Apoptotic cells were assessed with flow cytometry using a ready-made kit. The expression of proapoptotic molecules was investigated by Western blot analysis of PMNs and PBMCs treated with NDMA and/or rhTRAIL. The obtained results confirm the proapoptotic effects of NDMA on the examined human leukocytes and indicate an active participation of the TRAIL/DR5 complex and Fas protein in the process of apoptosis. Moreover, the research revealed distinct mechanisms of intrinsic apoptosis pathway activation between PMNs and PBMCs exposed to NDMA, as confirmed by the different levels of tBid, Smac/Diablo, Omi/HtrA2, and caspase-3 expression in those cells. PMID:25304970

  5. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  6. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  7. Nothing Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  8. Classical Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donn; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot course in humanities team-taught by three teachers, two from a senior high-school and one from a junior high-school, in Brookfield, Wisconsin. The specific subject matter is Greek and Roman culture. The curriculum is outlined and the basic reading list is included. (CLK)

  9. [Human monkeypox].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    2009-03-01

    Unlike other recent viral emergences, which were in majority caused by RNA viruses, the monkeypox results from infection by a DNA virus, an orthopoxvirus closely related to both vaccine and smallpox viruses and whose two genomic variants are known. Unexpectedly isolated from captive Asiatic monkeys and first considered as an laboratory curiosity, this virus was recognised in 1970 as an human pathogen in tropical Africa. Here it was responsible for sporadic cases following intrusions (for hunting) into tropical rain forests or rare outbreak with human-to-human transmission as observed in 1996 in Democratic Republic of Congo. As monkeypox in humans is not distinguishable from smallpox (a disease globally eradicated in 1977) it was only subjected to vigilant epidemiological surveillance and not considered as a potential threat outside Africa. This point of view radically changed in 2003 when monkeypox was introduced in the USA by African wild rodents and spread to 11 different states of this country. Responsible for 82 infections in American children and adults, this outbreak led to realize the sanitary hazards resulting from international trade of exotic animals and scientific investigations increasing extensively our knowledge of this zoonosis. PMID:18394820

  10. Humanizing Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the history and the mathematics used by Newton and Leibniz in their invention of calculus. The exploration of this topic is intended to show students that mathematics is a human invention. Suggestions are made to help teachers incorporate the mathematics and the history into their own lessons. (Contains 3…

  11. Ozone-induced inflammation in the lower airways of human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.; Graham, D.E.; Mann, R.; McGee, M.P.; Horstman, D.H.; Kozumbo, W.J.; Becker, S.; House, D.E.; McDonnell, W.F.

    1989-02-01

    Although ozone (O3) has been shown to induce inflammation in the lungs of animals, very little is known about its inflammatory effects on humans. In this study, 11 healthy nonsmoking men, 18 to 35 yr of age (mean, 25.4 +/- 3.5), were exposed once to 0.4 ppm O3 and once to filtered air for 2 h with intermittent exercise. Eighteen hours later, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and the cells and fluid were analyzed for various indicators of inflammation. There was an 8.2-fold increase in the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the total cell population, and a small but significant decrease in the percentage of macrophages after exposure to O3. Immunoreactive neutrophil elastase often associated with inflammation and lung damage increased by 3.8-fold in the fluid while its activity increased 20.6-fold in the lavaged cells. A 2-fold increase in the levels of protein, albumin, and IgG suggested increased vascular permeability of the lung. Several biochemical markers that could act as chemotactic or regulatory factors in an inflammatory response were examined in the BAL fluid (BALF). The level of complement fragment C3 alpha was increased by 1.7-fold. The chemotactic leukotriene B4 was unchanged while prostaglandin E2 increased 2-fold. In contrast, three enzyme systems of phagocytes with potentially damaging effects on tissues and microbes, namely, NADPH-oxidase and the lysosomal enzymes acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase, were increased neither in the lavaged fluid nor cells. In addition, the amounts of fibrogenic-related molecules were assessed in BALF.

  12. Migrating Human Neutrophils Exhibit Dynamic Spatiotemporal Variation in Membrane Lipid Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sitrin, Robert G.; Sassanella, Timothy M.; Landers, Jeffrey J.; Petty, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    Highly ordered sphingolipid-enriched lipid raft microdomains (LRMs) within plasma membranes purportedly function as specialized signaling platforms. Leukocyte migration is believed to entail LRM redistribution, but progress in studying LRMs in situ during cell movement has been limited. By using an improved method for imaging the spectral shift of the environmentally sensitive probe, laurdan (expressed as a generalized polarization function), the plasma membrane order (i.e., tight packing of membrane bilayer lipids) of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was mapped in real time during migration. Morphologically polarized PMNs exhibited prominent LRM clusters at the uropod, where in every instance membrane order was found to oscillate with mean periodicities of 37.0 ± 1.46 and 149.9 ± 9.0 seconds (P < 0.01). LRM aggregates were also demonstrated in punctate and clustered distributions of nonpolarized cells and transiently at the lamellipodia of polarized PMNs. Cellular polarization was not accompanied by an overall increase in membrane order. LRM disorganization with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had small negative effects on cell velocity, but it abrogated directionally biased migration toward chemotactic gradients of FMLP or leukotriene B4. LRMs disruption also caused redistribution of Rac 1/2 GTPase and GM3 ganglioside away from the lamellipodium, as well as extension of multiple pseudopods simultaneously or in rapid succession, rather than formation of a defined leading edge. Thus, we demonstrate that the plasma membrane order of migrating PMNs changes dynamically, with prominent oscillations consistently seen at the uropod. These findings solidify the existence of rapidly reorganizing LRMs in situ and support a role for LRMs in chemotaxin responsiveness. PMID:19933376

  13. Nicotinamide and pentoxifylline increase human leucocyte filterability: a possible mechanism for reduction of acute hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Honess, D. J.; Kitamoto, Y.; Rampling, M. R.; Bleehen, N. M.

    1996-01-01

    Transient plugging of microcapillaries by leucocytes is a possible reason for the occurrence of acute hypoxia in tumours. We compared the abilities of nicotinamide at 1000 micrograms ml-1 and 150 micrograms ml-1 and pentoxifylline at 300 micrograms ml-1 to increase the filterability of normal and artificially activated human leucocytes through 8 microns pores, as a model for the capillary bed. Using a St George's filtrometer, filterability of treated leucocyte suspensions was compared with control for three to six sequential 60 microliters samples, normalising control values to unity. Pentoxifylline at 300 micrograms ml-1 halved the ratio of treated to control value to 0.47 +/- 0.13 (2 s.e.), P = 0.001 (i.e. an increase in filterability), and nicotinamide at 1000 micrograms ml-1 reduced it to 0.69 +/- 0.22, P = 0.04, but the clinically achievable 150 micrograms ml-1 was ineffective (0.82 +/- 0.25, P = 0.24). Filterability of artificially activated leucocytes was reduced (3.9 +/- 1.20) but was restored to control values of unity by 1000 micrograms ml-1 nicotinamide and 300 micrograms ml-1 pentoxifylline and partially restored by 150 micrograms ml-1 nicotinamide (1.2 mM), which was isoeffective with 100 micrograms ml-1 pentoxifylline (0.37 mM). Pentoxifylline is therefore more effective on a molar basis and was shown to affect both polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes, while nicotinamide only affects lymphocytes. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that both agents modify acute hypoxia by increasing leucocyte filterability. PMID:8763888

  14. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-05-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN. PMID:25946018

  15. Immunomodulation by neutrophil myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide: differential susceptibility of human lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    el-Hag, A; Lipsky, P E; Bennett, M; Clark, R A

    1986-05-01

    The coexistence of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes in tumor masses and inflammatory tissues suggests the possibility of interaction between secreted neutrophil products and nearby lymphocytes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of neutrophil myeloperoxidase and H2O2 on lymphocytes. Human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes were exposed to myeloperoxidase, an H2O2-generating system (glucose + glucose oxidase), and a halide, and were then tested for functional activities. Natural killer activity against K562 cells, lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens, and generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells were all susceptible to oxidative injury by myeloperoxidase and H2O2. The degree as well as the mechanism of suppression was dependent on the glucose oxidase concentration (i.e., the rate of H2O2 delivery). At low H2O2 flux, myeloperoxidase was essential for induction of lymphocyte suppression; as the rate of H2O2 generation increased, suppression became myeloperoxidase-independent and was mediated by H2O2 alone. Various lymphocyte functions were differentially susceptible to oxidative injury by myeloperoxidase and H2O2. The proliferative response to poke-weed mitogen was the least sensitive, whereas antibody formation was the most sensitive. Proliferative responses to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin as well as natural killer activity displayed intermediate degrees of susceptibility. In all assays, lymphocyte viability was greater than 90%. Removal of monocytes from mononuclear leukocytes by adherence to glass increased susceptibility of lymphocytes to oxidative injury. Monocytes in proportions within the range present in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes protected lymphocyte functions against oxidative injury by myeloperoxidase and H2O2. This study demonstrates a differential susceptibility of various immune functions to oxidative injury by the neutrophil products myeloperoxidase and H2O2, and shows, in

  16. Human reactions to a mixture of indoor air volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars; Pedersen, Ole F.

    A controlled experimental study of human reactions to a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds often found in indoor air was performed in a climate chamber. Twenty-one healthy subjects were compared with a group of 14 subjects suffering from the 'sick building syndrome' (SBS subjects), i.e. having symptoms related to the indoor environment (irritated mucous membranes, headache, etc.) as defined by WHO in 1982. In groups of 4 these subjects were exposed during two successive periods to either 0 and 0 mg m -3, 25 and 0 mg m -3, or 0 and 25 mg m -3; 25 mg m -3 is equivalent to the highest concentrations expected in a new building. The study was double blinded, and a latin square design was used to balance out effects of day in the week and season. Both groups reacted subjectively to the air reporting worse odor, worse indoor air quality as defined by the subject, and more irritated mucous membranes in eye, throat and nose than in the clean environment. A tendency to a stronger response was seen among the SBS subjects. Objective measures indicated among others an exposure related reduction in lung function among SBS subjects. Both groups had an increased number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in tear fluid as a result of exposure. This was not seen for nasal secretions. Psychological performance tests indicated an exposure related diminished ability to learn. In conclusion, the experiment indicates that exposure to volatile organic compounds in low concentrations as seen in new houses causes both subjective complaints and objective signs in normal healty subjects; but more so in subjects from the sick building syndrome.

  17. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L.; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G.; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN. PMID:25946018

  18. Trauma-associated Human Neutrophil Alterations Revealed by Comparative Proteomics Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Krovvidi, Ravi K.; Gao, Yuqian; Gao, Hong; Petritis, Brianne O.; De, Asit; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Bankey, Paul E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese R; Moore, Ronald J.; Shi, Tujin; Brown, Joseph N.; Kaushal, Amit; Xiao, Wenzhong; Davis, Ronald W.; Maier, Ronald V.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play an important role in mediating the innate immune response after severe traumatic injury; however, the cellular proteome response to traumatic condition is still largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We applied 2D-LC-MS/MS based shotgun proteomics to perform comparative proteome profiling of human PMNs from severe trauma patients and healthy controls. RESULTS A total of 197 out of ~2500 proteins (being identified with at least two peptides) were observed with significant abundance changes following the injury. The proteomics data were further compared with transcriptomics data for the same genes obtained from an independent patient cohort. The comparison showed that the protein abundance changes for the majority of proteins were consistent with the mRNA abundance changes in terms of directions of changes. Moreover, increased protein secretion was suggested as one of the mechanisms contributing to the observed discrepancy between protein and mRNA abundance changes. Functional analyses of the altered proteins showed that many of these proteins were involved in immune response, protein biosynthesis, protein transport, NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and apoptosis pathways. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Our data suggest increased neutrophil activation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis in response to trauma. The study not only reveals an overall picture of functional neutrophil response to trauma at the proteome level, but also provides a rich proteomics data resource of trauma-associated changes in the neutrophil that will be valuable for further studies of the functions of individual proteins in PMNs. PMID:23589343

  19. FMLP activates Ras and Raf in human neutrophils. Potential role in activation of MAP kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, G S; Avdi, N; Buhl, A M; Suzuki, N; Johnson, G L

    1994-01-01

    Chemoattractants bind to seven transmembrane-spanning, G-protein-linked receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and induce a variety of functional responses, including activation of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) kinase. Although the pathways by which MAP kinases are activated in neutrophils are unknown, we hypothesized that activation of the Ras/Raf pathway leading to activation of MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) would be induced by the chemoattractant f-met-leu-phe. Human neutrophils exposed to 10 nM FMLP for 30 s exhibited an MAP kinase kinase activity coeluting with MEK-1. Immunoprecipitation of Raf-1 kinase after stimulation with FMLP revealed an activity that phosphorylated MEK, was detectable at 30 s, and peaked at 2-3 min. Immunoprecipitation of Ras from both intact neutrophils labeled with [32P]orthophosphate and electropermeabilized neutrophils incubated with [32P]GTP was used to determine that FMLP treatment was associated with activation of Ras. Activation of both Ras and Raf was inhibited by treatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin, indicating predominant linkage to the Gi2 protein. Although phorbol esters activated Raf, activation induced by FMLP appeared independent of protein kinase C, further suggesting that Gi2 was linked to Ras and Raf independent of phospholipase C and protein kinase C. Dibutyryl cAMP, which inhibits many neutrophil functional responses, blocked the activation of Raf by FMLP, suggesting that interruption of the Raf/MAP kinase pathway influences neutrophil responses to chemoattractants. These data suggest that Gi2-mediated receptor regulation of the Ras/Raf/MAP kinase pathway is a primary response to chemoattractants. Images PMID:8040337

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Standardized Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and Their Marker Compounds on Phagocytic Activity of Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Yuandani; Ilangkovan, Menaga; Mohamad, Hazni Falina; Husain, Khairana; Abdul Razak, Amirul Faiz

    2013-01-01

    The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1 µg/mL). There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells). The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7 µg/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4 µg/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9 µg/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute. PMID:23737840

  1. Monitoring human neutrophil granule secretion by flow cytometry: secretion and membrane potential changes assessed by light scatter and a fluorescent probe of membrane potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, M.P.; Seligmann, B.E.

    1985-04-01

    Purified human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were incubated at 37 degrees C with the fluorescent membrane potential sensitive cyanine dye di-O-C(5)(3) and exposed to a number of stimulatory agents (N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), cytochalasin B (cyto B) + FMLP, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Flow cytometry was utilized to measure changes in forward light scatter (FS), orthogonal light scatter (90 degrees-SC), and fluorescence intensity of individual cells over time. A saturating (10(-6) M) dose of FMLP lead to a significant increase in the cells' FS without a change in 90 degrees-SC as well as a heterogeneous loss of di-O-C(5)(3) fluorescence. PMA (100 ng/ml) also caused an increase in FS but a uniform loss of dye fluorescence by all cells (apparent depolarization). Cyto B + FMLP produced an increase in FS, a marked loss of 90 degrees-SC, and a uniform loss of fluorescence. Secretion experiments under identical incubation conditions indicated a significantly positive relationship between loss of enzyme markers or cell granularity and orthogonal light scatter (r . 0.959, 0.998, and 0.989 for loss of 90 degrees-SC vs lysozyme, beta-glucuronidase, and granularity index, respectively). Flow cytometric light scatter measurements may yield important information on the extent of prior cell degranulation or activation.

  2. Plunder of Human Blood Leukocytes Containing Ingested Material, by Other Leukocytes: Where Is the Fusagen That Allows Preservation of Membrane Integrity and Motile Function?

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; Chevance de Boisfleury, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In studying phagocytosis of zymosan particles by human blood monocytes in phase-contrast videomicroscopy, we found that monocytes loaded with zymosan particles became chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) which closed on them and purloined their particle content. This despoliation usually occurred in monocytes that had begun to swell—prefiguring their death. The violent seizure of their contents by the aggressing PMN often tore the monocytes apart. However, some apparently healthy monocyte survived the removal of zymosan content by PMN or, more commonly, its removal by another monocyte. PMN—a much hardier cell in slide preparations—that were similarly loaded with zymosan particles, also attracted PMN. The latter could remove zymosan from the target cell without killing it. Thus, leukocytes were sacrificing significant portions of themselves without losing residual membrane integrity and motile function. Their behavior with respect to other particles (e.g., bacteria) will be of interest. We suggest that the membrane fusagen resides in the inner membrane leaflets when they are brought together in an extreme hourglass configuration. This event may be similar to the fragmentation of erythrocytes into intact pieces, the formation of cytokineplasts, the rear extrusion of content by migrating cells on surfaces, and the phagocytic process itself. PMID:23840370

  3. Further studies on ethyl 5-hydroxy-indole-3-carboxylate scaffold: design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-phenylthiomethyl-indole derivatives as efficient inhibitors of human 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Peduto, Antonella; Bruno, Ferdinando; Dehm, Friedrike; Krauth, Verena; de Caprariis, Paolo; Weinigel, Christina; Barz, Dagmar; Massa, Antonio; De Rosa, Mario; Werz, Oliver; Filosa, Rosanna

    2014-06-23

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), an enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes, is an attractive drug target for the pharmacotherapy of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Here, we present the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel series of ethyl 5-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylate derivatives that efficiently inhibit human 5-LO. SAR analysis revealed that the potency of compounds is closely related to the positioning of the substituents at the phenylthiomethyl ring. The introduction of methyl or chlorine groups in ortho- and ortho/para-position of thiophenol represent the most favorable modifications. Among all tested compounds, ethyl 5-hydroxy-2-(mesitylthiomethyl)-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (19) is the most potent derivative which blocks 5-LO activity in cell-free assays with IC50 = 0.7 μM, and suppressed 5-LO product synthesis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes with IC50 = 0.23 μM. PMID:24871899

  4. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  5. Human Protothecosis

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  6. Human genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    This text provides full and balanced coverage of the concepts requisite for a thorough understanding of human genetics. Applications to both the individual and society are integrated throughout the lively and personal narrative, and the essential principles of heredity are clearly presented to prepare students for informed participation in public controversies. High-interest, controversial topics, including recombinant DNA technology, oncogenes, embryo transfer, environmental mutagens and carcinogens, IQ testing, and eugenics encourage understanding of important social issues.

  7. Human evolution.

    PubMed

    Wood, B

    1996-12-01

    The common ancestor of modern humans and the great apes is estimated to have lived between 5 and 8 Myrs ago, but the earliest evidence in the human, or hominid, fossil record is Ardipithecus ramidus, from a 4.5 Myr Ethiopian site. This genus was succeeded by Australopithecus, within which four species are presently recognised. All combine a relatively primitive postcranial skeleton, a dentition with expanded chewing teeth and a small brain. The most primitive species in our own genus, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, are little advanced over the australopithecines and with hindsight their inclusion in Homo may not be appropriate. The first species to share a substantial number of features with later Homo is Homo ergaster, or 'early African Homo erectus', which appears in the fossil record around 2.0 Myr. Outside Africa, fossil hominids appear as Homo erectus-like hominids, in mainland Asia and in Indonesia close to 2 Myr ago; the earliest good evidence of 'archaic Homo' in Europe is dated at between 600-700 Kyr before the present. Anatomically modern human, or Homo sapiens, fossils are seen first in the fossil record in Africa around 150 Kyr ago. Taken together with molecular evidence on the extent of DNA variation, this suggests that the transition from 'archaic' to 'modern' Homo may have taken place in Africa. PMID:8976151

  8. Transmigration of polymorphnuclear neutrophils and monocytes through the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after bacterial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial transmigration (TM) across the BCSFB after bacterial infection. Methods Using an inverted transwell filter system of human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), we studied leukocyte TM rates, the migration route by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, the secretion of cytokines/chemokines by cytokine bead array and posttranslational modification of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α via western blot. Results PMNs showed a significantly increased TM across HIBCPP after infection with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis (MC58). In contrast, a significantly decreased monocyte transmigration rate after bacterial infection of HIBCPP could be observed. Interestingly, in co-culture experiments with PMNs and monocytes, TM of monocytes was significantly enhanced. Analysis of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance confirmed an intact barrier function during leukocyte TM. With the help of the different imaging techniques we could provide evidence for para- as well as for transcellular migrating leukocytes. Further analysis of secreted cytokines/chemokines showed a distinct pattern after stimulation and transmigration of PMNs and monocytes. Moreover, the transmembrane glycoprotein SIRPα was deglycosylated in monocytes, but not in PMNs, after bacterial infection. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that PMNs and monoctyes differentially migrate in a human BCSFB model after bacterial infection. Cytokines and chemokines as well as transmembrane proteins such as SIRPα may be involved in this process. PMID:23448224

  9. Silver nanoparticles of 70 nm and 20 nm affect differently the biology of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Michelle; Simard, Jean-Christophe; Girard, Denis

    2016-05-01

    The influence of size of nanoparticles (NP), especially in regard to pulmonary toxicity, has been widely investigated. In general, NP with smaller diameters are more pro-inflammatory in vivo, at least in terms of neutrophil influx. Nevertheless, the influence of size of NP on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) cell biology is poorly documented. In the study here, it was decided to determine if AgNP with a diameter of 70 nm (AgNP70) will alter the biology of human PMN similarly to AgNP20 previously reported to induce apoptosis and inhibit de novo protein synthesis. The results here indicated that, in contrast to AgNP20, AgNP70 delayed PMN apoptosis. However, both AgNP20 and AgNP70 inhibited de novo protein synthesis. Both forms of AgNP did not significantly increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but AgNP20 significantly increased the cell production of the CXCL8 chemokine (IL-8). In addition, AgNP20, but not AgNP70, induced the release of albumin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9/gelatinase B) into culture supernatants. Consistent with this latter observation, gelatinase activity was increased by AgNP20, as assessed by zymography. From these outcomes, it is concluded that two NP with different initial diameters can possess similar - as well as distinct - biological properties in modulating human PMN functions. These outcomes are testimony to the complexity of the modes of action of NP at the cellular level. PMID:26619040

  10. A third measure-metastable state in the dynamics of spontaneous shape change in healthy human's white cells.

    PubMed

    Selz, Karen A

    2011-04-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMN, are highly motile cells with average 12-15 µm diameters and prominent, loboid nuclei. They are produced in the bone marrow, are essential for host defense, and are the most populous of white blood cell types. PMN also participate in acute and chronic inflammatory processes, in the regulation of the immune response, in angiogenesis, and interact with tumors. To accommodate these varied functions, their behavior is adaptive, but still definable in terms of a set of behavioral states. PMN morphodynamics have generally involved a non-equilibrium stationary, spheroid Idling state that transitions to an activated, ellipsoid translocating state in response to chemical signals. These two behavioral shape-states, spheroid and ellipsoid, are generally recognized as making up the vocabulary of a healthy PMN. A third, "random" state has occasionally been reported as associated with disease states. I have observed this third, Treadmilling state, in PMN from healthy subjects, the cells demonstrating metastable dynamical behaviors known to anticipate phase transitions in mathematical, physical, and biological systems. For this study, human PMN were microscopically imaged and analyzed as single living cells. I used a microscope with a novel high aperture, cardioid annular condenser with better than 100 nanometer resolution of simultaneous, mixed dark field and intrinsic fluorescent images to record shape changes in 189 living PMNs. Relative radial roundness, R(t), served as a computable order parameter. Comparison of R(t) series of 10 cells in the Idling and 10 in the Treadmilling state reveals the robustness of the "random" appearing Treadmilling state, and the emergence of behaviors observed in the neighborhood of global state transitions, including increased correlation length and variance (divergence), sudden jumps, mixed phases, bimodality, power spectral scaling and temporal slowing. Wavelet transformation of an R(t) series of an

  11. A Third Measure-Metastable State in the Dynamics of Spontaneous Shape Change in Healthy Human's White Cells

    PubMed Central

    Selz, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMN, are highly motile cells with average 12-15 µm diameters and prominent, loboid nuclei. They are produced in the bone marrow, are essential for host defense, and are the most populous of white blood cell types. PMN also participate in acute and chronic inflammatory processes, in the regulation of the immune response, in angiogenesis, and interact with tumors. To accommodate these varied functions, their behavior is adaptive, but still definable in terms of a set of behavioral states. PMN morphodynamics have generally involved a non-equilibrium stationary, spheroid Idling state that transitions to an activated, ellipsoid translocating state in response to chemical signals. These two behavioral shape-states, spheroid and ellipsoid, are generally recognized as making up the vocabulary of a healthy PMN. A third, “random” state has occasionally been reported as associated with disease states. I have observed this third, Treadmilling state, in PMN from healthy subjects, the cells demonstrating metastable dynamical behaviors known to anticipate phase transitions in mathematical, physical, and biological systems. For this study, human PMN were microscopically imaged and analyzed as single living cells. I used a microscope with a novel high aperture, cardioid annular condenser with better than 100 nanometer resolution of simultaneous, mixed dark field and intrinsic fluorescent images to record shape changes in 189 living PMNs. Relative radial roundness, R(t), served as a computable order parameter. Comparison of R(t) series of 10 cells in the Idling and 10 in the Treadmilling state reveals the robustness of the “random” appearing Treadmilling state, and the emergence of behaviors observed in the neighborhood of global state transitions, including increased correlation length and variance (divergence), sudden jumps, mixed phases, bimodality, power spectral scaling and temporal slowing. Wavelet transformation of an R(t) series

  12. Proteolytic inactivation of alpha-1-antitrypsin by human neutrophils: involvement of multiple and interlinked cell responses to phagocytosable targets.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Scirocco, M; Dallegri, F; Sacchetti, C

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) can inactivate the PMN-elastase inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) proteolytically, by using metalloproteinases normally stored as zymogens in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-negative granules. Supernatants from opsonized zymosan (OPZ)-triggered human PMN cleaved and inactivated human A1AT through a process inhibitable by metal-chelators, suggesting that the interaction of PMN with OPZ leads to the extracellular availability of active metalloenzymes. During OPZ-triggering, PMN used approximately 80% of the generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce HOCl by means of the MPO pathway, while the remainder was catabolized by PMN themselves. No H2O2 was available as free compound in the extracellular environment and hydroxyl (.OH) or .OH-like radicals were not generated. The selective deletion of single components of the HOCl-generating MPO pathway resulted in the generation of PMN supernatants free of active metalloenzymes but rich of the corresponding zymogens. Similar results were obtained by replacing normal PMN with cells from a patient with hereditary MPO deficiency. No evidence was obtained for the intervention or contribution of .OH-like radicals, serine-proteinases and oxidized glutathione in the transformation of the zymogens into enzymes able to inactivate A1AT. On concluding, PMN undergoing phagocytosis release MPO in amount sufficient to handle the extracellular pool of the generated H2O2 entirely, leading to the generation of equimolar amounts of HOCl. In turn, HOCl or a similar compound derived from it interacts with concomitantly released metallozymogens, switching on their A1AT inactivating potential without the apparent contribution of other PMN-derived molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187807

  13. Desialylation of dying cells with catalytically active antibodies possessing sialidase activity facilitate their clearance by human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tomin, A; Dumych, T; Tolstyak, Y; Kril, I; Mahorivska, I; Bila, E; Stoika, R; Herrmann, M; Kit, Y; Bilyy, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently we reported the first known incidence of antibodies possessing catalytic sialidase activity (sialidase abzymes) in the serum of patients with multiple myeloma and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies desialylate biomolecules, such as glycoproteins, gangliosides and red blood cells. Desialylation of dying cells was demonstrated to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. In this study we assessed the possibility to facilitate dying cell clearance with the use of F(ab)2 fragments of sialidase abzymes. Two sources of sialidase abzymes were used: (i) those isolated from sera of patients with SLE after preliminary screening of a cohort of patients for sialidase activity; and (ii) by creating an induced sialidase abzyme through immunization of a rabbit with synthetic hapten consisting of a non-hydrolysable analogue of sialidase reaction conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Antibodies were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, protein-G affinity chromatography and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-SEC). Effect of desialylation on efferocytosis was studied using human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), both viable and aged, as prey, and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMa). Treatment of apoptotic and viable prey with both disease-associated (purified from blood serum of SLE patients) and immunization-induced (obtained by immunization of rabbits) sialidase abzymes, its F(ab)2 fragment and bacterial neuraminidase (as positive control) have significantly enhanced the clearance of prey by macrophages. We conclude that sialidase abzyme can serve as a protective agent in autoimmune patients and that artificial abzymes may be of potential therapeutic value. PMID:24580640

  14. The impact of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles on human neutrophil activation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Chun-Han; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-06-25

    Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLNs) are extensively employed as the nanocarriers for drug/gene targeting to tumors and the brain. Investigation into the possible immune response of cSLNs is still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cSLNs upon the activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells (PMNs). The cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory mediators, Ca(2+) mobilization, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as the indicators of PMN stimulation were examined in this work. The cSLNs presented a diameter of 195 nm with a zeta potential of 44 mV. The cSLNs could interact with the cell membrane to produce a direct membrane lysis and the subsequent cytotoxicity according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) elevation. The interaction of cSLNs with the membrane also triggered a Ca(2+) influx, followed by the induction of oxidative stress and degranulation. The cationic nanoparticles elevated the levels of superoxide anion and elastase by 24- and 9-fold, respectively. The PMN activation by cSLNs promoted the phosphorylation of p38 and Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The imaging of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence demonstrated the production of NETs by cSLNs. This phenomenon was not significant for the neutral SLNs (nSLNs), although histones in NETs also increased after treatment of nSLNs. Our results suggest an important role of cSLNs in governing the activation of human neutrophils. PMID:25920576

  15. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  16. Isolation and function of a human endothelial cell C1q receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, L.; Berg, R. van den; Lange, Y. Muizert-de; Gerritsen, A.; Es, L. A. van

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown previously that cultured human venous and arterial endothelial cells (EC) bind C1q in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cultured human endothelial cells express an average number of 5.2 × 105 binding sites/cell. In the present study the putative receptor for C1q (C1qR) was isolated from the membranes of 1–5 × 109 human umbilical cord EC by affinity chromatography on C1q–Sepharose. During isolation, C1qR was detected by its capacity to inhibit the lysis of EAC1q in C1q-deficient serum. The eluate from C1q–Sepharose was concentrated, dialysed and subjected to QAE-A50 chromatography and subsequently to gel filtration on HPLC–TSK 3000. C1qR filtered at an apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa. Purified C1qR exhibited an apparent molecular weight of 55–62 kDa in the unreduced state and a molecular weight of 64–68 kDa in reduced form. Two IgM monoclonal antibodies (mAb) D3 and D5 were raised following immunization of mice with purified receptor preparations. Both monoclonal antibodies increased the binding of 125I-C1q to endothelial cells but F(ab')2 anti-C1qR mAb inhibited the binding of a125I-C1q to EC in a dosedependent manner. The D3 mAb recognized a band of 54–60 kDa in Western blots of membranes of human EC and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Previously, the authors showed that C1q induces the binding of IgM-containing immune complexes to EC. Therefore, it was hypothesized that during a primary immune response generation of IgM-IC may occur, resulting in binding and activation of C1, dissociation of activated C1 by C1 inhibitor and subsequent interaction of IgM-IC bearing C1q with EC–C1qR. PMID:18475561

  17. Human Heredity: Genetic Mechanisms in Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discussed are some of the uncertainties in human genetic mechanisms that are often presented as dogma in Biology textbooks. Presented is a brief historical background and illustrations involving chromosome abnormality in humans and linkage studies in humans. (CW)

  18. Human schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Daniel G; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Secor, W Evan; King, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis—or bilharzia—is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp. Adult schistosome worms colonise human blood vessels for years, successfully evading the immune system while excreting hundreds to thousands of eggs daily, which must either leave the body in excreta or become trapped in nearby tissues. Trapped eggs induce a distinct immune-mediated granulomatous response that causes local and systemic pathological effects ranging from anaemia, growth stunting, impaired cognition, and decreased physical fitness, to organ-specific effects such as severe hepatosplenism, periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, and urogenital inflammation and scarring. At present, preventive public health measures in endemic regions consist of treatment once every 1 or 2 years with the isoquinolinone drug, praziquantel, to suppress morbidity. In some locations, elimination of transmission is now the goal; however, more sensitive diagnostics are needed in both the field and clinics, and integrated environmental and health-care management will be needed to ensure elimination. PMID:24698483

  19. Human Astroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pintó, Rosa M.; Guix, Susana

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human astroviruses (HAtVs) are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that were discovered in 1975. Astroviruses infecting other species, particularly mammalian and avian, were identified and classified into the genera Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus. Through next-generation sequencing, many new astroviruses infecting different species, including humans, have been described, and the Astroviridae family shows a high diversity and zoonotic potential. Three divergent groups of HAstVs are recognized: the classic (MAstV 1), HAstV-MLB (MAstV 6), and HAstV-VA/HMO (MAstV 8 and MAstV 9) groups. Classic HAstVs contain 8 serotypes and account for 2 to 9% of all acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Infections are usually self-limiting but can also spread systemically and cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients. The other groups have also been identified in children with gastroenteritis, but extraintestinal pathologies have been suggested for them as well. Classic HAstVs may be grown in cells, allowing the study of their cell cycle, which is similar to that of caliciviruses. The continuous emergence of new astroviruses with a potential zoonotic transmission highlights the need to gain insights on their biology in order to prevent future health threats. This review focuses on the basic virology, pathogenesis, host response, epidemiology, diagnostic assays, and prevention strategies for HAstVs. PMID:25278582

  20. Inhibition of lyso-PAF: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase by salicylates and other compounds.

    PubMed

    White, H L; Faison, L D

    1988-06-01

    Diflunisal and benoxaprofen (20-100 microM) produced dose-dependent inhibitions of lyso-platelet activating factor: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase in a lysate of rat pleural neutrophils. Salicylate and aspirin were inhibitory at concentrations of 1 mM and above. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid was a relatively potent inhibitor (I50 = 6 microM). Other compounds, including anti-inflammatory steroids, cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, appeared ineffective at relevant concentrations. Inhibitions by diflunisal and salicylate occurred at concentrations similar to expected plasma levels in humans at therapeutic doses. An inhibition of platelet-activating factor synthesis may contribute to the antiinflammatory, analgesic, or antipyretic actions of these compounds. PMID:2903520

  1. Bacterial lipoprotein delays apoptosis in human neutrophils through inhibition of caspase-3 activity: regulatory roles for CD14 and TLR-2.

    PubMed

    Power, Colm P; Wang, Jiang H; Manning, Brian; Kell, Malcolm R; Aherne, Noel J; Aherne, Noel F; Wu, Qiong D; Redmond, H Paul

    2004-10-15

    The human sepsis syndrome resulting from bacterial infection continues to account for a significant proportion of hospital mortality. Neutralizing strategies aimed at individual bacterial wall products (such as LPS) have enjoyed limited success in this arena. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) is a major constituent of the wall of diverse bacterial forms and profoundly influences cellular function in vivo and in vitro, and has been implicated in the etiology of human sepsis. Delayed polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis is a characteristic feature of human sepsis arising from Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial infection. Bacterial wall product ligation and subsequent receptor-mediated events upstream of caspase inhibition in neutrophils remain incompletely understood. BLP has been shown to exert its cellular effects primarily through TLR-2, and it is now widely accepted that lateral associations with the TLRs represent the means by which CD14 communicates intracellular messages. In this study, we demonstrate that BLP inhibits neutrophil mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a subsequent reduction in caspase-3 processing, ultimately leading to a significant delay in PMN apoptosis. Pretreatment of PMNs with an anti-TLR-2 mAb or anti-CD14 mAb prevented BLP from delaying PMN apoptosis to such a marked degree. Combination blockade using both mAbs completely prevented the effects of BLP (in 1 and 10 ng/ml concentrations) on PMN apoptosis. At higher concentrations of BLP, the antiapoptotic effects were observed, but were not as pronounced. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence of a crucial role for both CD14 and TLR-2 in delayed PMN apoptosis arising from bacterial infection. PMID:15470068

  2. Human abilities.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, R J; Kaufman, J C

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches. The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments. PMID:9496630

  3. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  4. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  5. Human oestrus

    PubMed Central

    Gangestad, Steven W; Thornhill, Randy

    2008-01-01

    For several decades, scholars of human sexuality have almost uniformly assumed that women evolutionarily lost oestrus—a phase of female sexuality occurring near ovulation and distinct from other phases of the ovarian cycle in terms of female sexual motivations and attractivity. In fact, we argue, this long-standing assumption is wrong. We review evidence that women's fertile-phase sexuality differs in a variety of ways from their sexuality during infertile phases of their cycles. In particular, when fertile in their cycles, women are particularly sexually attracted to a variety of features that likely are (or, ancestrally, were) indicators of genetic quality. As women's fertile-phase sexuality shares with other vertebrate females' fertile-phase sexuality a variety of functional and physiological features, we propose that the term oestrus appropriately applies to this phase in women. We discuss the function of women's non-fertile or extended sexuality and, based on empirical findings, suggest ways that fertile-phase sexuality in women has been shaped to partly function in the context of extra-pair mating. Men are particularly attracted to some features of fertile-phase women, but probably based on by-products of physiological changes males have been selected to detect, not because women signal their cycle-based fertility status. PMID:18252670

  6. Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  7. Modulatory effect of interleukin-10 on the production of platelet-activating factor and superoxide anions by human leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolati, B; Mariano, F; Montrucchio, G; Piccoli, G; Camussi, G

    1997-01-01

    We observed that human monocytes (MO) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produce platelet-activating factor (PAF) in a pattern characterized by an early and a delayed peak of synthesis. The early peak of PAF synthesis was due to a direct stimulation of these cells through mCD14 receptor as it was inhibited by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody. The delayed and sustained peak of PAF synthesis was dependent on protein synthesis and cytokine production as shown by the inhibitory effect of cycloheximide on both MO and PMN, and of anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) and of anti-interleukin-8 (anti-IL-8) neutralizing antibodies on MO and PMN respectively. IL-10 completely prevented this second, cytokine-dependent peak of PAF synthesis. In contrast, IL-10 markedly enhanced the first peak of PAF synthesis both in MO and PMN. Moreover, IL-10 was shown to modulate the production of superoxide anions (O2-) on both MO and PMN. As suggested by previous studies, IL-10 inhibited the delayed production of O2-. In the present study, we observed that IL-10 directly stimulated an early production of O2-. In addition, IL-10 enhanced the synthesis of O2- by MO and PMN challenged with LPS. The IL-10-induced O2- production was dependent, at least in part, from its effect on PAF synthesis, as it was inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2170. These results suggest that IL-10 may upregulate the early synthesis of PAF and O2- triggered by direct LPS stimulation, whereas it may downregulate the delayed production of these mediators. PMID:9155653

  8. Serum amyloid A induces calcium mobilization and chemotaxis of human monocytes by activating a pertussis toxin-sensitive signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Badolato, R; Johnston, J A; Wang, J M; McVicar, D; Xu, L L; Oppenheim, J J; Kelvin, D J

    1995-10-15

    We have previously reported that serum amyloid A (SAA) induces adhesion and chemotaxis of human monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, in vitro as well as in vivo. Since the mechanism of SAA signaling is unknown, we have investigated the possibility that SAA, like other chemoattractants such as the chemotactic peptide FMLP and chemokines, might induce migration of monocytes by G protein activation. We report here that preincubation of monocytes with pertussis toxin (PTx) inhibited SAA chemotaxis, while incubation with cholera toxin (CTx) did not. Staurosporine and H-7, both inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), significantly decreased rSAA-induced chemotaxis of monocytes, suggesting that PKC may be involved in the rSAA signaling pathway. Moreover, rSAA, at concentrations that were effective in chemoattracting monocytes, resulted in transient elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), and incubation of cells with PTx markedly inhibited the mobilization of Ca2+ in response to rSAA. This suggests that both chemotaxis and the rise in [Ca2+]i, are mediated by G proteins of the Gi class. The increase in [Ca2+]i, induced in monocytes by rSAA, was comparable to that elicited by FMLP, and was severalfold greater than that induced by optimal concentrations of chemokine beta-family members such as RANTES, MCAF/MCP-1, and MIP-1 alpha. The chemoattractants FMLP, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MCAF/MCP-1, all failed to desensitize rSAA-induced Ca2+ influx and chemotaxis in monocytes. This suggests that SAA uses a distinct receptor that is coupled to PTx-sensitive G proteins. PMID:7561109

  9. Response of mouse skin to tattooing: use of SKH-1 mice as a surrogate model for human tattooing

    SciTech Connect

    Gopee, Neera V.; Cui, Yanyan; Olson, Greg; Warbritton, Alan R.; Miller, Barbara J.; Couch, Letha H.; Wamer, Wayne G.; Howard, Paul C. . E-mail: PHoward@nctr.fda.gov

    2005-12-01

    Tattooing is a popular cosmetic practice involving more than 45 million US citizens. Since the toxicology of tattoo inks and pigments used to formulate tattoo inks has not been reported, we studied the immunological impact of tattooing and determined recovery time from this trauma. SKH-1 hairless mice were tattooed using commercial tattoo inks or suspensions of titanium dioxide, cadmium sulfide, or iron oxide, and sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days post-tattooing. Histological evaluation revealed dermal hemorrhage at 0.5 and 1 day. Acute inflammation and epidermal necrosis were initiated at 0.5 day decreasing in incidence by day 14. Dermal necrosis and epidermal hyperplasia were prominent by day 3, reducing in severity by day 14. Chronic active inflammation persisted in all tattooed mice from day 3 to 14 post-tattooing. Inguinal and axillary lymph nodes were pigmented, the inguinal being most reactive as evidenced by lymphoid hyperplasia and polymorphonuclear infiltration. Cutaneous nuclear protein concentrations of nuclear factor-kappa B were elevated between 0.5 and 4 days. Inflammatory and proliferative biomarkers, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and ornithine decarboxylase protein levels were elevated between 0.5 and 4 days in the skin and decreased to control levels by day 14. Interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 were elevated in the lymph nodes but suppressed in the tattooed skin, with maximal suppression occurring between days 0.5 and 4. These data demonstrate that mice substantially recover from the tattooing insult by 14 days, leaving behind pigment in the dermis and the regional lymph nodes. The response seen in mice is similar to acute injury seen in humans, suggesting that the murine model might be a suitable surrogate for investigating the toxicological and phototoxicological properties of ingredients used in tattooing.

  10. [Human papillomaviruses].

    PubMed

    Gross, G

    2003-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect exclusively the basal cells of the skin and of mucosal epithelia adjacent to the skin such as the mouth, the upper respiratory tract, the lower genital tract and the anal canal. HPV does not lead to a viremia. Basically there are three different types of HPV infection: Clinically visible lesions, subclinical HPV infections and latent HPV infections. Distinct HPV types induce morphologically and prognostically different clinical pictures. The most common HPV associated benign tumor of the skin is the common wart. Infections of the urogenitoanal tract with specific HPV-types are recognised as the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections. So-called "high-risk" HPV-types (HPV16, 18 and others) are regarded by the world health organisation as important risk-factors for the development of genital cancer (mainly cervical cancer), anal cancer and upper respiratory tract cancer in both genders. Antiviral substances with a specific anti-HPV effect are so far unknown. Conventional therapies of benign skin warts and of mucosal warts are mainly nonspecific. They comprise tissue-destroying therapies such as electrocautery, cryotherapy and laser. In addition cytotoxic substances such as podophyllotoxin and systemic therapy with retinoids are in use. Systemically and topically administered immunotherapies represent a new approach for treatment. Both interferons and particularly the recently developed imiquimod, an interferon-alpha and cytokine-inductor lead to better results and are better tolerated then conventional therapies. HPV-specific vaccines have been developed in the last 5 years and will be used in future for prevention and treatment of benign and malignant HPV-associated tumors of the genitoanal tract in both sexes. PMID:14610898

  11. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  12. Epitope specificity of rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) elicited by pneumococcal type 23F synthetic oligosaccharide- and native polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines: comparison with human anti-polysaccharide 23F IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso de Velasco, E; Verheul, A F; van Steijn, A M; Dekker, H A; Feldman, R G; Fernández, I M; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Verhoef, J; Snippe, H

    1994-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae type 23F capsular polysaccharide (PS23F) consitss of a repeating glycerol-phosphorylated branched tetrasaccharide. The immunogenicities of the following related antigens were investigated: (i) a synthetic trisaccharide comprising the backbone of one repeating unit, (ii) a synthetic tetrasaccharide comprising the complete repeating unit, and (iii) native PS23F (all three conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) and (iv) formalin-killed S. pneumoniae 23F. All antigens except the trisaccharide-KLH conjugate induced relatively high anti-PS23F antibody levels in rabbits. The epitope specificity of such antibodies was then studied by means of an inhibition immunoassay. The alpha(1-->2)-linked L-rhamnose branch was shown to be immunodominant for immunoglobulin G (IgG) induced by tetrasaccharide-KLH, PS23F-KLH, and killed S. pneumoniae 23F: in most sera L-rhamnose totally inhibited the binding of IgG to PS23F. Thus, there appears to be no major difference in epitope specificity between IgG induced by tetrasaccharide-KLH and that induced by antigens containing the polymeric form of PS23F. Human anti-PS23F IgG (either vaccine induced or naturally acquired) had a different epitope specificity: none of the inhibitors used, including L-rhamnose and tetrasaccharide-KLH, exhibited substantial inhibition. These observations suggest that the epitope recognized by human IgG on PS23F is larger than the epitope recognized by rabbit IgG. Both human and rabbit antisera efficiently opsonized type 23F pneumococci, as measured in a phagocytosis assay using human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:7509318

  13. The beta 1 integrin, very late activation antigen-4 on human neutrophils can contribute to neutrophil migration through connective tissue fibroblast barriers.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J X; Issekutz, A C

    1997-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) accumulation in extravascular tissues and inflammatory exudates is dependent on their migration through blood vessel endothelium and then through connective tissue. Previously we utilized a barrier of human synovial and dermal fibroblasts (HSF or HDF) grown on microporous filters, as a model of PMNL migration through connective tissue. Those studies showed that beta 2 (CD18) and the beta 1 integrins, very late activation antigen-5 (VLA-5) and VLA-6, in part mediate this PMNL migration. Here we report that VLA-4, which can also be expressed at low levels on activated PMNL, is also involved in PMNL migration induced by C5a through fibroblast (HSF and HDF) barriers, because monoclonal antibody (mAb) to VLA-4 significantly inhibited (by 20-30%) PMNL migration. Blocking the function of CD18, VLA-5 or VLA-6 was not required for detection of the VLA-4-mediated migration. Combination treatment with mAb to VLA-4 and with mAb to VLA-5 or to VLA-6 further inhibited PMNL migration, irrespective of whether CD11/CD18 mechanisms were blocked with anti-CD18 mAb or not. Treatment of PMNL with a peptide based on the VLA-4-binding domain in the CS-1 fragment of fibronectin, but not a control peptide, inhibited PMNL migration to a comparable extent to treatment with mAb to VLA-4. A low level of VLA-4 was expressed on C5a-activated PMNL, detected by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. These results suggest that VLA-4 can be mobilized by human peripheral blood PMNL and can, in addition to VLA-5, VLA-6 and CD11/CD18 integrins, mediate PMNL migration through connective tissue. This is in marked contrast to PMNL transendothelial migration, where beta 1 integrins appear to play no significant role. PMID:9155654

  14. Sensitivity of K1-Encapsulated Escherichia coli to Killing by the Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein of Rabbit and Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jerrold; Victor, Michael; Cross, Alan S.; Elsbach, Peter

    1982-01-01

    The presence of K1 capsular polysaccharides increases the resistance of Escherichia coli to killing by serum and phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). To determine whether K1 capsule impedes the action of intracellular bactericidal systems of PMNs, we compared the sensitivity of several K1-encapsulated and non-encapsulated strains of E. coli to killing by the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) isolated from rabbit and human PMNs. BPI appears to be the principal bactericidal agent of PMNs toward E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria (Weiss et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69:959-970, 1982). The presence of K1 capsule was monitored by sensitivity to K1-specific bacteriophages. The non-encapsulated strains used represent both random bacteremic isolates and non-encapsulated derivatives of K1-encapsulated strains obtained by selection for resistance to K1-specific phages. We found little or no difference in the sensitivity of K1-encapsulated and non-encapsulated E. coli to killing by neutralized acid extracts of rabbit PMNs. Bacterial killing by these crude fractions can be attributed to the action of BPI because: (i) bacterial killing was blocked by immune (anti-BPI) immunoglobulin but not by preimmune immunoglobulin and (ii) comparison of the dose-response curves of bacterial killing by crude extracts and by purified BPI showed that the bactericidal activity of crude fractions corresponded closely to the BPI content. Human and rabbit BPIs exhibited similar bactericidal potency toward K1-encapsulated E. coli; i.e., <5 μg of either protein killed >90% of 2.5 × 107 bacteria. Thus, the potent bactericidal action of BPI toward E. coli is not impeded by K1 capsule, suggesting that the virulence of K1-encapsulated E. coli is a consequence of extracellular survival but not of resistance to intracellular killing. PMID:6759406

  15. Pharmacodynamic activity of a cephalosporin, Ro 40-6890, in human skin blister fluid: antibiotic activity in concert with host defense mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Hoogkamer, J F; Hesse, W H; Sansano, S; Zimmerli, W

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of an antimicrobial drug in human plasma and in vitro susceptibility testing of an antimicrobial drug do not necessarily predict its efficacy in vivo. Therefore, the combined activity of an antimicrobial drug and blood-derived polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) against Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in vitro. In addition, a pharmacological model allowing analysis of the bactericidal activity of a drug-containing exudate against S. aureus ex vivo was developed. For this purpose, a phagocytic-bactericidal assay was miniaturized to a volume of 100 microliters in order to test the bactericidal activities of an antimicrobial drug with blood PMN in vitro and with skin blister fluid (CBF) ex vivo. Ro 40-6890, the active metabolite of the ester prodrug Ro 41-3399, was used as the test drug. Killing of S. aureus was clearly enhanced when Ro 41-6890 was combined in vitro with a suboptimal number of blood-derived PMN. In eight healthy volunteers, skin blisters were provoked by plasters containing cantharidin. Following a single oral dose of Ro 41-3399, CBF containing PMN was sampled at regular intervals and incubated ex vivo with S. aureus (5 x 10(5) CFU/ml) for 2, 4, 6, and 24 h at 37 degrees C. Concentrations of Ro 40-6890 were measured in CBF (CCBF) and plasma. Ro 40-6890 distributed well from plasma into CBF. When CCBF was below the MIC, an enhanced effect of Ro 40-6890 and host defense factors present in CBF against S. aureus was observed. In conclusion, the present model can provide additional information on human plasma drug concentrations and MICs established in vitro. PMID:8109926

  16. Detection of human cytomegalovirus antigenaemia: a rapid diagnostic technique for predicting cytomegalovirus infection/pneumonitis in lung and heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, J. J.; Barber, L.; Lomax, J.; Fox, A.; Yonan, N.; Rahman, A. N.; Campbell, C. S.; Deiraniya, A. K.; Carroll, K. B.; Craske, J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--New rapid diagnostic techniques offer the opportunity of early diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompromised patients at risk of developing CMV disease. The use of human CMV antigenaemia as a predictor of clinical CMV infection and disease in lung and heart transplant recipients was studied prospectively. METHODS--Twenty three heart and nine lung transplant recipients who survived 40 days were observed by standard CMV surveillance with serological testing, culture, and by sequential testing for CMV antigenaemia. CMV antigenaemia testing is a rapid and quantifiable technique in which a viral lower matrix protein is detected in cytospin preparations of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) by immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS--Eleven patients developed CMV infection and five developed CMV disease (four pneumonitis, one duodenitis). These clinical events occurred at a median of 65 days following transplantation. CMV antigenaemia occurred in 17 patients at a median of 35 days following transplantation. Detection of CMV antigenaemia had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 93.7%, and a positive predictive value of 94.1% for CMV related illness. CMV antigenaemia was positive at a significant interval before the clinical event. High levels of CMV antigenaemia (> 50 CMV antigen positive cells/2 x 10(5) PMNLs) occurred in 11 patients and five of these developed disease. CMV antigenaemia of > 50 CMV antigen positive cells/2 x 10(5) PMNLs had a positive predictive value of 45.5% for disease but a negative predictive value of 100%. Patients with disease had higher levels of antigenaemia than those without disease. CONCLUSIONS--CMV antigenaemia is a rapid diagnostic technique which can identify patients likely to develop CMV disease, potentially allowing early treatment. Images PMID:7886659

  17. [Placental lesions in human Trypanosoma cruzi infection].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Aguilar, Sergio; Lambot, Maria-Alexandra; Torrico, Faustino; Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Córdoba, Marysol; Suarez, Eduardo; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    This histopathological study analyzes placentas of babies congenitally infected with T. cruzi (M+B+), or babies not infected but born from infected- (M+B-), or non infected-mothers (M-B-). Placentas M+B+ showed lesions of chorionitis, chorioamnionitis and cord edema with lymphocyte infiltration, whereas such lesions were infiltrated only with polymorphonuclear cells in M+B- and M-B- placentas. Parasites were found in M+B+ placentas, in fibroblasts and macrophages of chorion, membranes, chorionic plate, mainly in the area of membrane insertion, as well as in cells of Wharton jelly and myocytes of umbilical cord vessels. These results suggest that the materno-fetal transmission of parasites occurs mainly through the marginal sinus, spreading into the chorionic plate infecting fibroblasts and macrophages so far as to found a fetal vessel, inducing a fetal infection by hematogenous route. PMID:16482822

  18. Human Research Roadmap

    NASA Video Gallery

    Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates the highest risks to human health and per...

  19. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  20. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  1. Cooperation in human teaching.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Ann Cale

    2015-01-01

    Kline's evolutionary analysis of teaching provides welcome reframing for cross-species comparisons. However, theory based on competition cannot explain the transmission of human cultural elements that were collectively created. Humans evolved in a cultural niche and teaching-learning coevolved to transmit culture. To study human cultural variation in teaching, we need a more articulated theory of this distinctively human engagement. PMID:26786392

  2. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  3. Human Research Program Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of HRP is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Human Research Program was designed to meet the needs of human space exploration, and understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions.

  4. Humanism: A Christian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasa, Harris; And Others

    As part of a four-college project to integrate the religious tradition with humanities teaching, humanism is discussed from a Christian perspective. Definitions of the terms humanism, religion, Christianity, and Christian humanism are provided. The latter is viewed as the issues surrounding the Christian approach to the dichotomy of good and evil…

  5. The Humanities: Interconnections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on a wide range of interdisciplinary themes and ideas for humanities instruction, the 17 articles in this journal issue discuss the following topics: (1) literature, humanities, and the adult learner; (2) the role of the humanities in educating for a democracy; (3) humanities in the marketplace; (4) literature versus "great books" in high…

  6. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  7. Identification of a cell-penetrating peptide domain from human beta-defensin 3 and characterization of its anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jue Yeon; Suh, Jin Sook; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chong Pyoung

    2015-01-01

    Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial factors of intrinsic immunity that function in the immunologic response to a variety of invading enveloped viruses, bacteria, and fungi. hBDs can cause membrane depolarization and cell lysis due to their highly cationic nature. These molecules participate in antimicrobial defenses and the control of adaptive and innate immunity in every mammalian species and are produced by various cell types. The C-terminal 15-mer peptide within hBD3, designated as hBD3-3, was selected for study due to its cell- and skin-penetrating activity, which can induce anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. hBD3-3 penetrated both the outer membrane of the cells and mouse skin within a short treatment period. Two other peptide fragments showed poorer penetration activity compared to hBD3-3. hBD3-3 inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, and secretory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, hBD3-3 reduced the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. Further investigation also revealed that hBD3-3 downregulated nuclear factor kappa B-dependent inflammation by directly suppressing the degradation of phosphorylated-IκBα and by downregulating active nuclear factor kappa B p65. Our findings indicate that hBD3-3 may be conjugated with drugs of interest to ensure their proper translocation to sites, such as the cytoplasm or nucleus, as hBD3-3 has the ability to be used as a carrier, and suggest a potential approach to effectively treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:26347021

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 alpha stimulate late shedding of p75 TNF receptors but not p55 TNF receptors from human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Joyce, D A; Steer, J H

    1995-11-01

    Soluble receptors for TNF (sTNF-R) are present at elevated concentrations in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. They are presumably released by cells of the synovial membrane, including the monocyte-derived synovial macrophages. Cytokines from the synovium, including IL-1 and TNF-alpha, may stimulate release. We therefore examined the release of sTNF-R from monocytes exposed to IL-1 and TNF-alpha. Elutriator-purified human blood monocytes spontaneously released both the p75 and the p55 sTNF-R (1011 +/- 199 and 177 +/- 20 pg/10(6) cells, respectively, mean +/- SEM) during 48 h of in vitro culture. TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha induced time- and concentration-dependent increases in the release of sTNF-R75 from monocytes, but neither had a measurable effect on the release of sTNF-R55. The release of sTNF-R75 was inhibited by cycloheximide. Neither lymphocytes nor polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) released measurable sTNF-R spontaneously or in response to stimulation with IL-1 alpha, but TNF-alpha stimulated the release of small amounts of sTNF-R75 by PMN. The timing, cycloheximide sensitivity, and selectivity of stimulated release of TNF-R75 by monocytes are consistent with previous observations on other cell types of late (8-20 h) increased synthesis and turnover of cell surface TNF-R75, but not TNF-R55, after stimulation with TNF-alpha or IL-1. These observations help to explain why elevated levels of sTNF-R in synovial fluid coexist with enhanced expression of cell surface TNF-R on synovial macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:8590306

  9. Endothelin-1 induces VCAM-1 expression-mediated inflammation via receptor tyrosine kinases and Elk/p300 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wei-Ning; Hou, Wei-Chen; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-08-01

    The elevated level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with severe asthma, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and sepsis. ET-1 may affect vessel tone together with lung physiology and pathology. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is one kind of adhesion molecules participating in the process of polymorphonuclear leukocyte transmigration and regulating the occurrence and amplification of tissue inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ET-1-mediated expression of VCAM-1 on human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) were largely unknown. Here we reported that ET-1 stimulated expression of VCAM-1 gene on HTSMCs, which was blocked by pretreatment with the inhibitors of ET receptors, Src, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, MEK1/2, and p300, suggesting the participation of these signaling components in ET-1-regulated HTSMC responses. Furthermore, transfection with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of Src, AKT, p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p300 downregulated the respective proteins and significantly attenuated ET-1-induced VCAM-1 expression. ET-1 also stimulated phosphorylation of Src, EGFR, PDGFR, AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, and Elk-1 and acetylation of histone H4 on HTSMCs. Immunoprecipitation assay showed the association between Elk-1 and p300 in the nucleus. Adhesion assay revealed that the adhesion of THP-1 to HTSMCs challenged with ET-1 was increased, which was attenuated by the inhibitors of ET receptors, Src, MMPs, EGFR, PDGFR, PI3K, AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, and p300. Taken together, these data suggested that ET-1 promotes occurrence and amplification of pathology-related airway inflammation via enhancing VCAM-1 expression in an ET receptor/Src/MMP/EGFR, PDGFR/PI3K/AKT/p42/p44 MAPK/Elk-1/p300 pathway in HTSMCs. PMID:26071554

  10. Boundaries of Humanities: Writing Medical Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Gillie

    2008-01-01

    Literature and medicine is a discipline within medical humanities, which challenges medicine to reconfigure its scientific model to become interdisciplinary, and be disciplined by arts and humanities as well as science. The psychological, emotional, spiritual and physical are inextricably linked in people, inevitably entailing provisionality,…

  11. Virtual Human Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, RD

    2001-06-12

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive human modeling environment, the Virtual Human, which will be used initially to model the human respiratory system for purposes of predicting pulmonary disease or injury using lung sounds. The details of the computational environment, including the development of a Virtual Human Thorax, a database for storing models, model parameters, and experimental data, and a Virtual Human web interface are outlined. Preliminary progress in developing this environment will be presented. A separate paper at the conference describes the modeling of sound generation using computational fluid dynamics and the modeling of sound propagation in the human respiratory system.

  12. Virtual Human project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Richard C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Hively, Lee M.; Fischer, K. N.; Munro, Nancy B.; Easterly, Clay E.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive human modeling environment, the Virtual Human, which will be used initially to model the human respiratory system for purposes of predicting pulmonary disease or injury using lung sounds. The details of the computational environment, including the development of a Virtual Human Thorax, a database for storing models, model parameters, and experimental data, and a Virtual Human web interface are outlined. Preliminary progress in developing this environment will be presented. A separate paper at the conference describes the modeling of sound generation using computational fluid dynamics and the modeling of sound propagation in the human respiratory system.

  13. Human bites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  14. Telling the Human Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  15. Human Resource Accounting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  16. Pathfinder: Humans in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the Pathfinder program. Information is given on human exploration of the solar system, technical requirements interfaces, program objectives, space suits, human performance, man-machine systems, space habitats, life support systems, and artificial gravity

  17. Human Rights Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrano, Elias, Comp.

    This document provides information about 25 programs/brochures which focus on human rights topics. Specific topics include: (1) counselor preparation; (2) multicultural awareness; (3) abuse and neglect; (4) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; (5) self-awareness; (6) human rights awareness and human rights of students; (7) cultural diversity; (8)…

  18. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  19. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  20. HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  1. HUMAN USE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  2. Visible Human Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® Overview The Visible Human Project ® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 Long- ... The long-term goal of the Visible Human Project ® is to produce a system of knowledge structures ...

  3. Human Rights Educational Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Gives a variety of educational resources on human rights that include videos, resource notebooks, books, publications, and websites along with short descriptions of the materials. Provides the contact information for a list of human-rights organizations, such as the Center for Human Rights Education and the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt…

  4. Expanding Human Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyean, Beverly-Colleene

    1983-01-01

    The human brain is capable of mastering skills far beyond those it is now used for. Three questions about the further evolution of human intelligence are raised: What will be the next step in human intelligence? How is the next step manifesting itself? How can we prepare for those changes? (IS)

  5. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  6. HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  7. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences. PMID:23908778

  8. Some Criteria for Humanizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charlotte S.

    Patterns for humanizing the information sciences include recognizing essential "humanness," taking a holistic approach to the subject field, and being aware of the epistemological nature of how people communicate and relate to others and themselves. The complete inclusion of the human factor in information theory researches can only amplify the…

  9. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths inherent…

  10. Human Periodontal Stem Cells Release Specialized Proresolving Mediators and Carry Immunomodulatory and Prohealing Properties Regulated by Lipoxins

    PubMed Central

    Cianci, Eleonora; Recchiuti, Antonio; Trubiani, Oriana; Diomede, Francesca; Marchisio, Marco; Miscia, Sebastiano; Colas, Romain A.; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    Unresolved inflammation and tissue destruction are underlying mechanisms of periodontitis, which is linked to dysregulated polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is a specialized proresolving lipid mediator (SPM) that dampens excessive inflammation, promotes resolution, and protects from leukocyte-mediated tissue damage. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) represent key players during tissue regeneration and may contribute to resolution of inflammation; thus, they may represent a promising tool in regenerative dentistry. In the present study, we investigated the actions of hPDLSCs on PMN apoptosis and antimicrobial functions, and determined the impact of LXA4 on hPDLSCs. hPDLSCs significantly reduced apoptosis and stimulated microbicidal activity of human PMNs, via both cell-cell interactions and paracrine mechanisms. Lipid mediator metabololipidomics analysis demonstrated that hPDLSCs biosynthesize SPMs, including resolvin D1, D2, D5, and D6; protectin D1; maresins; and LXB4; as well as prostaglandins D2, E2, and F2α. LXA4 significantly enhanced proliferation, migration, and wound healing capacity of hPDLSCs through the activation of its cognate receptor ALX/FPR2, expressed on hPDLSCs. Together, these results demonstrate that hPDLSCs modulate PMN functions, and provide the first evidence that stem cells generate SPM and that the LXA4-ALX/FPR2 axis regulates regenerative functions of hPDLSCs by a novel receptor-mediated mechanism. Significance These findings uncovered unappreciated features of stem cells from the periodontal ligament, supporting the notion that these cells may act as master regulators of pathophysiological events through the release of mediators that promote the resolution of inflammation and bacterial killing. The study also demonstrated that it is possible to modulate important functions of periodontal stem cells using lipoxin A4, a potent endogenous stop signal of inflammation. Thus, this study revealed an

  11. Humanism in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, S

    1993-09-01

    Emergency medicine has not yet appropriated "humanism" as a term of its own. Medical humanism needs to be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the practical goals of emergency medicine. In this essay, humanism in emergency medicine is defined by identifying the dehumanizing aspects of sudden illness and exploring of ways for sustaining the humanity of emergency department patients. Excerpts from Dr Oliver Sacks' autobiographical work A Leg to Stand On give voice to the human needs created by sudden illness and its treatment. PMID:8363690

  12. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  13. Human-technology Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Katharine M.

    Human-technology integration is the replacement of human parts and extension of human capabilities with engineered devices and substrates. Its result is hybrid biological-artificial systems. We discuss here four categories of products furthering human-technology integration: wearable computers, pervasive computing environments, engineered tissues and organs, and prosthetics, and introduce examples of currently realized systems in each category. We then note that realization of a completely artificial sytem via the path of human-technology integration presents the prospect of empirical confirmation of an aware artificially embodied system.

  14. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  15. Biological races in humans.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  16. Office for Human Research Protections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office for Human Research Protections The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of the rights, welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in ...

  17. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly. PMID:25051653

  18. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  19. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    PubMed

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept. PMID:24979876

  20. Human Performance in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  1. Human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach.

  2. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  3. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  4. The psychology of humanness.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures. PMID:23947277

  5. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  6. Novel post-translational incorporation of tyrosine in PMA-activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, J.; Oliver, C.; Ohno, Y.; Gallin, J.I.

    1986-03-05

    During studies undertaken to determine whether stimulation of tubulin tyrosinolation occurs in PMA-activated PMN, a distinctly different and novel post-translational incorporation of tyrosine into multiple PMN proteins was observed. The reaction also occurred in organelle-depleted neutrophil cytoplasts and was highly exaggerated in organelle-enriched karyogranuloplasts. The incorporation was specific for tyrosine, did not require extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and was inhibited in the presence of a variety of reducing agents, intracellular scavengers of oxygen radicals and inhibitors of peroxidase-mediated reactions. The PMA-induced incorporation of tyrosine was completely absent in PMN from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, but occurred normally in PMN of a patient with myeloperoxidase deficiency. Moreover, the incorporation of tyrosine was blocked by N-acetyl-L-tyrosine but not by phenylalanine suggesting a requirement for the phenolic group. A two-fold increase in stable protein carbonyl derivatives was demonstrated suggesting an increased oxidative modification of the proteins. SDS urea PAGE and reversed phase HPLC did not reveal any detectable changes in the extent of protein cross-linking. The PMN tyrosine pool was approximately 900 ..mu..M and yet only 1 ..mu..M tyrosine was added in these experiments. The functional significance of this reaction is not yet clear.

  7. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil) function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Baron, Tarun Kumar; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (<5 cigarettes/day), 50 moderate smokers (5–15 cigarettes/day), and 50 heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day). Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0), moderate (76.6 ± 4.2), light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5) as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6) (P < 0.01). The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5), moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5), and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7) (P < 0.01) with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population. PMID:27143827

  8. Health and Humanity: Humanities 401 Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Fraser; Taylor, Maxine

    A syllabus for the "Health and Humanities" interdisciplinary course at Northwestern State University, Louisiana, is presented. An introduction suggests that with the proliferation of technological advances in the field of health care, there is a need for reconsideration of many moral, ethical, legal, and humanistic questions. Information is…

  9. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  10. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  11. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  12. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  13. Evaluating the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  14. Environment and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    As a conference report, the booklet is primarily devoted to abstracts of papers presented at a Conference on Environment and Humanities held in Tallahassee, Florida, April 25-27, 1976. Dr. Huston Smith of Syracuse University, the main speaker, addressed the issue of "Humanities and Environmental Awareness." Other topics discussed included: (1)…

  15. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  16. Human Pythiosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Araújo, João Pessoa; Candeias, João Manuel Grisi; Fabiano de Franco, Marcello; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Mendoza, Leonel; Pires de Camargo, Rosangela; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2005-01-01

    Pythiosis, caused by Pythium insidiosum, occurs in humans and animals and is acquired from aquatic environments that harbor the emerging pathogen. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical and histopathologic features are not pathognomonic. We report the first human case of pythiosis from Brazil, diagnosed by using culture and rDNA sequencing. PMID:15890126

  17. Human Mind Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  18. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  19. Human Sociobiology: Wilson's Fallacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrman, Nathaniel S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an introduction to and a critique of E.O. Wilson's new science of sociobiology, which focuses on explaining the social behavior of species as diverse as ants, apes, and humans. Suggests that Wilson has gone beyond his data in claiming that complex human behaviors such as altruism are caused to any extent by genetic, as opposed to…

  20. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  1. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  2. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  3. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  4. Methods in human cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  5. HSI in Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggerman, Susan D.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document examines the scope of Human Systems Integration (HSI) at NASA, and the implementation of HSI in the human space flight programs. Two areas of interest are the Responsibilities and the lessons learned from the International Space Station and the strategy and approach for the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  6. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Gaowa; Wuritu; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Wu, Dongxing; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Chiya, Seizou; Fukunaga, Kazutoshi; Funato, Toyohiko; Shiojiri, Masaaki; Nakajima, Hideki; Hamauzu, Yoshiji; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected. PMID:23460988

  7. Neurobehavioral testing in humans.

    PubMed

    Anger, W K; Rohlman, D S; Storzbach, D

    2001-05-01

    The evaluation of the effects of chemical exposures on humans is a worldwide concern, and most chemicals have not been evaluated for neurotoxic effect. Human neurobehavioral research or clinical evaluations of populations exposed to chemicals must be carefully planned and structured. This unit describes the steps required to create such a study, select the appropriate measures, and evaluate the results. PMID:20957644

  8. Humanism within Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  9. The Humanities' Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt

    2009-01-01

    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  10. The cell-penetrating peptide domain from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) has anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jue-Yeon; Seo, Yoo-Na; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Chung, Chong-Pyoung

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP sequence identified from HB-EGF has cell penetration activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits the NF-{kappa}B dependent inflammatory responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP directly blocks phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit. -- Abstract: A heparin-binding peptide (HBP) sequence from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified and was shown to exhibit cell penetration activity. This cell penetration induced an anti-inflammatory reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. HBP penetrated the cell membrane during the 10 min treatment and reduced the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HBP inhibited the LPS-induced upregulation of cytokines, including TNF-{alpha} and IL-6, and decreased the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. HBP inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory responses by directly blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and by subsequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, this novel HBP may be potentially useful candidate for anti-inflammatory treatments and can be combined with other drugs of interest to transport attached molecules into cells.

  11. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  12. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  13. Humanization of immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Rybak, S M; Hoogenboom, H R; Meade, H M; Raus, J C; Schwartz, D; Youle, R J

    1992-04-15

    The construction and expression of a chimeric gene encoding a mouse/human antibody to the human transferrin receptor fused to the gene for angiogenin, a human homolog of pancreatic RNase, are described. F(ab')2-like antibody-enzyme fusions were prepared by linking the gene for human angiogenin to a chimeric anti-transferrin receptor heavy chain gene. The antibody-enzyme fusion gene was introduced into a transfectoma that secretes the chimeric light chain of the same antibody, and cell lines were cloned that synthesize and secrete the antibody-enzyme fusion protein of the expected size at a concentration of 1-5 ng/ml. Culture supernatants from clones secreting the fusion protein caused inhibition of growth and protein synthesis of K562 cells that express the human transferrin receptor but not toward a non-human-derived cell line that lacks this receptor. Whereas excess antibody to the same receptor did not itself inhibit protein synthesis, it was able to completely prevent the protein synthesis inhibition caused by the fusion protein. These results indicate that the cytotoxicity is due to a transferrin receptor-mediated mechanism involving the angiogenin portion of the fusion protein and demonstrate the feasibility of constructing recombinant antibody-RNase molecules capable of killing tumor cells bearing the transferrin receptor. The significance of the acquired cytotoxicity of a mouse/human chimeric antibody linked to a human protein may bear importantly in human therapeutic strategies that use mouse antibodies linked to toxins from plants or bacteria to target tumor cells. It is expected that the humanization of immunotoxins will lead to less toxicity and immunogenicity than currently available reagents. PMID:1565609

  14. Novel human astroviruses: Novel human diseases?

    PubMed

    Vu, Diem-Lan; Cordey, Samuel; Brito, Francisco; Kaiser, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, single-stranded positive RNA viruses that belong to the Astroviridae family. While classical human astroviruses (HAstV) are a well-recognized cause of acute non-bacterial diarrhea among young children worldwide, novel astroviruses, named HAstV-MLB and HAstV-VA/HMO, have been identified recently in humans by molecular assays. They are phylogenetically more related to animal astroviruses than to classical human astroviruses, thus suggesting cross-species transmission. Serological studies demonstrated a surprisingly high seroprevalence in certain populations and highlighted a high infection rate in the early years of life. Although their pathogenic role has not yet been clearly determined, novel astrovirus RNA sequences have been identified in different biological specimens of symptomatic patients, including the feces, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain biopsies. Thus, there is evidence that they could contribute not only to digestive tract infection, but also to unexpected clinical syndromes, notably encephalitis and meningitis. Severe infections affect mainly immunocompromised patients. These findings indicate that novel astroviruses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with meningitis or encephalitis of unknown origin. PMID:27434149

  15. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  16. Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

  17. Managing human bites

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pradnya D; Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Galwankar, Sagar C

    2009-01-01

    Human bites are frequently overlooked in making a diagnosis in the emergency room. They are particularly notorious due to the polymicrobial nature of human saliva inoculated in the wound and the risk they pose for transmission of infectious diseases. Early treatment, appropriate prophylaxis and surgical evaluation are the key to achieving desired treatment outcomes. Through this article, we have tried to summarize the diagnostic features, complications as well as the recommended treatment alternatives for human bites based on the current available evidence. PMID:20009309

  18. Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Block, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dally, W.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Joyce, G.; Kimble, H. J.; Lewis, N.; Max, C.; Prince, T.; Schwitters, R.; Weinberger, P.; Woodin, W. H.

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  19. Human Photoreactivating Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, J. C.; Sutherland, B. M.

    1975-01-01

    The action spectrum for photoreactivation by enzymes from human leukocytes and fibroblasts extends from 300 to approximately 600 nm with a maximum near 400 nm. The ability of the human enzymes to utilize light of wavelengths greater than 500 nm suggested that yellow or gold lights conventionally used as safelights for photoreactivation might serve as sources of photoreactivating light for these enzymes. Experiments using lights with a range of spectral outputs confirm that the standard yellow “safe” lights do produce photoreactivation by the human but not the Escherichia coli enzyme. PMID:19211015

  20. Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  1. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. PMID:26395141

  2. The human genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-06-01

    The Human Genome Project will obtain high-resolution genetic and physical maps of each human chromosome and, somewhat later, of the complete nucleotide sequence of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a human cell. The talk will begin with an extended introduction to explain the Project to nonbiologists and to show that map construction and sequence determination require extensive computation in order to determine the correct order of the mapped entities and to provide estimates of uncertainty. Computational analysis of the sequence data will become an increasingly important part of the project, and some computational challenges are described. 5 refs.

  3. The Concept of Being Human.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    This analysis of the relationship between humanism and humanitarianism outlines educational goals that should lead to a more humane world. Section 1, an outline of human life examines six substructures--human life, individuality, amenity, contact, actualization, and problems. A definition and examples of humanism in section 2 are elaborated into a…

  4. Creativity: The Human Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses an exhibition entitled "Creativity--The Human Resource." The exhibition examines the work of 15 Americans, such as designer Buckminster Fuller and artist Judy Chicago, who have contributed in special ways to the arts and sciences. (PHR)

  5. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  6. Teaching about Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database concerning the teaching of human geography. Includes documents dealing with Africa, Asia, the United States, Canada, Antarctica, and geographic concepts. Explains how to obtain ERIC documents. (SG)

  7. Approaches to Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  8. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You Human Papillomavirus Vaccine HPV Information in Other Languages Women ...

  9. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Print Email Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) recognizes the intense debates within our society ...

  10. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  11. Sociobiology and Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoult, Thomas Ford

    1979-01-01

    Describes the fundamental conflict between the implications of sociobiology and the aspirations of humanists. Sociobiology tends to rationalize and defend special privileges for the powerful few, while humanism stresses equality of opportunity. Journal availability: see SO 507 272. (Author)

  12. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  13. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  14. Human Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  15. The Human Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickell, Crispin

    1995-01-01

    Examines the plight of environmental refugees and the adequacy of political responses to the situation. Discusses the consequences of accelerated environmental change, particularly the impact of global warming on human migration. (LZ)

  16. Human Systems Integration Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lecture provides an overview of Human Systems Integration (HSI), its implementation cost and return on investment, HSI domains, how HSI fits into the NASA organization structure, HSI roles and...

  17. Human Computers 1947

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Langley's human computers at work in 1947. The female presence at Langley, who performed mathematical computations for male staff. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 48), by James Schultz.

  18. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  19. Purified cytochrome b from human granulocyte plasma membrane is comprised of two polypeptides with relative molecular weights of 91,000 and 22,000.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C A; Allen, R A; Cochrane, C G; Jesaitis, A J

    1987-01-01

    A new method has been developed for purification of cytochrome b from stimulated human granulocytes offering the advantage of high yields from practical quantities of whole blood. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were treated with diisopropylfluorophosphate, degranulated and disrupted by nitrogen cavitation. Membranes enriched in cytochrome b were prepared by differential centrifugation. Complete solubilization of the cytochrome from the membranes was achieved in octylglucoside after a 1-M salt wash. Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated Sepharose 4B specifically bound the solubilized cytochrome b and afforded a threefold purification. Eluate from the immobilized wheat germ agglutinin was further enriched by chromatography on immobilized heparin. The final 260-fold purification of the b-type cytochrome with a 20-30% yield was achieved by velocity sedimentation in sucrose density gradients. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified preparation revealed two polypeptides of Mr 91,000 and Mr 22,000. Treatment of the 125I-labeled, purified preparation with peptide:N-glycosidase F, which removes N-linked sugars, decreased relative molecular weight of the larger species to approximately 50,000, whereas beta-elimination, which removes O-linked sugars, had little or no effect on the mobility of the Mr-91,000 polypeptide. Neither of the deglycosylation conditions had any effect on electrophoretic mobility of the Mr-22,000 polypeptide. Disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked the two polypeptides to a new Mr of 120,000-135,000 by SDS-PAGE. Antibody raised to the purified preparation immunoprecipitated spectral activity and, on Western blots, bound to the Mr-22,000 polypeptide but not the Mr-91,000 polypeptide. Western blot analysis of granulocytes from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease revealed a complete absence of the Mr-22,000 polypeptide. These results (a) suggest that the two polypeptides are in close association and are

  20. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  1. Pushing Human Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  2. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  3. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  4. Humans in space.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Averner, M

    2001-02-22

    Many successful space missions over the past 40 years have highlighted the advantages and necessity of humans in the exploration of space. But as space travel becomes ever more feasible in the twenty-first century, the health and safety of future space explorers will be paramount. In particular, understanding the risks posed by exposure to radiation and extended weightlessness will be crucial if humans are to travel far from Earth. PMID:11234026

  5. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Annas, G.C.; Elias, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a review of the book Mapping the Human Genome: Using Law and Ethics as Guides, edited by George C. Annas and Sherman Elias. The book is a collection of essays on the subject of using ethics and laws as guides to justify human gene mapping. It addresses specific issues such problems related to eugenics, patents, insurance as well as broad issues such as the societal definitions of normality.

  6. Meeting human needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    The degree of autonomy of future long duration manned missions will emphasize interactions between human operators and automated systems aimed at the most effective allocations of tasks between humans and machines. Knowledge of crewmembers' physical status, encompassing both capabilities and limitations, will also be critical during EVA and planetary roving missions; psychological evaluation and support, with a view to both individual health and group cohesion and productivity, may become a critical consideration. Attention is here given to crewmembers' medical and psychological vulnerabilities.

  7. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. PMID:25704934

  8. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

  9. Human immunoglobulin allotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2009-01-01

    More than twenty recombinant monoclonal antibodies are approved as therapeutics. Almost all of these are based on the whole IgG isotype format, but vary in the origin of the variable regions between mouse (chimeric), humanized mouse and fully human sequences; all of those with whole IgG format employ human constant region sequences. Currently, the opposing merits of the four IgG subclasses are considered with respect to the in vivo biological activities considered to be appropriate to the disease indication being treated. Human heavy chain genes also exhibit extensive structural polymorphism(s) and, being closely linked, are inherited as a haplotype. Polymorphisms (allotypes) within the IgG isotype were originally discovered and described using serological reagents derived from humans; demonstrating that allotypic variants can be immunogenic and provoke antibody responses as a result of allo-immunization. The serologically defined allotypes differ widely within and between population groups; therefore, a mAb of a given allotype will, inevitably, be delivered to a cohort of patients homozygous for the alternative allotype. This publication reviews the serologically defined human IgG allotypes and considers the potential for allotype differences to contribute to or potentiate immunogenicity. PMID:20073133

  10. The human telomere

    SciTech Connect

    Moyzis, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    An ultimate goal of human genetics is the generation of a complete physical and ''functional'' map of the human genome. Twenty-five percent of human DNA, however, consists of repetitive DNA sequences. These repetitive DNA sequences are thought to arise by many mechanisms, from direct sequence amplification by the unequal recombination of homologous DNA regions to the reverse flow of genetic information. A general outline of the chromosomal organization of these repetitive sequences will be discussed. Our working hypothesis is that certain classes of human repetitive DNA sequences ''encode'' the information necessary for defining long-range genomic structure. Evidence will be presented that the first goal of this research, the identification and cloning of the human telomere, has been achieved. A human repetitive DNA library was constructed from randomly sheared, reassociated, and oligo(G/center dot/C)-tailed DNA, a method that minimizes the potential loss of sequences devoid of a given restriction enzyme site. Sequences too large to clone efficiently in cosmid or /lambda/ vectors, such as centromeric repeats, or telomeric sequences with an end incompatible for cloning, should be present in this library. In order to isolate highly conserved repetitive DNA sequences, this library was screened with radiolabeled hamster Cot50 repetitive DNA. Two clones, containing tandem arrays of the sequence (TTAGGG), were isolated by this method. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Human Factors Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  12. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in two ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  13. Human behavior and human performance: Psychomotor demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of several experiments are presented in abstract form. These studies are critical for the interpretation and acceptance of flight based science to be conducted by the Behavior and Performance project. Some representative titles are as follow: External audio for IBM/PC compatible computers; A comparative assessment of psychomotor performance (target prediction by humans and macaques); Response path (a dependent measure for computer maze solving and other tasks); Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in Rhesus monkey (a dissociation between hand preference and skill); Testing primates with joystick based automated apparatus; and Environmental enrichment and performance assessment for ground or flight based research with primates;

  14. Allergic inflammation in the human lower respiratory tract affected by exposure to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc A; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Linn, William S; Gong, Henry; Clark, Kenneth W; Effros, Richard M; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R; Berhane, Kiros T

    2012-02-01

    To improve understanding of human health risks from exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP*), we tested whether immunologic effects previously observed in the human nose also occur in the lower airways. Our overall hypothesis was that cell influx and production of cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and other mediators, which would be measurable in sputum and blood, occur in people with asthma after realistic controlled exposures to diesel exhaust (DE). In Phase 1 we tested for direct effects of DE in subjects with clinically undifferentiated mild asthma. In Phase 2 we tested whether DE exposure would exacerbate response to inhaled cat allergen in subjects with both asthma and cat sensitivity. The exposure facility was a controlled-environment chamber supplied with DE from an idling medium-duty truck with ultra-low-sulfur fuel and no catalytic converter. We exposed volunteers for 2 hours with intermittent exercise to exhaust with DEP mass concentration near 100 microg/m3. Exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near 0.35 ppm (similar to its concentration in DE) and to filtered air (FA) served as controls. Blood was drawn before exposure on day 1 and again the next morning (day 2). Sputum was induced only on day 2. Bronchial reactivity was measured -1 hour after exposure ended. Supplementary endpoints included measures of blood coagulation status, cardiopulmonary physiology, and symptoms. Each phase employed 15 subjects with asthma; 3 subjects participated in both phases. In Phase 1, airway reactivity was measured with inhaled methacholine; in Phase 2, with inhaled cat allergen. We found little biologic response to DE exposure compared with exposure to control atmospheres. In Phase 1, interleukin 4 (IL-4) in sputum showed an estimated 1.7-fold increase attributable to DE exposure, which was close to statistical significance; airway resistance increased modestly but significantly on day 2 after DE exposure; and nonspecific symptom scores increased

  15. Developing Human Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  16. Meeting human needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    Manned space flight can be viewed as an interaction of three general elements: the human crewmember, spacecraft systems, and the environment. While the human crewmember is a crucial element in the system, certain physiological, psychological, environ- mental and spacecraft systems factors can compromise human performance in space. These factors include atmospheric pressure, physiology, uncertainties associated with space radiation, the potential for exposure to toxic materials in the closed environment, and spacecraft habitability. Health protection in space, for current and future missions, relies on a philosophy of risk reduction, which in the space program is achieved in four ways-through health maintenance, health care, design criteria, an selection and training. Emphasis is place upon prevention, through selection criteria and careful screening. Spacecraft health care systems must be absolutely reliable, and they will be automated and computerized to the maximum extent possible, but still designed with the human crewmember's capabilities in mind. The autonomy and technological sophistication of future missions will require a greater emphasis on high-level interaction between the human operator and automated systems, with effective allocation of tasks between humans and machines. Performance in space will include complex tasks during extravehicular activity (EVA) and on planetary surfaces, and knowledge of crewmembers' capability and limitations during such operations will be critical to mission success. Psychological support will become increasingly important on space missions, as crews spend long periods in remote and potentially hazardous environments. The success of future missions will depend on both individual psychological health and group cohesion and productivity, particularly as crew profiles become more heterogeneous. Thus, further human factors are needed in the area of small-group dynamics and performance.

  17. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  18. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population. PMID:26111568

  19. Why Geo-Humanities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  20. Archaic human genomics.

    PubMed

    Disotell, Todd R

    2012-01-01

    For much of the 20th century, the predominant view of human evolutionary history was derived from the fossil record. Homo erectus was seen arising in Africa from an earlier member of the genus and then spreading throughout the Old World and into the Oceania. A regional continuity model of anagenetic change from H. erectus via various intermediate archaic species into the modern humans in each of the regions inhabited by H. erectus was labeled the multiregional model of human evolution (MRE). A contrasting model positing a single origin, in Africa, of anatomically modern H. sapiens with some populations later migrating out of Africa and replacing the local archaic populations throughout the world with complete replacement became known as the recent African origin (RAO) model. Proponents of both models used different interpretations of the fossil record to bolster their views for decades. In the 1980s, molecular genetic techniques began providing evidence from modern human variation that allowed not only the different models of modern human origins to be tested but also the exploration demographic history and the types of selection that different regions of the genome and even specific traits had undergone. The majority of researchers interpreted these data as strongly supporting the RAO model, especially analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Extrapolating backward from modern patterns of variation and using various calibration points and substitution rates, a consensus arose that saw modern humans evolving from an African population around 200,000 years ago. Much later, around 50,000 years ago, a subset of this population migrated out of Africa replacing Neanderthals in Europe and western Asia as well as archaics in eastern Asia and Oceania. mtDNA sequences from more than two-dozen Neanderthals and early modern humans re-enforced this consensus. In 2010, however, the complete draft genomes of Neanderthals and of heretofore unknown hominins from Siberia, called

  1. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  2. Human occupancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1994-10-01

    In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

  3. Human Spinal Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-07-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. Humans have direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. PMID:27023730

  4. Human and murine erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    An, Xiuli; Schulz, Vincent P.; Mohandas, Narla; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Research into the fundamental mechanisms of erythropoiesis has provided critical insights into inherited and acquired disorders of the erythrocyte. Studies of human erythropoiesis have primarily utilized in-vitro systems, whereas murine models have provided insights from in-vivo studies. This report reviews recent insights into human and murine erythropoiesis gained from transcriptome-based analyses. Recent findings The availability of high-throughput genomic methodologies has allowed attainment of detailed gene expression data from cells at varying developmental and differentiation stages of erythropoiesis. Transcriptome analyses of human and murine reveal both stage and species-specific similarities and differences across terminal erythroid differentiation. Erythroid-specific long noncoding RNAs exhibit poor sequence conservation between human and mouse. Genome-wide analyses of alternative splicing reveal that complex, dynamic, stage-specific programs of alternative splicing program are utilized during terminal erythroid differentiation. Transcriptome data provide a significant resource for understanding mechanisms of normal and perturbed erythropoiesis. Understanding these processes will provide innovative strategies to detect, diagnose, prevent, and treat hematologic disease. Summary Understanding the shared and different mechanisms controlling human and murine erythropoiesis will allow investigators to leverage the best model system to provide insights in normal and perturbed erythropoiesis. PMID:25719574

  5. The Human Serum Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  6. Human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, D K; Dominguez, G; Pellett, P E

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 variant A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) are two closely related yet distinct viruses. These visuses belong to the Roseolovirus genus of the betaherpesvirus subfamily; they are most closely related to human herpesvirus 7 and then to human cytomegalovirus. Over 95% of people older than 2 years of age are seropositive for either or both HHV-6 variants, and current serologic methods are incapable of discriminating infection with one variant from infection with the other. HHV-6A has not been etiologically linked to any human disease, but such an association will probably be found soon. HHV-6B is the etiologic agent of the common childhood illness exanthem subitum (roseola infantum or sixth disease) and related febrile illnesses. These viruses are frequently active and associated with illness in immunocompromised patients and may play a role in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies. HHV-6 is a commensal inhabitant of brains; various neurologic manifestations, including convulsions and encephalitis, can occur during primary HHV-6 infection or in immunocompromised patients. HHV-6 and distribution in the central nervous system are altered in patients with multiple sclerosis; the significance of this is under investigation. PMID:9227865

  7. [Human genetics and ethics].

    PubMed

    Zergollern, L

    1990-01-01

    Many new problems and dilemmas have occurred in the practice of medical geneticists with the development of human genetics and its subdisciplines--molecular genetics, ethic genetics and juridical genetics. Devoid of the possibility to get adequate education, genetic informer or better to say, counsellor, although a scientist and a professional who has already formed his ethic attitudes, often finds himself in a dilemma when he has to decide whether a procedure made possible by progress of science is ethical or not. Thus, due to different attitudes, same decision is ethical for some, while for the others it is not. Ethic committees are groups of moral and good people trying to find an objective approach to certain genetic and ethic problems. There are more and more ethically unanswered questions in modern human genetics, and particularly in medical genetics. Medical geneticist-ethicist still encounters numerous problems in his work. These are, for example, experiments with human gametes and embryos, possibilities of hybridization of human gametes with animal gametes, in vitro fertilization, detection of heterozygotes and homozygotes for monogene diseases. early detection of chromosomopathies, substitute mothers, homo and hetero insemination, transplantation of fetal and cadeveric organs, uncontrolled consumption of alcohol and drugs, environmental pollution, etc. It is almost impossible to create a single attitude which shall be shared by all those engaged in human health protection. Therefore, it is best to have a neutral eugenetic attitude which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well-being of man. PMID:2366624

  8. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  9. Discounting human lives

    SciTech Connect

    Cropper, M.L. ); Portney, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    The future costs of regulatory programs to protect human health are routinely discounted, but the lives they save in the future are not. To shed light on the public's attitude toward the discounting of human lives, researchers at Resources for the Future asked 2,600 individuals to choose between one hypothetical program that would save lives immediately and another that would save lives in 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 years. From the responses, they inferred the number of lives that must be saved in the future to make people as content as saving one life today, compared this implicit discount rate to the respondents' discount rate for money, and identified several factors that affect discount rates for human lives.

  10. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  11. Human nutrition: evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Barnicot, N A

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades, much new evidence relating to the ape forerunners of modern humans has come to hand and diet appears to be an important factor. At some stage, there must have been a transition from a largely vegetarian ape diet to a modern human hunting economy providing significant amounts of meat. On an even longer evolutionary time scale the change was more complex. The mechanisms of evolutionary change are now better understood than they were in Darwin's time, thanks largely to great advances in genetics, both experimental and theoretical. It is virtually certain that diet, as a major component of the human environment, must have exerted evolutionary effects, but researchers still have little good evidence. PMID:17393680

  12. The Human Toxome Project

    PubMed Central

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Andersen, Melvin E.; Baghdikian, Christina; Boekelheide, Kim; Crofton, Kevin M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Kleensang, Andre; Li, Henghong; Livi, Carolina; Maertens, Alexandra; McMullen, Patrick D.; Rosenberg, Michael; Thomas, Russell; Vantangoli, Marguerite; Yager, James D.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Human Toxome Project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011–2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating and sharing molecular pathways of toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the responses of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are being phenotyped by transcriptomics and mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics. The bioinformatics tools for PoT deduction represent a core deliverable. A number of challenges for quality and standardization of cell systems, omics technologies and bioinformatics are being addressed. In parallel, concepts for annotation, validation and sharing of PoT information, as well as their link to adverse outcomes, are being developed. A reasonably comprehensive public database of PoT, the Human Toxome Knowledge-base, could become a point of reference for toxicological research and regulatory test strategies. PMID:25742299

  13. Is humanity suicidal?

    PubMed

    Wilson, E O

    1993-01-01

    The world's fauna and flora has entered a crisis unparalleled since the end of the Mesozoic Era, with the extinction rate of species now elevated to more than a thousand times that existing before the coming of humanity. Scientists and policy makers are ill-prepared to moderate this hemorrhaging, because so little is known of the biology of the Earth's millions of species and because so little effort has been directed toward conservation thus far. With the vanished species will go great potential wealth in scientific knowledge, new products, ecosystems services, and part of the natural world in which the human species originated. The need for new research and improved management is thus urgent. If it is not met, humanity will likely survive, but in a world biologically impoverished for all time. PMID:8155855

  14. Classifying human manipulation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Ian M; Dollar, Aaron M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a taxonomy for detailed classification of human and anthropomorphic manipulation behavior. This hand-centric, motion-centric taxonomy differentiates tasks based on criteria such as object contact, prehension, and the nature of object motion relative to a hand frame. A sub-classification of the most dexterous categories, within-hand manipulation, is also presented, based on the principal axis of object rotation or translation in the hand frame. Principles for categorizing complex, multi-faceted tasks are also presented, along with illustrative examples. We hope that the proposed taxonomy will both establish a standard language around human and anthropomorphic manipulation as well as enable improved understanding of the differences in hand use for a wide variety of behavior. Although designed for human and anthropomorphic hands, the taxonomy might easily be extended to a wide range of robot manipulators and end-effectors. PMID:22275611

  15. Autophagy and human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peidu; Mizushima, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative process that delivers cytoplasmic materials to the lysosome for degradation. Since the discovery of autophagy-related (Atg) genes in the 1990s, there has been a proliferation of studies on the physiological and pathological roles of autophagy in a variety of autophagy knockout models. However, direct evidence of the connections between ATG gene dysfunction and human diseases has emerged only recently. There are an increasing number of reports showing that mutations in the ATG genes were identified in various human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. Here, we review the major advances in identification of mutations or polymorphisms of the ATG genes in human diseases. Current autophagy-modulating compounds in clinical trials are also summarized. PMID:24323045

  16. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  17. The human toxome project.

    PubMed

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Andersen, Melvin E; Baghdikian, Christina; Boekelheide, Kim; Crofton, Kevin M; Fornace, Albert J; Kleensang, Andre; Li, Henghong; Livi, Carolina; Maertens, Alexandra; McMullen, Patrick D; Rosenberg, Michael; Thomas, Russell; Vantangoli, Marguerite; Yager, James D; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Human Toxome Project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011-2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating and sharing molecular pathways of toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the responses of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are being phenotyped by transcriptomics and mass-spectroscopy-based metabolomics. The bioinformatics tools for PoT deduction represent a core deliverable. A number of challenges for quality and standardization of cell systems, omics technologies and bioinformatics are being addressed. In parallel, concepts for annotation, validation and sharing of PoT information, as well as their link to adverse outcomes, are being developed. A reasonably comprehensive public database of PoT, the Human Toxome Knowledge-base, could become a point of reference for toxicological research and regulatory test strategies. PMID:25742299

  18. Whither medical humanities?

    PubMed

    Singh, Navjeevan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the medical humanities (MH) and their role in medical education is in its infancy in India. Students are initiated into professional (medical) education too early in life, usually at the expense of a basic grounding in the humanities, resulting in warped intellectual growth. The author, arguing against the wholesale import of foreign systems, advocates free inquiry by medical educators to evolve a humanities programme for medical students derived from our own cultural context. This essay describes the early experiences of efforts to make a beginning at the University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. The author reviews the various strategies used and the challenges of introducing the subject to the current generation of medical students. PMID:22864074

  19. Teleoperator Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the spectrum of space teleoperation activities likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on the resolution of critical human engineering issues and characterization of the technology effect on performance of remote human operators. The study began with the identification and documentation of a set of representative reference teleoperator tasks. For each task, technology, development, and design options, issues, and alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined and categorized. A literature survey identified existing studies of man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an assessment was made of the state of knowledge on a scale from adequate to void. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary to provide the missing elements of knowledge were then defined. A limited set of tests were actually performed, including operator selection, baseline task definition, control mode study, lighting study, camera study, and preliminary time delay study.

  20. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  1. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  2. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  3. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  4. The Exploration of Mars by Humans: Why Mars? Why Humans?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    As we commemorate the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's historic flight in 1961, the first flight of a human in space, plans are underway for another historic human mission. Plans are being developed for a human mission to Mars. Once we reach Mars, the human species will become the first two-planet species. Both the Bush Administration (in 2004) and the Obama Administration (in 2010) proposed a human mission to Mars as a national goal of the United States.

  5. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  6. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  7. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Human Studies Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Major cardiovascular problems, secondary to cardiovascular deconditioning, may occur on extended space missions. While it is generally assumed that the microgravity state is the primary cause of cardiovascular deconditioning, sleep deprivation and disruption of diurnal rhythms may also play an important role. Factors that could be modified by either or both of these perturbations include: autonomic function and short-term cardiovascular reflexes, vasoreactivity, circadian rhythm of cardiovascular hormones (specifically the renin-angiotensin system) and renal sodium handling and hormonal influences on that process, venous compliance, cardiac mass, and cardiac conduction processes. The purpose of the Human Studies Core is to provide the infrastructure to conduct human experiments which will allow for the assessment of the likely role of such factors in the space travel associated cardiovascular deconditioning process and to develop appropriate countermeasures. The Core takes advantage of a newly-created Intensive Physiologic Monitoring (IPM) Unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, to perform these studies. The Core includes two general experimental protocols. The first protocol involves a head down tilt bed-rest study to simulate microgravity. The second protocol includes the addition of a disruption of circadian rhythms to the simulated microgravity environment. Before and after each of these environmental manipulations, the subjects will undergo acute stressors simulating changes in volume and/or stress, which could occur in space and on return to Earth. The subjects are maintained in a rigidly controlled environment with fixed light/dark cycles, activity pattern, and dietary intake of nutrients, fluids, ions and calories.

  8. Human variation databases

    PubMed Central

    Küntzer, Jan; Eggle, Daniela; Klostermann, Stefan; Burtscher, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    More than 100 000 human genetic variations have been described in various genes that are associated with a wide variety of diseases. Such data provides invaluable information for both clinical medicine and basic science. A number of locus-specific databases have been developed to exploit this huge amount of data. However, the scope, format and content of these databases differ strongly and as no standard for variation databases has yet been adopted, the way data is presented varies enormously. This review aims to give an overview of current resources for human variation data in public and commercial resources. PMID:20639550

  9. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  10. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  11. [Human reservoirs of Pneumocystis].

    PubMed

    Wissmann, Gustavo; Morilla, Ruben; Friaza, Vicente; Calderón, Enrique; Varela, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii, the fungal agent that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), is known to exclusively infect humans. Molecular studies have enabled detection of this fungus in individuals who have been colonized by P. jirovecii. Such colonization, found in several populations, seems to act as a human reservoir for the fungus. Various studies have reported mutations associated with sulfa resistance in P. jirovecii strains isolated from colonized patients, who can transmit the mutant genotype to PCP-susceptible individuals. The growing interest in P. jirovecii colonization may prompt the design of new prevention and management strategies for PCP. PMID:19403207

  12. We Are Human Beings.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan's arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  13. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  14. Disorders of Human Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Arthur; Mears, J. Gregory; Ramirez, Francesco

    1980-02-01

    Studies of the human hemoglobin system have provided new insights into the regulation of expression of a group of linked human genes, the γ -δ -β globin gene complex in man. In particular, the thalassemia syndromes and related disorders of man are inherited anemias that provide mutations for the study of the regulation of globin gene expression. New methods, including restriction enzyme analysis and cloning of cellular DNA, have made it feasible to define more precisely the structure and organization of the globin genes in cellular DNA. Deletions of specific globin gene fragments have already been found in certain of these disorders and have been applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  15. Memristance in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Lütken, C. A.; Johnsen, G. K.

    2010-04-01

    The memristor is basically a resistor with memory, so that the resistance is dependent on the net amount of charge having passed through the device. It is the regarded the fourth fundamental component, in addition to the resistor, capacitor and inductor, that can be deduced from the four basic circuit variables; current, voltage, charge and magnetic flux. We show that memristors can be used for modelling electrical properties of human skin. In particular is electro-osmosis in human sweat ducts of memristive nature.

  16. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  17. Human Challenges in Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presents an overview using pictures some of the history of human exploration of the new frontiers of Earth and then examines some of the challenges to human exploration of space. Particular attention is given to the environmental factors and to the social and human factors that effect humans in space environments.

  18. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  19. The Human Toxome Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Toxome project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011--‐ 2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating, and sharing molecular Pathways of Toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the respo...

  20. Human neurotrichinellosis, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasites of the genus Trichinella are globally-distributed, tissue-dwelling nematodes that predominantly infect mammals, though certain species are known to infect birds and reptiles as well. Human trichinellosis occurs by the ingestion of raw or improperly cooked meat harboring the infective muscl...

  1. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  2. Learning to Be Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmurray, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents "Learning to be Human", which John Macmurray delivered on 5 May 1958 as the annual public lecture at Moray House College of Education, now part of Edinburgh University. The key themes of the paper are ones to which Macmurray returned again and again in both his educational and his philosophical writing for over 40 years and…

  3. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis. PMID:27434696

  4. Occupying the Digital Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…

  5. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  6. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  7. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  8. Toward a Technical Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, Louis

    1977-01-01

    Examines the relationship between education and development in developing nations. Advocates the fostering of a technical humanism--the development of knowledge in all its forms as a basis for action. In this system, technical education is as highly valued as general education. The system, and its applications to rural education is discussed. (CP)

  9. Television and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  10. Trends in Humanities Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard, Ed.; Whitney, Loralyn, Ed.

    Proceedings from this workshop sponsored by the Center for the Study of Rural Librarianship are intended to disseminate information to assist rural librarians engaged in planning and conducting public programs that explore issues related to the humanities. This report of the proceedings includes the texts of three presented papers, reactions from…

  11. Humanizing the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Roy P., Ed.

    A series of essays discussing ideas about humanizing work are presented in the document. Three major sections divide the essays, and each includes a preface with comments suggesting the central focus and questions with which the authors are concerned. The first section deals with the history, philosophy, and issues related to work and contains…

  12. Television's New Humane Collectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Robert L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes "Taxi,""Barney Miller,""Lou Grant," and "M*A*S*H" in terms of three fantasy themes: the realization of significant others, the alliance in action, and membership into personhood. From these themes emerges a rhetorical vision of the new humane collectivity. (PD)

  13. Strategic Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on strategic human resource development (HRD) focusing on the characteristics of such activities, conditions necessary for the promotion of HRD, and the benefits to an organization pursuing such activities. Empirical evidence is presented on HRD policy formation and planning processes in Irish high technology companies. (JOW)

  14. Grass and human nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food products from animals that graze grasslands and consume diets high in forages are often better for human health than livestock fed diets with forages and concentrates. Meat from livestock that graze pastures in the United States frequently has less fat and higher concentrations of omega-3 fatty...

  15. Humanism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  16. Futures of Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, L. S.

    There are several research areas basic to the long-range future of human communications. Telecommunication and transportation offer the possiblity of two worldwide communications networks whose interrelationships need to be explored in terms of the needs of the individual, the community, and the world at large. Expanding possibilities of…

  17. Human Papilloma Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V. Cecil

    1989-01-01

    Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

  18. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  19. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  20. Human performance measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J.; Scow, J.

    1970-01-01

    Complex coordinator, consisting of operator control console, recorder, subject display panel, and limb controls, measures human performance by testing perceptual and motor skills. Device measures psychophysiological functions in drug and environmental studies, and is applicable to early detection of psychophysiological body changes.