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Sample records for benthic nepheloid layer

  1. Suspended sediment transport in the benthic nepheloid layer in southeastern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, N.; Lesht, B.M.

    1995-02-01

    Time series observations of water temperature, water transparency, and current velocity were made at four stations located on the lake slope of southeastern Lake Michigan. The observations show that during stratified conditions the benthic nepheloid layer is probably not maintained by the local resuspension of bottom sediment. A more likely source is sediment resuspended further inshore and then transported across the shelf and slope during downwelling events. Internal wave action may be an important source of energy for this transport. Although sediment trap studies suggest that resuspension does occur, it is more likely that increased fluxes observed near the bottom are due to the vertical redistribution of material already in suspension. A benthic nepheloid layer also exists at times during the unstratified period, when occassionally enough energy reaches the bottom to directly resuspend bottom material at the sites.

  2. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    PubMed Central

    Pilskaln, C.H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B.A.; Anderson, D.M.; McGillicuddy, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50–60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m−3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016 . Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region. PMID:25419055

  3. Sedimentary sources of old high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon from the ocean margin benthic nepheloid layer

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, L. Santschi, P.H.

    2000-02-01

    Average {sup 14}C ages of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the ocean are 3--6,000 years, and are influenced by old DOC from continental margins. However, sources of DOC from terrestrial, autochthonous, and sedimentary organic carbon seem to be too young to be responsible for the old DOC observed in the ocean. Since colloidal organic carbon (COC, i.e., high molecular weight DOC), which is chemically very similar to that of bulk DOC, can be effectively isolated from seawater using cross-flow ultrafiltration, it can hold clues to sources and pathways of DOC turnover in the ocean. Radiocarbon measurements on COC in the water column and benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) from two continental margin areas (the Middle Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico) and controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to study sources of old DOC in the ocean margin areas. Vertical distributions of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and DOC in the water column and bottom waters near the sediment-water interface all demonstrate a well developed benthic nepheloid layer in both ocean margin areas. COC from the BNL was much older than COC from the overlying water column. These results, together with strong concentration gradients of SPM, POC, PON, and DOC, suggest a sedimentary source for organic carbon species and possibly for old COC as well in BNL waters. This is confirmed by the results from controlled laboratory experiments. The heterogeneity of {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures in bulk SOC thus points to a preferential release of old organic components from sediment resuspension, which can be the transport mechanism of the old benthic COC observed in ocean margin areas. Old COC from continental margin nepheloid layers may thus be a potential source of old DOC to the deep ocean.

  4. Aerobic methanotrophs drive the formation of a seasonal anoxic benthic nepheloid layer in monomictic Lake Lugano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blees, Jan; Niemann, Helge; Wenk, Christine B.; Zopfi, Jacob; Schubert, Carsten J.; Jenzer, Jol S.; Veronesi, Mauro L.; Lehmann, Moritz F.

    2014-05-01

    In the southern basin of Lake Lugano, thermal stratification of the water column during summer and autumn leads to a lack of exchange between surface and deep water masses, and consequently to seasonal bottom water anoxia, associated with high methane concentrations. With the onset of bottom water anoxia, a dense layer of high particulate matter concentration - a so-called benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) - develops in the bottom waters. A sharp redox gradient marks the upper boundary of the BNL. At its maximum, the BNL extends 15 - 30 m from the sediment into the water column. We investigated the identity of the BNL and key environmental factors controlling its formation in the framework of a seasonal study. Compound specific C-isotope measurements and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) of suspended particulate organic matter, radioactive tracer based measurements of methane oxidation, as well as investigation of geochemical water column parameters were performed in spring and autumn. Our analyses revealed that the microbial biomass within the BNL is dominated by methanotrophic bacteria. Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) was restricted to a narrow zone at the top of the BNL, reaching maximum rates of up to 1.8 ?M/day. The rates of MOx activity effectively consumed most (>99%) of the uprising methane, leading to the formation of a sharp CH4 concentration gradient and a strongly suppressed kinetic isotope effect (? = -2.8o). CH4 oxidation was limited by the diffusive supply of O2 from the upper hypolimnion, implying that methanotrophy is the primary driver of the seasonal expansion of the anoxic bottom water volume, and explaining the vertical migration of the BNL in response to its own O2 consumption. The bulk organic matter extracted from the BNL was strongly depleted in 13C (?13C < -60o), providing evidence for the incorporation of CH4-derived carbon into the biomass, suggesting that the BNL was composed of MOx-communities. This was further evidenced by four dominant fatty acid biomarkers (C16:1?5, C16:1?6, C16:1?7, and C16:1?8), which were strongly C-isotopically depleted, with ?13C values between -62o (?6) and -80o (?7). The fingerprint of isotopically depleted FAs indicates a dominance of Type I MOx bacteria in the BNL, which we could confirm with FISH using specific probes. Isotope mixing considerations suggest that 77 - 96 % of fatty acid carbon in the BNL is CH4-derived. FISH revealed that up to 30% of microbial cells in the BNL are methanotrophic. The cell size of methanotrophs was significantly larger than of other microbial cells, and an independent approach to quantify the contribution of methanotroph-carbon to the BNL biomass, based on methanotrophic cell size, confirmed our C-isotope-based estimate.

  5. Mass-physical properties of surficial sediments on the Rhone continental margin: implications for the nepheloid benthic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, Bernard

    1990-09-01

    Mass-physical properties of the surficial (upper 5 m) sediments on the Gulf of Lions continental margin were analysed, from more than 100 short (1 m) and longer (5 m) cores obtained during several cruises. Data include water content, unit weight, Atterberg limits (liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index), shear strength and compression index, and are used to determine: first, the mass property distribution, according to the main parameters influencing mass-physical properties; the relationships between these properties and the nepheloid layer on the shelf. The shoreline (lagoons) and inner shelf are characterized by low density and shear strength and high water content deposits, due to electrochemical flocculation of the sediment. The outer shelf is blanketed by higher density and shear strength and lower water content deposits generated by normal settling of suspended particles. On the inner shelf, during river peak discharges, a short-term thin bottom layer of "yogurt-like" [ FASS (1985) Geomarine Letters, 4, 147-152; FASS (1986) Continental Shelf Research, 6, 189-208] fluid-mud (unit weight lower than 1.3 mg m -3) is supplied, by a bottom nepheloid layer. During stormy periods, this "yogurt-like" layer (about 10 cm thick) partly disappears by resuspension of suspended particulate matter; this is advected, in the bottom nepheloid layer, over the shelf and the canyons within the upper slope.

  6. Tidal Signatures of the Benthic Nepheloid Layer (BNL) in the Gaoping/Kaoping Submarine Canyon off Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. T.; Lee, I.; Wang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) have been observed in the head region of the Gaoping/Kaoping Submarine Canyon (KPSC) along the canyon thalweg in different seasons between 1999 and 2000. The top of the BNL could be as high as 100 m above the canyon floor whose suspended sediment concentration (SSC) could be as high as 30 mg/l. In the BNL, silt comprises the largest size-class in the suspended sediment population. In 2000, 2002, and 2004 three taut-line moorings were deployed at different locations in the head region of the KPSC for one month. Time series measurements of along- canyon flow velocity, water temperature, and the volume concentration (VC) of clay, very-fine-to-medium silt, coarse silt and sand size-classes were obtained near the canyon floor from each mooring. Results show that the BNL is strongly modulated by the tides in the descending order at semidiurnal, diurnal, and spring-neap frequencies. In the course of a semidiurnal tidal cycle, the flood (up-canyon) current brings colder water from seaward part of the canyon and the SSC and thickness of the BNL increases. The SSC near the canyon floor also increases in response to the peaks of flood and ebb currents of the semidiurnal tide. The tidal-to-total energy ratio (ER) for the along-canon flow is between 70-80%, and between 50-80% among the suspended sediment of clay, very-fine-to-medium silt, coarse silt and sand size-classes. M2 is the most important constituent in the along-canyon flow, water temperature, and the VC of the four size-classes. The local phase difference between the forcing (velocity), and the responses (temperature and VC) at the M2 frequency suggest the a mixture of progressive and standing waves and that topographic effect caused the phase varied along the canyon. The VC tidal amplitude ratio between M4 and M2 constituents of the four size-classes indicates that the temporal fluctuations of the suspended sediment concentration in the BNL are highly nonlinear. The generation of nonlinearity could be through the flow-topography interaction and through the alternate entrainment and deposition of suspended sediment in the course of a semidiurnal tidal cycle. At this point, the relationship among barotropic tides, internal tides, and typhoon events and BNL is not clear. The role of the BNL in the sediment transport and sedimentation in submarine canyons worldwide is also not fully understood. Studies on these subjects in the KPSC are in progress.

  7. Nepheloid layer distribution in the Gulf of Valencia, northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rib, M.; Puig, P.; Salat, J.; Palanques, A.

    2013-02-01

    According to previous studies, the surface circulation of the Gulf of Valencia (GoV) is characterized by a convergence between the southwestward Northern Current carrying old Atlantic Waters (oAW) and the northward intrusions of recent Atlantic Waters (rAW) imported through the Ibiza Channel. This paper focuses on the distribution of the suspended sediment concentration in the GoV obtained from a dense grid of CTD observations in June 1995 during the oceanographic cruise MESO'95 (MESOscale processes). We evaluate the relation between currents, water masses and the nepheloid structure at the time of the survey. Results showed higher suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the oAW than in the rAW. At the shelf-break depth, an important detachment of particulate matter was observed off Cap La Nao, extending seawards all across the Ibiza Channel. The presence of this intermediate nepheloid layer detachment indicates a preferential off-shelf sediment export at the southern end of the GoV, where the orientation of the continental margin changes, and oAW and rAW merge. On the continental slope, several nepheloid layers detachments were observed between 400 and 600 m, where the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) interacts with the seafloor, suggesting the possible presence of internal waves causing sediment resuspension and/or maintaining particles in suspension in the mid-slope region. A bottom nepheloid layer was also observed at deeper locations along the central and southern part of the GoV continental slope, but not at the Ibiza Sill.

  8. The nepheloid bottom layer and water masses at the shelf break of the western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capello, Marco; Budillon, Giorgio; Cutroneo, Laura; Tucci, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In the austral summers of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 the Italian CLIMA Project carried out two oceanographic cruises along the northwestern margin of the Ross Sea, where the Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Here there is an interaction between the water masses on the sea floor of the outer shelf and slope with a consequent evolution of benthic nepheloid layers and an increase in total particulate matter. We observed three different situations: (a) the presence of triads (bottom structures characterized by a concomitant jump in turbidity, temperature, and salinity data) and high re-suspension phenomena related to the presence of the Circumpolar Deep Water and its mixing with cold, salty shelf waters associated with gravity currents; (b) the absence of triads with high re-suspension, implying that when the gravity currents are no longer active the benthic nepheloid layer may persist until the suspended particles settle to the sea floor, suggesting that the turbidity data can be used to study recent gravity current events; and (c) the absence of turbidity and sediment re-suspension phenomena supports the theory that a steady situation had been re-established and the current interaction no longer occurred or had finished sometime before.

  9. Nepheloid layers and internal waves over continental shelves and slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and laboratory results indicate that bottom velocities within shoaling internal gravity waves intensify upslope approximately inversely proportional to the water depth. The elevated velocities (and bottom stresses) caused by shoaling and, possibly, breaking internal waves might explain the generation and maintenance of near-bottom nepheloid zones and attached turbid plumes that have been observed over certain continental shelves and slopes. This process is proposed as an explanation of zones of relatively low transmissibility that emanate from the upper continental slope near Newport submarine canyon off southern California. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  11. Role of internal waves in the generation of nepheloid layers on the northwestern Alboran slope: Implications for continental margin shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Palanques, A.; GuillN, J.; El Khatab, M.

    2004-09-01

    The role of internal waves in the sediment dynamics of the northwestern Alboran continental slope was investigated in a selected area around the Guadiaro submarine canyon. Nepheloid layer distribution was identified using closely spaced CTD/transmissometer profiles collected during two hydrographic surveys. A well-defined pattern of suspended sediment distribution consisting of surface, intermediate, and near-bottom nepheloid layers was found. Intermediate and bottom nepheloid layers were always observed within the canyon and on the adjacent continental slope, spanning mainly from 200 to 500 m depth. In addition, a current meter with a turbidimeter was deployed in the lower section of the Guadiaro Canyon at 600 m depth, 25 meters above the seafloor. Time series analysis indicated that the currents, temperature, and turbidity within the canyon fluctuate mainly at semidiurnal tidal frequencies, suggesting the presence of semidiurnal internal tides affecting the near-bottom suspended sediment concentration along the canyon axis. High-resolution bathymetry from the study area was used to evaluate the internal wave reflection conditions at semidiurnal tidal frequency for the entire continental slope region. Critical slope conditions were reached on the upper continental slope and along the canyon axis, coinciding with the region in which nepheloid layers were observed. This region also coincides with a zone of erosion on the upper continental slope of the study area previously identified by [1993]. These results indicate that the generation of intermediate and bottom nepheloid layers, as well as the erosion and shaping of the northwestern Alborn continental slope, may result from the interaction of internal waves and the seafloor morphology.

  12. Estuarine sediment transport by gravity-driven movement of the nepheloid layer, Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Williams, S.J.; Crocker, J.M.; Doran, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of sidescan-sonar imagery provides evidence that down-slope gravity-driven movement of the nepheloid layer constitutes an important mode of transporting sediment into the basins of north-central Long Island Sound, a major US East Coast estuary. In the Western Basin, this transport mechanism has formed dendritic drainage systems characterized by branching patterns of low backscatter on the seafloor that exceed 7.4 km in length and progressively widen down-slope, reaching widths of over 0.6 km at their southern distal ends. Although much smaller, dendritic patterns of similar morphology are also present in the northwestern part of the Central Basin. Because many contaminants display affinities for adsorption onto fine-grained sediments, and because the Sound is affected by seasonal hypoxia, mechanisms and dispersal pathways by which inorganic and organic sediments are remobilized and transported impact the eventual fate of the contaminants and environmental health of the estuary. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  13. Suspended particulate loads and transports in the nepheloid layer of the abyssal Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biscaye, P.E.; Eittreim, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical profiles of light scattering from over 1000 L-DGO nephelometer stations in the Atlantic Ocean have been used to calculate mass concentrations of suspended particles based on a calibration from the western North American Basin. From these data are plotted the distributions of particulate concentrations at clear water and in the more turbid near-bottom water. Clear water is the broad minimum in concentration and light scattering that occurs at varying mid-depths in the water column. Concentrations at clear water are as much as one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than those in surface water but still reflect a similar geographic distribution: relatively higher concentrations at ocean margins, especially underneath upwelling areas, and the lowest concentrations underneath central gyre areas. These distributions within the clear water reflect surface-water biogenic productivity, lateral injection of particles from shelf areas and surface circulation patterns and require that the combination of downward vertical and horizontal transport processes of particles retain this pattern throughout the upper water column. Below clear water, the distribution of standing crops of suspended particulate concentrations in the lower water column are presented. The integration of mass of all particles per unit area (gross particulate standing crop) reflects a relative distribution similar to that at the surface and at clear water levels, superimposed on which is the strong imprint of boundary currents along the western margins of the Atlantic. Reducing the gross particulate standing crop by the integral of the concentration of clear water yields a net particulate standing crop. The distribution of this reflects primarily the interaction of circulating abyssal waters with the ocean bottom, i.e. a strong nepheloid layer which is coincident with western boundary currents and which diminishes in intensity equatorward. The resuspended particulate loads in the nepheloid layer of the basins west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, resulting from interaction of abyssal currents with the bottom, range from ??? 2 ?? 106 tons in the equatorial Guyana Basin to ??? 50 ?? 106 tons in the North American Basin. The total resuspended particulate load in the western basins (111 ?? 106 tons) is almost an order of magnitude greater than that in the basins east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (13 ?? 106 tons). The net northward flux of resuspended particles carried in the AABW drops from ??? 8 ?? 106 tons/year between the southern and northern ends of the Brazil Basin and remains ??? 1 ?? 106 tons/year across the Guyana Basin. ?? 1977.

  14. The Role of Internal Waves in the Generation of Intermediate and Bottom Nepheloid Layers Within and Around the Guadiaro Submarine Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Palanques, A.; Guillen, J.; El Khatab, M.

    2002-12-01

    Nepheloid layers distribution within and around the Guadiaro submarine canyon (northwestern Alboran Sea) was identified using closely-spaced CTD/transmissometer profiles collected during two hydrographic surveys. A well defined pattern of particulate matter distribution consisting in surface, intermediate and near-bottom nepheloid layers was observed. Intermediate and bottom nepheloid layers were always observed within the canyon and in the adjacent continental slope, spanning mainly from 200 to 500 m depth. As part of this study, a currentmeter with a turbidimeter was deployed in the lower section of the Guadiaro Canyon at 600 m depth, 25 meters above the seafloor. Spectral analysis of time series indicated that the currents, temperature and turbidity within the canyon fluctuate principally at semi-diurnal tidal frequencies. Increases of water turbidity were associated with down-canyon current velocities and temperature increases. This behavior suggests the presence of semi-diurnal internal tides affecting the near-bottom suspended sediment concentration along the canyon axis. High-resolution bathymetry from the study area was used to evaluate the internal wave reflection conditions at semi-diurnal tidal frequency for the entire continental slope region. Critical slope conditions were reached at the upper continental slope and along the canyon axis, coinciding with the region were nepheloid layers were observed. This evidence indicates that the generation of intermediate and bottom nepheloid layers within and around the Guadiaro Canyon can result from the interaction of internal waves and the seafloor morphology.

  15. Thick bottom nepheloid layers in the western Mediterranean generated by deep dense shelf water cascading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Pere; Madron, Xavier Durrieu de; Salat, Jordi; Schroeder, Katrin; Martn, Jacobo; Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.; Palanques, Albert; Roullier, Franois; Lopez-Jurado, Jos Luis; Emelianov, Mikhail; Moutin, Thierry; Houpert, Loc

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of a compilation of deep CTD casts conducted in the western Mediterranean from 1998 to 2011 has documented the role that dense water formation, and particularly deep dense shelf water cascading off the Gulf of Lions, plays in transporting suspended particulate matter from the coastal regions down to the basin. Deep CTD casts reveal that after the 1999 and 2005-2006 deep cascading events the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) was characterized by the presence of a thick bottom nepheloid layer (BNL) that corresponded in thickness with a thermohaline anomaly generated by the mixture of dense waters formed by deep convection in the open sea and by deep cascading. This BNL can be hundreds of meters thick and in the central part of the basin usually exhibits suspended sediment concentrations of <0.1 mg/l above background levels, reaching higher concentrations close to the continental rise, with near-bottom peaks >1 mg/l. After winter 1999 the BNL spread from the Gulf of Lions and the Catalan margin over the northwestern Mediterranean basin, reaching west of the Balearic Islands and the Ligurian Sea, while after winters 2005-2006 the BNL covered the entire western Mediterranean basin. Thickness and concentration of the BNL tend to diminish with time but this trend is highly dependent on the volume of dense water generated, both by convection and cascading. After winter 1999 the BNL signal vanished in one year, but after winters 2005-2006 it lasted for longer and the turbidity signal can still be distinguished at present (2011). Particle size distribution in the BNL reveals the presence of large aggregates up to 1 mm in size formed by a mixture of single particles with the same bimodal grain size distribution as the surface sediments found in the northwestern Mediterranean slope and basin. Results presented in this paper highlight the fact that the WMDW can be periodically affected by the arrival of new dense waters loaded with suspended particles mainly introduced by resuspension processes during major cascading events, being a key process that could ultimately affect deep-sea biogeochemical cycles in the western Mediterranean.

  16. Benthic boundary layer processes in the Lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavoie, D.L.; Richardson, M.D.; Holmes, C.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters, "Benthic Boundary Layer Processes in the Lower Florida Keys," includes 12 papers that present preliminary results from the Key West Campaign. The Dry Tortugas and Marquesas Keys test sites were selected by a group of 115 scientists and technicians to study benthic boundary layer processes in a carbonate environment controlled by bioturbation and biogeochemical processes. Major activities included remote sediment classification; high-frequency acoustic scattering experiments; sediment sampling for radiological, geotechnical, biological, biogeochemical, physical, and geoacoustic studies; and hydrodynamic studies using an instrumented tetrapod. All these data are being used to improve our understanding of the effects of environmental processes on sediment structure and behavior.

  17. On the links between a rivers hyperpycnal plume and marine benthic nepheloid layer in the wake of a typhoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ray T.; Liu, James T.; Su, Chih-Chieh; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Chen, Shih-Nan; Kuo, Fang-Hsu; Huang, Jeff C.

    2014-09-01

    In 2010 two moorings each configured with a CTD and an ADCP, one with an additional non-sequential sediment trap (NSST), were deployed in the head region of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon 3 days after the typhoon-induced peaks of the runoff and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the Gaoping River in southern Taiwan. Our data show a demarcation between tidal and hyperpycnal regimes in the temperature, salinity, and flow fields. The latter existed in the first 5 days out of the 18-day deployment, as defined by higher water density due to high SSC. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of the tail end of a hyperpycnal turbidity current (HTC), including the retention of warm water near the canyon floor, high SSC, down-canyon directed residual flow and its vertical structure, and high terrestrial fraction (larger than 70%) of the organic particles carried by the flow. The decreasing mass flux during the deployment is also an indication of a waning HTC. Our findings also show that the vertical flow structure and the direction of the gravity-driven down-canyon HTC were retarded by the instantaneous up-canyon-directed tidal oscillations in the submarine canyon.

  18. Distinct Benthic Community Trends Driven by Particle Transport and Deposition in Mid-Atlantic Bight Canyons, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demopoulos, A. W.; Robertson, C. M.; Bourque, J. R.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Ross, S.; Brooke, S.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) is a well-studied region of the U.S. East coast continental margin, rich in submarine canyons. Baltimore and Norfolk canyons were studied during the multidisciplinary Atlantic Deepwater Canyons project through funding from BOEM, NOAA, and USGS. Sediment and water column properties were assessed in the context of canyon physical dynamics and ecosystem ecology. Sediment samples were collected by NIOZ box corer in 2012 and 2013 along canyon axes and comparative adjacent slopes at standardized depths. Sediments were analyzed for grain size, organic content, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, chlorophyll a, and benthic infauna. Water column properties were sampled using CTD transects, and benthic landers and moorings positioned along canyon axes. Significant differences in sediment transport regimes were found for each canyon where observed nepheloid layers corresponded to shifts in infaunal community structure. Significant community shifts were observed in stations at depths > 900m in Baltimore Canyon, coinciding with higher organic matter concentrations at depths below the nepheloid layer. In contrast, adjacent slope communities exhibited a more uniform infaunal assemblage where distinct zonation patterns by depth were observed. Preliminary data for Norfolk Canyon suggest very different sediment deposition rates in the canyon and also show clear differences between canyon and slope benthic communities. Geological processes and canyon topography coupled with organic inputs and disturbance events are clear factors in determining benthic infaunal diversity and standing stock dynamics in and around these canyons.

  19. The benthic boundary layer under fully-nonlinear internal solitary waves of depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuncheng; Redekopp, Larry

    2010-11-01

    Long internal waves are common features on the continental shelf and in lakes, but their dissipation via benthic boundary layer drag is largely unknown, particularly when the wave amplitudes are large and boundary layer corrections based on linear theory are clearly invalid. In general, the wave-induced boundary layer experiences a continuous favorable-to-adverse variation of the pressure gradient, undergoes transition, may reach a strongly turbulent state, and frequently separates near the point of maximum adverse pressure gradient in the lee of the wave. In this study a model for fully-nonlinear solitary waves of depression in a two-layer stratification is employed as the inviscid base state, and a RANS solver with k-? turbulence model is used to compute the stationary boundary layer under the wave. Local friction coefficients and eddy viscosities are computed in the footprint of the wave. Locations of boundary layer separation are computed as well as the integrated frictional drag over the region of attached boundary layer flow. Boundary layer characteristics are presented for a range of environmental conditions, Reynolds numbers, and surface roughness in an attempt to provide a quantitative measure of the frictional drag of long internal waves in realistic, shallow environs.

  20. Effect of benthic boundary layer transport on the productivity of Mono Lake, California

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Louise C; Jellison, Robert; Imberger, Jrg; Melack, John M

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the transport of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water via the benthic boundary layer (BBL) to the productivity of Mono Lake was studied using a coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model validated against field data. The coupled model enabled us to differentiate between the role of biotic components and hydrodynamic forcing on the internal recycling of nutrients necessary to sustain primary productivity. A 4-year period (19911994) was simulated in which recycled nutrients from zooplankton excretion and bacterially-mediated mineralization exceeded sediment fluxes as the dominant source for primary productivity. Model outputs indicated that BBL transport was responsible for a 53% increase in the flux of hypolimnetic ammonium to the photic zone during stratification with an increase in primary production of 6% and secondary production of 5%. Although the estimated impact of BBL transport on the productivity of Mono Lake was not large, significant nutrient fluxes were simulated during periods when BBL transport was most active. PMID:18710583

  1. An instrument system for monitoring and sampling suspended sediment in the benthic boundary layer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, R.W.; Johnson, R.V., II; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument system has been constructed that can monitor and sample suspended sediment distributions in the benthic boundary layer. It consists of miniature nephelometers and suspended sediment samplers placed within one meter of the seabed. The system is capable of continuously monitoring suspended sediment profiles at eight levels between 14 and 100 cm above the seabed and collecting suspended sediment samples at four levels (20, 50, 70 and 100 cm) at three times during a deployment period. The suspended sediment system is designed to fit onto the instrumented tripod GEOPROBE which contains four electromagnetic current meters, pressure sensor, bottom stereo camera, two temperature sensors, transmissometer, and a Savonius rotor current meter. Sensor operation, data recording, and sediment sampling events are synchronized. Thus detailed measurements of the near-bottom flow conditions are made concurrently with suspended sediment measurements. The combined system has been used in sediment transporting environments within San Francisco Bay, California, and Puget Sound, Washington. ?? 1986.

  2. ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE BENTHIC BOUNDARY LAYER AND THEIR APPLICABILITY TO NEAR-BOTTOM TRANSPORT IN LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    With there being few if any well organized field experiments in Lake Erie on benthic boundary layer (BBL) physics to review, this paper summarizes theoretical and experimental observations from the ocean, estuary, and continental shelf research, contrasts the Lake Erie setting wi...

  3. Processes in the benthic boundary layer at the Iberian continental margin and their implication for carbon mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, L.; vanWeering, T.; Gust, G.

    This paper evaluates the role of biological processes in the cycling of particulate organic matter within the benthic boundary layer (BBL). It reveals that horizontal, advective fluxes of particulate matter exceed the vertically sinking fluxes through the water column. The data suggest that there is an important additional mechanism of carbon mineralization at hydrodynamically energetic continental margins, and that not the sediment surface but the near-bed fluid layer of the BBL is the major region for organic carbon mineralisation, and the amount of carbon finally buried depends on the time that aggregates are exposed to the BBL. Water and sediment samples were taken during three cruises to the North East Atlantic continental margin. The study site covered the area between 41N, 9W and 44N, 13W with transects perpendicular to and along the continental margin, resolving velocity and particle features of the benthic boundary layer [BBL] at 5-40 cm height above the sea floor. Particulate organic carbon in the BBL ranged from 29 to 102 mg m -3, total particulate matter from 1.2 to 6.2 g m -3 and Chloroplastic pigments from 0.01 to 0.26 mg m -3. Sediments on the continental margin consisted of an aggregated surface layer, which covered the underlying sediments. At all stations, surface erosion yielded BBL aggregates > 100 ?m at critical friction velocities [u ?c] of 0.4 to 1.2 cms -1. The erosion thresholds of underlying cohesive sediments typically increased from 1.1 to 1.8 cms -1 from shallow to deeper sites. Long-term flow velocity data reveal a tidally modulated flow field with repetitive cycling of particles between sea bed and suspension, representing altogether a situation of prolonged particle resuspension time, moderate residual currents and large variability of flow speed. The currents parallel and cross slope (north-south, on -and offslope) move the BBL aggregates with little net distance in one direction per tidal cycle. Within the ensuing particle transport loop alternating between bed and suspension mode, the material is redistributed. However, because of the low net downslope transport of these remoulded particles, little if any labile carbon reaches the steep lower continental slope via lateral advection within the study area.

  4. Dynamics of the benthic boundary layer and seafloor contributions to oxygen depletion on the Oregon inner shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann-Grosvenor, Kristina; Reimers, Clare E.; Sanders, Rhea D.

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of in situ O2 consumption and production within permeable sediments, such as those found over the Oregon-Washington inner shelf, has traditionally been done using methods that isolate the sediments from the dynamic influences of currents and wave motions. Modified from atmospheric research, the non-invasive eddy correlation technique can be used to characterize benthic boundary layer dynamics and measure O2 flux across the sediment-water interface without excluding the natural hydrodynamic flow. In 2009, eddy correlation measurements were made in 5 discrete months with varying conditions at a 30 m site off Yaquina Head, Newport, OR. The O2 flux was found to be primarily into the bed (-18±3 mmol m-2 d-1; mean±SE, n=137 15-min bursts) but was sensitive to non-steady state changes in O2 concentrations caused by the differential advection of water masses with variable mean O2 concentrations. Important contributions to O2 eddy fluxes at surface wave frequencies were seen in eddy correlation cospectra and these are interpreted as being indicative of consumption enhanced by advective transport of O2 into the bed. The sediments were deposits of fine sand with permeabilities of 1.3-4.7×10-11 m2 and wave-generated ripples. Sediment pigment and organic carbon concentrations were low (chlorophyll-α: 0.02-0.45 μg g-1, phaeophytin-α: 0.38-1.38 μg g-1 and organic carbon: 0.05-0.39% dry wt in discrete depth intervals from cores collected between March and October), but it was evident that during the summer fresh pigments were trapped in the sand and rapidly mixed over the uppermost 0-13 cm. From these results it is inferred that physical forcing associated largely with waves and currents may accentuate the role of sediment-covered inner shelf habitats as a regional O2 sink compared to the middle shelf. In effect, the action of waves and currents in the benthic boundary layer enables aerobic respiration that counterbalances the oxygenation of the water column by primary production and mixing in the surface layer.

  5. Trophic relationships of deep-sea calanoid copepods from the benthic boundary layer of the Santa Catalina Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    1986-07-01

    Benthopelagic zooplankton were collected and preserved in situ in the benthic boundary layer of the Santa Catalina Basin, using a multiple sampling opening-closing net system attached to the DSRV Alvin. Gut content analysis performed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the majority of benthopelagic calanoid copepods examined were predominantly detritivores. They had ingested detritus and associated bacteria, including metal-precipitating bacteria; no attached enteric bacteria were observed in the copepods' guts. The gut particles indicated generalized feeding and qualitatively resembled material present in the environment at the time of collection, i.e. suspended particles, large fecal pellets, particles from the surface layer of the sediment, and phaeodia of phaeodarian radiolarians. TEM was necessary for identifying some of the amorphous material in copepod guts as either digested tissue or detrital material; some of the amorphous material was unidentifiable even with the resolution of TEM. TEM was also essential for detecting metal-precipitating bacteria and their capsules from the copepod guts and from particles in the water. Because they ingest metal-precipitating bacteria, detritivorous copepods may influence the distribution of metals in the ocean.

  6. Two-dimensional distribution of living benthic foraminifera in anoxic sediment layers of an estuarine mudflat (Loire estuary, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault de Chanvalon, A.; Metzger, E.; Mouret, A.; Cesbron, F.; Knoery, J.; Rozuel, E.; Launeau, P.; Nardelli, M. P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Geslin, E.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new rapid and accurate protocol to simultaneously sample benthic living foraminifera in two dimensions in a centimetre-scale vertical grid and dissolved iron and phosphorus in two dimensions at high resolution (200 μm). Such an approach appears crucial for the study of foraminiferal ecology in highly dynamic and heterogeneous sedimentary systems, where dissolved iron shows a strong variability at the centimetre scale. On the studied intertidal mudflat of the Loire estuary, foraminiferal faunas are dominated by Ammonia tepida, which accounts for 92 % of the living (CellTracker Green(CTG)-labelled) assemblage. The vertical distribution shows a maximum density in the oxygenated 0-0.4 cm surface layer. A sharp decrease is observed in the next 2 cm, followed by a second, well-defined maximum in the suboxic sediment layer (3-8 cm depth). The presented method yields new information concerning the 2-D distribution of living A. tepida in suboxic layers. First, the identification of recent burrows by visual observation of the sediment cross section and the burrowing activity as deduced from the dissolved iron spatial distribution show no direct relation to the distribution of A. tepida at the centimetre scale. This lack of relation appears contradictory to previous studies (Aller and Aller, 1986; Berkeley et al., 2007). Next, the heterogeneity of A. tepida in the 3-8 cm depth layer was quantified by means of Moran's index to identify the scale of parameters controlling the A. tepida distribution. The results reveal horizontal patches with a characteristic length of 1-2 cm. These patches correspond to areas enriched in dissolved iron likely generated by anaerobic degradation of labile organic matter. These results suggest that the routine application of our new sampling strategy could yield important new insights about foraminiferal life strategies, improving our understanding of the role of these organisms in coastal marine ecosystems.

  7. Two-dimensional distribution of living benthic foraminifera in anoxic sediment layers of an estuarine mudflat (Loire Estuary, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault de Chanvalon, A.; Metzger, E.; Mouret, A.; Cesbron, F.; Knoery, J.; Rozuel, E.; Launeau, P.; Nardelli, M. P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Geslin, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new rapid and accurate protocol to simultaneously sample benthic living foraminifera in two dimensions in a centimeter scale vertical grid and dissolved iron in high resolution (200 μm). Such an approach appears crucial to study foraminiferal ecology in heterogeneous environments. The foraminiferal faunas of the main intertidal mudflat of the Loire estuary are dominated by Ammonia tepida, which accounts for 92 % of the living assemblage (CTG-labeled). Its vertical distribution shows a first density maximum at the surface, a sharp decrease in the next two centimeter followed by a well defined second maximum between 3 and 8 cm depth. The heterogeneity of A. tepida in this 3-8 cm depth layer was calculated by the Moran's Index and reveals lateral patches with a characteristic length of 1 to 2 cm. We investigate mechanisms potentially responsible for this distribution by observation of burrow structures and two-dimensional high-resolution imaging of dissolved iron. The surface maximum corresponded to the area of maximum oxygen availability. Observable burrows have no clear relation with the distribution of A. tepida but were closely related to dissolved iron distribution. Consequently, no evident relation between A. tepida and dissolved iron was observed. Nevertheless, two one cm-wide structures, enriched in dissolved iron produced by anaerobic degradation of labile organic matter, corresponded to increased A. tepida densities. This observation suggests that within strongly oxygen-depleted sediments, A. tepida could still be favoured by labile organic carbon. The main characteristics of the vertical distribution of A. tepida are interpreted in the present study as a combination of passive downward transport by biomixing into deeper suboxic (without both oxygen and sulfide) sediment layers and a subsequent mobility driven by a sensitivity to geochemical gradients. We hypothesize that the survival of A. tepida in oxygen depleted environments is explained its ability to lower its metabolism between periods of oxygen renewal by bioirrigation.

  8. Benthic foraminifera from Capbreton Canyon revisited; faunal evolution after repetitive sediment disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolliet, T.; Jorissen, F. J.; Schmidt, S.; Howa, H.

    2014-06-01

    At a 650 m deep site in the axis of Capbreton Canyon an 18-cm-thick turbidite was deposited in December 1999. During subsequent campaigns, an almost monospecific fauna of the benthic foraminifer Technitella melo, considered as a pioneer species, was found in May 2000. In 2001 this fauna had disappeared and was replaced by an exceptionally rich fauna strongly dominated by the opportunistic species Bolivina subaenariensis. We present sedimentological, radionuclide and foraminiferal data of new cores, sampled in 2005 and 2011, taken with the aim to study the further evolution of the benthic ecosystem. Cores sampled in 2005 show that in the canyon axis a new, ca. 5 cm thick, turbidite has been deposited. The live benthic foraminiferal faunas were much poorer than in 2001, but still had a high dominance and low diversity, although less extreme than in 2001. We conclude that in the canyon axis, benthic foraminiferal faunas remain in an early stage of ecosystem colonization. It appears that the very thick 1999 turbidite marks an exceptional event. The uncommonly rich faunas observed in 2001 could be a response to the concentration of organic-rich material in the fine-grained top of this deposit. In 2011, cores were sampled at a slightly different site, on the lower canyon flank. The sedimentary sequence here is marked by the absence of coarse turbidite layers, although some levels show slightly increased grain size, and lower 210Pbxs activities, indicative of an admixture with advected older sediments. Live foraminiferal faunas are much more equilibrated, as shown by their higher diversity, lower dominance, and deeper penetration into the sediment. All these characteristics are indicative of a much more stable ecosystem. Dead faunas are present throughout the core, indicating that the levels with slightly elevated grain size are not typical turbidites resulting from hyperpycnal currents (which are characterized by levels barren of foraminifera) but denote other, more long-term sedimentary processes leading to the advection of older material, such as bottom nepheloid layers, or repetitive fine-grained turbidite deposits due to small-scale slumping. The comparison of live and dead fauna shows that at both sites, the foraminiferal turnover rates are fairly low. At the lower canyon flank site sampled in 2011, the foraminiferal faunas are renewed every 1.5-2 years. Such a fairly long foraminiferal lifespan corresponds to earlier estimates, but is surprisingly high for the opportunistic taxa that dominate the faunal assemblages in these unstable and food-enriched submarine canyon settings.

  9. High Energy Benthic Boundary Layer Experiment (HEBBLE): Preliminary program plan and conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frewing, K.

    1980-01-01

    Deep sea processes of flow-sediment interaction, particularly the role of high energy ocean bottom current events in forming the seafloor topography, transporting material, and mixing the bottom of the water column are examined. A series of observations at and near the sea bottom, in water depths of 4 to 5 km, in areas of the western North Atlantic where high energy current events occur, include site surveys and physical reconnaissance to identify suitable areas and positions, and one or more six month experiments to investigate temporal and spatial variations of high energy events within the boundary layer and their interaction with the seabed. Descriptions of proposed HEBBLE activities are included, with emphasis on technology transfer to the oceanographic community through design, fabrication, testing, and operation of an instrumented ocean bottom lander.

  10. Shining Light on Benthic Macroalgae: Mechanisms of Complementarity in Layered Macroalgal Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Leigh W.; Hawes, Ian; Schiel, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophs underpin most ecosystem processes, but to do this they need sufficient light. This critical resource, however, is compromised along many marine shores by increased loads of sediments and nutrients from degraded inland habitats. Increased attenuation of total irradiance within coastal water columns due to turbidity is known to reduce species' depth limits and affect the taxonomic structure and architecture of algal-dominated assemblages, but virtually no attention has been paid to the potential for changes in spectral quality of light energy to impact production dynamics. Pioneering studies over 70 years ago showed how different pigmentation of red, green and brown algae affected absorption spectra, action spectra, and photosynthetic efficiency across the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) spectrum. Little of this, however, has found its way into ecological syntheses of the impacts of optically active contaminants on coastal macroalgal communities. Here we test the ability of macroalgal assemblages composed of multiple functional groups (including representatives from the chlorophyta, rhodophyta and phaeophyta) to use the total light resource, including different light wavelengths and examine the effects of suspended sediments on the penetration and spectral quality of light in coastal waters. We show that assemblages composed of multiple functional groups are better able to use light throughout the PAR spectrum. Macroalgal assemblages with four sub-canopy species were between 50–75% more productive than assemblages with only one or two sub-canopy species. Furthermore, attenuation of the PAR spectrum showed both a loss of quanta and a shift in spectral distribution with depth across coastal waters of different clarity, with consequences to productivity dynamics of diverse layered assemblages. The processes of light complementarity may help provide a mechanistic understanding of how altered turbidity affects macroalgal assemblages in coastal waters, which are increasingly threatened by diminishing light quantity and altered spectral distributions through sedimentation and eutrophication. PMID:25438045

  11. Shining light on benthic macroalgae: mechanisms of complementarity in layered macroalgal assemblages.

    PubMed

    Tait, Leigh W; Hawes, Ian; Schiel, David R

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophs underpin most ecosystem processes, but to do this they need sufficient light. This critical resource, however, is compromised along many marine shores by increased loads of sediments and nutrients from degraded inland habitats. Increased attenuation of total irradiance within coastal water columns due to turbidity is known to reduce species' depth limits and affect the taxonomic structure and architecture of algal-dominated assemblages, but virtually no attention has been paid to the potential for changes in spectral quality of light energy to impact production dynamics. Pioneering studies over 70 years ago showed how different pigmentation of red, green and brown algae affected absorption spectra, action spectra, and photosynthetic efficiency across the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) spectrum. Little of this, however, has found its way into ecological syntheses of the impacts of optically active contaminants on coastal macroalgal communities. Here we test the ability of macroalgal assemblages composed of multiple functional groups (including representatives from the chlorophyta, rhodophyta and phaeophyta) to use the total light resource, including different light wavelengths and examine the effects of suspended sediments on the penetration and spectral quality of light in coastal waters. We show that assemblages composed of multiple functional groups are better able to use light throughout the PAR spectrum. Macroalgal assemblages with four sub-canopy species were between 50-75% more productive than assemblages with only one or two sub-canopy species. Furthermore, attenuation of the PAR spectrum showed both a loss of quanta and a shift in spectral distribution with depth across coastal waters of different clarity, with consequences to productivity dynamics of diverse layered assemblages. The processes of light complementarity may help provide a mechanistic understanding of how altered turbidity affects macroalgal assemblages in coastal waters, which are increasingly threatened by diminishing light quantity and altered spectral distributions through sedimentation and eutrophication. PMID:25438045

  12. Diapycnal nutrient fluxes across the benthic boundary layers at the continental slopes off Peru and Mauritania based on 224Ra/223Ra-ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, P.; Scholten, J. C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Miquel, J. C.; Gasser, B.; Liebetrau, V.; Sommer, S.; Dengler, M.; Bryant, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Marine sediments may act as sources and/or sinks of nutrients in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) where solute fluxes between sediments and the above water column are believed to be an important component for the bioproductivity in the mixed layer. However, solute fluxes between sediments and the water column above are difficult to obtain. We determined the diapycnal nutrient fluxes across the benthic boundary layer at the OMZs off Peru and Mauritania using nutrient concentration profiles and vertical diffusion coefficients derived from 224Ra/223Ra isotope ratios. The radium isotopes 223Ra (half-life: 11.4 days) and 224Ra (half-life: 3.66 days) are produced in sediments by radioactive decay of 227Th and 228Th ,respectively: Diffusion of radium out of the sediments results in gradients of 224Ra/223Ra above the sediments; and these gradients may be used to estimate vertical diffusion coefficients. We determined 224Ra/223Ra along two transects at the continental slopes off Peru (12° S) and off Mauritania (18° N) in water depths between 65m - 1000mand 53m - 1100m, respectively. For the 223Ra/224Ra sampling we used acrylic fibers/cartridges coated with MnO2. The Mn-fibers were attached to benthic landers (moored for ~ 24 hours at the sea floor) and the Mn-cartridges were placed in series on several in-situ filtration pumps (Challenger Oceanic and McLane pumps). 223Ra and 224Ra were measured on-board using a delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). In our presentation we will present the 224Ra/223Ra distribution along these transects investigated and we will compare the diapycnal radium-derived nutrient fluxes with those determined using benthic chambers and microstructure measurements.

  13. Heinrich Events / DC Layers: Benthic Foraminiferal Evidence of Changes in Bottom-Water Characteristics and Circulation During Periods of Rapid Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. A.; Lewis, C. M.; Piper, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    Sudden, large-volume iceberg influxes into the Atlantic Ocean during deglacial episodes throughout the Wisconsinan are inferred by the presence of Heinrich Events (HE), sediment layers with abundant ice-rafted detritus (IRD). In the western North Atlantic, from Cumberland Sound south to Newfoundland, cores contain IRD layers composed predominantly of detrital carbonate (DC), the result of grounded ice eroding Paleozoic carbonate bedrock flooring Hudson Strait and areas of the Canadian Continental Margin. There is a strong to coincident correlation between most HE and DC layers; both contain a marked drop in the abundance of planktic foraminiferal tests, due to both increased sedimentation rates and reduced sea-surface salinities. Evidence indicates that some HE / DC layers correlate to known periods of meltwater influx, and the youngest HE / DC layer correlates to meltwater outflow from glacial Lake Agassiz through Hudson Strait, a massive outburst as the Laurentide Ice Sheet over Hudson Bay underwent final collapse, disrupting thermohaline circulation throughout the North Atlantic. Evidence for changes in the characteristics and circulation of bottom waters are found in the benthic foraminiferal faunas, and they have been utilized to determine more about the bottom-water changes during periods of rapid deglaciation. In a sampling of two shelf and two upper slope areas (all with at least one C-14 AMS date), short-lived, sharp-boundaried increases in the occurrences of deglacial benthic foraminiferal species, species known to tolerate reduced salinities, appear, indicating that either the meltwater flux extended throughout the water column, or that meltwater volumes were large enough to reduce bottom-water salinities when meltwater mixed with the water mass. In the northern Labrador Slope core (97-16), 3 DC layers are present (DC1, DC2, DC3) and deglacial foaraminferal assemblage (DFA) sequences show a strong correlation to the DC layers. In the Notre Dame Channel (Outer Northeast Newfoundland Shelf) core (83-7) three DC layers (DC-1, DC0, DC1) are present. Icebergs / meltwater from Hudson Strait (including Lake Agassiz) flowed south above the upper slope during DC-1 and DC0, forcing displacement of slope bottom waters and their coincident faunas into the basins of the outer shelf, followed by meltwater mixing, and DFA sequences replacing the slope species. In the Flemish Pass (Newfoundland Slope) core (99-4), 7 DC layers are present, including DC layer 5a; DFA sequences are associated with DC1, DC2, and DC3, and the faunas between HE / DC layers are glacial in nature. However, prior to DC3, there were very different faunas present, indicating major changes in bottom-water characteristics and circulation after DC3. Faunas prior to DC3 were dominated by a few species found rarely living today in the slope sediments of the continental margin. At the Halibut Channel site (western Grand Banks) (core 87B-2) there is good chronological control, the DFA sequences occur at H0, H1, and H2. Benthic foraminifera aid in determining bottom-water characteristics and circulation; and the interaction between bottom and surface waters during periods of rapid deglaciation.

  14. Benthic Cyanobacterial Mats in the High Arctic: Multi-Layer Structure and Fluorescence Responses to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lionard, Marie; Pquin, Brangre; Lovejoy, Connie; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are often a major biological component of extreme aquatic ecosystems, and in polar lakes and streams they may account for the dominant fraction of total ecosystem biomass and productivity. In this study we examined the vertical structure and physiology of Arctic microbial mats relative to the question of how these communities may respond to ongoing environmental change. The mats were sampled from Ward Hunt Lake (835.297?N, 749.985?W) at the northern coast of Arctic Canada, and were composed of three visibly distinct layers. Microsensor profiling showed that there were strong gradients in oxygen within each layer, with an overall decrease from 100% saturation at the mat surface to 0%, at the bottom, accompanied by an increase of 0.6 pH units down the profile. Gene clone libraries (16S rRNA) revealed the presence of Oscillatorian sequences throughout the mat, while Nostoc related species dominated the two upper layers, and Nostocales and Synechococcales sequences were common in the bottom layer. High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed a parallel gradient in pigments, from high concentrations of UV-screening scytonemin in the upper layer to increasing zeaxanthin and myxoxanthin in the bottom layer, and an overall shift from photoprotective to photosynthetic carotenoids down the profile. Climate change is likely to be accompanied by lake level fluctuations and evaporative concentration of salts, and thus increased osmotic stress of the littoral mat communities. To assess the cellular capacity to tolerate increasing osmolarity on physiology and cell membrane integrity, mat sections were exposed to a gradient of increasing salinities, and PAM measurements of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were made to assess changes in maximum quantum yield. The results showed that the mats were tolerant of up to a 46-fold increase in salinity. These features imply that cyanobacterial mats are resilient to ongoing climate change, and that in the absence of major biological perturbations, these vertically structured communities will continue to be a prominent feature of polar aquatic ecosystems. PMID:22557996

  15. Seasonal variation in concentration, size, and settling velocity of muddy marine flocs in the benthic boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentration profiles of the lowest 2 m of the water column and particle size distribution at 2 m above the bed were measured in a coastal turbidity maximum area (southern North Sea) during more than 700 days between 2006 and 2013. The long-term data series of SPM concentration, floc size, and settling velocity have been ensemble averaged according to tidal range, alongshore residual flow direction, and season, in order to investigate the seasonal SPM dynamics and its relation with physical and biological processes. The data show that the SPM is more concentrated in the near-bed layer in summer, whereas in winter, the SPM is better mixed throughout the water column. The decrease of the SPM concentration in the water column during summer is compensated by a higher near-bed concentration indicating that a significant part of the SPM remains in the area during summer rather than being advected out of it. The opposite seasonality between near-bed layer and water column has to our knowledge not yet been presented in literature. Physical effects such as wave heights, wind climate, or storms have a weak correlation with the observed seasonality. The argument to favor microbial activity as main driver of the seasonality lies in the observed variations in floc size and settling velocity. On average, the flocs are larger and thus settling velocities higher in summer than winter.

  16. Trophic interactions in the benthic boundary layer of the Beaufort Sea shelf, Arctic Ocean: Combining bulk stable isotope and fatty acid signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Tara L.; Deibel, Don; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The food web structure and diets of 26 taxa of benthic boundary layer (BBL) zooplankton on the Beaufort Sea shelf were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and fatty acids. Mean ?15N values ranged from 7.3 for the amphipod Melita formosa to 14.9 for an unidentified polychaete, suggesting that taxa sampled came from three trophic levels. For 8 taxa, the lightest carbon signature occurred near the mouth of the Mackenzie River. Stable isotope ratios helped clarify the origin of signature fatty acids. Levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were negatively correlated with ?15N, with the exception of 22:6?3, which was positively correlated with ?15N, suggesting that this essential PUFA was retained through the food web. Discriminant analysis proved to be a powerful tool, predicting taxa from fatty acid profiles with 99% accuracy, and revealing strong phylogenetic trends in fatty acid profiles. The amphipod Arrhis phyllonyx had higher levels of ?6 PUFA, especially 20:4?6 with several possible sources, than other peracarid crustaceans. The holothurian had high levels of odd numbered and branched chain fatty acids, indicative of bacterial consumption, while fatty acids of phytoplankton origin were important discriminants for Calanus hyperboreus and the chaetognaths Eukrohnia hamata and Parasagitta elegans. This relationship indicates that the conventional phytoplankton-copepod-chaetognath food web found in the water column also exists in the BBL. This observation, as well as generally low ?15N and high levels of certain PUFA in samples with lower ?15N, strongly suggests that BBL zooplankton on the Beaufort Sea shelf have access to fresh material of phytoplankton origin either by feeding on sedimenting matter or by active migration to surface waters.

  17. Benthic foraminiferal thanatocoenoses from the Cap-Ferret Canyon area (NE Atlantic): A complex interplay between hydro-sedimentary and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duros, P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Cesbron, F.; Zaragosi, S.; Schmidt, S.; Metzger, E.; Fontanier, C.

    2014-06-01

    Benthic foraminiferal thanatocoenoses from the Cap-Ferret Canyon area were studied in the >150-μm fraction of 4-5 cm deep sediment levels, at 13 stations. The shallowest station (151 m depth) is located at the shelf break, close to the canyon head. All other stations are located along two bathymetric transects: seven stations along the canyon axis between 300 and 3000 m depth, and five stations from 300 m to 2000 m depth along the southern flank of the canyon. The comparison between the live (Rose-Bengal-stained) and dead assemblages shows that biological (i.e. population dynamic) and taphonomic processes (i.e. test destruction, transport) generate important discrepancies between live and dead assemblages. An important question is, to what degree post-mortem transport and redeposition of foraminiferal tests contribute to the difference between living and dead assemblages? The composition of the thanatocoenoses (<1% of neritic species) indicates that there is no substantial transport of shells >150 μm from the inner continental shelf to the Cap-Ferret Canyon axis. However, transport of tests from outer shelf or upper canyon axis towards deeper sites occurs, as indicated by an increase of diversity indices of the dead fauna along the canyon axis. Moreover, some species (e.g., Cassidulina carinata) are observed in the living fauna restricted to the shallow sites, but occur in important amounts in the dead fauna at deeper stations, suggesting that these taxa have been transported from upper canyon stations toward deeper sites. Since Cap-Ferret Canyon is inactive in terms of massive sediment transport (i.e. gravity events), downslope transport of foraminiferal tests probably takes place in nepheloid layers. Downslope transports of foraminiferal tests may create important biases for the utilisation of paleoceanographic proxies using the assemblage characteristics and/or the geochemical composition of selected species. However, the study of dead assemblages along a canyon axis can give important clues about the sedimentary dynamics, especially an idea of the quantity of reworked foraminifera transported through the canyon axis. Along the adjacent flank, such evidence of downslope transport was not observed. Despite taphonomic (test destruction) and biological processes (population dynamics), the live fauna closely resembles the distribution and the composition of the dead assemblage. Therefore, ecological information obtained from the fossil flank samples can be more reliably used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions.

  18. Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Wadeable Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in wadeable streams nationwide as surveyed from 2000 to 2004. Benthic macroinvertebrates are particularly sensitive to disturbances in stream chemistry and physical habitat, making their prese...

  19. Dynamics of the bathyal Benthic Boundary Layer in the northwestern Mediterranean: depth and temporal variations in macrofaunal megafaunal communities and their possible connections within deep-sea trophic webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution patterns of benthopelagic fauna and the macrofauna-megafauna trophic relationships in the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL) were studied. The study is based on data collected during 6 sampling cruises off the Catalan coast (western Mediterranean) during 1991-1995 at depths ranging from 389-1355 m. Crustaceans were the dominant benthopelagic macrofauna in the BBL level closest to the sea bed (~0-1.5 m above bottom) on the Catalan Sea slope. Copepods and peracarid crustaceans (mysids, amphipods, isopods, and cumaceans) were dominant, whereas euphausiids and natantian decapods, some taxa of gelatinous plankton (siphonophores, medusae, and chaetognaths), and benthopelagic fishes were also well represented groups. Seasonal changes in megafaunal decapod crustaceans abundance seem to be linked to changes in the density and the biological cycle of BBL macrofauna, which constitute an important part of the available food exploited by megafauna. Both the advective and the vertical flow of organic matter in the north-western Mediterranean should simultaneously influence peaks of available food (BBL macrofauna) for bathyal-megafaunal decapods. Recruitment of macrofaunal (suprabenthos and infauna) species at the level of canyons and neighbouring slope zones mainly occurred between late autumn-late winter and would probably be mainly induced by an advective component. However, the macrofaunal sizes consumed by megafaunal decapods are found more abundantly represented in spring and summer populations. In parallel, the vertical fluxes seem to determine maxima in the abundance of planktonic organisms (especially copepods) which also occur in late spring-summer. Size, natatory capability, and energetic value are important factors in the selection of food-resources by megafaunal decapods, which would have a greater availability of food in late spring-summer. This would explain both the seasonal maxima of decapod abundance in summer, and maxima in the catches of some commercial species (i.e. the shrimp Aristeus antennatus) in spring-summer.

  20. Benthic macroinvertebrate community results

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    As part of an extensive program to monitor the health of reservoirs in the TVA system, dredges were used to sample benthic life at 36 locations on 12 Tennessee Valley Authority reservoirs and the Tennessee River downstream from the lowest reservoir in the system. Up to ten dredge samples were collected from forebay, transition zone, and inflow locations of typical reservoirs. The survey was conducted between mid March and mid April, 1990. Results are described.

  1. Hydrophobicity as an Adhesion Mechanism of Benthic Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fattom, Ali; Shilo, Moshe

    1984-01-01

    The capacity of benthic cyanobacteria to adhere to solid substrates was examined in terms of their cell surface properties. By using a biphasic water-hydrocarbon test system, it was demonstrated that benthic cyanobacteria from divergent habitats were all hydrophobic, whereas all the planktonic cyanobacteria tested were hydrophilic. Divalent cations were found more efficient than monovalent cations in effecting the expression of hydrophobicity. Mechanical shearing of the cell surface, as well as chemical removal of the cell wall, demonstrated that the hydrophobicity was confined to the outer surface layers. The hydrophobic sites were distributed along the whole length of the cyanobacterial filament. Hydrophilic hormogonia of benthic cyanobacteria became hydrophobic within 48 h when grown in the light; chloramphenicol, 3(3,4-dichlorophenyl)1,1 dimethylurea, or incubation in the dark prevented this transition. Hydrophobicity of Phormidium filaments was masked in late stationary phase; this effect was removed by gentle washing. Images PMID:16346453

  2. INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...

  3. Manganese and Iron Oxidation During Benthic Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epping, E. H. G.; Schoemann, V.; de Heij, H.

    1998-12-01

    The effect of benthic oxygenic photosynthesis on sediment-water fluxes of manganese and iron was studied for an intertidal sediment. Undisturbed sediments were incubated at an incident surface irradiance of 250 ?E m-2 s-1at 26 C. Oxygenic photosynthesis was selectively inhibited by adding [3-(3,4-dichloro)-1,1-dimethyl-urea] (DCMU). Benthic fluxes were determined experimentally from the change in manganese and iron concentrations in the overlying water, and were predicted from the pore water concentration gradients at the sediment-water interface assuming molecular diffusion as the transport mechanism. The experimental fluxes of manganese and iron in DCMU-treated cores amounted to -084 and -059 mmol m-2day-1, respectively, and were directed from the sediment towards the overlying water. In the control cores, showing high rates of benthic oxygenic photosynthesis, the fluxes of manganese and iron were directed towards the sediment, 006 and 001 mmol m-2day-1, respectively. Mass balances for the 01-014 cm thick oxic zone, calculated from the experimental fluxes and the predicted fluxes, suggest a minimum areal reoxidation of 06 mmol m-2day-1for manganese and of 048 mmol m-2day-1for iron in cores showing benthic photosynthesis. The estimated turnover times for dissolved Mn2+and dissolved Fe2+in the oxic surface layer during benthic photosynthesis were 08 and 025 h, respectively. Sediment oxygen microprofiles and the sediment pH profiles suggest that chemical precipitation and reoxidation dominates the retention of manganese and iron during benthic oxygenic photosynthesis in shallow intertidal sediments.

  4. Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.

    1982-01-01

    The flux of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac riverine and estuarine sediments is controlled by processes occurring at the water-sediment interface and within surficial sediment. In situ benthic fluxes (0.1 to 2.0 mmoles m-2 day-1) are generally five to ten times higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.020 to 0.30 mmoles m-2 day-1). The discrepancy between the two flux estimates is greatest in the transition zone (river mile 50 to 70) and is attributd to macrofaunal irrigation. Both in situ and diffusive fluxes of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac tidal river sediments are low while those from anoxic lower estuarine sediments are high. The net accumulation rate of phosphorus in benthic sediment exhibits an inverse pattern. Thus a large fraction of phosphorus is retained by Potomac tidal river sediments, which contain a surficial oxidized layer and oligochaete worms tolerant of low oxygen conditions, and a large fraction of phosphorus is released from anoxic lower estuary sediments. Tidal river sediment pore waters are in equilibrium with amorphous Fe (OH)3 while lower estuary pore waters are significantly undersaturated with respect to this phase. Benthic regeneration of dissolved reactive phosphorus is sufficient to supply all the phosphorus requirements for net primary production in the lower tidal river and transition-zone waters of the Potomac River Estuary. Benthic regeneration supplies approximately 25% as much phosphorus as inputs from sewage treatment plants and 10% of all phosphorus inputs to the tidal Potomac River. When all available point source phosphorus data are put into a steady-state conservation of mass model and reasonable coefficients for uptake of dissolved phosphorus, remineralization of particulate phosphorus, and sedimentation of particulate phosphorus are used in the model, a reasonably accurate simulation of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in the water column is obtained for the summer of 1980. ?? 1982 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  5. The benthic biological submodel in the European regional seas ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenhh, W.; Kohlmeier, C.; Radford, P. J.

    The submodel describing benthic biology including a bioturbation module as incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is discussed. It is linked to a nutrient dynamic model. The structure of the benthic model food web is presented. There are four macrobenthic functional groups, meiobenthos and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The modelling uses 'standard organisms' as basic building blocks. The choice of parameter values is discussed. The results demonstrate the dependence of the benthic system on the pelagic system. The importance of features such as predation within functional groups for stability of the system is investigated. Detritus input from the pelagic system and detritus recycling is most important in the benthic food web. The web of carbon and nutrient fluxes through the system is analysed. On the basis of the food web analysis, the trophic positions of the functional groups are calculated. Besides the benthic biology, the mathematical formulation of the bioturbation and diffusion enhancement is discussed. Macrobenthic presence and activity enhance diffusion in the sediment and contribute essentially to vertical transport of particulate matter. This is of great importance for the vertical distribution of detritus, and as a consequence, for microbial activity in the sediment layers.

  6. EPA'S BENTHIC HABITAT DATA FOR YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists at EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division (WED) have been studying seafloor (benthic) habitats in Yaquina estuary for several years. Those studies were conducted as parts of several research projects, including: e...

  7. Feasibility of remote sensing benthic microalgae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zingmark, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of data analyses from multispectral scanning data are presented. The data was collected in July 1977 for concentration of chlorophyll in benthic microalgae (mainly diatoms) on an estuary mudflat.

  8. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  9. Using Regional Distribution of Estuarine and Coastal Benthic Invertebrates to Calibrate Benthic Indices of Ecological Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biogeography of marine benthic macroinvertebrates of the U.S. Atlantic coast from Delaware Bay north to Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, was studied to define physical-chemical factors affecting broad taxa distributions and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of ...

  10. Estimates the Effects of Benthic Fluxes on the Water Quality of the Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Huh, I. A.; Park, S.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs located in highly populated and industrialized regions receive discharges of nutrients and pollutants from the watershed that have great potential to impair water quality and threaten aquatic life. The Euiam reservoir is a multiple-purpose water body used for tourism, fishery, and water supply and has been reported as eutrophic since 1990s. The external nutrients loading is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms often continue even after external nutrients loading has been controlled, being benthic nutrient loading the main source of nutrients in the water column. Attempts to quantify benthic nutrients fluxes and their role as a source of nutrients to the water column have produced ambiguous results. Benthic flux is dependent on the upward flow of pore water caused by hydrostatic pressure, molecular diffusion, and mixing of sediment and water. In addition, it is controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, pH values and temperature in the overlying water. Therefore, linking a benthic flux to a water quality model should give us more insight on the effects of benthic fluxes to better quantify nutrient concentration within an entire reservoir system where physical, chemical, biological properties are variable. To represent temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations of the reservoir, a three-dimensional time variable model, Generalized Longitudinal-Lateral-Vertical Hydrodynamic and Transport (GLLVHT) was selected. The GLLVHT model is imbedded within the Generalized Environmental Modeling System for Surface waters (GEMSS). The computational grid of the three-dimensional model was developed using the GIS. The horizontal grid is composed of 580 active cells at the surface layer with spacing varies from 54.2 m to 69.8 m. There are 15 vertical layers with uniform thickness of 1.9 m resolution. To calibrate the model, model prediction for nutrient concentration was compared with field collected data. The model results showed a good agreement with field measurements. From the model results, the followings are determined and discussed: (1) the role of benthic fluxes on the water quality of the reservoir (2) the extent of benthic fluxes to which the water quality exceeds the criteria.

  11. Anthropogenic influence on sediment transport in the Whittard Canyon, NE Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Annette M; Kiriakoulakis, Kostas; Raine, Robin; Gerritsen, Hans D; Blackbird, Sabena; Allcock, A Louise; White, Martin

    2015-12-15

    Unusual peaks in turbidity were detected in two branches of the Whittard Canyon in June 2013. Enhanced nepheloid layers (ENLs) were defined as layers with concentrations of suspended particulate matter exceeding those of nepheloid layers typically observed in a given region. Here, ENLs had peaks in turbidity and elevated suspended particulate matter concentrations exceeding ~1mgL(-1) with the largest ENLs measuring between ~2-8mgL(-1). The ENLs measured ~100-260m in vertical height and were detected in water depths of between 640 and 2880m. Vessel Monitoring System data showed that high spatial and temporal activity of potential bottom trawling vessels coincided with the occurrence of the ENLs. Molar C/N ratios of the suspended organic material from the ENLs showed a high degree of degradation. Regular occurrences of such events are likely to have implications for increased sediment fluxes, burial of organic carbon and alteration of benthic and canyon ecosystems. PMID:26530881

  12. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light spectrum. The light intensities reaching the Foraminifera in cultivation however largely depend on the substrate provided (e.g. sand and silt where individuals dig close to the surface or coral rubble used as shelter by the Foraminiferans and as an easy way of retaining the organisms within a designated container by the investigator).

  13. Hadal disturbance in the Japan Trench induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Murayama, Masafumi; Fujikura, Katsunori; Glud, Ronnie N; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations and sediment core samplings were performed at two hadal sites in the Japan Trench on July, 2011, four months after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Video recordings documented dense nepheloid layers extending ~30-50 m above the sea bed. At the trench axis, benthic macrofauna was absent and dead organisms along with turbid downslope current were observed. The top 31 cm of sediment in the trench axis revealed three recent depositions events characterized by elevated (137)Cs levels and alternating sediment densities. At 4.9 km seaward from the trench axis, little deposition was observed but the surface sediment contained (134)Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster. We argue that diatom blooms observed by remote sensing facilitated rapid deposition of (134)Cs to hadal environment and the aftershocks induced successive sediment disturbances and maintained dense nepheloid layers in the trench even four months after the mainshock. PMID:23715086

  14. Hadal disturbance in the Japan Trench induced by the 2011 Tohoku–Oki Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Murayama, Masafumi; Fujikura, Katsunori; Glud, Ronnie N.; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations and sediment core samplings were performed at two hadal sites in the Japan Trench on July, 2011, four months after the Tohoku–Oki earthquake. Video recordings documented dense nepheloid layers extending ~30–50 m above the sea bed. At the trench axis, benthic macrofauna was absent and dead organisms along with turbid downslope current were observed. The top 31 cm of sediment in the trench axis revealed three recent depositions events characterized by elevated 137Cs levels and alternating sediment densities. At 4.9 km seaward from the trench axis, little deposition was observed but the surface sediment contained 134Cs from the Fukushima Dai–ichi nuclear disaster. We argue that diatom blooms observed by remote sensing facilitated rapid deposition of 134Cs to hadal environment and the aftershocks induced successive sediment disturbances and maintained dense nepheloid layers in the trench even four months after the mainshock. PMID:23715086

  15. Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals.

    PubMed

    Dodou, D; Breedveld, P; de Winter, J C F; Dankelman, J; van Leeuwen, J L

    2011-02-01

    Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention compared to the biochemical content of the adhesives. We address temporary adhesion of benthic animals from the following three structural levels: (a) the biochemical content of the adhesive secretions, (b) the micro- and mesoscopic surface geometry and material properties of the adhesive organs, and (c) the macroscopic external morphology of the adhesive organs. We show that temporary adhesion of benthic animals is affected by three structural levels: the adhesive secretions provide binding to the substratum at a molecular scale, whereas surface geometry and external morphology increase the contact area with the irregular and unpredictable profile of the substratum from micro- to macroscales. The biochemical content of the adhesive secretions differs between abiotic and biotic substrata. The biochemistry of the adhesives suitable for biotic substrata differentiates further according to whether adhesion must be activated quickly (e.g. as a defensive mechanism) or more slowly (e.g. during adhesion of parasites). De-adhesion is controlled by additional secretions, enzymes, or mechanically. Due to deformability, the adhesive organs achieve intimate contact by adapting their surface profile to the roughness of the substratum. Surface projections, namely cilia, cuticular villi, papillae, and papulae increase the contact area or penetrate through the secreted adhesive to provide direct contact with the substratum. We expect that the same three structural levels investigated here will also affect the performance of artificial adhesive systems. PMID:20233167

  16. Microbial mediation of benthic biogenic silica dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Jan M.; Hensen, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Pore water profiles from 24 stations in the South Atlantic (located in the Guinea, Angola, Cape, Guyana, and Argentine basins) show good correlations of oxygen and silicon, suggesting microbially mediated dissolution of biogenic silica. We used simple analytical transport and reaction models to show the tight coupling of the reconstructed process kinetics of aerobic respiration and silicon regeneration. A generic transport and reaction model successfully reproduced the majority of Si pore water profiles from aerobic respiration rates, confirming that the dissolution of biogenic silica (BSi) occurs proportionally to O2 consumption. Possibly limited to well-oxygenated sediments poor in BSi, benthic Si fluxes can be inferred from O2 uptake with satisfactory accuracy. Compared to aerobic respiration kinetics, the solubility of BSi emerged as a less influential parameter for silicon regeneration. Understanding the role of bacteria for silicon regeneration requires further investigations, some of which are outlined. The proposed aerobic respiration control of benthic silicon cycling is suitable for benthic-pelagic models. The empirical relation of BSi dissolution to aerobic respiration can be used for regionalization assessments and estimates of the silicon budget to increase the understanding of global primary and export production patterns.

  17. State of the benthic ecosystem on western Black Sea shelf in spring 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.; Aleynik, D.; Eulenburg, A.; Kusch, St.; Mee, L. D.; Minicheva, G.; Stevens, T. F.; Teaca, A.; Shapiro, G. I.; Soloviev, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since the changes in the economies in the Black Sea countries in the 1990's, the momentarily associated decrease in anthropogenic pressures has put the ecosystem of Black Sea western shelf on a trajectory to recovery. However, the suspected non-linearity of recovery and the ecological instability of the benthic shelf ecosystem in particular became evident in the field surveys supported by the BSERP in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, e.g. in the spread of opportunistic species taking new niches and the re-occurrence of large-scale bottom water hypoxia like in 2001. The temporal dynamics of the recovery (as well as of the decline) may also be tied to climatic effects. The Black Sea is known to respond to north Atlantic oscillation (NAO) forcing and decadal climate changes. The target of the 363th cruise of R/V Poseidon in March 2008 has been to map the current state of the benthic ecosystem in a quasi-winter situation. We assessed: a) the current state of the benthic ecosystem on the north-western shelf; to what degree it recovered during the past decade from its collapse in the 1980's. In this respect, we investigated the role of the seabed as storage media of nutrients from past eutrophication, and the role of the sediments as internal source of nutrients to the pelagic system. We focused on zoo- and phytobenthos distribution, the interaction of benthic biota with the sediment, accumulation of nutrients in the sediment, and the flux of nutrients from the sediments to the water. b) The benthic-pelagic coupling, i.e. how the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and silica for algal growth are transported from the seafloor to the sea surface and thus fuel biologic productivity. c) The exchange of water between the shelf and the open Black Sea, and hence the transport of nutrients, i.e. the fertilization of the open Black Sea with nutrients from the shelf. Here, we are presenting results from the spring 2008 survey and compare them to findings from a summer survey in 2006: thermal heating and freshwater input created a double front structure on the western shelf, and intrusion of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) into shelf waters was observed. Surface distribution of dissolved nutrients reflects clear signals of silica and total dissolved nitrogen input from the Danube River. Phosphate appears to have a different source, e.g. benthic and/or from the CIL. The benthic ecosystem remains fragile; diversity indices reflect small recovery, quantities in biomass of both zoo- and phytobenthos indicate ongoing perturbations in nearshore areas. A full recovery of historical beds of Phyllophora is not evident, coverage both in winter and summer is less than 10%, and its role as habitat could be compromised by overgrowth of filamentous algae. The benthic system with an epibenthic community in balance releases less nutrients than a disturbed system without benthic life. Nutrients release from the sediment is lower in winter than in summer. The oxygen penetration depth in the sediment triggers denitrification. A spectacular population development of opportunistic species both in zoo- and phytobenthos was observed. The question remains whether or not those opportunistic species can ensure ecosystem functionality and stability. Our findings will help to identify locations crucial for the functioning for the benthic shelf ecosystem, to define "Good Environmental Status" and help to provide recommendations for Marine protected areas on the western Black Sea shelf. It is hoped that the data will make an important contribution to the information base underpinning the new European Marine Strategy Directive and the Bucharest Convention for the Protection of the Black Sea.

  18. Benthic primary production in the Columbia River Estuary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntire, C.D.; Amspoker, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The general objective of the research associated with the Benthic Primary Production Work Unit of Columbia River Estuary Development Program was to determine mechanisms that control the production dynamics and species composition of benthic plant assemblages in the Columbia River Estuary. In particular, the work was concerned with effects of selected physical variables on structural and functional attributes of micro- and macro- vegetation, and on the productivity and biomass of benthic autotrophs on the tidal flats of the estuary.

  19. A Process for Comparing and Interpreting Differences in Two Benthic Indices in New York Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often when various estuarine benthic indices disagree in their assessments of benthic condition, they are reflecting different aspects of benthic condition. We describe a process to screen indices for associations and, after identifying candidate metrics, to evaluate metrics indi...

  20. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages and Environmental Correlates in Springs of the Ridge and Valley Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Springs are unique features in the landscape that provide important habitat for benthic invertebrates, yet there are few studies characterizing the distribution of benthic macro invertebrates in springs. Benthic macroinvertebrate and water quality data were collected at 35 spring...

  1. Diachronous benthic ?18O responses during late Pleistocene terminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2009-09-01

    Benthic ?18O is often used as a stratigraphic tool to place marine records on a common age model and as a proxy for the timing of ice volume/sea level change. However, Skinner and Shackleton (2005) found that the timing of benthic ?18O change at the last termination differed by 3900 years between one Atlantic site and one Pacific site. These results suggest that benthic ?18O change may not always accurately record the timing of deglaciation. We compare benthic ?18O records from 20 Atlantic sites and 14 Pacific sites to evaluate systematic differences in the timing of terminations in benthic ?18O. Analysis of sedimentation rates derived from the alignment of benthic ?18O suggests a statistically significant Atlantic lead over Pacific benthic ?18O change during the last six terminations. We estimate an average Pacific benthic ?18O lag of 1600 years for Terminations 1-5, slightly larger than the delay expected from ocean mixing rates given that most glacial meltwater probably enters the North Atlantic. We additionally find evidence of 4000-year Pacific ?18O lags at approximately 128 ka and 330 ka, suggesting that stratigraphic correlation of ?18O has the potential to generate age model errors of several thousand years during terminations. A simple model demonstrates that these lags can be generated by diachronous temperature changes and do not require slower circulation rates. Most importantly, diachronous benthic ?18O responses must be taken into account when comparing Atlantic and Pacific benthic ?18O records or when using benthic ?18O records as a proxy for the timing of ice volume change.

  2. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal variability is smaller, probably because the annual temperature range in San Francisco Bay is smaller. Budgets constructed for South San Francisco Bay show that large fractions of the net annual productivity of carbon (about 90%) and silica (about 65%) are recycled by the benthos. Substantial rates of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification must occur in shoal areas, apparently resulting in conversion to N2 of 55% of the particulate nitrogen reaching the sediments. In shoal areas, benthic fluxes can replace the water column standing stocks of ammonia in 2-6 days and silica in 17-34 days, indicating the importance of benthic fluxes in the maintenance of productivity. Pore water profiles of nutrients and Rn-222 show that macrofaunal irrigation is extremely important in transport of silica, ammonia, and alkalinity. Calculations of benthic fluxes from these profiles are less accurate, but yield results consistent with chamber measurements and indicate that most of the NH3, SiO2, and alkalinity fluxes are sustained by reactions occurring throughout the upper 20-40 cm of the sediment column. In contrast, O2, CO2, and N + N fluxes must be dominated by reactions occurring within the upper one cm of the sediment-water interface. While most data support the statements made above, a few flux measurements are contradictory and demonstrate the complexity of benthic exchange. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  3. Sedimentary organic carbon budget of coastal sediments and the importance of benthic-pelagic coupling off Namhae Island in the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Han, Jeong Hee; An, Sung-Uk; Na, Taehee; Kwon, Jung No; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2014-12-01

    We characterized the biogeochemical organic carbon cycles in the surface sediment layer (< 25 cm) in the coastal waters of Namhae off the South Sea of Korea. The total and diffusive sediment oxygen uptake rates were measured using an in situ benthic lander equipped with a benthic chamber and a microprofiler. The bottom water above the sediment-water interface was incubated to estimate the benthic flux of the dissolved inorganic nutrients and the total alkalinity using an in situ benthic chamber. In addition, the particulate materials vertically deposited onto the surface sediment and the sedimentation rates were quantified to calculate the sedimentary organic carbon budget. The total oxygen uptake rate was in the range 34.9 to 54.1 mmol O2 m-2d-1, which is about three times the diffusive oxygen uptake rate. An abnormal oxygen peak observed in the anoxic sediment layer suggests a higher bioirrigation activity in the sediment layer. The oxidation rate of organic carbon at the sediment surface showed a very narrow range (36 7 to 37 7 mmol C m-2d-1), and the burial flux into the sediment layer was in the range 3 to 13 mmol C m-2d-1, which accounted for 9% to 36% of the remineralization rate of the organic carbon. The N and P requirement fluxes for pelagic production could be supported by 29% and 42% of the benthic flux, respectively, which strongly suggests a benthic-pelagic coupling in the coastal area of the South Sea of Korea.

  4. BENTHIC NUTRIENT FLUX IN A SMALL ESTUARY IN NORTHWESTERNFLORIDA (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic Nutrient Flux in a Small Estuary in Northwestern Florida(USA).Gulf and Caribbean Research 18, 15-25, 2006.

    Benthic nutrient fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite/nitrate (NO2-+NO3-), phosphate (PO4-), and dissolved silica (DSi) were measured in Escambia Bay, an estuar...

  5. INDEX OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC INTEGRITY FOR GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A benthic index for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries has been developed and successfully validated by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) in the Louisianian Province. The benthic index is a useful indicator of estuarine condition that provi...

  6. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis.

    PubMed

    Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Wilton, Peter R; Walton, Kelly M

    2010-11-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher's linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

  7. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis

    PubMed Central

    Willacker, James J.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Wilton, Peter R.; Walton, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fishers linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

  8. FRESHWATER POTOMAC LONG-TERM BENTHIC MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Department of the Environments Freshwater Potomac Long-Term Benthic Monitoring Program provides seasonal information on abundance and composition for the benthic fauna of the freshwater portion of the Potomac River for use in recommendations to State agencies accordi...

  9. A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal sampling protocols in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) are to collect 30 to 50 random benthic macrofauna [defined as animals retained on a 0.5 mm (East and Gulf Coasts, USA) or a 1.0 mm mesh siev...

  10. MDE NON-TIDAL BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Non-tidal Benthic Macroinvertebrate Monitoring Program provides data on benthic macroinvertebrates for many streams in the state. Through it, an entire network of 100 stations in the nontidal reaches of Marylands Chesapeake Bay Basin are sampled within a two year per...

  11. LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year period (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...

  12. Benthic response to the sedimentation of particulate organic matter at the BIOTRANS station, 47N, 20W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfannkuche, O.

    The benthic response to the sedimentation of particulate organic matter (POM) was investigated during 1985-1990 at 47N, 20W (BIOTRANS station). The first noticeable annual sedimentation of phytodetritus, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentrations in the sediment, occurred as early as late April-early May. Maximum amounts were found in June-July. Two different sedimentation pulses to the sea bed are described that demonstrate interannual variation: the occurrence of salp faecal pellets early in the year 1988 and the massive fall out of a plankton bloom in summer 1986, which deposited approximately 15 mmol C m -2. The benthic reaction to POM pulses was quite diverse. The mega-, macro- and meiobenthos showed no change in biomass, whereas bacterial biomass doubled between March and July. This corresponds to a seasonal maximum of total adenylate biomass. The relative abundance of Foraminifera among the meiobenthos increased during the summer. Benthic activity (ATP, ratio ATP/ETSA), as well as in situ sediment community oxygen consumption rates (SCOC), showed distinct seasonal maxima in July-August of 0.75 mmol C m -2 day -1. Based on SCOC and the carbon demand for growth, a benthic carbon consumption of 0.94 mmol C m -2 day -1 was estimated. This represents about 1.1% of spring bloom primary production and 9.6% of the export flux beneath the 150 m layer, measured during the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment. Bacteria and protozoans colonizing the epibenthic phytodetrital layer were responsible for 60-80% of the seasonal increase in SCOC. The strong reaction of the smaller benthic size groups (bacteria, protozoans) to POM pulses stresses their particular importance for sediment-water interface flux rates.

  13. Generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by surface gravity waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J.N.; Mehta, A.J.; Dean, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    A generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by linear surface gravity waves over a series of layered hydrogeologic units is developed by adapting a previous solution for a hydrogeologic unit with an infinite thickness (Case I) to a unit with a finite thickness (Case II) and to a dual-unit system (Case III). The model compares favorably with laboratory observations. The amplitude of wave-forced benthic water flux is shown to be directly proportional to the amplitude of the wave, the permeability of the hydrogeologic unit, and the wave number and inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity of water. A dimensionless amplitude parameter is introduced and shown to reach a maximum where the product of water depth and the wave number is 1.2. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body. The Case I model estimates an 11.5-cm/d SGD forced by a wave with a 1 s period and 5-cm amplitude in water that is 0.5-m deep. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.3-m-thick hydrogeologic unit, with a no-flow bottom boundary, the Case II model estimates a 9.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.2-m-thick hydrogeologic unit over an infinitely thick, more permeable unit, the Case III quasi-confined model estimates a 15.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. The quasi-confined model has benthic constituent flux implications in coral reef, karst, and clastic regions. Waves may undermine tracer and seepage meter estimates of SGD at some locations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Diel Variability in Seawater pH Relates to Calcification and Benthic Community Structure on Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Todd R.; Brainard, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Community structure and assembly are determined in part by environmental heterogeneity. While reef-building corals respond negatively to warming (i.e. bleaching events) and ocean acidification (OA), the extent of present-day natural variability in pH on shallow reefs and ecological consequences for benthic assemblages is unknown. We documented high resolution temporal patterns in temperature and pH from three reefs in the central Pacific and examined how these data relate to community development and net accretion rates of early successional benthic organisms. These reefs experienced substantial diel fluctuations in temperature (0.78C) and pH (>0.2) similar to the magnitude of warming and acidification expected over the next century. Where daily pH within the benthic boundary layer failed to exceed pelagic climatological seasonal lows, net accretion was slower and fleshy, non-calcifying benthic organisms dominated space. Thus, key aspects of coral reef ecosystem structure and function are presently related to natural diurnal variability in pH. PMID:22952785

  15. Shell structure characteristics of pelagic and benthic molluscs from Antarctic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Okoshi, Kenji; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Akiha, Fumihiro

    2010-08-01

    The surface of the shell of the pelagic Antarctic gastropod, Limacina helicina antarctica forma antarctica, was smooth, with rib-like structures also observed. The larger specimen, with six to seven whorls, had visible ribs on its most outer whorl. The shell thickness of L. helicina antarctica forma antarctica was very thin, approximately 5-7 ?m, on an individual with a shell diameter of 1.4 mm. Shell microstructure, as examined by SEM, was composed mostly of a crossed-lamellar structure. Shell thickness of the dominant benthic bivalve Laternula elliptica, was approximately 99-132 ?m on an individual of shell length 19 mm. It was composed of two calcareous layers, including a thick outer homogeneous or granular layer and a thin nacreous inner layer. The characteristics of shell structure are discussed with reference to previous results, and in terms of adaptation to Antarctic waters.

  16. Benthic indicators: From subjectivity to objectivity - Where is the line?

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Bellan, Gérard; Bellan-Santini, Denise

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years, the interest in using benthic indicators to assess marine environments has increased dramatically after a rather long period of relative stagnation, mostly due to the need to assess the status of coastal marine waters required by North American and European regulations. Numerous papers on this topic have been published in the domain of ecology, using a variety of different terms to refer to two categories of information: benthic species and the status of benthic communities. Nowadays, the abundant literature on these two categories makes it possible to comment on (1) the definition of the different terms used by benthic researchers, (2) the current increase of papers of rising complexity about benthic indicators, and (3) the subjectivity and objectivity involved in using benthic indicators. Faced with the increase in the number of methods, we recommend pragmatism and thus the transfer of simple methods to the research consultancies that are responsible for assessing benthic quality in numerous impact studies. Using certain procedures, such as the "sentinel species", the best professional judgement (BPJ) and taxonomic sufficiency (TS), should clearly be encouraged. PMID:20413132

  17. Assessment of Arctic community wastewater impacts on marine benthic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Kira A; Krkosek, Wendy H; Greenwood, Mark; Ragush, Colin; Schmidt, Jordan; Grant, Jon; Barrell, Jeff; Lu, Lin; Lam, Buuan; Gagnon, Graham A; Jamieson, Rob C

    2015-01-20

    This study sought to understand the performance of arctic treatment systems and the impact of wastewater effluent on benthic invertebrate communities in arctic receiving water habitats. Effluent quality and benthic impacts were monitored in the receiving water of five communities across Nunavut that differed in the type and level of treatment achieved by wastewater infrastructure, the volume of effluent and receiving water mixing environment. We detected minimal impacts to benthic communities (<225 m linear distance from the effluent source) in four out of the five communities (Grise Fiord, Kugaaruk, Pond Inlet, and Pangnirtung), where the population was <2000 people. In these small communities impacts were characterized by increases or decreases in species richness, diversity, evenness, and density, and some differences in benthic species composition. This was in contrast to benthic sediments in Iqaluit (population 6699), which were devoid of benthic fauna up to 580 m from the effluent source in response to sediment anoxia. Variation in benthic community response between sampling locations was attributed primarily to differences in effluent volume, with effluent quality and receiving water hydrodynamics playing secondary roles. The results of this study will help to inform the development of northern specific treatment performance standards which will aid in prioritizing community wastewater system upgrades in arctic communities. PMID:25514191

  18. Intracellular control on calcification in benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nooijer, L. J.; Toyofuku, T.; Langer, G.; Nehrke, G.; Kitazato, H.; Bijma, J.

    2009-04-01

    Correlations between seawater chemistry and the composition of foraminiferal calcite are the reason why their fossil tests (i.e. shells) are currently among the most popular tools to recontstruct marine paleoenvironments. However, most species produce calcite that differs greatly in its trace element and isotopic composition from inorganically precipitated calciumcarbonates. Moreover, these compositions are known to vary greatly among species and with ontogenetic development, potentially limiting their paleoclimatological application. These variabilities indicate that foraminifera physiologically control the composition of the intracellular fluids from which they precipitate their tests. The fact that most species produce calcite with a very low Mg content suggests that between seawater vacuolization and chamber formation, foraminifera discriminate between Ca2+ and Mg2+. This then results in an active removal of most of the magnesium during the production of an intracellular calcium-pool. Recent application of a suit of fluorescent probes has started to reveal the control on intracellar pH and Ca2+-cycling in the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida. Time-lapse recordings of juvenile individuals show how Ca2+-containing and high-pH vesicles are transported towards the site of calcification during chamber formation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy allows the visualization at a high resolution of the location and timing of the production of these calcifying vesicles. Membrane cycling during seawater vacuolization and utilization of Ca2+- and carbonate-containing vesicles can also be qualified with a fluorescent probe and combined with those for calcium- and pH to develop a mechanistic understanding of seawater modifications and resulting trace element and isotopic fractionations during calcite precipitation by benthic foraminifera.

  19. The role of sediments on the Bering Sea shelf N cycle: Insights from measurements of benthic denitrification and benthic DIN fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Rachel E. A.; Whitney, Heather; Shull, David H.; Mordy, Calvin W.; Devol, Allan H.

    2013-10-01

    Continental shelves are hotspots for sedimentary denitrification, and the loss of N through denitrification can limit primary production in ecosystems. Spatial and seasonal trends in sedimentary denitrification and benthic nutrient fluxes are poorly characterized in the highly productive Bering Sea shelf ecosystem. Through the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST) program, we measured benthic fluxes of N2 and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: NH4++NO2-+NO3-), the extent of coupled sedimentary nitrification/denitrification, and the water column DIN deficit relative to phosphate, as indicated by a modified N* parameter (N**), on the Bering Sea shelf in the spring and summer 2009-2010. We found that sedimentary denitrification is widespread over the shelf, it is fueled mostly through coupled nitrification/denitrification, the net balance of sedimentary DIN flux is near zero over the shelf, and that the water column DIN deficit varies widely according to season and year. In the summer, N** in the surface layer appeared to be strongly affected by non-Redfieldian uptake of inorganic nutrients by phytoplankton in the spring bloom; in the winter, N** was strongly affected by sedimentary denitrification. Our findings indicate that the estimate of total N loss in Bering Sea shelf sediments should be revised upwards by at least 50% to 5.2-6.2 Tg N y-1. In addition, sediments are not a significant source of remineralized N for primary production over the shelf; hence sedimentary denitrification exacerbates N-limitation of the ecosystem.

  20. Inferring surface water equilibrium calcite δ18O during the last deglacial period from benthic foraminiferal records: Implications for ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrhein, Daniel E.; Gebbie, Geoffrey; Marchal, Olivier; Wunsch, Carl

    2015-11-01

    The ocean circulation modifies mixed layer (ML) tracer signals as they are communicated to the deep ocean by advection and mixing. We develop and apply a procedure for using tracer signals observed "upstream" (by planktonic foraminifera) and "downstream" (by benthic foraminifera) to constrain how tracer signals are modified by the intervening circulation and, by extension, to constrain properties of that circulation. A history of ML equilibrium calcite δ18O (δ18Oc) spanning the last deglaciation is inferred from a least-squares fit of eight benthic foraminiferal δ18Oc records to Green's function estimated for the modern ocean circulation. Disagreements between this history and the ML history implied by planktonic records would indicate deviations from the modern circulation. No deviations are diagnosed because the two estimates of ML δ18Oc agree within their uncertainties, but we suggest data collection and modeling procedures useful for inferring circulation changes in future studies. Uncertainties of benthic-derived ML δ18Oc are lowest in the high-latitude regions chiefly responsible for ventilating the deep ocean; additional high-resolution planktonic records constraining these regions are of particular utility. Benthic records from the Southern Ocean, where data are sparse, appear to have the most power to reduce uncertainties in benthic-derived ML δ18Oc. Understanding the spatiotemporal covariance of deglacial ML δ18Oc will also improve abilities of δ18Oc records to constrain deglacial circulation.

  1. Influence of sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) aquaculture on benthic-pelagic coupling in coastal waters: A study of the South Sea in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Sung-Han; Kim, Yong-Tae; Hong, Sok Jin; Han, Jeong Hee; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2012-03-01

    The influence of sea squirt aquaculture on benthic-pelagic coupling was evaluated in semi-enclosed Korean coastal waters with an in situ benthic chamber and results show for the first time that suspended sea squirt cultures play an important role in benthic-pelagic coupling in the coastal zone. Measurements of primary production, vertical particulate fluxes, and benthic fluxes were made at two stations, a sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) farm (SSF) and an area of organic-matter-enriched sediment in Jinhae Bay. The vertical material fluxes of organic carbon, nitrogen, and biogenic silicate (BSi) were significantly higher at SSF than in Jinhae Bay, indicating massive biodeposits in the surface sediments at SSF. The organic carbon oxidation rates (Cox) were estimated after correction for CaCO3 dissolution. The average Cox at SSF (204 mmol C m-2 d-1) was significantly higher than that in the organic-enriched Jinhae Bay sediment (77 mmol C m-2 d-1). The organic carbon burial fluxes were determined using vertical profiles of organic carbon of up to 30 cm and the sedimentation rate calculated from the excess 210Pb distribution. At both stations, 95% of the settled organic carbon was oxidized and only 5% was buried in the deep sediment layer. The benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate at SSF were 2-12 times higher than in Jinhae Bay, corresponding to 85%, and 270%, respectively, of the requirements for primary production.

  2. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  3. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN WILLAPA BAY, WASHINGTON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuary-wide benthic macrofauna-habitat associations in Willapa Bay, Washington, United States, were determined for 4 habitats (eelgrass [Zostera marina], Atlantic cordgrass [Spartina alterniflora], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis]) in 1...

  4. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN WILLAPA BAY, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofauna-habitat relationships were determined estuary-wide in Willapa Bay, WA for four intertidal habitats ((1) eelgrass, Zostera marina, (2) Atlantic cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, (3) ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, (4) mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis) i...

  5. Trawl disturbance on benthic communities: chronic effects and experimental predictions.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Hilmar; Prieto, Virginia; Kaiser, Michel J

    2009-04-01

    Bottom trawling has widespread impacts on benthic communities and habitats. While the direct impacts of trawl disturbances on benthic communities have been extensively studied, the consequences from long-term chronic disturbances are less well understood. The response of benthic macrofauna to chronic otter-trawl disturbance from a Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster) fishery was investigated along a gradient of fishing intensity over a muddy fishing ground in the northeastern Irish Sea. Chronic otter trawling had a significant, negative effect on benthic infauna abundance, biomass, and species richness. Benthic epifauna abundance and species richness also showed a significant, negative response, while no such effect was evident for epibenthic biomass. Furthermore, chronic trawl disturbance led to clear changes in community composition of benthic infauna and epifauna. The results presented indicate that otter-trawl impacts are cumulative and can lead to profound changes in benthic communities, which may have far-reaching implications for the integrity of marine food webs. Studies investigating the short-term effects of fishing manipulations previously concluded that otter trawling on muddy substrates had only modest effects on the benthic biota. Hence, the results presented by this study highlight that data from experimental studies can not be readily extrapolated to an ecosystem level and that subtle cumulative effects may only become apparent when fishing disturbances are examined over larger spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, this study shows that data on chronic effects of bottom trawling on the benthos will be vital in informing the recently advocated move toward an ecosystem approach in fisheries management. As bottom-trawl fisheries are expanding into ever deeper muddy habitats, the results presented here are an important step toward understanding the global ecosystem effects of bottom trawling. PMID:19425437

  6. Lake Malawi cichlid evolution along a benthic/limnetic axis

    PubMed Central

    Hulsey, C D; Roberts, R J; Loh, Y-H E; Rupp, M F; Streelman, J T

    2013-01-01

    Divergence along a benthic to limnetic habitat axis is ubiquitous in aquatic systems. However, this type of habitat divergence has largely been examined in low diversity, high latitude lake systems. In this study, we examined the importance of benthic and limnetic divergence within the incredibly species-rich radiation of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Using novel phylogenetic reconstructions, we provided a series of hypotheses regarding the evolutionary relationships among 24 benthic and limnetic species that suggests divergence along this axis has occurred multiple times within Lake Malawi cichlids. Because pectoral fin morphology is often associated with divergence along this habitat axis in other fish groups, we investigated divergence in pectoral fin muscles in these benthic and limnetic cichlid species. We showed that the eight pectoral fin muscles and fin area generally tended to evolve in a tightly correlated manner in the Lake Malawi cichlids. Additionally, we found that larger pectoral fin muscles are strongly associated with the independent evolution of the benthic feeding habit across this group of fish. Evolutionary specialization along a benthic/limnetic axis has occurred multiple times within this tropical lake radiation and has produced repeated convergent matching between exploitation of water column habitats and locomotory morphology. PMID:23919168

  7. Benthic primary productivity on the Georgia midcontinental shelf: Benthic flux measurements and high-resolution, continuous in situ PAR records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, R. A.; Nelson, J. R.; Richards, M. E.; Robertson, C. Y.; Rao, A. M. F.; Jahnke, D. B.

    2008-08-01

    Continuous, 7 year records of above-water, near-surface water column and near-bottom measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were used in conjunction with in situ chamber measurements to estimate magnitude and seasonal variations in benthic primary productivity (BPP) on the Georgia continental shelf. Correlation between BPP and PAR flux was established with 19 light/dark benthic chamber and PAR flux measurements at water depths from 14 to 40 m. No substantial improvement in the relationship is observed by inclusion of benthic chlorophyll biomass and water temperature, apparently because variations in benthic chlorophyll concentrations are moderated by physical mixing processes and seasonal temperature ranges are relatively modest. Best fit for the data set is described by a simple power function [mg carbon fixed m-2 d-1 = 132(mol photon m-2 d-1)1.45]. In situ, continuous PAR measurements indicate temporal variations and seasonal trends not revealed by previous ship-based measurements. Importantly, calculations of PAR flux and resulting BPP are significantly less than earlier estimates of benthic PAR derived via local insolation and water column light attenuation from ship-based light profiling. Furthermore, benthic PAR flux based on continuous above-water and near-surface in-water PAR measurements fails to correctly reflect seasonal trends for near-bottom PAR. Analysis of the time series data suggests that estimates of the vertical attenuation coefficient for PAR (kPAR) values from ship-based measurements are biased to calmer conditions while variations in the vertical profile of light attenuation prevent accurate estimates of benthic PAR from near-surface or above-water measurements. Accurate estimates of the benthic light field and BPP over the annual cycle require in situ, continuous, high-resolution near-bottom measurements provided by ocean observatories.

  8. Biomixing generated by benthic filter feeders: a diffusion model for near-bottom phytoplankton depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsena, Poul S.; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    1997-05-01

    Transient concentration distributions of flagellate cells ( Rhodomonas sp.) previously measured by Riisgård and co-workers in laboratory experiments have been examined to develop a diffusion model for the process of phytoplankton depletion in stagnant seawater above populations of benthic filter feeders, the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, respectively. The model is based on sinks located at inhalant openings and Fick's law with an effective diffusivity that decreases with distance above the bottom due to the biomixing generated by exhalant and inhalant feeding currents. For N. diversicolor, having inhalant and exhalant openings flush with the sediment surface and a moderate exhalant jet velocity of ˜0.01 m s -1, concentration boundary layer growth is retarded and limited by the low values of diffusivity prevailing at heights greater >˜0.05 m above the bottom. For C. intestinalis, having inhalant and exhalant openings situated ˜0.05-0.1 m above the bottom and a higher and inclined exhalant jet velocity of ˜0.1-0.2 m s -1, the concentration distributions show a nearly uniform depletion over a layer reaching a thickness of 0.2-0.3 m above the bottom due to high biomixing in this layer. Numerical predictions of concentration distributions reproduce essential features of experiments, and suggest near-bottom values of effective diffusivity of 0.3 x 10 -6 and 150 x 10 -6 m 2 s -1, for N. diversicolor and C. intestinalis, respectively. It is suggested that the latter value is so large that the induced mixing should be accounted for in modelling benthic concentration boundary layers under flow conditions.

  9. The continental shelf benthic iron flux and its isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severmann, Silke; McManus, James; Berelson, William M.; Hammond, Douglas E.

    2010-07-01

    Benthic iron fluxes from sites along the Oregon-California continental shelf determined using in situ benthic chambers, range from less than 10 ?mol m -2 d -1 to values in excess of 300 ?mol m -2 d -1. These fluxes are generally greater than previously published iron fluxes for continental shelves contiguous with the open ocean (as opposed to marginal seas, bays, or estuaries) with the highest fluxes measured in the regions around the high-sediment discharge Eel River and the Umpqua River. These benthic iron fluxes do not covary with organic carbon oxidation rates in any systematic fashion, but rather seem to respond to variations in bottom water oxygen and benthic oxygen demand. We hypothesize that the highest rates of benthic iron efflux are driven, in part, by the greater availability of reactive iron deposited along these river systems as compared to other more typical continental margin settings. Bioirrigation likely plays an important role in the benthic Fe flux in these systems as well. However, the influence of bottom water oxygen concentrations on the iron flux is significant, and there appears to be a threshold in dissolved oxygen (60-80 ?M), below which sediment-ocean iron exchange is enhanced. The isotope composition of this shelf-derived benthic iron is enriched in the lighter isotopes, and appears to change by 3 (? 56Fe) during the course of a benthic chamber experiment with a mean isotope composition of -2.7 1.1 (2 SD, n = 9) by the end of the experiment. This average value is slightly heavier than those from two high benthic Fe flux restricted basins from the California Borderland region where ? 56Fe is -3.4 0.4 (2 SD, n = 3). These light iron isotope compositions support previous ideas, based on sediment porewater analyses, suggesting that sedimentary iron reduction fractionates iron isotopes and produces an isotopically light iron pool that is transferred to the ocean water column. In sum, our data suggest that continental shelves may export a higher efflux of iron than previously hypothesized, with the likelihood that along river-dominated margins, the benthic iron flux could well be orders of magnitude larger than non-river dominated shelves. The close proximity of the continental shelf benthos to the productive surface ocean means that this flux is likely to be essential for maintaining ecosystem micronutrient supply.

  10. Miocene benthic foraminiferal isotope records: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savin, S.M.; Douglas, R.G.; Keller, G.; Killingley, J.S.; Shaughnessy, L.; Sommer, M.A.; Vincent, E.; Woodruff, F.

    1981-01-01

    18O 16O and 13C 12C ratios of Miocene benthic foraminifera from a number of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean DSDP sites (71, 77B, 206, 208, 238, 279, 289, 296, 329, 357 and 366A) have been compiled. These provide a rather detailed history of Miocene deep water especially in the Pacific Ocean. Bottom-water temperatures rose during the early Miocene and then declined rapidly during the middle Miocene. This decline was accompanied by an increase in Antarctic glaciation. Late Miocene bottom temperatures and Antarctic ice volumes are inferred to be similar to today's, but exhibited some fluctuation. The early Miocene ocean was less thermally stratified at intermediate and abyssal depths while the late Miocene deep ocean had a thermal structure generally similar to the modern ocean. Foraminiferal carbon isotope ratios at most of the sites varied quasi-sympathetically throughout the Miocene. These variations must reflect comparable variations in the mean 13C 12C of marine HCO3-. However, the causes of such variations are not yet clear. ?? 1981.

  11. Benthic biological effects of seasonal hypoxia in a eutrophic estuary predate rapid coastal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Melanie J.; Powers, Sean P.; Porter, Hugh J.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2006-11-01

    Nutrient and organic loading associated with escalating human activities increases biological oxygen demand from microbial decomposition. In the Neuse River estuary, North Carolina, recurrent nuisance algal blooms, bottom-water hypoxic events, and fish kills during summers of the 1990s suggest that uncapped nutrient loading may have increased the frequency, duration, and/or spatial scope of important biological effects of hypoxia during summer, when persistent water column stratification can occur and microbial metabolism is greatest. We test the hypothesis that the severity of benthic biological effects of hypoxia in this estuary has increased over a 30-year period of dramatic human population growth in eastern North Carolina by comparing survival over summer of the benthic bivalve Macoma spp. between historical (1968-1970) and recent (1997-1998) years. Macoma is a demonstrated indicator of oxygen availability, the benthic biomass dominant in the Neuse and other temperate estuaries and the major prey link to higher trophic levels. All three historical summers exhibited patterns of collapse in Macoma populations indistinguishable from the recent summer of severe hypoxia (1997) but distinct from the modest changes documented during the mildly hypoxic summer of 1998. The only Macoma to survive any severely hypoxic summer were those in shallows where oxygen could be renewed by surface mixing. Thus, the biological effects of hypoxia observed in the Neuse River estuary in the late 1990s appear no more severe than 30 years before. Historic rates of organic loading to the Neuse River estuary may have been sufficient to induce widespread and intense hypoxia beneath the surface mixed layer, implying that even if algal blooms are diminished through nutrient reductions, the severity of biological effects of bottom-water hypoxia may not change detectably.

  12. Calcium isotope ratios in calcitic tests of benthic foraminifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gussone, Nikolaus; Filipsson, Helena L.

    2010-02-01

    We analysed Ca isotope ratios of the infaunal foraminiferal species Cassidulina laevigata, Elphidium spp., Gyroidinoides spp., and Uvigerina peregrina as well as the epifaunal Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi over a depth-temperature gradient. The calcium isotope ratios of the benthic foraminifers' tests show a distinct anomaly around 4 C. This anomaly is observed in both epi- and infaunal species, but there are also characteristic differences between both. The ?44/40Ca characteristics of benthic foraminifers may be explained by the interference of temperature and carbonate chemistry of the fluid on Ca isotope fractionation. We suggest that Ca isotope composition of benthic foraminifer tests is dominantly controlled by temperature at temperatures higher than 5 C, while in the temperature range below 5 C, calcite saturation ( ?Cc) becomes an increasingly important controlling factor, due to the non linear shape of the ?Cc- ?44/40Ca relation of actively transported calcium. The potential applicability of Ca isotope ratios in benthic foraminifers for reconstruction of either temperatures or ?44/40Ca sw is limited by the complex fractionation pattern below 5 C. However, due to the minor temperature dependence in the temperature range above 5 C, benthic foraminifers might provide a possible alternative archive for ?44Ca sw avoiding some uncertainties associated with planktic records (relocation, habitat/calcification depth, short time climate variability) as long as a defined bottom water temperature above 5 C can be secured.

  13. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  14. Benthic lead fluxes in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Duarte, I.; Flegal, A.R. )

    1994-08-01

    Porewater concentration gradients indicate relatively large benthic fluxes of Pb from sediments in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Gradients in total dissolved (<0.45 [mu]m) Pb concentrations in sediment porewaters, which range from 0.07-19.2 nM, parallel gradients in ammonia and dissolved Fe in sediment cores from the bay. Corresponding Fickian diffusive fluxes range from 2.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]9] moles m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] to 3.1 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] moles m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] in anoxic surface (<2 cm) sediments along the periphery of the estuary. These indicate the net diffusive benthic flux of Pb from sediments in San Francisco Bay (3-31 moles d[sup [minus]1]) is at least an order of magnitude greater than the fluvial input of dissolved Pb to the estuary (0.2 moles d[sup [minus]1]) during low flow periods. Moreover, estimates of the total benthic Pb flux, which were based on HAMMOND et al. (1985) irrigation benthic flux model, are two- to six-fold greater (6-186 moles d[sup [minus]1]) than the estimates of diffusive fluxes. Therefore, the total benthic flux of Pb from the bay's sediments may be within the order of magnitude of the total anthropogenic flux of Pb to the San Francisco Bay estuary (965-8,410 moles d[sup [minus]1]).

  15. Ecology and role of benthic copepods in northern lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvala, J.

    1998-06-01

    Freshwater benthic Harpacticoida consist of species capable of swimming, but mostly burrowing in organic sediments, and small, vermiform species that are poor swimmers and live in interstitial systems. Freshwater benthic Cyclopoida are either agile epibenthic and often relatively large herbivores, carnivores and omnivores, or small infaunal omnivores. Harpacticoids seem to have few, mainly invertebrate, predators, and consequently low mortality and long life span. These are evolutionarily linked to slow growth and low production to biomass ratio (typically 1-7 a -1). Cyclopoids are characterized by more rapid growth and higher production to biomass ratio (typically 3-13 a -1). Due to their active mode of life, they are preyed upon by fish and other predators, which results in high mortality and a short adult life span. Harpacticoid numbers and biomass may reach 250,000 ind/m 2 and 120 mgC/m 2. True benthic cyclopoids are usually much less abundant (up to 20,000 ind/m 2 and 9 mgC/m 2). Thus, although the quantitative importance of freshwater meiofauna as a whole may often be comparable to that of macrofauna, the few biomass and production data on benthic copepods suggest that at least harpacticoids have a minor role in the benthic food web of northern lakes.

  16. Seasonal fluctuations in benthic protozoan populations at different depths in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, R. P. M.; Nieuwland, G.

    We used epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate small (< 20 ?m) protozoa in extracts of flushed fixed sediment samples. This method retrieved 914% ( x se) of cultured flagellates from sediments. Protist densities at different depths in the sediments were studied over 1 year at 3 intertidal flats in the Wadden Sea. There was a general pattern of seasonal density fluctuation at all sites with a marked increase in March from winter density levels (50 to 10010 3cm -3) to 2 to 3 times higher summer levels (150 to 30010 3cm -3). Deeper in the sediments (30 to 33 and 60 to 63 mm) densities were throughout the year 2 to 3 times lower than in the sediment surface layer. Fluctuations in densities at the surface were generally mirrored at greater depths. At least 50% of the cells were in the size class of 2 to 5 ?m. Estimates for total biomass ranged between 1.2 and 8.510 -6 g Ccm -3. About 33% of the protists contained chlorophyll. There were no obvious correlations with concurrently measured parameters such as porosity, POC, bacterial numbers or biomass. Increased bacterial productivity, however, was invariably paralleled by increased protist densities. This suggests that high benthic protist densities are indications of high benthic microbial growth.

  17. Spatial Patterns of Subtidal Benthic Invertebrates and Environmental Factors in the Nearshore Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial patterns of subtidal benthic invertebrates and physical-chemical variables in the nearshore Gulf of Maine (Acadian Biogeographic Province) were studied to provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of environmental condition, determine physical-chemical f...

  18. Application of multiple index development approaches to benthic invertebrate data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  19. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  20. Spatial and temporal distributions of benthic green macroalgae in Yaquina bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal estuaries of Oregon, USA, typically support relatively large accumulations of benthic green macroalgae (BGM) during the summer/early fall growing season. This raises questions regarding possible (positive and negative) effects on eelgrass and benthic epifauna and infauna...

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES AND BENTHIC DIATOM ASSEMBLAGES IN CALIFORNIA CENTRAL VALLEY STREAMS (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams and rivers in the California Central Valley Ecoregion have been substantially modified by human activities. This study examines distributional patterns of benthic diatom assemblages in relation to environmental characteristics in streams and rivers of this region. Benthic...

  2. LONGITUDINAL ZONATION OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN THREE LARGE RESERVOIRS OF THE UPPER MISSOURI RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are useful indicators of ecological condition for aquatic systems. This study was conducted to characterize benthic communities of three large reservoirs on the Missouri River. The information collected will be useful in development of samp...

  3. Pelagic and benthic ecology of the lower interface of the Eastern Tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishner, Karen F.; Ashjian, Carin J.; Gelfman, Celia; Gowing, Marcia M.; Kann, Lisa; Levin, Lisa A.; Mullineaux, Lauren S.; Saltzman, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    The distributions of pelagic and benthic fauna were examined in relation to the lower boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on and near Volcano 7, a seamount that penetrates this feature in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the broad, pronounced OMZ in this region is an effective barrier for most zooplankton, zooplankton abundances, zooplankton feeding rates, and ambient suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) peaked sharply in the lower OMZ (about 740-800 m), in association with the minimum oxygen concentration and the increasing oxygen levels just below it. Zooplankton in the lower OMZ were also larger in size, and the pelagic community included some very abundant, possibly opportunistic, species. Elevated POC and scatter in the light transmission data suggested the existence of a thin, particle-rich, and carbon-rich pelagic layer at the base of the OMZ. Gut contents of planktonic detrifvores implied opportunistic ingestion of bacterial aggregates, possibly from this layer. Benthic megafaunal abundances on the seamount, which extended up to 730 m, peaked at about 800 m. There was a consistent vertical progression in the depth of first occurrence of different megafaunal taxa in this depth range, similar to intertidal zonation. Although the vertical gradients of temperature, salinity, and oxygen were gradual at the lower OMZ interface (in contrast to the upper OMZ interface at the thermocline), temporal variability in oxygen levels due to internal wave-induced vertical excursions of the OMZ may produce the distinct zonation in the benthic fauna. The characteristics of the lower OMZ interface result from biological interactions with the chemical and organic matter gradients of the OMZ. Most zooplankton are probably excluded physiologically from pronounced OMZs. The zooplankton abundance peak at the lower interface of the OMZ occurs where oxygen becomes sufficiently high to permit the zooplankton to utilize the high concentrations of organic particles that have descended through the OMZ relatively unaltered because of low metazoan abundance. A similar scenario applies to megabenthic distributions. Plankton layers and a potential short food chain (bacteria to zooplankton) at OMZ interfaces suggest intense utilization and modification of organic material, localized within a thin midwater depth zone. This could be a potentially significant filter for organic material sinking to the deep-sea floor.

  4. Clinch River remedial investigation task 9 -- benthic macroinvertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, E.M. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of Task 9 of the TVA/Department of Energy (DOE) Interagency Agreement supporting DOE`s Clinch River Remedial Investigation. Species lists and densities (numbers/m{sup 2}) of benthic macroinvertebrates sampled at 16 sites in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek embayments of upper Watts Bar Reservoir near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in March, 1994, are presented and briefly discussed. Data are also analyzed to assess and compare quality of benthic communities at each site, according to methods developed for TVA`s Reservoir Vital Signs Monitoring Program. Results of this study will be incorporated with other program tasks in a comprehensive report prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1995, which will, in part, assess the effect of sediment contaminants on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Watts Bar Reservoir.

  5. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter. PMID:26129903

  6. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments.

    PubMed

    Tupinambs, T H; Pompeu, P S; Gandini, C V; Hughes, R M; Callisto, M

    2015-01-01

    The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle) in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paran River Basin, southeast Brazil). We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs) and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples). We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus). Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity). This is especially true for studies that only sample fish assemblages to evaluate aquatic ecosystem impacts. Therefore, this approach can be useful to amplify assessments of human impacts, and to incorporate additional bioindicators. PMID:25945633

  7. Effects of CO2 on benthic biota: an in situ benthic chamber experiment in Storfjorden (Norway).

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Golmen, Lars G; West, Julia; Krger, Martin; Coombs, Patricia; Berge, John Arthur; Fukuhara, Tastuo; Magi, Michimasa; Kita, Jun

    2013-08-30

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods, either sub-seabed or in ocean depths, introduces risk of CO2 leakage and subsequent interaction with the ecosystem. It is therefore important to obtain information on possible effects of CO2. In situ CO2 exposure experiments were carried out twice for 10 days during 2005 using a Benthic Chamber system at 400 m depth in Storfjorden, Norway. pCO2 in the water above the sediment in the chambers was controlled at approximately 500, 5000 and 20,000 ?atm, respectively. This article describes the experiment and the results from measured the biological responses within the chamber sediments. The results show effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on biological processes such as increased nanobenthos density. Methane production and sulphate reduction was enhanced in the approximately 5000 ?atm chamber. PMID:23465619

  8. REFINEMENT, VALIDATION, AND APPLICATION OF A BENTHIC CONDITION INDEX FOR NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    By applying discriminant analysis to benthic macroinvertebrate data to produce a benthic index, we have developed an indicator of benthic condition for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The data used were collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmen...

  9. APPLICATION OF TWO INDICES OF BENTHIC COMMUNITY CONDITION IN CHESAPEAKE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-161) and the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's Virginian Province Benthic Index (EMAP-VP BI) were applied to 294 sampling events in Chesapeake Bay and the results were compared. These benthic indices are inte...

  10. Rates of Ocean Acidification: Decoupling of Planktic and Benthic Extinctions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Alegret, L.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea benthic organisms derive food from export of organic matter produced in the photic zone, so that pelagic and benthic productivity are coupled, suggesting that severe extinction of plankton and benthos in the geological past should have been coupled. An asteroid impact at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary (~65 Ma), however, caused mass extinction of calcifying plankton (foraminifera and nannoplankton), whereas benthic calcifyers (foraminifera) did not suffer significant extinction. Also, pelagic calcifyers did not suffer severe extinction during the carbon-cycle perturbation and global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene (P/E) boundary 10 myr later, when deep-sea benthic foraminifera did. The K/Pg extinction has been interpreted as darkness-caused collapse of productivity, but this is not supported by the lack of benthic extinction. To evaluate extinction mechanisms, we compared benthic foraminiferal and stable isotope records at ODP sites in the Pacific, SE Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Across the K/Pg boundary, the decrease in export productivity was moderate, regionally variable, and insufficient to explain the mass extinction at higher levels of the food chain. Across the P/E boundary, productivity increased in epicontinental seas and on continental margins, whereas pelagic productivity may have declined (increased trophic resource continuum). We thus found no evidence that the different benthic and pelagic extinction patterns at K/Pg and P/E were linked to changes in (export) productivity. Instead, the difference between planktic and benthic extinction patterns may have been caused by the occurrence of ocean acidification at different rates. Very rapid (faster than present anthropogenic) surface ocean acidification at the K/Pg boundary may have been due to influx of impact-generated nitric acid, followed by rapid oceanic buffering. This may have been a factor in the massive extinction of pelagic calcifyers, ammonites and top-level predators such as large fish and mosasaurs, while oceanic productivity in terms of biomass recovered rapidly. Acidification at the end of the Paleocene was triggered by the much slower injection of a large mass of carbon-compounds into the atmosphere and transfer into the oceans (~10-20 kyr), leading to severe extinction of deep-sea calcifying benthos, but much less severe turnover in the plankton. The study of the biogeography of biotic consequences of the K/Pg and P/E boundary events thus may assist in the evaluation of the varying effects on oceanic biota with varying rates and sources of acidification.

  11. Geophysical Conceptual Model for Benthic Flux and Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous investigators characterize benthic flux and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) using a geochemical conceptual model that relies on the estimation of tracer fluxes into and out of a control volume. (Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of any water body, per unit area of bed. Benthic flux is a vector that includes both discharge and recharge components. SGD is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body.) For the geochemical approach, benthic discharge flux or SGD is estimated by summing the flux of tracer into or out of the control volume---a water body or portion of a water body---and deducing that tracer deficiency within the control volume must be explained by SGD. Typically, estimated or measured fluxes include advection and mixing in surface-water, diffusion, evasion across the air-water interface, production, and decay. The geochemical model, however, does not account for fluxes that do not transport tracer. For example, investigators found equivalent (<10 dpm per liter) radon activities in both surface water, and in pore fluid within the upper 30 cm of sediment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, in June and July 2003. At this location, a surface-gravity wave with a five-centimeter amplitude and one-second period in 0.5 m of water forced a 12-cm-per-day SGD. The radon tracer technique may not characterize SGD forced by the one-second wave due to the time scale of the wave, the absence of a radon activity gradient between bed medium and surface water, and the <30 cm depth to which the wave affects the flow field within the porous medium. A new geophysical conceptual model for benthic flux is proposed. The model parses benthic flux into components driven by individual forcing mechanisms. The model recognizes that benthic flux components may interact in a constructive or destructive manner, such that benthic flux generated by multiple forcing mechanisms at the same location may not be equivalent to the linear sum of benthic flux generated by single forcing mechanisms. Restated: the whole may be different than the sum of the parts. Individual forcing mechanisms that drive benthic flux components include: the terrestrial hydraulic gradient, tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, chemical gradients, diagenesis, bio-irrigation, sea-level rise, and bedform-current interaction. Other forcing mechanisms surely exist. Although many of these component forcing mechanisms can be characterized, component interactions are not fully understood. Differences exist between the geophysical and geochemical conceptual models. The geochemical model integrates the contribution of forcing mechanisms over both the control volume and duration of study. Because a tracer can not characterize a flux that does not transport the tracer, and because the time-scale or spatial-scale of some SGD forcing mechanisms is not resolved by certain tracers, the geochemical model may not describe all SGD to a water body. Restated: the geochemical model may only describe the component of SGD that transports the tracer. Some components of the geophysical model may be difficult or impossible to measure in natural systems. Interaction between specific components of the geophysical model may be intractable.

  12. The PROWQM physical biological model with benthic pelagic coupling applied to the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Tett, Paul; Jones, Ken; Jones, Sarah; Luyten, Patrick; Smith, Claire; Wild-Allen, Karen

    2002-12-01

    PROWQM, a 1-D depth resolving model which couples physical and microbiological processes in the water column with sedimentation/resuspension and benthic mineralisation processes, has been used to simulate seasonal changes of chlorophyll, nutrients and oxygen at the PROVESS north site (5920'N 100'E) in the North Sea. PROWQM is derived from the 3-D model COHERENS, and improves COHEREN's benthic and pelagic biology. The physical sub-model of PROWQM implicitly solves turbulence closure equations forced by climatological, or realistic high-frequency, meteorological and tidal data. The pelagic biological sub-model 2MPPD includes a 'diatomy' microplankton (mp1) and a 'flagellatey' (or microbial loop) microplankton (mp2), the cycling of silicon and nitrogen, slow-sinking detritus, and fast-sinking phytodetritus. Phytodetritus is formed by shear-driven aggregation of particulate material, using a simple algorithm for bulk processes that is derived by considering the interactions of single cells. The microplankton compartments include heterotrophic bacteria and protozoa as well as phytoplankton, and most microplankton rates are specified with the aid of a 'heterotroph fraction' parameter, which was 0.125 for mp1 and 0.6 for mp2. The microbiological system is closed by mesozooplankton grazing pressures imposed as time varying series determined from observed zooplankton abundance. The benthic boundary sub-model includes a superficial fluff layer and a nutrient element reservoir in the consolidated sediment. Particulate material in the fluff layer can be resuspended (in response to bed stress by near-bed flows), mineralised or carried by bioturbation into the underlying, consolidated, sediment, where it is mineralised and its nutrients returned to the water-column at rates mainly dependent on (implicit) macrobenthic pumping. Benthic denitrification can occur when mineralisation rates exceed oxygen supply. Verification of the PROWQM numerical implementation used test cases and checks for nutrient element conservation. Simulations with realistic forcing, for a range of parameter values, were compared with historic observations in the NOWESP data set and during FLEX76, and with those made during the PROVESS cruises in autumn 1998. PROWQM provided a good simulation of the seasonal succession from a diatom-dominated spring bloom to summer dominance by small flagellates. The simulations included sedimentation of organic matter from the spring bloom, and qualitatively realistic behaviour of the fluff layer, but decay rates were too slow and there was almost no denitrification. The simulated surface mixed layer was too shallow during the summer. Simulated annual net microplankton primary production was in between 59 and 91 g C m -2 y -1. A large proportion of mineralisation, 28-47% of nitrogen and 40-67% of silicon mineralisation, took place as a result of the decay of sinking and resuspended detritus whilst in the water column. PROWQM is discussed in relation to other models that have been used to simulate this part of the North Sea, in particular the simpler ECOHAM1 and the more complex ERSEM, and in relation to PROWQM's evolution from COHERENS.

  13. Responses of benthic foraminifera to the 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea, PR China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yan Li; Li, Tie Gang; Bi, Hongsheng; Cui, Wen Lin; Song, Wen Peng; Li, Ji Ye; Li, Cheng Chun

    2015-07-15

    The 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea was the largest spill event in China. Nine sediment cores were taken near the spill site and environmental factors including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs), oils, sulfides, organic carbon were measured 6 months later. Benthic foraminifera were separated into >150 μm (large) and 63-150 μm (small) size fractions for 2-cm depth interval of each sediment core. Statistical analyses suggested that the species composition of living foraminifera was impacted by oils, PAHs and sulfides. Large foraminifera were more sensitive to the oils than the small. Abnormal specimens were positively correlated with oils or PAHs. Small forms, however, tended to have high reproduction and mortality. Pollution-resistant and opportunistic taxa were identified to calculate a Foraminiferal Index of Environmental Impacts (FIEI). The FIEI increased from low to high oil-polluted station and from deep layer to surface sediment reflects the impact of oil pollution in this area. PMID:26002093

  14. Growth form defines physiological photoprotective capacity in intertidal benthic diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Alexandre; Méléder, Vona; Blommaert, Lander; Lepetit, Bernard; Gaudin, Pierre; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Dupuy, Christine; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In intertidal marine sediments, characterized by rapidly fluctuating and often extreme light conditions, primary production is frequently dominated by diatoms. We performed a comparative analysis of photophysiological traits in 15 marine benthic diatom species belonging to the four major morphological growth forms (epipelon (EPL), motile epipsammon (EPM-M) and non-motile epipsammon (EPM-NM) and tychoplankton (TYCHO)) found in these sediments. Our analyses revealed a clear relationship between growth form and photoprotective capacity, and identified fast regulatory physiological photoprotective traits (that is, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the xanthophyll cycle (XC)) as key traits defining the functional light response of these diatoms. EPM-NM and motile EPL showed the highest and lowest NPQ, respectively, with EPM-M showing intermediate values. Like EPL, TYCHO had low NPQ, irrespective of whether they were grown in benthic or planktonic conditions, reflecting an adaptation to a low light environment. Our results thus provide the first experimental evidence for the existence of a trade-off between behavioural (motility) and physiological photoprotective mechanisms (NPQ and the XC) in the four major intertidal benthic diatoms growth forms using unialgal cultures. Remarkably, although motility is restricted to the raphid pennate diatom clade, raphid pennate species, which have adopted a non-motile epipsammic or a tychoplanktonic life style, display the physiological photoprotective response typical of these growth forms. This observation underscores the importance of growth form and not phylogenetic relatedness as the prime determinant shaping the physiological photoprotective capacity of benthic diatoms. PMID:25003964

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF BENTHIC ALGAL COMMUNITIES IN THE UPPER GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The upper Great Lakes contain a diverse array of benthic algal communities. Characteristic communities occupy substrates from the supralittoral to depths in excess of 30 m. Diatoms are the dominant taxonomic group present in terms of numbers, and usually in terms of biomass, exce...

  16. Growth form defines physiological photoprotective capacity in intertidal benthic diatoms.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Alexandre; Mlder, Vona; Blommaert, Lander; Lepetit, Bernard; Gaudin, Pierre; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Dupuy, Christine; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In intertidal marine sediments, characterized by rapidly fluctuating and often extreme light conditions, primary production is frequently dominated by diatoms. We performed a comparative analysis of photophysiological traits in 15 marine benthic diatom species belonging to the four major morphological growth forms (epipelon (EPL), motile epipsammon (EPM-M) and non-motile epipsammon (EPM-NM) and tychoplankton (TYCHO)) found in these sediments. Our analyses revealed a clear relationship between growth form and photoprotective capacity, and identified fast regulatory physiological photoprotective traits (that is, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the xanthophyll cycle (XC)) as key traits defining the functional light response of these diatoms. EPM-NM and motile EPL showed the highest and lowest NPQ, respectively, with EPM-M showing intermediate values. Like EPL, TYCHO had low NPQ, irrespective of whether they were grown in benthic or planktonic conditions, reflecting an adaptation to a low light environment. Our results thus provide the first experimental evidence for the existence of a trade-off between behavioural (motility) and physiological photoprotective mechanisms (NPQ and the XC) in the four major intertidal benthic diatoms growth forms using unialgal cultures. Remarkably, although motility is restricted to the raphid pennate diatom clade, raphid pennate species, which have adopted a non-motile epipsammic or a tychoplanktonic life style, display the physiological photoprotective response typical of these growth forms. This observation underscores the importance of growth form and not phylogenetic relatedness as the prime determinant shaping the physiological photoprotective capacity of benthic diatoms. PMID:25003964

  17. EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS ON MARINE BENTHIC BIOTA AND COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our understanding of the effects of contaminants on benthic organisms lags well behind that for water column species because of the way in which sediments mediate bioavailability and because test protocols using infaunal organism are still in the developmental stage. lthough quan...

  18. Topographic complexity and roughness of a tropical benthic seascape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawada, David G.; Piniak, Gregory A.; Hearn, Clifford J.

    2010-07-01

    Topographic complexity is a fundamental structural property of benthic marine ecosystems that exists across all scales and affects a multitude of processes. Coral reefs are a prime example, for which this complexity has been found to impact water flow, species diversity, nutrient uptake, and wave-energy dissipation, among other properties. Despite its importance, only limited assessments are available regarding the distribution or range of topographic complexity within or between benthic communities. Here, we show substantial variability in topographic complexity over the entire inner-shelf seascape of a tropical island. Roughness, estimated in terms of fractal dimension, served as a proxy for topographic complexity, and was computed for linear transects (DT), as well as the benthic surface (DS). Spatial variability in both DT and DS was correlated with the known distribution of benthic cover types in the seascape. Transect roughness values ranged from 1.0 to 1.7, with features along the shelf edge being markedly anisotropic with an along-shore bias, whereas regions with high scleractinian coral cover were nearly isotropic and exhibited minimal directional bias. Surface-roughness values ranged from 2.0 in predominantly hardbottom areas with low coral cover to 2.5 in areas with high coral cover. Quantifying roughness across the substrates and biological communities for an entire seascape provides a synoptic view of its spatial variability at scales appropriate for numerous research efforts, including ecosystem studies, parameterizing hydrodynamic models, and designing monitoring programs.

  19. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA AND HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN TILLAMOOK BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tillamook Bay is subject to natural and man-made stressors, such as increased nutrients and sediments, which can alter its habitats and, thereby, impact its productivity and ecological resources. The benthic macrofauna are small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates which have strong...

  20. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat-based ecological risk assessments rely, in part, on estimates of the ecological value of the habitats at risk. As part of a larger programmatic effort to estimate estuarine habitat values, we determined benthic macrofauna-habitat relationships for 8 intertidal habitats i...

  1. Relating remotely sensed optical variability to marine benthic biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Herkl, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne; Kutser, Tiit; Vahtme, Ele

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity is important in maintaining ecosystem viability, and the availability of adequate biodiversity data is a prerequisite for the sustainable management of natural resources. As such, there is a clear need to map biodiversity at high spatial resolutions across large areas. Airborne and spaceborne optical remote sensing is a potential tool to provide such biodiversity data. The spectral variation hypothesis (SVH) predicts a positive correlation between spectral variability (SV) of a remotely sensed image and biodiversity. The SVH has only been tested on a few terrestrial plant communities. Our study is the first attempt to apply the SVH in the marine environment using hyperspectral imagery recorded by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). All coverage-based diversity measures of benthic macrophytes and invertebrates showed low but statistically significant positive correlations with SV whereas the relationship between biomass-based diversity measures and SV were weak or lacking. The observed relationships did not vary with spatial scale. SV had the highest independent effect among predictor variables in the statistical models of coverage-derived total benthic species richness and Shannon index. Thus, the relevance of SVH in marine benthic habitats was proved and this forms a prerequisite for the future use of SV in benthic biodiversity assessments. PMID:23405180

  2. Benthic oxygen consumption on continental shelves off eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Jonathan; Emerson, Craig W.; Hargrave, Barry T.; Shortle, Jeannette L.

    1991-08-01

    The consumption of phytoplankton production by the benthos is an important component of organic carbon budgets for continental shelves. Sediment texture is a major factor regulating benthic processes because fine sediment areas are sites of enhanced deposition from the water column, resulting in increased organic content, bacterial biomass and community metabolism. Although continental shelves at mid- to high latitudes consist primarily of coarse relict sediments ( PIPER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1013-1035), shelf regions of boreal and subarctic eastern Canada contain large areas of silt and clay sediments ( FADER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1123-1153). We collated estimates of benthic oxygen consumption in coarse (<20% silt-clay, <0.5% organic matter) and fine sediments (20% silt-clay, 0.5% organic matter) for northwest Atlantic continental shelves including new data for Georges Bank, the Scotian Shelf, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf. Estimates were applied to the areal distribution of sediment type on these shelves to obtain a general relationship between sediment texture and benthic carbon consumption. Mean benthic oxygen demand was 2.7 times greater in fine sediment than in coarse sediment, when normalized to mean annual temperature. In terms of carbon equivalents, shelf regions with minimal fine sediment (Georges Bank, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland-northeast Newfoundland) consumed only 5-8% of annual primary production. Benthos of the Gulf of Maine (100% fine sediment) and the Scotian Shelf (35% fine sediment) utilized 16-19% of primary production. Although 32% of the Labrador Shelf area contained fine sediments, benthic consumption of pelagic production (8%) was apparently limited by low mean annual temperature (2°C). These results indicate that incorporation of sediment-specific oxygen uptake into shelf carbon budgets may increase estimates of benthic consumption by 50%. Furthermore, respiration and production by large macrofauna allow an even greater proportion of primary production to enter benthic pathways. Fine sediment areas (shelf basins or "depocenters") are postulated to be sites of enhanced biological activity which must be considered in the modelling of shelf carbon budgets and the role of the benthos in demersal fisheries.

  3. Benthic Nitrogen Loss in the Arabian Sea Off Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m−2 day−1. While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmol N m−2 day−1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m−2 day−1. Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to 40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd1-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in the Arabian Sea. PMID:23226143

  4. A review of benthic faunal surveys in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Frederic H.

    1973-01-01

    During the past 60 years, considerable effort has been expended in studies of the relations of the biotic community and physicochemical characteristics of San Francisco Bay water. In very recent years these studies have emphasized the relations between the 'state of health' of bottom-living invertebrates (the benthos) and the levels of pollutants in the bay. Benthic organisms, generally sessile, are unable to escape deleterious environmental changes, and they reflect these changes in alterations of normal species composition of assemblages and species abundance. Data that expands understanding of these relations in urbanized areas such as San Francisco Bay are critical. Because of the implications of such data in control of water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a review of the results and major conclusions of San Francisco Bay benthic surveys. The size and species composition of faunal assemblages are largely controlled by the salinity of the water, the texture of the bottom sediments, and locally by wastes discharged into the bay. Efforts to describe the structure and function of benthic communities of the bay and to quantify the effects of waste discharge on them have been hampered by inconsistent and often faulty sampling methodology and species identification. Studies made show a lack of information on the normal life processes of the organisms concerned. The diversity index (a mathematical expression of the number of kinds of organisms present at a location), commonly used to describe the 'health' of the benthic community, has been employed without regard for the need for standardizing methodology and species identifications or for understanding natural biological processes that affect such mathematical indices. There are few reliable quantitative data on the distribution of benthic organisms in San Francisco Bay with which future assessments of the 'health' of the benthic community might be compared. Methods for study of the benthos must be standardized, identifications of species verified by trained taxonomists, and new field and laboratory studies undertaken before we can expect to obtain an accurate description of the benthic fauna and its relations with the environment.

  5. Synthesis of benthic flux components in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of this work is to synthesize components of benthic flux in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specifically, the component of benthic discharge flux forced by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient is 0.8 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux associated with the groundwater tidal prism are both 2.1 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity wave setup are both 6.3 m3 d-1; the component of benthic discharge flux that transports radium-228 is 350 m3 d-1; and components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity waves propagating over a porous medium are both 1400 m3 d-1. (All models are normalized per meter shoreline.) Benthic flux is a function of components forced by individual mechanisms and nonlinear interactions that exist between components. Constructive and destructive interference may enhance or diminish the contribution of benthic flux components. It may not be possible to model benthic flux by summing component magnitudes. Geochemical tracer techniques may not accurately model benthic discharge flux or submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). A conceptual model provides a framework on which to quantitatively characterize benthic discharge flux and SGD with a multifaceted approach.

  6. Orbital forcing of deep-sea benthic species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Raymo, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Explanations for the temporal and spatial patterns of species biodiversity focus on stability-time, disturbance-mosaic (biogenic microhabitat heterogeneity) and competition-predation (biotic interactions) hypotheses. The stability-time hypothesis holds that high species diversity in the deep sea and in the tropics reflects long-term climatic stability. But the influence of climate change on deep-sea diversity has not been studied and recent evidence suggests that deep-sea environments undergo changes in climatically driven temperature and flux of nutrients and organic-carbon during glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we show that Pliocene (2.85-2.40 Myr) deep-sea North Atlantic benthic ostracod (Crustacea) species diversity is related to solar insolation changes caused by 41,000-yr cycles of Earth's obliquity (tilt). Temporal changes in diversity, as measured by the Shannon- Weiner index, H(S), correlate with independent climate indicators of benthic foraminiferal oxygen-isotope ratios (mainly ice volume) and ostracod Mg:Ca ratios (bottomwater temperature). During glacial periods, H(S) = 0.2-0.6, whereas during interglacials, H(S) = 1.2-1.6, which is three to four times as high. The control of deep-sea benthic diversity by cyclic climate change at timescales of 103-104 yr does not support the stability-time hypothesis because it shows that the deep sea is a temporally dynamic environment. Diversity oscillations reflect large-scale response of the benthic community to climatically driven changes in either thermohaline circulation, bottom temperature (or temperature-related factors) and food, and a coupling of benthic diversity to surface productivity.

  7. Benthic macrofauna habitat associations in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2007-02-01

    Estuary-wide benthic macrofauna-habitat associations in Willapa Bay, Washington, United States, were determined for 4 habitats (eelgrass [ Zostera marina], Atlantic cordgrass [ Spartina alterniflora], mud shrimp [ Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [ Neotrypaea californiensis]) in 1996 and 7 habitats (eelgrass, Atlantic cordgrass, mud shrimp, ghost shrimp, oyster [ Crassostrea gigas], bare mud/sand, subtidal) in 1998. Most benthic macrofaunal species inhabited multiple habitats; however, 2 dominants, a fanworm, Manayunkia aestuarina, in Spartina, and a sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus, in subtidal, were rare or absent in all other habitats. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity varied among all habitats except eelgrass and oyster. There were significant differences among habitats within- and between-years on several of the following ecological indicators: mean number of species ( S), abundance ( A), biomass ( B), abundance of deposit (AD), suspension (AS), and facultative (AF) feeders, Swartz's index (SI), Brillouin's index ( H), and jackknife estimates of habitat species richness (HSR). In the 4 habitats sampled in both years, A was about 2.5× greater in 1996 (a La Niña year) than 1998 (a strong El Niño year) yet relative values of S, A, B, AD, AS, SI, and H among the habitats were not significantly different, indicating strong benthic macrofauna-habitat associations despite considerable climatic and environmental variability. In general, the rank order of habitats on indicators associated with high diversity and productivity (high S, A, B, SI, H, HSR) was eelgrass = oyster ≥ Atlantic cordgrass ≥ mud shrimp ≥ bare mud/sand ≥ ghost shrimp = subtidal. Vegetation, burrowing shrimp, and oyster density and sediment %silt + clay and %total organic carbon were generally poor, temporally inconsistent predictors of ecological indicator variability within habitats. The benthic macrofauna-habitat associations in this study can be used to help identify critical habitats, prioritize habitats for environmental protection, index habitat suitability, assess habitat equivalency, and as habitat value criteria in ecological risk assessments in Willapa Bay.

  8. Floating mucus aggregates derived from benthic microorganisms on rocky intertidal reefs: Potential as food sources for benthic animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2011-09-01

    Mucus films, flocs or foams consisting of fine sand, algae and detritus frequently occur in the surface waters of rocky intertidal reef flats during incoming tide. These masses are referred to as mucus aggregates. We examined the developmental process of mucus aggregates and their abundance, distribution, migration and trophic composition. The trophic composition of mucus aggregates was then compared to those of sediments to evaluate their potential nutritional value for benthic animals. The organic matter content, chlorophyll a concentration, microalgal density and bacteria-derived fatty acid contents of mucus aggregates were higher than those observed in sediment, suggesting that mucus aggregates contain not only high levels of organic matter but also dense concentrations of microalgae and bacteria; therefore, mucus aggregates may serve as a qualitatively more energetic food source for benthic fauna compared to sediments. Benthic diatoms were the most abundant organisms in mucus aggregates. Large numbers of diatoms were trapped in fine mineral particles and mucilage-like strings, suggesting that a portion of the mucus is secreted by these benthic microalgae. Mucus aggregate accounted for only 0.01-3.9% of the daily feeding requirements of the dominant detritivore, Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) over the entire sampling area. In contrast, for the species population on the back reef, where mucus aggregates ultimately accumulate, mucus aggregates provided from 0.4 to 113.3% of food for this species. These results suggest that mucus aggregate availability varies spatiotemporally and that they do not always provide adequate food sources for O. scolopendrina populations.

  9. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to a freshwater benthic amphipod: are benthic systems at risk?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a freshwater benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca) using 48-h and 96-h bioassays. Thorough monitoring of particle interactions with exposure media (Lake Superior water, LSW) and the surface of organisms was p...

  10. Benthic Redox Conditions and Oceanographic Variability in the Upper Central Peruvian Margin since the Nineteenth Century Depicted from Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardich, J.; Sifeddine, A.; Salvatecci, R.; Briceo, F. J., Sr.; Almeida, C.; Romero, D.; Gutierrez, D.

    2014-12-01

    Benthic foraminifera compose the dominant biota in the central Peruvian margin, which is impinged by an intense Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Here subsurface and benthic biogeochemical conditions are characterized by oxygen deficiency in the bottom waters, strong fluxes of settling organic matter and reducing conditions in the surface sediments. These processes interact among each other and are amplified or relaxed according to the variability of oceanic conditions at different spatial and temporal scales. Recent studies on living foraminiferal assemblages determined the association of species to a geochemical condition (in terms of redox and organic matter (OM)). Species such as Bolivina costata, Nonionella auris and Virgulinella fragilis were characteristic of sulphidic/labile OM-rich sediments, whereas Bolivina pacifica headed the assemblage representative of postoxia (no oxygen, non sulphidic)/preserved OM. The present study aims to reconstruct the decadal to multidecadal variation of benthic paleo-redox conditions for the last two centuries, based on laminated sedimentary records of benthic foraminiferal assemblages and redox-sensitive metals (Mo, Re, etc.) in the upper margin off Callao (12S). Three major multidecadal periods were determined for the record: i) the mid to late nineteenth century, characterized by the occurrence of massive diatom-rich sedimentation events, development of bottom anoxia, and higher abundance of Bolivina costata and Nonionella auris; ii) the late nineteenth century to mid-twentieth century, featuring interdecadal variations of redox conditions; and iii) the late twentieth century until the early 2000's, in which redox-sensitive metal records exhibit a trend towards less reducing conditions, accompanied by higher relative abundances of postoxia foraminiferal species (e.g. Bolivina pacifica or Bolivina plicata). Remarkably, the first multidecadal period is associated with a higher ENSO activity, whereas the latest one is parallel to the period of coastal cooling and increasing fluxes of productivity proxies. Our findings suggest that besides export productivity, the upper margin benthic redox states are modulated by vertical mixing and/or subsurface ventilation.

  11. Partitioning of Total Dissolved Salts, Boron and Selenium in Pariette Wetland Water, Sediments and Benthic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Jones, C. P.; Vasudeva, P.; Powelson, D.; Grossl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands located in the Uinta Basin, UT, were developed by the BLM in part to mitigate salinity associated with irrigation drainage and runoff from flowing to the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The wetlands are fed by runoff from upstream agricultural irrigation, and natural subsurface and overland flow through the Uintah formation, which is seleniferous, and saline. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), boron (B) and selenium (Se) in the wetlands exceed the total maximum daily loads developed to meet the US EPA's water quality planning and management regulations (40CFR 130). This is of concern because the wetlands are home to populations of migratory birds, waterfowl, raptors, and numerous small mammals. A mass balance of the Se concentrations of water flowing into and out of the wetlands indicates that 80% of the Se is stored or lost within the system. Additional data suggest that the majority of the Se is associated with the sediments. Little information is available regarding the TDS and B. Therefore we will determine the whether B and other salts are accumulating in the wetland systems, and if so where. We sampled water, sediment, benthic organisms, and wetland plants, in 4 of the 23 ponds from the flood control inlet to water flowing out to the Green River. Sediments were collected at 3 depths (0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm) at 3-4 locations within each pond including the inlet, outlet and at least one site near a major wetland plant community. Benthic organisms were sampled from the 0-2 cm and 2-7 cm sediment layers. Sediment and organism samples were digested with HNO3 and HClO4 prior to analysis of total Se by HGAAS. Hot water extractable B and DPTA extractable B were analyzed by ICP-AES. TDS was estimated from EC in the sediment and organisms extracts and direct analysis in the water. Preliminary results found that Se in the sediments decreases with depth. Se concentrations in the benthic organisms is approximately 4 times higher than in the associated sediments. Data from this study will contribute to a water quality risk assessment to the wetland fish and birds.

  12. Postglacial and Holocene environment of the Laptev Sea as reflected in benthic faunal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taldenkova, E.; Bauch, H. A.; Stepanova, A.; Demyankov, S.

    2003-04-01

    To reconstruct paleoenvironmental changes under postglacial sea-level rise, fossil benthic assemblages of bivalves, ostracods and foraminifers were described from AMS 14C-dated sediment cores recovered at different localities on the Laptev Sea shelf and upper continental slope. On the upper continental slope in the western Laptev Sea, taxonomically poor assemblages aging back to c. 15.5-14 cal.ka reflect conditions of high sedimentation rate environment. Growing taxonomic diversity indicates diversification of bottom environments, and since approximately 11 cal.ka modern-like conditions were established at the studied site. During short period of the initial inundation, the paleoriver valleys of the outer and middle shelf were inhabited by extremely taxonomically poor pioneer assemblages represented by inner shelf brackish-water and euryhaline species that presently occur at the depths of <10-15 m and bottom water salinity around 20. Such assemblages were recorded in the core from the Khatanga paleovalley (60 m water depth) from c. 12.7 until 12.0 cal.ka, and in the cores from the Lena (45 m) and Yana (51 m) paleovalleys from c. 11.3 until 10.8 cal.ka. In the eastern shelf area, shallow-water elements co-occurred with several normal marine species until c. 8.2 cal.ka. Since that time, composition of benthic assemblages resembles that of the modern benthic communities of the middle shelf with bottom water salinity around 30-32. In the core from inner eastern shelf area (21 m water depth), the most evident changes occur at the level corresponding in age to approximately 2.7 cal. ka, when the taxonomically poor assemblage from the lower part of the core is replaced by a more diverse one. However, the latter contains abundant brackish-water and euryhaline ostracods Heterocyprideis sorbyana, Cytheromorpha macchesneyi that were not found in the underlying layers. Their high relative abundance implies considerable freshwater influence upon the studied site that could be a result of increasing riverine runoff and/or changes in the direction of river outflow. The increase in sedimentation rates after c. 1.5-1.3 cal.ka could have been also initiated by increasing freshwater discharge.

  13. Age and correlation of California Paleogene benthic foraminiferal stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Richard Z.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of age determinations and correlations derived from calcareous plankton with those derived from benthic foraminifers in a number of sections in California show significant overlap in time of the Ynezian through the Ulatisian Stages. Thus interbasin time correlations deduced from these stage assignments must be treated with caution. Calcareous plankton occasionally associated with benthic foraminifers diagnostic of the Narizian through the Zemorrian Stages indicate that the Narizian-Refugian boundary is within the upper Eocene of international usage and that the Refugian is entirely upper Eocene. Overlap of the Narizian and the Refugian appears to be minimal. The Zemorrian correlates, mostly, with the Oligocene, although the upper limit of the Zemorrian might be in the lower Miocene.

  14. Maestrichtian benthic foraminifers from Ocean Point, North Slope, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies of fauna and flora from Ocean Point, Alaska, have suggested ages ranging from Campanian to early Eocene and that these assemblages are either highly endemic or commonplace. I demonstrate that the moderately abundant benthic foraminifers constitute early Maestrichtian boreal assemblages common to Canada and northern Europe. Paleoenvironmental analysis indicates that deposition took place in outer neritic settings (50 to 150m). The Ocean Point benthic foraminiferal assemblages contain species that migrated from the US Gulf Coast, North American Interior and Europe during the Campanian, and from Europe during the Maestrichtian. These faunal affinities suggest that seaways connected the Arctic to the North American Interior and Atlantic during the Campanian and that a shallow seaway connected the Arctic to the Atlantic during the early Maestrichtian. - from Author

  15. Towards an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Barrio Froján, Christopher R S; Cooper, Keith M; Bolam, Stefan G

    2016-03-15

    In the UK, most marine benthic monitoring is carried out in a piecemeal fashion, funded by different sectors of industry that utilise the marine environment under licence. Monitoring requirements are imposed by licence conditions, which can vary considerably between licences. The UK Government also conducts marine environmental surveys in support of its legislative commitments. The present investigation reviews these different monitoring approaches to highlight whether synergies between them could be developed into an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring. An integrated approach would have ecological benefits, as greater consistency in sampling and analytical protocols would reduce uncertainty in the predictions of impact, and facilitate the assessment of Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The same approach would also be of financial benefit, as spatio-temporal duplication in sampling would be reduced, and the value of acquired data would be maximised, resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective approach. PMID:26856642

  16. Reducing spatial variation in environmental assessment of marine benthic fauna.

    PubMed

    Leonardsson, Kjell; Blomqvist, Mats; Rosenberg, Rutger

    2016-03-15

    The Benthic Quality Index, BQI, is widely used for benthic quality assessment. Here, we investigated if spatial variation in the BQI can be reduced by accounting for the environmental factors instead of having different boundaries for different salinity regimes between status classes in the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. For this purpose we tested salinity, sediment structure, and depth in a regression model to test their contribution to variations in BQI. The spatial variation in BQI was better explained by depth than by salinity or sediment structure. The proposed assessment method uses the residuals from the regression model between BQI and depth. With this method the variance in BQI between samples was reduced by 50% to 75% in the majority of situations. A method to establish the boundary between good and moderate status and how to derive EQR-values according to the WFD is presented. PMID:26856645

  17. Spectral reflectance of carbonate sediments and application to remote sensing classification of benthic habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchard, Eric Michael

    Remote sensing is a valuable tool in marine research that has advanced to the point that images from shallow waters can be used to identify different seafloor types and create maps of benthic habitats. A major goal of this dissertation is to examine differences in spectral reflectance and create new methods of analyzing shallow water remote sensing data to identify different seafloor types quickly and accurately. Carbonate sediments were used as a model system as they presented a relatively uniform, smooth surface for measurement and are a major bottom type in tropical coral reef systems. Experimental results found that sediment reflectance varied in shape and magnitude depending on pigment content, but only varied in magnitude with variations in grain size and shape. Derivative analysis of the reflectance spectra identified wavelength regions that correlate to chlorophyll a and chlorophyllide a as well as accessory pigments, indicating differences in microbial community structure. Derivative peak height also correlated to pigment content in the sediments. In remote sensing data, chlorophyll a, chlorophyllide a, and some xanthophylls were identified in derivative spectra and could be quantified from second derivative peak height. Most accessory pigments were attenuated by the water column, however, and could not be used to quantify pigments in sediments from remote sensing images. Radiative transfer modeling of remote sensing reflectance showed that there was sufficient spectral variation to separate major sediment types, such as ooid shoals and sediment with microbial layers, from different densities of seagrass and pavement bottom communities. Both supervised classification with a spectral library and unsupervised classification with principal component analysis were used to create maps of seafloor type. The results of the experiments were promising; classified seafloor types correlated with ground truth observations taken from underwater video and were comparable to existing maps of seafloor type. Creation of accurate seafloor type maps is an important step in constructing maps of benthic habitats.

  18. Global warming and mass mortalities of benthic invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rivetti, Irene; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lionello, Piero; Zambianchi, Enrico; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface) of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945-2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas. PMID:25535973

  19. Changes in Antarctic Intermediate Water Revealed by Trace Metal Analysis of Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.; Elderfield, H.; Zahn, R.; Pahnke, K.

    2006-12-01

    Trace metal analysis of foraminifera is a well-used oceanographic tool that allows the reconstruction of paleo- temperatures, pH, carbonate ion concentrations and nutrient content of ambient waters. These analyses can be used to reconstruct the different factors affecting stable isotope systems. ?13C in foraminifera as a nutrient proxy is complicated by isotopic deviations resulting from equilibrium fractionation with the atmosphere. This can be unravelled by examination of nutrient proxies such as the cadmium content of the foraminiferal test, which co-varies with phosphate in the modern ocean. We present a high resolution record of trace metal variability from core MD97-2120, located on Chatham Rise, near New Zealand at a depth of 1210m. MD97-2120 is located close to the core layer of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), and allows reconstruction of the redistribution of heat and freshwater within the upper ocean. Benthic ?13C and ?18O and planktonic Mg/Ca have demonstrated changes in production and demonstrated Southern Hemisphere warming coincident with cooling and decreased deepwater convection in these North Atlantic. In this study we utilise trace metal analyses such as Cd/Ca and Mg/Ca of the benthic foraminifera Hoeglundina elegans, Trifarina angulosa, and Uvigerina sp. to reconstruct changes in AAIW over the previous 150ka. These measurements have a mean temporal resolution of 161 years, and allow the reconstruction of nutrient content and temperature of intermediate waters. This allows separation of air-sea exchange and nutrient signals within the ?13C record, which shows significant variations indicative of changes in sea-ice formation and motion of the Subantarctic Front. Reconstruction of water temperature from foraminiferal Mg/Ca, combined with ?18O measurements allows estimation of the AAIW salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum, demonstrating the stratification of the glacial Southern Ocean. Pahnke K., Zahn R. (2005) Science 307, 1741-1746

  20. Global Warming and Mass Mortalities of Benthic Invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Rivetti, Irene; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lionello, Piero; Zambianchi, Enrico; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface) of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 19452011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas. PMID:25535973

  1. Estimating benthic fluxes of trace elements to hypoxic coastal waters using 210Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Guebuem

    2014-12-01

    The activities of colloidal (10 kDa-0.45 ?m) and truly dissolved (<10 kDa) 210Po and 210Pb, dissolved inorganic nutrients, and trace elements (Al, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Mn, and Fe) were measured in the artificial and saline Lake Shihwa, South Korea in July 2011. The boundary between oxic and hypoxic layers, indexed by NH4+, Mn, and dissolved oxygen, was determined by the pycnocline formed at the depth of 2-4 m. The total activities of 210Po and 210Pb in Lake Shihwa were in the range of 10.5-20.4 dpm 100 L-1 and 6.4 to 9.8 dpm 100 L-1, respectively. The proportions of the truly dissolved, colloidal, and particulate phases were, respectively, 55 6%, 29 5%, and 16 3% for 210Po, and 48 6%, 29 7%, and 23 4% for 210Pb. The activities of 210Po were 20-55% higher than those of 210Pb. The benthic flux of 210Po is determined on the basis of the 210Po mass balance model in the water column. Since the excess activities of dissolved 210Po relative to 210Pb showed a positive correlation with the concentrations of trace elements (except for Al), the benthic fluxes of the trace elements from bottom sediment were successfully calculated using these relationships and the 210Po fluxes. Our study highlights that 210Po can be used as a powerful tracer for estimating trace element fluxes from bottom sediment in a hypoxic environment.

  2. Reservoir vital signs monitoring, 1991: Benthic macroinvertebrate community results

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, A.E.

    1992-08-01

    As part of an extensive Reservoir Monitoring program to examine the ecological health of reservoirs in the TVA system, benthic communities were sampled and evaluated at 41 locations on 14 TVA reservoirs. Up to ten dredge samples were collected at locations from the forebay, inflow and transition zones. Surveys were conducted between mid-March and mid-April, 1991. The results of these surveys are presented and discussed in this report.

  3. In situ measurement of odor compound production by benthic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Min; Hobson, Peter; Burch, Michael D; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2010-03-01

    A simple technique was developed to make in situ measurements of emission rates of two common odorants, 2-MIB and geosmin, and was validated with different natural communities of benthic cyanobacterial mats in Hope Valley Reservoir (HVR), South Australia, and Kin-Men Water Treatment Plant (TLR-WTP), Taiwan. A pair of parallel columns was used to differentiate between emission and loss rates caused by biodegradation, volatilization, and other mechanisms. Experimental results indicated that the loss rates followed a first-order relationship for all cases tested, with biodegradation and volatilization being the key mechanisms. The loss rates were comparable to those reported in the literature for biodegradation and those calculated from two-film theory for volatilization. After accounting for the loss rates, the net emission of geosmin and 2-MIB was estimated from experimental data. Odorant emission rates on the basis of column surface area, cyanobacterial cell number, and chlorophyll a (chl-a) were 4.2-4.4 ng h(-1) cm(-2), 1.0-5.5 x 10(-6) ng h(-1) cell(-1), and 3.2-3.5 ng h(-1)microg-chl(-1), respectively for 2-MIB released from benthic mats in TLR-WTP, and, 18-190 ng h(-1) cm(-2), 0.053-1.8 x 10(-3) ng h(-1) cell(-1), and 48-435 ng h(-1)microg-chl(-1) respectively for geosmin from benthic mats in HVR. The method developed provides a simple means to estimate the emission rates of odorants and possibly other algal metabolites from benthic cyanobacterial mats. PMID:20445867

  4. Mobile fishing gear reduces benthic megafaunal production on Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hermsen, J.M.; Collie, J.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the effect of mobile fishing gear disturbance on benthic megafaunal production on the gravel pavement of northern Georges Bank. From 1994 to 2000, we sampled benthic megafauna with a 1 m Naturalists' dredge at shallow (47 to 62 m) and deep (80 to 90 m) sites. The cessation of fishing in large areas of Georges Bank in January 1995 allowed us to monitor changes in production at a previously disturbed site. Production at a shallow disturbed site varied little over the sampling period (32 to 57 kcal m-2 yr-1) and was markedly lower than production at the nearby recovering site, where production increased from 17 kcal m-2yr -1 in 1994 before the closure to 215 kcal m-2 yr -1 in 2000. Atlantic sea scallops Placopecten magellanicus and green sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis dominated production at the recovering site. The community production:biomass ratio decreased over time at the recovering site as the sea scallop population matured. At the deep sites, production remained significantly higher at undisturbed sites (174 to 256 kcal m-2 yr-1) than at disturbed sites (30 to 52 kcal m -2 yr-1). The soft-bodied tube-building polychaete Thelepus cincinnatus dominated production at the undisturbed site, while hard-shelled bivalve molluscs Astarte spp. and P. magellanicus were prevalent at the disturbed site. Mobile fishing gear disturbance has a conspicuous effect on benthic megafaunal production in this hard-bottom habitat. Cessation of mobile fishing has resulted in a marked increase in benthic megafaunal production. These findings should help fishery managers to gauge the costs and benefits of management tools such as area closures and low-impact fishing gears.

  5. Benthic macroinvertebrate community results. Reservoir vital signs monitoring, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    As part of an extensive program to monitor the health of reservoirs in the TVA system, dredges were used to sample benthic life at 36 locations on 12 Tennessee Valley Authority reservoirs and the Tennessee River downstream from the lowest reservoir in the system. Up to ten dredge samples were collected from forebay, transition zone, and inflow locations of typical reservoirs. The survey was conducted between mid March and mid April, 1990. Results are described.

  6. An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in coastal colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the coastal benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no δ15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher δ15N and total N in the control site comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed δ15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize coastal benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.

  7. Effects of short-term environmental disturbances on living benthic foraminifera during the Pacific oyster summer mortality in the Marennes-Olron Bay (France).

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Vincent M P; Debenay, Jean-Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Radford-Knoery, Jol; Soletchnik, Patrick

    2007-09-01

    Sediment cores were collected from April to August 2004 on tidal mudflats of the macrotidal Marennes-Olron Bay (SW France), famous for the cultivation of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). The response of living (stained) benthic foraminifera to short-term biogeochemical disturbances in the sediment and overlying water, which may be involved in oyster summer mortality, was monitored. Short-term hypoxia occurred in early June, in conjunction with a sudden rise in temperature. In mid-June, the ammonia content of sediment porewater increased, leading to potentially maximal flux towards overlying waters. Foraminiferal assemblages, particularly in the topmost layer, were altered. Ammonia tepida was the most tolerant to temperature increase and hypoxic conditions whereas Brizalina variabilis and Haynesina germanica were sensitive to organic degradation and hypoxia. Cribroelphidium gunteri was the most opportunistic during recolonisation. Benthic foraminifera showed that short-term biochemical changes in the sediment are toxic and may be involved in the summer mortality of Pacific oysters. PMID:17418889

  8. Sequential decision plans, benthic macroinvertebrates, and biological monitoring programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, John K.; Resh, Vincent H.

    1989-07-01

    A common obstacle to the inclusion of benthic macroinvertebrates in water quality monitoring programs is that numerous sample units must be examined in order to distinguish between impacted and unimpacted conditions, which can add significantly to the total cost of a monitoring program. Sequential decision plans can be used to reduce this cost because the number of sample units needed to classify a site as impacted or unimpacted is reduced by an average of 50%. A plan is created using definitions of unimpacted and impacted conditions, a description of the mathematical distribution of the data, and definitions of acceptable risks of type I and II errors. The applicability of using sequential decision plans and benthic macroinvertebrates in water quality monitoring programs is illustrated with several examples (e.g., identifying moderate and extreme changes in species richness in response to acid mine drainage; assessing the impact of a crude oil contamination on the density of two benthic populations; monitoring the effect of geothermal effluents on species diversity). These examples use data conforming to the negative binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions and define impact as changes in population density, species richness, or species diversity based on empirical data or the economic feasibility of the sequential decision plan. All mathematical formulae and intermediate values are provided for the step-by-step calculation of each sequential decision plan.

  9. Sediment toxicity and benthic communities in mildly contaminated mudflats

    SciTech Connect

    Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Williams, E.K.; Martin, M.L.; Van Dam, L.F.; Mills, G.N.

    1998-03-01

    Sediment physicochemical characteristics, benthic community structure, and toxicity were measured at reference and contaminated intertidal mudflats around the North Island of New Zealand. Chronic whole-sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine amphipod, Chaetocorophium lucasi and the marine bivalve, Macomona lilana, and pore-water toxicity tests were conducted with embryos of the echinoid, Fellaster zelandiae. Although concentrations of organic chemicals and heavy metals were up to several orders of magnitude higher at the sites considered to be contaminated, levels of contamination were relatively low compared to internationally based sediment quality guidelines. Although no pronounced difference was found in benthic community structure between reference and contaminated sites, multivariate analysis indicated that natural sediment characteristics and factors related to contamination may have been affecting community structure. Although benthic effects caused by present levels of contamination are not yet dramatic, subtle changes in community structure related to pollution may be occurring. The two whole-sediment and the pore-water toxicity tests presented different response patterns. Growth of C. lucasi and M. liliana was a less sensitive endpoint than survival. None of the three toxicity tests responded more strongly to the contaminated than to the reference sites, that is, neither natural-sediment and pore-water characteristics nor unmeasured contaminants affected the test organisms. It is possible that sediment collection and handling may have induced chemical changes, confounding interpretation of toxicity tests.

  10. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and the mapping of benthic marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Joo Batista; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Secchin, Nelio Augusto; Leo de Moura, Rodrigo; Bastos, Alex Cardoso

    2013-01-30

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is the empirically accumulated knowledge of local communities whose livelihoods depend directly on natural resources. TEK has a considerable potential as a reliable, rapid and low cost information source. However, its use for decision making in environmental management is frequently challenged due to the lack of scientific validation and the multiple and poorly understood biases deriving from measurement and analytical errors, as well as from political, cultural and religious sources. During the planning stage of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Southeastern Brazil we assessed fisherfolk TEK regarding seabed features, comparing it with results from a conventional oceanographic assessment. TEK was acquired and synthesized during a survey involving 19 fishing villages and a consensus analysis that minimized variation among individual fisherfolks and communities. The oceanographic survey included high resolution benthic habitat mapping tools such as sidescan sonar and ground-truthing with SCUBA near the interfaces of benthic features identified by fisherfolk. Nearly 3000km(2) of seafloor were mapped by local fisherfolk as "gravel", "sand", "mud" and "reef structures", while side-scan sonar surveys covered approximately 360km with an average 400m swath. Analyses of overlap and proximity showed that TEK is relatively cost-effective and accurate for large-scale benthic surveys, especially as a starting point for planning oceanographic surveys. Moreover, including TEK in the planning stage of MPAs may increase communities' participation and understanding of the costs and benefits of the new access and fishing effort regulations. PMID:23262411

  11. Late Devonian marine anoxia challenged by benthic cyanobacterial mats.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, J; Kremer, B; Racki, G

    2012-09-01

    Mass occurrence of benthic cyanobacterial mats in a sequence of Late Devonian black shales and bituminous limestones of the Holy Cross Mts. (central Poland), enclosing the famous Kellwasser and Hangenberg extinction horizons, is reported. The microbiota forming the mats is compared with some modern benthic chroococcalean cyanobacteria. Similarly to their extant counterparts, the Devonian cyanobacteria must had been phototrophic and oxygenic aerobes which could, however, tolerate slightly sulfidic conditions characterizing the near-bottom waters of the Late Devonian epicontinental sea. The cyanobacterial mats successfully colonized the oxygen-deficient and H(2)S-enriched seabed otherwise unfavorable for most other benthic biota. The redox state of this sluggish Late Devonian sea, ascribed previously mostly to anoxic or euxinic conditions, is reassessed as probably pulsating between anoxic, dysoxic, and weakly oxic conditions. The redox state was dependent on the rate of oxygen production by the cyanobacterial mats, the intensity of H(2)S emissions from the decaying mat biomass, and the rate of planktonic production. PMID:22882315

  12. Modern benthic foraminifer distribution in the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishman, S.E.; Foley, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 box cores were collected from the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean during the U.S. Geological Survey 1992 (PI92-AR) and 1993 (PI93-AR) Arctic Cruises aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Icebreaker Polar Star. In addition, the cruises collected geophysical data, piston cores and hydrographic data to address the geologic and oceanographic history of the western Arctic Ocean. This paper reports the results of the quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifer distribution data of the total (live + dead) assemblages derived from 22 box core-top samples. The results show that a distinct depth distribution of three dominant benthic foraminifer assemblages, the Textularia spp. - Spiroplectammina biformis, Cassidulina teretis and Oridorsalis tener - Eponides tumidulus Biofacies are strongly controlled by the dominant water masses within the Canada Basin: the Arctic Surface Water, Arctic Intermediate Water and Canada Basin Deep Water. The faunal distributions and their oceanographic associations in the Canada Basin are consistent with observations of benthic foraminifer distributions from other regions within the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Zebra mussel effects on benthic invertebrates: physical or biotic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Botts, P. Silver; Patterson, Benjamin A.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    In soft sediments, Dreissena spp. create firm substrate in the form of aggregates of living mussels (druses) that roll free on the sediments. Druses provide physical structure which increases habitat heterogeneity, and the mussels increase benthic organic matter through the production of pseudofeces and feces. Descriptive and experimental studies were used to determine: 1) whether the density of benthic invertebrates in soft sediments increased in the presence of druses, and 2) whether the invertebrate assemblage responded to the physical structure provided by a druse or to some biotic effect associated with the presence of living mussels. In core samples collected biweekly during summer in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania, amphipods, chironomids, oligochaetes, turbellarians, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in sand with druses than in bare sand. When mesh bags containing either a living druse, non-living druse, or no druse were incubated in the bay for 33 d, we found that chironomids were significantly more abundant in treatments with living druses than with non-living druses, and in treatments with non-living druses than with no druse; turbellarians, amphipods, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in treatments with living or non-living druses than with no druse; oligochaetes showed no significant differences among treatments. This study demonstrates that most taxa of benthic invertebrates in soft substrate respond specifically to the physical structure associated with aggregates of mussel shells, but further study is needed to examine chironomid responses to some biotic effect dependent on the presence of living mussels.

  14. Effects of an oil spill on benthic community production and respiration on subtropical intertidal sandflats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Hua; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-08-15

    This study determined effects of an oil spill on subtropical benthic community production and respiration by monitoring CO2 fluxes in benthic chambers on intertidal sandflats during emersion before and after an accidental spill. The oil spill decreased sediment chlorophyll a concentrations, altered benthic macrofaunal community, and affected ecological functioning by suppressing or even stopping microalgal production, increasing bacterial respiration, and causing a shift from an autotrophic system to a heterotrophic system. Effects of the oil spill on the macrofauna were more severe than on benthic microalgae, and affected sedentary infauna more than motile epifauna. Despite the oil spill's impact on the benthic community and carbon metabolism, the affected area appeared to return to normal in about 23 days. Our results suggest that the prompt response of benthic metabolism to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons can serve as a useful indicator of the impact of an oil spill. PMID:23743269

  15. Benthic production and processes off Baja California, northwest Africa and Peru: a classification of benthic subsystems in upwelling ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the standing stocks, secondary production and metabolism of the benthos have been compared in the coastal upwelling ecosystems off northwest Africa, Baja California, and southern Peru. Northwest Africa is characterized by shelf break upwelling and as a result standing stocks, macrobenthic production and sediment organic matter are highest out at the shelf-slope boundary. Sediment microbial activity and biomass on the other hand are highest nearshore in the dynamic zone where aeolian silt and sand are being blown into the sea from the Sahara Desert. Baja California is dominated by the red crab, Pleuroncodes planipes, having high rates of growth and metabolic utilization of organic matter, both on bottom and in the water. Peru benthos and metabolism are very different from the above areas because of the low oxygen concentrations in the bottom water. Organic matter is far higher in the sediment and heterotrophic metabolism is principally anaerobic rather than aerobic. A normal offshore benthic fauna is replaced by a mat of sulfur bacteria with unknown production and metabolic rates. Benthic subsystems in upwelling ecosystems can be placed in two categories: those overloaded with organic matter, depleted of oxygen and dominated by sulfate reduction and those that are not overloaded and remain aerobic. Peru and southwest Africa typify overloaded systems whereas NW Africa and Baja California are examples of aerobic systems. Although benthic metabolism and ionorganic nutrient regeneration are high in both types of subsystems, all upwelling ecosystems, with their dynamic open boundaries, export organic particulate matter and import inorganic nutrients at rates that are far in excess of that consumed or produced by benthic metabolism. 42 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. USGS-NPS Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayagandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Beavers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program recently allocated funds to initiate a benthic mapping program in ocean and Great Lakes parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. Seventy-four (ocean and Great Lakes) parks, spanning more than 5,000 miles of coastline, many affected by increasing coastal storms and other natural and anthropogenic processes, make the development of a Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) timely. The resulting maps and associated reports will be provided to NPS managers in a consistent servicewide format to help park managers protect and manage the 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. Of the 74 ocean and Great Lakes park units, the 40 parks with submerged acreage will be the focus in the early years of the SBMP. The NPS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop (June 3-5, 2008) in Lakewood, CO. The assembly of experts from the NPS and other Federal and non-Federal agencies clarified the needs and goals of the NPS SBMP and was one of the key first steps in designing the benthic mapping program. The central needs for individual parks, park networks, and regions identified by workshop participants were maps including bathymetry, bottom type, geology, and biology. This workshop, although not an exhaustive survey of data-acquisition technologies, highlighted the more promising technologies being used, existing sources of data, and the need for partnerships to leverage resources. Workshop products include recommended classification schemes and management approaches for consistent application and products similar to other long-term NPS benthic mapping efforts. As part of the SBMP, recommendations from this workshop, including application of an improved version of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), will be tested in several pilot parks. In 2008, in conjunction with the findings of this workshop, the NPS funded benthic mapping projects in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Golden Gate National Recreational Area, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Virgin Islands National Park, and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument.

  17. Multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing of tropical marine benthic habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Deepak R.

    Tropical marine benthic habitats such as coral reef and associated environments are severely endangered because of the environmental degradation coupled with hurricanes, El Nino events, coastal pollution and runoff, tourism, and economic development. To monitor and protect this diverse environment it is important to not only develop baseline maps depicting their spatial distribution but also to document their changing conditions over time. Remote sensing offers an important means of delineating and monitoring coral reef ecosystems. Over the last twenty years the scientific community has been investigating the use and potential of remote sensing techniques to determine the conditions of the coral reefs by analyzing their spectral characteristics from space. One of the problems in monitoring coral reefs from space is the effect of the water column on the remotely sensed signal. When light penetrates water its intensity decreases exponentially with increasing depth. This process, known as water column attenuation, exerts a profound effect on remotely sensed data collected over water bodies. The approach presented in this research focuses on the development of semi-analytical models that resolves the confounding influence water column attenuation on substrate reflectance to characterize benthic habitats from high resolution remotely sensed imagery on a per-pixel basis. High spatial resolution satellite and airborne imagery were used as inputs in the models to derive water depth and water column optical properties (e.g., absorption and backscattering coefficients). These parameters were subsequently used in various bio-optical algorithms to deduce bottom albedo and then to classify the benthos, generating a detailed map of benthic habitats. IKONOS and QuickBird multispectral satellite data and AISA Eagle hyperspectral airborne data were used in this research for benthic habitat mapping along the north shore of Roatan Island, Honduras. The AISA Eagle classification was consistently more accurate (84%) including finer definition of geomorphological features than the satellite sensors. IKONOS (81%) and QuickBird (81%) sensors showed similar accuracy to AISA, however, such similarity was only reached at the coarse classification levels of 5 and 6 habitats. These results confirm the potential of an effective combination of high spectral and spatial resolution sensor, for accurate benthic habitat mapping.

  18. Benthic habitat characterisation of soft-bottom continental shelves: Integration of acoustic surveys, benthic samples and trawling disturbance intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Demestre, M.

    2013-01-01

    Eleven sites were located on Mediterranean continental shelves to explore the link between the physical characteristics and epibenthic fauna from soft-sediment habitats. These sites, at 32-82 m in depth, were associated with fishing grounds and the trawling intensity was estimated at the site scale to assess the effects of trawling on benthic communities. Each site was surveyed with Multi-Beam (bathymetry and backscatter), side-scan sonar, benthic grabs and a surface dredge. The sites were clustered in three habitat types. Habitat 1, with moderate trawling disturbance, was characterised by homogeneous mud and associated epifauna that was also highly homogeneous across sites. Habitat 2, with sandy mud and scattered gravel and rocks, had a high abundance of sessile suspension feeders that probably attach to the coarser substratum and benefit from the low fishing disturbance in these sites. Habitat 3 included sites with heterogeneous sediments with marl as the prevailing biocenosis and having the highest species richness, despite being subjected to variable trawling intensity. Statistical models were used to relate environmental parameters and the species abundance. More than 3 physical variables were necessary to explain the epifaunal patterns across sites, including the percentage of mud, sediment heterogeneity and fishing effort. These analyses are an essential step for extrapolating information from benthic samples to the larger scale of habitats, mapped through acoustic surveys. Despite this, a good integration is required between the mapping of physical habitat distribution and the ecological knowledge of communities.

  19. A Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program for National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Beavers, Rebecca; Brock, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program directed the initiation of a benthic habitat mapping program in ocean and coastal parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. With 74 ocean and Great Lakes parks stretching over more than 5,000 miles of coastline across 26 States and territories, this Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) is essential. This program will deliver benthic habitat maps and their associated inventory reports to NPS managers in a consistent, servicewide format to support informed management and protection of 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. The NPS and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop June 3-5, 2008, in Lakewood, Colo., to discuss the goals and develop the design of the NPS SBMP with an assembly of experts (Moses and others, 2010) who identified park needs and suggested best practices for inventory and mapping of bathymetry, benthic cover, geology, geomorphology, and some water-column properties. The recommended SBMP protocols include servicewide standards (such as gap analysis, minimum accuracy, final products) as well as standards that can be adapted to fit network and park unit needs (for example, minimum mapping unit, mapping priorities). SBMP Mapping Process. The SBMP calls for a multi-step mapping process for each park, beginning with a gap assessment and data mining to determine data resources and needs. An interagency announcement of intent to acquire new data will provide opportunities to leverage partnerships. Prior to new data acquisition, all involved parties should be included in a scoping meeting held at network scale. Data collection will be followed by processing and interpretation, and finally expert review and publication. After publication, all digital materials will be archived in a common format. SBMP Classification Scheme. The SBMP will map using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) that is being modified to include all NPS needs, such as lacustrine ecosystems and submerged cultural resources. CMECS Version III (Madden and others, 2010) includes components for water column, biotic cover, surface geology, sub-benthic, and geoform. SBMP Data Archiving. The SBMP calls for the storage of all raw data and final products in common-use data formats. The concept of 'collect once, use often' is essential to efficient use of mapping resources. Data should also be shared with other agencies and the public through various digital clearing houses, such as Geospatial One-Stop (http://gos2.geodata.gov/wps/portal/gos). To be most useful for managing submerged resources, the SBMP advocates the inventory and mapping of the five components of marine ecosystems: surface geology, biotic cover, geoform, sub-benthic, and water column. A complete benthic inventory of a park would include maps of bathymetry and the five components of CMECS. The completion of mapping for any set of components, such as bathymetry and surface geology, or a particular theme (for example, submerged aquatic vegetation) should also include a printed report.

  20. A Decline in Benthic Foraminifera following the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Schwing, Patrick T.; Romero, Isabel C.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Hastings, David W.; Larson, Rebekka A.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000–1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (210Pb, 234Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80–93%). This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR) in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.). Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE). However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE) recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event) in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2–3 times background) in PAH’s, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining the long-term effects of the DWH event on a larger spatial scale. PMID:25785988

  1. A decline in benthic foraminifera following the deepwater horizon event in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Larson, Rebekka A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000-1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (²¹⁰Pb, ²³⁴Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80-93%). This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR) in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.). Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE). However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE) recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event) in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2-3 times background) in PAH's, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining the long-term effects of the DWH event on a larger spatial scale. PMID:25785988

  2. Enhanced biodegradation of phthalate acid esters in marine sediments by benthic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Gao, Jing; Meng, Fanbo; Chi, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cylindrotheca closterium, a marine benthic diatom, was inoculated on the surface of marine sediments spiked with diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) to investigate the effects of benthic microalgae on the degradation of the contaminants. The elimination of DEP and DBP from unsterilized sediments with C. closterium (treatment BA) was compared with that from unsterilized sediments without C. closterium (treatment B), sterilized sediments with C. closterium (treatment A) and sterilized sediments without C. closterium (treatment N). The results showed that during the 8-day experiment, inoculation with C. closterium increased the removal rates of the contaminants from the sediments, and more significantly from the surface layer (top 0.5 cm) of sediments than from the bottom layer of sediments. In the surface sediments, the first-order elimination rate constants (k) of DEP and DBP were in the order of treatment BA (2.098 and 0.309 d(-1))>treatment B (0.460 and 0.256 d(-1))>treatment A (0.216 and 0.039 d(-1))>treatment N (nil (no data)), indicating that microbial degradation played a major role in the removal of the contaminants from the sediments. A similar trend was also observed in bottom sediments (0.444 and 0.165 d(-1) in treatment BA, 0.329 and 0.194 d(-1) in treatment B, 0.129 d(-1) and nil in treatment A), but the difference of k values between treatments BA and B was relatively small. The positive effect of C. closterium on total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content in sediments was observed, which was mainly related to the increase of biomass of aerobic bacteria as a result of improved sediment oxygenation and release of exudates (e.g. exopolysaccharides) by C. closterium. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the elimination ratios of the contaminants and abundance of total aerobic bacterial PLFAs, suggesting that aerobic bacteria played a key role in C. closterium-promoted degradation of the contaminants in sediments. PMID:25481253

  3. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism's photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO(2). No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs. PMID:20133799

  4. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organisms photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO2. No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs. PMID:20133799

  5. Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera: Love Cold, Fear Warm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.

    2007-12-01

    The fossil record provides understanding of possible linkages between long-term environmental changes and evolution of assemblages and morphological species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, of which the phylogeny is still little known. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have long morphological species lives and do not commonly suffer massive extinctions: they live in the largest habitat on earth, species have large geographic ranges or are cosmopolitan, and they use motile propagules to rapidly re-populate regions where populations have been destroyed. Extinction occurs only when rapid and severe environmental change affects such a large part of the deep ocean that no refugia exist, even for common species. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera reacted to global cooling (in the earliest Oligocene, middle Miocene and middle Pleistocene) not by extinction, but by a gradual turnover of species. The most extensive turnover occurred in the late Eocene through earliest Oligocene, when some presently important ecological niches were first filled. In contrast, deep-sea benthic foraminifera suffered severe extinction (30-50% of species, including common, cosmopolitan, long-lived species) during the rapid global warming of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a time of high CO2 levels and potential ocean acidification. The extinction was followed by slow recovery of faunas, but diversity never returned to pre-extinction levels. The PETM and later, less severe short-term periods of global warming (hyperthermals ETM1 and ETM2) were characterized by low diversity faunas dominated by small, thin-walled individuals. No significant net extinction occurred during the later hyperthermals. Such faunas might reflect dissolution, low oxygen conditions, or blooming of opportunistic species after environmental disturbance. Most commonly cited causes of the PETM extinction are: 1. low oxygen concentrations, 2. acidification of the oceans, 3. increase or decrease in oceanic productivity and/or transfer of food to the sea floor, and 4. increasing temperatures. All 4 factors may have contributed to the extinction, but the first three factors varied regionally and by depth, whereas only the temperature increase affected the deep-sea environment globally. High temperatures not only increase overall metabolic rates, but also affect which species of prokaryotes are most active and which labile compounds they generate, thus the compounds and the amount of labile organic matter available for foraminiferal feeding. At sites along a depth transect at Walvis Ridge (SE Atlantic) species that earlier had been abundant in neritic waters ( Tappanina selmensis) increased strongly in abundance. Some surviving deep-sea species underwent diversification and morphological evolution; during and just after the PETM and two other hyperthermal events the deep-sea genus Abyssamina became more abundant (most pronounced at the deeper sites), while evolving into several morphological species. During the warmer intervals its aperture became more irregular in shape, with an extremely asymmetrical shape at the deepest site during ETM1. The aperture in benthic foraminifera directs the streaming of pseudopods, thus the way of food intake, suggesting that the nature of benthic feeding changed during the warm periods. During the early Eocene (a period characterized by hyperthermals), faunas maintained larger differences in assemblage composition between ocean basins than before the extinction. It remains a question whether this faunal heterogeneity reflects the mode of deep-ocean circulation/ventilation during the warmest period of the Cenozoic.

  6. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  7. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the US nearshore zone of Lake Erie, 2009: Status and linkages to landscape-derived stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  8. Application of Multiple Index Development Approaches to Benthic Invertebrate Data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province (SETAC NA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  9. Calibration of Multiple Trace Metal Proxies in Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, S. P.; Marchitto, T. M.; Curry, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    Paleoceanographic reconstructions of deep ocean conditions rely almost entirely on the chemistry of benthic foraminifera. In order to accurately utilize paleoceanographic proxies it is necessary to understand the biogeochemical behavior of their incorporation into the shells of benthic foraminifera. We examine modern or near-modern benthic foraminifera picked from a set of 38 multi-core casts from the Dry Tortugas and Great Bahama Bank regions (Florida Straits), collected during R/V Knorr cruise 166-2. Multi-core sites span temperature, salinity, and carbonate ion concentration ranges of 15C, 1.9 psu, and 120 ?mol/kg respectively, as determined from in situ seawater sampling and nearby CTD casts. We present new calibrations of Mg/Ca (temperature), Cd/Ca (labile nutrient), and Zn/Ca (refractory nutrient). Possible uses of U/Ca and Li/Ca as proxies for carbonate ion concentration are also discussed. Here we focus on the cosmopolitan species Cibicidoides pachyderma and Uvigerina peregrina. Data presented here significantly expand upon the existing calibrations of Mg/Ca in C. pachyderma, which rely heavily on data from Little Bahama Bank. Previous calibrations have used an exponential equation to explain the Mg/Ca - temperature relationship. This new dataset, which includes nine multi-core sites warmer than 15C, indicates that a linear equation may be a better fit. Warm-water Mg/Ca values, measured by both ICP-MS and SIMS, are notably lower than previous measurements from Little Bahama Bank. This new calibration may call for a reexamination of paleotemperature reconstructions that employ Cibicidoides Mg/Ca. Existing Uvigerina Mg/Ca calibrations differ significantly; an independent calibration of Uvigerina would be exceedingly beneficial to studies in regions where Cibicidoides are uncommon.

  10. Benthic macroinvertebrate richness along Sausal Creek, Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, D.; Ahumada, E.; Leon, Y.; Bracho, H.; Telles, C.

    2012-12-01

    Sausal Creek, 5.0 km long, is one of the principal watercourses in Oakland, California. The headwaters of Sausal Creek arise in the Oakland Hills and the creek flows southwestward through the city, discharging into the tidal canal that separates the island of Alameda from Oakland; the creek ultimately flows into San Francisco Bay. Due to the presence of rainbow trout, the stream health of Sausal Creek is a local conservation priority. In the present study, a survey of benthic macroinvertebrates in the creek was conducted and possible correlations between environmental variables and taxonomic richness were analyzed. Three stations along the creek were sampled using a 30.5cm 500 micron aquatic d-net, and temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels were measured in creek samples obtained at each station. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels remained constant along the creek. Taxonomic richness was highest at the upstream site of Palo Seco, located in an eastern section of the creek, and furthest downstream at Dimond Park, in the western portion of the creek. The Monterrey site, just west of Palo Seco was found to be significantly low in benthic macroinvertebrates. The Palo Seco and Monterrey sites are separated by Highway 13 and storm drain inputs may bring contaminants into the creek at this site. At the Monterrey site Sausal Creek follows the Hayward Fault, gas emissions or change in substrate may also affect the local population of benthic invertebrates. Further research will be conducted to determine what factors are contributing to this local anomaly.

  11. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Kalke, Richard D; Kracker, Laura M; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C E

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2). Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2). Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer. PMID:23950956

  12. Benthic Foraminifer Nd Isotopes and Radiocarbon: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivner, A. E.; Skinner, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    The combined analysis of neodymium (Nd) isotopes and radiocarbon (14C) in sedimentary benthic foraminifera has the potential to remedy a major issue involved in the interpretation of 14C data. The problem is that changes in deep-water sourcing, deep-water source signature and deep-water renewal rates may all affect 14C concentration, complicating the interpretation of deep-water 14C reconstructions. To overcome this, the application of a circulation tracer is required. Traditional proxies such as ?13C, Cd/Ca, and deep-water temperature either do not behave as conservative tracers or only indirectly represent water mass mixing, and so are of limited use1. The application of a more recently developed proxy for water mass sourcing, circulation and mixing, Nd isotopes, might offer a solution to this problem. A recent pioneering study2 has demonstrated that sedimentary benthic foraminifera might be a suitable archive of past deep-water Nd isotope composition at high resolution, potentially more robust than acidic-reductive sediment leach data. This study seeks to utilise this promising new tracer by applying it to an investigation of deglacial ventilation changes in the North Atlantic. Initial data presented here for core-top benthic foraminifera from the Labrador Sea, Iberian Margin and Pacific illustrate nearly the complete dynamic range of Nd isotope compositions present in the modern ocean, in general agreement with existing seawater Nd isotope data. Preliminary down-core Nd isotope data from the Iberian Margin place initial constraints on the contribution of deep-water sourcing to observed changes in deep-water 14C ventilation across the last deglaciation. 1 - E. Boyle, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 20, 245-287 (1992) 2 - V. Klevenz et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 265, 571-587 (2008)

  13. Hydrologic controls on basin-scale distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Ceola, S.; Singer, G. A.; Battin, T. J.; Montanari, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation deals with the role of streamflow variability on basin-scale distributions of benthic macroinvertebrates. Specifically, we present a probabilistic analysis of the impacts of the variability along the river network of relevant hydraulic variables on the density of benthic macroinvertebrate species. The relevance of this work is based on the implications of the predictability of macroinvertebrate patterns within a catchment on fluvial ecosystem health, being macroinvertebrates commonly used as sensitive indicators, and on the effects of anthropogenic activity. The analytical tools presented here outline a novel procedure of general nature aiming at a spatially-explicit quantitative assessment of how near-bed flow variability affects benthic macroinvertebrate abundance. Moving from the analytical characterization of the at-a-site probability distribution functions (pdfs) of streamflow and bottom shear stress, a spatial extension to a whole river network is performed aiming at the definition of spatial maps of streamflow and bottom shear stress. Then, bottom shear stress pdf, coupled with habitat suitability curves (e.g., empirical relations between species density and bottom shear stress) derived from field studies are used to produce maps of macroinvertebrate suitability to shear stress conditions. Thus, moving from measured hydrologic conditions, possible effects of river streamflow alterations on macroinvertebrate densities may be fairly assessed. We apply this framework to an Austrian river network, used as benchmark for the analysis, for which rainfall and streamflow time-series and river network hydraulic properties and macroinvertebrate density data are available. A comparison between observed vs "modeled" species' density in three locations along the examined river network is also presented. Although the proposed approach focuses on a single controlling factor, it shows important implications with water resources management and fluvial ecosystem protection.

  14. Deep-Sea Benthic Footprint of the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Paul A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J.; Hyland, Jeffrey L.; Kalke, Richard D.; Kracker, Laura M.; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer. PMID:23950956

  15. Disturbance, colonization and development of Antarctic benthic communities

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David K.A; Conlan, Kathleen E

    2006-01-01

    A decade has yielded much progress in understanding polar disturbance and community recovery—mainly through quantifying ice scour rates, other disturbance levels, larval abundance and diversity, colonization rates and response of benthos to predicted climate change. The continental shelf around Antarctica is clearly subject to massive disturbance, but remarkably across so many scales. In summer, millions of icebergs from sizes smaller than cars to larger than countries ground out and gouge the sea floor and crush the benthic communities there, while the highest wind speeds create the highest waves to pound the coast. In winter, the calm associated with the sea surface freezing creates the clearest marine water in the world. But in winter, an ice foot encases coastal life and anchor ice rips benthos from the sea floor. Over tens and hundreds of thousands of years, glaciations have done the same on continental scales—ice sheets have bulldozed the seabed and the zoobenthos to edge of shelves. We detail and rank modern disturbance levels (from most to least): ice; asteroid impacts; sediment instability; wind/wave action; pollution; UV irradiation; volcanism; trawling; non-indigenous species; freshwater inundation; and temperature stress. Benthic organisms have had to recolonize local scourings and continental shelves repeatedly, yet a decade of studies have demonstrated that they have (compared with lower latitudes) slow tempos of reproduction, colonization and growth. Despite massive disturbance levels and slow recolonization potential, the Antarctic shelf has a much richer fauna than would be expected for its area. Now, West Antarctica is among the fastest warming regions and its organisms face new rapid changes. In the next century, temperature stress and non-indigenous species will drastically rise to become dominant disturbances to the Antarctic life. Here, we describe the potential for benthic organisms to respond to disturbance, focusing particularly on what we know now that we did not a decade ago. PMID:17405206

  16. Northern Florida reef tract benthic metabolism scaled by remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, J.C.; Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.; Kuffner, I.B.; Wright, C.W.; Hatcher, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Holistic rates of excess organic carbon production (E) and calcification for a 0.5 km2 segment of the backreef platform of the northern Florida reef tract (NFRT) were estimated by combining biotope mapping using remote sensing with community metabolic rates determined with a benthic incubation system. The use of ASTER multispectral satellite imaging for the spatial scaling of benthic metabolic processes resulted in errors in E and net calcification (G) of 48 and 431% respectively, relative to estimates obtained using AISA hyperspectral airborne scanning. At 19 and 125%, the E and G errors relative to the AISA-based estimates were less pronounced for an analysis that used IKONOS multispectral satellite imagery to spatially extrapolate the chamber process measurements. Our scaling analysis indicates that the holistic calcification rate of the backreef platform of the northern Florida reef tract is negligible at 0.07 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1. All of the mapped biotopes in this reef zone are net heterotrophic, resulting in an estimated holistic excess production rate of -0.56 g C m-2 d-1, and an overall gross primary production to respiration ratio of 0.85. Based on our finding of ubiquitous heterotrophy, we infer that the backreef platform of the NFRT is a sink for external inputs of suspended particulate organic matter. Further, our results suggest that the inward advection of inorganic nutrients is not a dominant forcing mechanism for benthic biogeochemical function in the NFRT. We suggest that the degradation of the northern Florida reef tract may parallel the community phase shifts documented within other reef systems polluted by organic detritus.

  17. Dispersal, survival and delayed growth of benthic foraminiferal propagules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alve, Elisabeth; Goldstein, Susan T.

    2010-01-01

    New data support our previously published propagule dispersal hypothesis and show that propagules of some benthic foraminiferal species can survive for two years before growth commences. Following exposure to simulated shallow-water conditions, shallow-water species of benthic foraminifera appeared and grew in large numbers (commonly >100 ind/12 ml sediment) in the <32 m-size sediment fraction collected from 320 m water depth in the Skagerrak basin (North Sea). None of the shallow-water species that grew abundantly ( Planorbulina mediterranensis, Morulaeplecta bulbosa, Bolivina pseudoplicata, Cuneata arctica, Eggerelloides scaber, Gavelinopsis praegeri) seem to grow or reproduce at or in the vicinity of the sampling site. Consequently, they must have been transported there as <32 m-sized individuals. Their sudden appearance when exposed to shallow-water conditions suggests that they had been transported to the sampling site as propagules and that they could survive in the sediments until conditions became suitable for growth and, for some, reproduction. The lack of agglutination on the proloculi of the agglutinated taxa that appeared in the growth-chambers may enhance their passive transport via currents and, thereby, dispersal. Of all the indigenous foraminiferal species that occur at the sampling site, only Textularia earlandi and Bolivinellina pseudopunctata continued to grow and reproduce when transferred from bathyal (320 m) to simulated shallow-water (0 m) conditions. The former is considered a highly opportunistic species. According to the literature, most of the morphospecies which grew in the experiments are cosmopolitan. Our results indicate substantial inter-specific differences in dispersal potential and support previous suggestions that among free-living species, some serial forms have the potential for long-distance dispersal. Still, oceanographic, physical and ecological boundaries and barriers constrain the distribution of most species. In addition to benthic foraminifera, Gromia spp. (rhizarian protists related to the foraminifera) grew in >60% of the experimental growth-chambers.

  18. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, U.; Sommer, S.; Dale, A. W.; Löscher, C. R.; Noffke, A.; Wallmann, K.; Hensen, C.

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments and pore fluids as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield Ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15) taken from the core of the OMZ. This observation suggests that the burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under the low oxygen conditions prevailing in the Peruvian OMZ. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1) and exceeded the fluxes resulting from the degradation of particulate organic matter raining to the seabed. Most of the excess P may have been released by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments indicating recent phosphorite formation.

  19. Disturbance, colonization and development of Antarctic benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Conlan, Kathleen E

    2007-01-29

    A decade has yielded much progress in understanding polar disturbance and community recovery-mainly through quantifying ice scour rates, other disturbance levels, larval abundance and diversity, colonization rates and response of benthos to predicted climate change. The continental shelf around Antarctica is clearly subject to massive disturbance, but remarkably across so many scales. In summer, millions of icebergs from sizes smaller than cars to larger than countries ground out and gouge the sea floor and crush the benthic communities there, while the highest wind speeds create the highest waves to pound the coast. In winter, the calm associated with the sea surface freezing creates the clearest marine water in the world. But in winter, an ice foot encases coastal life and anchor ice rips benthos from the sea floor. Over tens and hundreds of thousands of years, glaciations have done the same on continental scales-ice sheets have bulldozed the seabed and the zoobenthos to edge of shelves. We detail and rank modern disturbance levels (from most to least): ice; asteroid impacts; sediment instability; wind/wave action; pollution; UV irradiation; volcanism; trawling; non-indigenous species; freshwater inundation; and temperature stress. Benthic organisms have had to recolonize local scourings and continental shelves repeatedly, yet a decade of studies have demonstrated that they have (compared with lower latitudes) slow tempos of reproduction, colonization and growth. Despite massive disturbance levels and slow recolonization potential, the Antarctic shelf has a much richer fauna than would be expected for its area. Now, West Antarctica is among the fastest warming regions and its organisms face new rapid changes. In the next century, temperature stress and non-indigenous species will drastically rise to become dominant disturbances to the Antarctic life. Here, we describe the potential for benthic organisms to respond to disturbance, focusing particularly on what we know now that we did not a decade ago. PMID:17405206

  20. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using various sampling gears. The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides information for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea). It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data. This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities. The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS). The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodiversity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the authors collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in the city of Gijn (Spain). The data are available in GBIF. PMID:24843257

  1. Benthic buffers and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, K. R. N.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Verlinden, N.; Tilbrook, B.; Andersson, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems globally. In shallow-water systems, however, ocean acidification can be masked by benthic carbon fluxes, depending on community composition, seawater residence time, and the magnitude and balance of net community production (pn) and calcification (gn). Here, we examine how six benthic groups from a coral reef environment on Heron Reef (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) contribute to changes in seawater aragonite saturation state (?a). Results of flume studies showed a hierarchy of responses across groups, depending on CO2 level, time of day and water flow. At low CO2 (350-450 ?atm), macroalgae (Chnoospora implexa), turfs and sand elevated ?a of the flume water by around 0.10 to 1.20 h-1 - normalised to contributions from 1 m2 of benthos to a 1 m deep water column. The rate of ?a increase in these groups was doubled under acidification (560-700 ?atm) and high flow (35 compared to 8 cm s-1). In contrast, branching corals (Acropora aspera) increased ?a by 0.25 h-1 at ambient CO2 (350-450 ?atm) during the day, but reduced ?a under acidification and high flow. Nighttime changes in ?a by corals were highly negative (0.6-0.8 h-1) and exacerbated by acidification. Calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda spp.) raised ?a by day (by around 0.13 h-1), but lowered ?a by a similar or higher amount at night. Analyses of carbon flux contributions from four different benthic compositions to the reef water carbon chemistry across Heron Reef flat and lagoon indicated that the net lowering of ?a by coral-dominated areas can to some extent be countered by long water residence times in neighbouring areas dominated by turfs, macroalgae and potentially sand.

  2. Benthic buffers and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, K. R. N.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Verlinden, N.; Tilbrook, B.; Andersson, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems globally. In shallow-water systems, however, ocean acidification can be masked by benthic carbon fluxes, depending on community composition, seawater residence time, and the magnitude and balance of net community production (NCP) and calcification (NCC). Here, we examine how six benthic groups from a coral reef environment on Heron Reef (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) contribute to changes in the seawater aragonite saturation state (?a). Results of flume studies using intact reef habitats (1.2 m by 0.4 m), showed a hierarchy of responses across groups, depending on CO2 level, time of day and water flow. At low CO2 (350-450 ?atm), macroalgae (Chnoospora implexa), turfs and sand elevated ?a of the flume water by around 0.10 to 1.20 h-1 - normalised to contributions from 1 m2 of benthos to a 1 m deep water column. The rate of ?a increase in these groups was doubled under acidification (560-700 ?atm) and high flow (35 compared to 8 cm s-1). In contrast, branching corals (Acropora aspera) increased ?a by 0.25 h-1 at ambient CO2 (350-450 ?atm) during the day, but reduced ?a under acidification and high flow. Nighttime changes in ?a by corals were highly negative (0.6-0.8 h-1) and exacerbated by acidification. Calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda spp.) raised ?a by day (by around 0.13 h-1), but lowered ?a by a similar or higher amount at night. Analyses of carbon flux contributions from benthic communities with four different compositions to the reef water carbon chemistry across Heron Reef flat and lagoon indicated that the net lowering of ?a by coral-dominated areas can to some extent be countered by long water-residence times in neighbouring areas dominated by turfs, macroalgae and carbonate sand.

  3. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change. PMID:26394097

  4. Variability of South Atlantic Central Water in the last century based on stable isotopes and benthic foraminifera of southeast Brazilian continental shelf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C. F.; De Faria, G. R.; Albuquerque, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the changes in productivity and water masses that permeate the bottom of the continental shelf of southeast Brazilian margin influenced by upwelling, three box-cores were collected in a bathymetric transect. Cores were analyzed for assemblage composition of benthic foraminifera and isotopes. 55 samples were analyzed and 227 benthic foraminifera were identified, but only 18 of them showed relative frequencies that contributed to the understanding of both oceanographic dynamics and productivity conditions of the area. There was dominance of Globocassidulina subglobosa, which is considered an indicator of areas with pulses of phytodetritus. Statistical analysis separated samples into different groups according to their location, indicating environmental factors on the continental shelf. Innershore core showed the highest flux of benthic foraminifera and the offshore one showed the major diversity and variation of foraminifera assemblages over time. Mid shelf cores showed little variation of the assemblages and indicate a stable environment. The ?13C values of Uvigerina peregrina indicated more degraded organic matter in the center of the shelf. The mean composition of Cibicides spp. ?13C is, on average, 0.25 depleted related to the values of ?13CDIC. Such values associated with high frequency of phytodetritus species indicated the formation of a phytodetritus layer at the bottom of the continental shelf of Cabo Frio. The paleotemperature calculated from oxygen isotopes pointed the permanence of SACW at the shelf bottom over the last few centuries.

  5. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Ulrike; Sommer, Stefan; Dale, Andrew W.; Löscher, Carolin R.; Noffke, Anna; Wallmann, Klaus; Hensen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P at six stations, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments, and pore fluids, as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid-phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15). This suggests that the relative burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments underlying the anoxic waters on the Peru margin are not depleted in P compared to Redfield. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1), however, showing that a lack of oxygen promotes the intensified release of dissolved P from sediments, whilst preserving the POC / TPP burial ratio. Benthic dissolved P fluxes were always higher than the TPP rain rate to the seabed, which is proposed to be caused by transient P release by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments, indicating ongoing phosphorite formation. This is further supported by decreasing porewater phosphate concentrations with sediment depth, whereas solid-phase P concentrations were comparatively high.

  6. Identifying cold-water coral ecosystem by using benthic foraminiferal indicators: from active reefs to the geological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margreth, Stephan; Rüggeberg, Andres; Gennari, Giordana; Spezzaferri, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral ecosystems dominated by the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, as well as cold-water coral carbonate mounds (fossils and/or active) occur worldwide and are especially developed along the European margin, from northern Norway to the Gulf of Cadiz and into the Alboran Sea. Their discovery is a major achievement of the last few decades and their widespread occurrence presents a challenge to understand their development, preservation and possible importance in the geologic record. On the Norwegian shelf active/living reefs are developed on elevated hard substrata. Along the Irish margin L. pertusa builds large fossil and/or active carbonate mounds. In the Gulf of Cadiz and in the Alboran Sea buried reefs and patch reefs are generally found in association with mud volcanoes. In modern oceans, they provide important ecological niches for the marine benthic fauna in the deep-sea. In comparison to the macrofauna the microfauna, particularly the foraminifera associated to these systems, are poorly known. We present here a detailed study based on quantitative analyses of benthic and planktonic foraminifera together with the statistical treatment of assemblage data collected along the Norwegian margin, in the Porcupine-Rockall region and in the Alboran Sea. The three regions were and/or are site of cold-water coral ecosystems settlements. Our study reveals that in the Porcupine/Rockall region benthic foraminiferal assemblages are strictly related to the distribution of facies. On the Norwegian margin, benthic foraminiferal habitats are weakly defined and grade one into the other preventing the sharp facies separation observed along the Irish margin (Margreth et al., 2009). In the Alboran Sea cold-water coral ecosystems and cold-water carbonate mounds are presently buried and corals are generally fragmented. However, benthic assemblages from coral-rich layers in the Alboran Sea and those from Porcupine/Rockall and Norway show remarkable similarities. In particular, epifaunal-attached species such as Discanomalina coronata, Cibicides refulgens, and Lobatula lobatula dominate the assemblages with D. coronata restricted to living cold-water coral reefs facies only and/or in co-occurrence with coral fragments. In conclusion, our data suggest that although cold-water coral ecosystems occur at different latitudes, the associated foraminiferal assemblages are consistent from Norway to the Western Mediterranean. Thus they can be used to identify these ecosystems even in the geologic record, when the corals are often strongly dissolved like in the Alboran Sea. References: Margreth, S., Rüggeberg, A. and Spezzaferri, S., 2009. Benthic foraminifera as bioindicator for cold-water coral reef ecosystems along the Irish margin. Deep Sea Res. Part I, 56: 2216-2234. This study is funded by the Swiss National Foundation Projects 200020-117928 and 200021-111694.

  7. The Power of Computer-aided Tomography to Investigate Marine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of Computer-aided-Tomography (CT) technology is a powerful tool to investigate benthic communities in aquatic systems. In this presentation, we will attempt to summarize our 15 years of experience in developing specific CT methods and applications to marine benthic co...

  8. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bedcurrent interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface watergroundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  9. A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP-ESTUARIES BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard benthic macrofaunal sampling protocol in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Pacific Coast Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is to collect a minimum of 30 random benthic samples per reporting unit (e.g., estuary) using a 0.1 m2 grab and to...

  10. A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE EMAP-W BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL SAMPLE UNIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard EPA West Coast Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-W) benthic macrofaunal sampling protocol is to collect 30-50 random benthic samples per reporting unit (e.g., estuary, region) using a 0.1 m2 grab and to sort out macrofauna using a 1.0 mm mesh scre...

  11. Development of a National-Scale Indicator of Benthic Condition for the National Coastal Condition Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA has evaluated the application of a national-scale indicator of estuarine benthic condition for the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). Historically, in the National Coastal Condition Reports (NCCR I-IV), estuarine benthic condition was assessed by applying m...

  12. IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL SCALING FACTORS TO BENTHIC MARINE INVERTEBRATE RECOLONIZATION OF LABORATORY MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five laboratory studies of benthic macroinvertebrate recolonization were conducted for 6-wk periods to evaluate the effects of physical factors (i.e., microcosm size, seawater flow rates and sediment depth) on benthic community structure. esign variables included4 open-faced acry...

  13. Turbulence and nutrient interactions that control benthic algal production in an engineered cultivation raceway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow turbulence can be a controlling factor to the growth of benthic algae, but few studies have quantified this relationship in engineered cultivation systems. Experiments were performed to understand the limiting role of turbulence to algal productivity in an algal turf scrubber for benthic algal...

  14. ALLOMETRIC LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS FOR BENTHIC PREY OF AQUATIC WILDLIFE IN COASTAL MARINE HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed models to estimate the soft tissue content of benthic marine invertebrates that are prey for aquatic wildlife. Allometric regression models of tissue wet weight with shell length for 10 species of benthic invertebrates had r2 values ranging from 0.29 for hermit crabs...

  15. MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY AND BENTHIC BIOMONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined spatial and temporal trends in water quality, sestonic and benthic algal concentrations, and benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness, population density, and biomass at nine stations along the Middle Snake River from Pillar Falls to Upper Salmon Falls Dam. Pri...

  16. Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loitsianskii. L. G.

    1956-01-01

    The fundamental, practically the most important branch of the modern mechanics of a viscous fluid or a gas, is that branch which concerns itself with the study of the boundary layer. The presence of a boundary layer accounts for the origin of the resistance and lift force, the breakdown of the smooth flow about bodies, and other phenomena that are associated with the motion of a body in a real fluid. The concept of boundary layer was clearly formulated by the founder of aerodynamics, N. E. Joukowsky, in his well-known work "On the Form of Ships" published as early as 1890. In his book "Theoretical Foundations of Air Navigation," Joukowsky gave an account of the most important properties of the boundary layer and pointed out the part played by it in the production of the resistance of bodies to motion. The fundamental differential equations of the motion of a fluid in a laminar boundary layer were given by Prandtl in 1904; the first solutions of these equations date from 1907 to 1910. As regards the turbulent boundary layer, there does not exist even to this day any rigorous formulation of this problem because there is no closed system of equations for the turbulent motion of a fluid. Soviet scientists have done much toward developing a general theory of the boundary layer, and in that branch of the theory which is of greatest practical importance at the present time, namely the study of the boundary layer at large velocities of the body in a compressed gas, the efforts of the scientists of our country have borne fruit in the creation of a new theory which leaves far behind all that has been done previously in this direction. We shall herein enumerate the most important results by Soviet scientists in the development of the theory of the boundary layer.

  17. Benthic macrofaunal community condition in the southern California bight, 1994-2003.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Schiff, Kenneth C; Montagne, David E; Mikel, Tim K; Cadien, Donald B; Velarde, Ronald G; Brantley, Cheryl A

    2010-06-01

    To assess benthic macrofaunal community condition in Southern California, 838 sites were sampled using spatially random designs in 1994, 1998, or 2003. Benthic community condition was assessed on a four-category scale and the area in each category estimated. Overall, benthic macrofauna in Southern California were in good condition during 2003, with 98% of the area in reference condition or deviating only marginally. There was no evidence of disturbance near Channel Islands or small wastewater discharges, and virtually none on the mainland shelf. In contrast, bay and estuary macrofaunal communities were more frequently disturbed with nearly 13% of the area supporting disturbed benthos. The condition of the mainland shelf did not change substantially over the 9-year period, with 1.6-2.8% of the area in poor benthic condition. Southern California benthic condition evaluations may be improved by extending the depth and salinity ranges of assessment tools, and improving trend detection methods. PMID:20144835

  18. One Step forward: Benthic Pelagic Coupling and Indicators for Environmental Status.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Panagiotis D; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Arvanitidis, Christos; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Pagou, Kalliopi; Papadopoulou, Konstantia N; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Pitta, Paraskevi; Reizopoulou, Sofia; Simboura, Nomiki; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    A large data set from the Eastern Mediterranean was analyzed to explore the relationship between seawater column variables and benthic community status. Our results showed a strong quantitative link between the seawater column variables (Chlorophyll a and Eutrophication Index) and various indicators describing benthic diversity and community composition. The percentage of benthic opportunistic species increased significantly in the stations with high trophic status of the seawater column and so did the strength of the coupling between values of seawater column and benthic indicators. The Eutrophication Index threshold level of 0.85, separating the "Bad and Poor" from "Moderate to High" conditions could serve as an acceptable critical value above which there is a readily observable change in benthic community composition. PMID:26496714

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by benthic invertebrates at the Arkansas River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kiffney, P.M.; Clements, W.H. . Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife Biology)

    1993-08-01

    A one-year biomonitoring study was conducted to determine the extent of metal contamination (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in a benthic community from the Arkansas River (CO), a subalpine stream impacted by discharges from historic mining operations. Elevated concentrations of metals in water were paralleled by higher concentrations in benthic organisms. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in metal concentrations in aufwuchs and benthic macroinvertebrates among upstream (reference) and downstream stations were observed. Metal concentration in aufwuchs and benthic invertebrates remained elevated at some downstream stations, despite decreases in water concentrations. Time of year and functional group contributed to the variation in metal bioaccumulation in benthic macroinvertebrates. Monitoring metal concentrations in aquatic macroinvertebrates was a better indicator of metal bioavailability in the Arkansas River than ambient (water) metal concentrations.

  20. One Step forward: Benthic Pelagic Coupling and Indicators for Environmental Status

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriou, Panagiotis D.; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Arvanitidis, Christos; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Pagou, Kalliopi; Papadopoulou, Konstantia N.; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Pitta, Paraskevi; Reizopoulou, Sofia; Simboura, Nomiki; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    A large data set from the Eastern Mediterranean was analyzed to explore the relationship between seawater column variables and benthic community status. Our results showed a strong quantitative link between the seawater column variables (Chlorophyll a and Eutrophication Index) and various indicators describing benthic diversity and community composition. The percentage of benthic opportunistic species increased significantly in the stations with high trophic status of the seawater column and so did the strength of the coupling between values of seawater column and benthic indicators. The Eutrophication Index threshold level of 0.85, separating the “Bad and Poor” from “Moderate to High” conditions could serve as an acceptable critical value above which there is a readily observable change in benthic community composition. PMID:26496714

  1. Ozone layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mintzer, I.M.; Miller, A.S.

    1987-12-01

    Governments around the world will soon make decisions on policies that could determine the fate of the ozone layer-the Earth's shield from harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, signed on March 22, 1985, created a framework for scientific cooperation and information exchange that will form the basis for a protocol for controlling substances thought to threaten the ozone layer. As of mid-1987, 29 countries had signed the Convention, including the major producers and users of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the most important of suspect chemicals.

  2. Multivariate benthic ecosystem functioning in the Arctic - benthic fluxes explained by environmental parameters in the southeastern Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, H.; Chaillou, G.; Forest, A.; Piepenburg, D.; Archambault, P.

    2013-09-01

    The effects of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems and their biogeochemical cycles are difficult to predict given the complex physical, biological and chemical interactions among the ecosystem components. We studied benthic biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic and the influence of short-term (seasonal to annual), long-term (annual to decadal) and other environmental variability on their spatial distribution to provide a baseline for estimates of the impact of future changes. In summer 2009, we measured fluxes of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, soluble reactive phosphate and silicic acid at the sediment-water interface at eight sites in the southeastern Beaufort Sea at water depths from 45 to 580 m. The spatial pattern of the measured benthic boundary fluxes was heterogeneous. Multivariate analysis of flux data showed that no single or reduced combination of fluxes could explain the majority of spatial variation, indicating that oxygen flux is not representative of other nutrient sink-source dynamics. We tested the influence of eight environmental parameters on single benthic fluxes. Short-term environmental parameters (sinking flux of particulate organic carbon above the bottom, sediment surface Chl a) were most important for explaining oxygen, ammonium and nitrate fluxes. Long-term parameters (porosity, surface manganese and iron concentration, bottom water oxygen concentrations) together with ?13Corg signature explained most of the spatial variation in phosphate, nitrate and nitrite fluxes. Variation in pigments at the sediment surface was most important to explain variation in fluxes of silicic acid. In a model including all fluxes synchronously, the overall spatial distribution could be best explained (57%) by the combination of sediment Chl a, phaeopigments, ?13Corg, surficial manganese and bottom water oxygen concentration. We conclude that it is necessary to consider long-term environmental variability along with rapidly ongoing environmental changes to predict the flux of oxygen and nutrients across Arctic sediments even at short timescales. Our results contribute to improve ecological models predicting the impact of climate change on the functioning of marine ecosystems.

  3. Benthic control freaks: Effects of the tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae on the specific diversity and functional structure of benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigolet, Carinne; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Thibaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Haploops nirae is a gregarious tubiculous amphipod which extended its habitat over thousands of hectares in shallow waters of South Brittany bays (Bay of Biscay, Atlantic) over the last decades and created uniquely large and dense tube mats. In the bay of Concarneau, we investigated the specific diversity (i.e. species richness and species composition) and the functional structure (using biological traits) of the macrofauna associated with this Haploops community as a comparison with several surrounding soft-sediment communities to determine the effect of this engineer species on ecosystem functions. We showed that the occurrence of Haploops tubes and individuals significantly modifies sediment features (e.g. change in sediment grain size, increase in C and N organic content) but also largely affect species diversity and benthic composition. The species richness was significantly higher in Haploops community but the species assemblage associated with Haploops habitat was very homogeneous compared to the neighboring habitats and unique with 33% of all species exclusively found in this community. Multivariate analysis (dbRDA) revealed that Haploops density was by far the factor explaining the variation in species composition of benthic communities. No differences in species diversity and assemblage were detected in relationship to Haploops density. A biological trait analysis performed on the whole ecosystem (Haploops included) revealed that Haploops largely dominates the functional structure of the Haploops community by its own functional traits. When performed on selected traits of the associated fauna only (Haploops excluded) the functional structure of the Haploops community was characterized by a greatly reduced proportion of small to medium long lived, sensitive to disturbance, free living or burrowing/tube-building filter-feeding species. H. nirae appears to be a bioengineer and a foundation species that largely modifies its hydro-sedimentary features, controlling diversity and abundances of associated species, and creating a complex set of positive and negative interactions so that a unique benthic assemblage is found in sediments they colonized.

  4. Compound-Specific Amino Acid Isotopic Analysis of Benthic Food Webs in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Cooper, L. W.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chukchi Sea is known for locally high standing stocks of benthic macrofauna and strong coupling between pelagic-benthic components of the ecosystem. However, benthic food structure is not fully understood, due to varied sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and the high diversity of benthic invertebrates. We provide the first demonstration of the application of compound-specific amino acid isotope analysis to study the dietary sources and trophic structure for this Arctic marginal sea. About 20 stations in Chukchi Sea were sampled during cruises in August of 2012 and 2013. At each station, phytoplankton, POM and benthic fauna were collected, processed and analyzed using GC-C-IRMS (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry). Among benthic fauna, dominant species included the following taxonomic groups: Ophiuroidea, Amphipoda, Polychaeta, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cnidaria. The benthic fauna showed similar patterns of individual amino acid δ13C, with glycine the most enriched in 13C and leucine the most depleted in 13C. Specific amino acids including phenylalanine showed spatial variability in δ13C and δ15N values within the sampled area, indicating contributions of different dietary sources including phytoplankton, sea ice algae, benthic algae and terrestrial organic materials. δ15N values of individual amino acids such as the difference between glutamic acid and phenylalanine, i.e. Δ15Nglu-phe (δ15Nglu - δ15Nphe), were also used to identify trophic levels of benthic invertebrates relative to estimates available from bulk δ15N values. These data will ultimately be used to evaluate the spatial variability of organic carbon sources and trophic level interactions of dominant benthic species in the Chukchi Sea.

  5. An apparatus for preparing benthic samples aboard ship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, Phillip N.; Girard, Thomas L.; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a safe and effective apparatus for washing and reducing the volume of benthic samples collected by grab samplers aboard ship. The sample is transferred directly from the dredge to the apparatus and then washed with water pumped through pipes in the apparatus and from onboard hoses. Wastewater and materials smaller than 0.541 mm in diameter are washed overboard. Larger materials, including benthic organisms, collect on an upper 0.64-cm screen and on a lower 30-mm-mesh stainless steel bolt cloth. A collection jar is screwed into the bottom of the apparatus. Therefore, transfer of sample material from the apparatus to the jar is quick and easy. This apparatus has several advantages for use aboard ship over others described in the literature, especially in rough seas, in cold weather, and at night. The apparatus provides a safe and convenient platform for washing and reducing samples, and samples can be prepared while the vessel is traveling at full speed.

  6. Spatially-explicit hydrologic controls on benthic invertebrate habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Singer, Gabriel; Battin, Tom; Montanari, Alberto; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Streamflow variability is a major determinant of basin-scale distribution of benthic invertebrates. Here we present a probabilistic approach for a spatially explicit quantitative assessment of benthic invertebrate abundance as derived from near-bed flow variability throughout an entire stream network. We consider aquatic invertebrates as these are widely employed as sensitive indicators of fluvial ecosystem health and human-induced perturbations. Moving from the analytical characterization of site-specific probability distribution functions of streamflow and bottom shear stress, we achieve a spatial extension to a stream network ranging up to 5th order. Bottom shear stress distributions, coupled with habitat suitability curves derived from field studies, are then used to produce maps of invertebrate habitat suitability based on shear stress conditions. The proposed framework allows to inspect the possible impacts of human-induced perturbations of streamflow variability on river ecology. We apply our approach to an Austrian river network, for which rainfall and streamflow time series, river network hydraulic properties and local information on invertebrate abundance for a limited number of sites are available. This allows a comparison between observed species density versus modeled habitat suitability based on shear stress. Although the proposed strategy neglects ecological determinants other than hydraulic ones and thus represents an ecological minimal model, it allows derivation of important implications of water resource management and fluvial ecosystem protection for basin-scale distribution patterns of organisms.

  7. Hydrologic controls on basin-scale distribution of benthic invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Singer, Gabriel; Battin, Tom J.; Montanari, Alberto; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Streamflow variability is a major determinant of basin-scale distributions of benthic invertebrates. Here we present a novel procedure based on a probabilistic approach aiming at a spatially explicit quantitative assessment of benthic invertebrate abundance as derived from near-bed flow variability. Although the proposed approach neglects ecological determinants other than hydraulic ones, it is nevertheless relevant in view of its implications on the predictability of basin-scale patterns of organisms. In the present context, aquatic invertebrates are considered, given that they are widely employed as sensitive indicators of fluvial ecosystem health and human-induced perturbations. Moving from the analytical characterization of site-specific probability distribution functions of streamflow and bottom shear stress, we achieve a spatial extension to an entire stream network. Bottom shear stress distributions, coupled with habitat suitability curves derived from field studies, are used to produce maps of invertebrate suitability to shear stress conditions. Therefore, the proposed framework allows one to inspect the possible impacts on river ecology of human-induced perturbations of streamflow variability. We apply this framework to an Austrian river network for which rainfall and streamflow time series, river network hydraulic properties, and local information on invertebrate abundance for a limited number of sites are available. A comparison between observed species density versus modeled suitability to shear stress is also presented. Although the proposed strategy focuses on a single controlling factor and thus represents an ecological minimal model, it allows derivation of important implications for water resource management and fluvial ecosystem protection.

  8. Predicting the Presence of Large Fish through Benthic Geomorphic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, F.; Sautter, L.; Levine, N. S.; Kracker, L.

    2013-12-01

    Marine Protected Areas are critical in sustaining the resilience of fish populations to commercial fishing operations. Using acoustic data to survey these areas promises efficiency, accuracy, and minimal environmental impact. In July, 2013, the NOAA Ship Pisces collected bathymetric, backscatter and water column data for 10 proposed MPA sites along the U.S. Southeast Atlantic continental shelf. A total of 205 km2 of seafloor were mapped between Mayport, FL and Wilmington, NC, using the SIMRAD ME70 and EK60 echosounder systems. These data were processed in Caris HIPS, QPS FMGT, MATLAB and ArcGIS. The backscatter and bathymetry reveal various benthic geomorphic features, including flat sand, rippled sand, and rugose hard bottom. Water column data directly above highly rugose hardbottom contains the greatest counts for large fish populations. Using spatial statistics, such as a geographically weighted regression model, we aim to identify features of the benthic profile, including rugosity, curvature and slope, that can predict the presence of large fish. The success of this approach will greatly expedite fishery surveys, minimize operational cost and aid in making timely management decisions.

  9. Spatial dynamics of benthic competition on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Stuart A; McNamara, Dylan E

    2012-04-01

    The community structure of sedentary organisms is largely controlled by the outcome of direct competition for space. Understanding factors defining competitive outcomes among neighbors is thus critical for predicting large-scale changes, such as transitions to alternate states within coral reefs. Using a spatially explicit model, we explored the importance of variation in two spatial properties in benthic dynamics on coral reefs: (1) patterns of herbivory are spatially distinct between fishes and sea urchins and (2) there is wide variation in the areal extent into which different coral species can expand. We reveal that the size-specific, competitive asymmetry of corals versus fleshy algae highlights the significance of spatial patterning of herbivory and of coral growth. Spatial dynamics that alter the demographic importance of coral recruitment and maturation have profound effects on the emergent structure of the reef benthic community. Spatially constrained herbivory (as by sea urchins) is more effective than spatially unconstrained herbivory (as by many fish) at opening space for the time needed for corals to settle and to recruit to the adult population. Further, spatially unconstrained coral growth (as by many branching coral species) reduces the number of recruitment events needed to fill a habitat with coral relative to more spatially constrained growth (as by many massive species). Our model predicts that widespread mortality of branching corals (e.g., Acropora spp) and herbivorous sea urchins (particularly Diadema antillarum) in the Caribbean has greatly reduced the potential for restoration across the region. PMID:22009340

  10. Measuring coral reef community metabolism using new benthic chamber technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate measurement of coral reef community metabolism is a necessity for process monitoring and in situ experimentation on coral reef health. Traditional methodologies used for these measurements are effective but limited by location and scale constraints. We present field trial results for a new benthic chamber system called the Submersible Habitat for Analyzing Reef Quality (SHARQ). This large, portable incubation system enables in situ measurement and experimentation on community- scale metabolism. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification were measured using the SHARQ for a variety of coral reef substrate types on the reef flat of South Molokai, Hawaii, and in Biscayne National Park, Florida. Values for daily gross production, 24-h respiration, and net calcification ranged from 0.26 to 6.45 g O2 m-2 day-1, 1.96 to 8.10 g O2 m-2 24 h-1, and 0.02 to 2.0 g CaCO3 m -2 day-1, respectively, for all substrate types. Field trials indicate that the SHARQ incubation chamber is an effective tool for in situ isolation of a water mass over a variety of benthic substrate types for process monitoring, experimentation, and other applications.

  11. Spallanzani Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    31 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a layered, light-toned mesa among other layered materials exposed in a mound that covers much of the floor of Spallanzani Crater.

    Location near: 58.3oS, 273.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  12. Timing of deglacial changes in regional Atlantic benthic ?18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, J.; Lisiecki, L.

    2012-04-01

    Modifications to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) structure influence global climate but the instrumental record of intermediate to deep Atlantic water mass properties and flow speeds remains insufficient to confidently characterize modern changes to the AMOC beyond intra-annual to annual variability. Longer-term characterization of transitions to reduced North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation is of particular interest because such a reduction is generally expected for the modern global warming. We attempt to constrain the timing of water mass responses during the pronounced AMOC adjustments of the last deglaciation by dating four regional Atlantic benthic ?18O stacks, which we refer to by water depth (Intermediate = 1000 to 2000 m; Deep = below 2000 m) and hemisphere (North or South). Regional non-glacioeustatic benthic ?18O changes reflect modifications to the physical properties - temperature and salinity - of the overlying water mass(es), from which we infer changes in AMOC. A suite of 515 planktonic foraminiferal 14C dates from 47 of the 197 total records in the stacks provides age control. We define probability distributions for the age model errors that account for both the errors of the individual age estimates and the changing variance of the mean ages along the stacks. The possibility of variable surface-water 14C reservoir age over the last deglaciation represents an additional source of age model uncertainty. We compare separate high and low latitude age models for the Deep North Atlantic stack using an initial constant reservoir age of 400 yr (reservoir age correction, ?R = 0 yr) for all dates. We interpret the residual of these two age models as ?R for the high latitude North Atlantic and observe a maximum of 1,810 490 yr around 16.5 ka during Heinrich Event 1. Age models for the two North Atlantic stacks include this ?R correction for cores from >40N. We argue for a constant reservoir age at all sites included in the two South Atlantic stacks (which span ~0 to 44S). On these age models, the onset of the deglacial decrease in benthic ?18O occurred at 18.5 ka in the Intermediate South Atlantic stack, 18.0 ka in the Deep South Atlantic stack, and 17.0 ka in both the Intermediate and Deep North Atlantic stacks. To test the statistical significance of our observation that this South Atlantic benthic ?18O response precedes the North Atlantic benthic ?18O change, we use Monte Carlo techniques with samples drawn directly from the probability distributions of the radiocarbon age estimate errors. For every possible combination, we conclude with >99% confidence that the termination onset occurs earlier in the South Atlantic stack than the North Atlantic stack. This suggests that warming and/or freshening of the intermediate to deep South Atlantic could be an important precursor to the major reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water formation of Heinrich Stadial 1 (~17 to 14.5 ka) and highlights the importance of monitoring the South Atlantic for early identification of modern AMOC changes.

  13. The mismatch between bioaccumulation in field and laboratory environments: Interpreting the differences for metals in benthic bivalves.

    PubMed

    Belzunce-Segarra, Maria J; Simpson, Stuart L; Amato, Elvio D; Spadaro, David A; Hamilton, Ian L; Jarolimek, Chad V; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory-based bioaccumulation and toxicity bioassays are frequently used to predict the ecological risk of contaminated sediments in the field. This study investigates the bioassay conditions most relevant to achieving environmentally relevant field exposures. An identical series of metal-contaminated marine sediments were deployed in the field and laboratory over 31 days. Changes in metal concentrations and partitioning in both sediments and waters were used to interpret differences in metal exposure and bioaccumulation to the benthic bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. Loss of resuspended sediments and deposition of suspended particulate matter from the overlying water resulted in the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn (major contaminants) becoming lower in the 1-cm surface layer of field-deployed sediments. Lower exchange rates of overlying waters in the laboratory resulted in higher dissolved metal exposures. The prediction of metal bioaccumulation by the bivalves in field and laboratory was improved by considering the metal partitioning within the surface sediments. PMID:25912886

  14. Organic matter biolability and enzyme activities within stream benthic sediments in northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, C. T.; Sather, K.; Ludwig, S.; Schade, J. D.; Sobczak, W. V.; Mann, P.

    2013-12-01

    Predicted climate warming and permafrost thaw in northeastern Siberia is expected to alter hydrologic flow paths, changing the quantity and quality of organic matter (OM) supplied to streams. With deeper flow paths, higher contributions of OM sourced from permafrost soils may be exported. This material can be relatively biolabile and has been shown to stimulate microbial production of enzymes crucial for the degradation of carbon in stream waters. Permafrost derived OM that has a different composition than active layer OM may generate hot-spots for microbial activity, and CO2 and CH4 emissions in areas entering stream benthic sediments; however, our understanding of how OM composition influences enzyme activities, and how this affects carbon degradation in these areas remains rudimentary. Here we show that ancient OM residing in Yedoma permafrost (ice rich deposits formed during the late Pleistocene) and modern OM found in a typical Arctic watershed differ in their composition and biolability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microbes within stream sediments receiving different OM sources (ancient/ modern) express different specific enzymes, which is likely affecting OM reactivity and is consistent with a shift in nutrient and organic carbon availability. We also show that differences in stream sediment type from a tussock grass dominated wetland and a stagnant pool in the stream channel may also affect enzyme activity rates. A better understanding of the impact of terrestrial carbon inputs on OM degradation in stream sediments will improve our understanding of potential feedbacks between permafrost and climate change.

  15. Environmental influences on living marine stromatolites: insights from benthic microalgal communities.

    PubMed

    Rishworth, Gavin M; van Elden, Sean; Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A F; Steyn, Paul-Pierre; Bornman, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Extant marine stromatolites act as partial analogues of their Achaean counterparts, but are rare due to depleted ocean calcium carbonate levels and suppression by eukaryotic organisms. Unique, peritidal tufa stromatolites at the interface between marine and freshwater inputs were discovered in South Africa in the past decade. Our aim was to investigate the benthic microalgal community (green algae, diatoms and cyanobacteria) of these stromatolites to assess succession and dominance patterns using real-time, in situ measurements of algal concentrations and composition. These biological measurements were modelled using generalized linear modelling (GLM) multivariate statistics against water physical and chemical parameters measured at regular monthly intervals, from January to December 2014. Salinity peaked and temperature dipped in winter, with both correlated to microalgal community change (GLM: P < 0.01). Diatoms and cyanobacteria, which construct the stromatolites, were consistently the dominant groups within the algal community, with minimal green algae present throughout the year. Importantly, this demonstrates a unique, relatively stable microalgal stromatolite community as opposed to those of other marine stromatolites, which likely require seasonal and stochastic disturbance to persist. This has implications in terms of interpreting community succession and differential layering in modern and fossilized stromatolites respectively. PMID:26549416

  16. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  17. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  18. Benthic Nutrient Cycling and Diagenetic Pathways in the North-western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.; Dinkel, C.; Friedl, G.; Pimenov, N.; Wijsman, J.; Gomoiu, M.-T.; Cociasu, A.; Popa, L.; Wehrli, B.

    2002-03-01

    Benthic fluxes of nutrients and metals were measured in the coastal zone of the north-western Black Sea, which is influenced by the Danube and Dniestr rivers. The results from the benthic flux chambers deployed during two EROS 21 cruises in summer 1995 and in spring 1997 yield information on benthic nutrient cycling and diagenetic pathways at the sediment-water interface. This information is discussed in the light of benthic activity as well as pore-water data. The benthic recycling of nutrients varied seasonally due to the availability of oxygen and organic material, and spatially due to river influence. Areas of high benthic fluxes near-shore and of low benthic fluxes offshore on the shelf were distinguished. Nutrients and suspended particulate matter discharged by the Danube is kept nearshore by the coastal current. The oxygen concentrations in the bottom water varied strongly between the two seasons. In summer, the bottom water at the near-shore stations turned anoxic. In spring, the higher oxygen concentrations are related to more intense mixing of the water column due to stormy periods and high river discharge. Highest oxygen concentrations were found on the offshore continental shelf. However, the benthic oxygen consumption rates in spring (13-23 mmol m -2 day -1) were as high as in summer. Areas with highest nutrient concentrations in the overlaying bottom water were found at the Danube delta front and Danube prodelta. On the Danube delta front and the Dniestr mouth, ammonia fluxes were lower in spring (11-17 mmol m -2 day -1) than in the summer (26-44 mmol m -2 day -1) due to higher nitrification rates and the lower influx of organic matter. In spring, the concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese in the bottom water were one order of magnitude lower than during the summer. This decrease in flux rates is related to the higher oxygen concentrations in the bottom water in spring. A rough comparison of the river's nutrient load and the benthic recycling over a certain area showed that the near-shore benthic phosphate and silica recycling account for 50% and 35% of the Danube input in summer, respectively. The fluxes of ammonia from benthic recycling and from the Danube discharge were at the same order of magnitude in both seasons. Nitrogen is introduced by the rivers mostly as nitrate. Benthic recycling is the dominant source of ammonia. The Danube input is phosphate deficient. In brief, benthic nutrient recycling is an important factor in sustaining high productivity of the system.

  19. A deep-sea sediment transport storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Thomas F.; Williams, A. J.; Newell, A. R. M.

    1988-02-01

    Photographs taken of the sea bottom since the 1960s suggest that sediments at great depth may be actively resuspended and redistributed1. Further, it has been suspected that active resus-pension/transport may be required to maintain elevated concentrations of particles in deep-sea nepheloid layers. But currents with sufficient energy to erode the bottom, and to maintain the particles in suspension, have not been observed concurrently with large concentrations of particles in the deep nepheloid layer2-4. The high-energy benthic boundary-layer experiment (HEBBLE) was designed to test the hypothesis that bed modifications can result from local erosion and deposition as modelled by simple one-dimensional local forcing mechanics5. We observed several 'storms' of high kinetic energy and near-bed flow associated with large concentrations of suspended sediment during the year-long deployments of moored instruments at the HEBBLE study site. These observations, at 4,880 m off the Nova Scotian Rise in the north-west Atlantic, indicate that large episodic events may suspend bottom sediments in areas well removed from coastal and shelf sources.

  20. Stable-isotope analysis of a deep-sea benthic-fish assemblage: evidence of an enriched benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Boyle, M D; Ebert, D A; Cailliet, G M

    2012-04-01

    In this study, fishes and invertebrates collected from the continental slope (1000 m) of the eastern North Pacific Ocean were analysed using stable-isotope analysis (SIA). Resulting trophic positions (T(P) ) were compared to known diets and habitats from the literature. Dual isotope plots indicated that most species groups (invertebrates and fishes) sorted as expected along the carbon and nitrogen axes, with less intraspecific variability than interspecific variability. Results also indicated an isotopically distinct benthic and pelagic food web, as the benthic food web was more enriched in both nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Trophic positions from SIA supported this finding, resulting in the assignment of fishes to different trophic positions from those expected based on published dietary information. These differences can be explained largely by the habitat of the prey and the percentage of the diet that was scavenged. A mixing model estimated dietary contributions of prey similar to those of the known diet of Bathyraja trachura from stomach-content analysis (SCA). Linear regressions indicated that trophic positions calculated from SIA and SCA, when plotted against B. trachura total length for 32 individuals, exhibited similar variation and patterns. Only the T(P) from SCA yielded significant results (stomach content: P < 005, stable isotope: P > 005). PMID:22497394

  1. Benthic foraminifera at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section): variability in climate and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2015-09-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ~ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ~ 9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinant recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors including deep water CaCO3-corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood-events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3%, hematite%, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, as well as calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an overall arid climate, characterized by strong winds and intense upwelling, with an overall humid climate, with abundant rains and high sediment delivery (including refractory organic carbon) from land. Precessionally paced marl-limestone couplets occur throughout the recovery interval of the CIE and up to ten meters above it, suggesting that these wet-dry cycles persisted, though at declining intensity, after the peak PETM. Enhanced climate extremes at mid-latitudes might have been a direct response to the massive CO2 input in the ocean atmosphere system at the Paleocene-Eocene transition, and may have had a primary role in restoring the Earth system to steady state.

  2. Isotopic Constraints on Sources and Benthic Turnover at Mound 12, Western Costa Rican Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehder, G.; Mau, S.; Linke, P.; Stange, K.

    2004-12-01

    During several expeditions, we investigated the emission and isotopic signature of methane at several mounds of the western continental margin off Costa Rica and Nicaragua. All of the mounds investigated, either created by mud volcanism or mud diapirism, show indications of fluid venting, including authigenic carbonates, chemoautotrophic consortia, salt depleted pore waters, and methane plumes in the water column. However, the amount of methane released as well as the stable carbon isotopic ratio (del C-13) vary considerably. Here we report on results from Mound 12, a mound with a very weak morphological expression; that is only 30 m high and elongated in northeast-southwest direction with diameters of about 1 to 1.6 km. Data were gathered using standard CTD/rosette equipment, a bottom water sampler enabling to resolve the methane distribution within the lowermost meter of the water column, a benthic chamber lander (BCL), multicorer and piston corer deployments. Data show a very light biogenic methane source (del C-13 < -90 permil within the sediments), -76 permil in the lowermost water samples with concentrations up to 100 nmo/L, and a methane background of - 45 permil 20 m above the vent site. High oxygen demand immediately at a site with bacterial mats in connection to lower carbon stable isotopic ratios with increasing sediment depth is in contrast to low oxygen demand and heavier stable isotopic ratios with increasing sediment depth only one meter apart. Moreover, the relation of methane concentration vs. isotopic signature above the vent sites implies considerable oxidation and fractionation in the benthic boundary layer (BBL) above the vent site, which is supported by some biomarker investigations at the same site. Significant oxidation of methane above vent sites within the BBL has not been reported so far. An alternative explanation, which is the existence of an additional methane source with an isotopic signature similar to the background ( del C-13 =-45 permil) is unlikely, based on the investigations of numerous piston cores taken at Mound 12. However, such a heavier isotopic signature, in connection to higher amounts of higher hydrocarbons, was encountered at Mound 11, a very similar structure only a couple of hundred meters apart.

  3. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats in the US Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2011-07-01

    This study shows that spatially and temporally recurring benthic macrofauna-habitat patterns validate the ecological relevance of habitat types to benthic macrofauna and suggest they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage. We discovered patterns across nine habitat types (intertidal eelgrass [ Zostera marina], dwarf eelgrass [ Zostera japonica], oyster [ Crassostrea gigas] ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp [ Upogebia pugettensis], burrowing ghost shrimp [ Neotrypaea californiensis], shell, sand, mud, and subtidal) on a variety of benthic macrofaunal community state variables in Grays Harbor, Washington, USA and compared them to those in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA. There were nominal differences in benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity between all the habitats investigated except eelgrass and oyster in both estuaries. Across-habitat patterns on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance, biomass, abundance of deposit, suspension and facultative feeders, a dominance and a diversity index for the five habitats common to both studies were the same on a rank measurement scale: eelgrass ≈ oyster > mud shrimp > ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The patterns for most of the habitats and benthic macrofaunal measures were the same on a ratio measurement scale.

  4. Modelling Changes of the Paleogene Ca Budget Using Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabich, S.; Gussone, N. C.; Vollmer, C.; Palike, H.; Rabe, K.; Teichert, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the earth's climate as well as the oceanic chemical and isotopic evolution in the past is one of the main aims in earth science. Ca as one of the major elements in the ocean is especially important. Its variation in concentration are controlled by different factors including the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere, continental weathering and Ca carbonate sedimentation. We used samples from IODP Exp. 320/321 to establish a ?44/40Ca paleo-seawater record between 45 and 25 Ma and model changes in the Ca budget through time. Our results show differences in the Eocene and Oligocene Ca isotope record of benthic foraminifers. The ?44/40Ca values during the Eocene are relatively constant with no significant fluctuations during phases of large short term CCD fluctuations[1]. The Oligocene is characterized by sediments with uniformly high carbonate content and increasing ?44/40Ca towards the late Oligocene. Past seawater ?44/40Ca values (Fig. 1) were calculated from the measured benthic foraminifer record applying the calibration for Gyroidinoides spp.[2]. The Ca budget during the Eocene is relatively constant and not affected by short term CCD fluctuations, indicating that they are too small to alter the isotopic Ca budget. The Oligocene, in contrast is characterized by a general increase in ?44/40Ca seawater values and a continuously deep CCD[1]. This is consistent with a massive long term (>1Ma) CaCO3 deposition and decreasing Ca concentration in the ocean water. To examine the preservation (dissolution and recrystallization) of the foraminifer test through time, we studied additionally the changes in the crystallographic orientations trough time by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. As a final step we use our ?44/40Ca seawater record to run a combined Ca and C model showing the effect of Ca weathering input, carbonate remobilization and dolomitization on the Ca and carbonate system of seawater [1]. [1]Plike H., Mitchell W. Lyle, Hiroshi Nishi, Isabella Raffi, Andy Ridgwell, Kusali Gamage, Adam Klaus et al. (2012): A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth. Nature 488, 609-614 [2]Gussone N. & Filipsson H.L. (2010): Calcium isotope ratios in calcitic tests of benthic Foraminifers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290, 108-117

  5. Interlinking backscatter, grain size and benthic community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Chris; Collier, Jenny S.

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between acoustic backscatter, sediment grain size and benthic community structure is examined using three different quantitative methods, covering image- and angular response-based approaches. Multibeam time-series backscatter (300 kHz) data acquired in 2008 off the coast of East Anglia (UK) are compared with grain size properties, macrofaunal abundance and biomass from 130 Hamon and 16 Clamshell grab samples. Three predictive methods are used: 1) image-based (mean backscatter intensity); 2) angular response-based (predicted mean grain size), and 3) image-based (1st principal component and classification) from Quester Tangent Corporation Multiview software. Relationships between grain size and backscatter are explored using linear regression. Differences in grain size and benthic community structure between acoustically defined groups are examined using ANOVA and PERMANOVA+. Results for the Hamon grab stations indicate significant correlations between measured mean grain size and mean backscatter intensity, angular response predicted mean grain size, and 1st principal component of QTC analysis (all p < 0.001). Results for the Clamshell grab for two of the methods have stronger positive correlations; mean backscatter intensity (r2 = 0.619; p < 0.001) and angular response predicted mean grain size (r2 = 0.692; p < 0.001). ANOVA reveals significant differences in mean grain size (Hamon) within acoustic groups for all methods: mean backscatter (p < 0.001), angular response predicted grain size (p < 0.001), and QTC class (p = 0.009). Mean grain size (Clamshell) shows a significant difference between groups for mean backscatter (p = 0.001); other methods were not significant. PERMANOVA for the Hamon abundance shows benthic community structure was significantly different between acoustic groups for all methods (p ? 0.001). Overall these results show considerable promise in that more than 60% of the variance in the mean grain size of the Clamshell grab samples can be explained by mean backscatter or acoustically-predicted grain size. These results show that there is significant predictive capacity for sediment characteristics from multibeam backscatter and that these acoustic classifications can have ecological validity.

  6. Environmental Drivers of Benthic Flux Variation and Ecosystem Functioning in Salish Sea and Northeast Pacific Sediments.

    PubMed

    Belley, Rénald; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Archambault, Philippe; Juniper, S Kim

    2016-01-01

    The upwelling of deep waters from the oxygen minimum zone in the Northeast Pacific from the continental slope to the shelf and into the Salish Sea during spring and summer offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem functioning in the form of benthic fluxes along natural gradients. Using the ROV ROPOS we collected sediment cores from 10 sites in May and July 2011, and September 2013 to perform shipboard incubations and flux measurements. Specifically, we measured benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients to evaluate potential environmental drivers of benthic flux variation and ecosystem functioning along natural gradients of temperature and bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations. The range of temperature and dissolved oxygen encountered across our study sites allowed us to apply a suite of multivariate analyses rarely used in flux studies to identify bottom water temperature as the primary environmental driver of benthic flux variation and organic matter remineralization. Redundancy analysis revealed that bottom water characteristics (temperature and dissolved oxygen), quality of organic matter (chl a:phaeo and C:N ratios) and sediment characteristics (mean grain size and porosity) explained 51.5% of benthic flux variation. Multivariate analyses identified significant spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes, demonstrating key differences between the Northeast Pacific and Salish Sea. Moreover, Northeast Pacific slope fluxes were generally lower than shelf fluxes. Spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes in the Salish Sea were driven primarily by differences in temperature and quality of organic matter on the seafloor following phytoplankton blooms. These results demonstrate the utility of multivariate approaches in differentiating among potential drivers of seafloor ecosystem functioning, and indicate that current and future predictive models of organic matter remineralization and ecosystem functioning of soft-muddy shelf and slope seafloor habitats should consider bottom water temperature variation. Bottom temperature has important implications for estimates of seasonal and spatial benthic flux variation, benthic-pelagic coupling, and impacts of predicted ocean warming at high latitudes. PMID:26942608

  7. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a slope upon which are exposed some of the layered materials that underlie the south polar cap of Mars. The layers are generally considered to be sediments--perhaps dust--that may have been cemented by water ice.

    Location near: 84.1oS, 343.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  8. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered material exposed on a slope in the south polar region of Mars. The composition of the layers, and whether they contain ice, is not known.

    Location near: 87.0oS, 176.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  9. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    9 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an eroded stack of layered material in a crater of the south polar region of Mars. The composition of the layers is not known; some speculate that they may contain a combination of dust and ice, or possibly ancient sedimentary rock.

    Location near: 80.6oS, 230.4oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Response of benthic insect species to changes in stream velocity resulting from stripmining disturbance

    SciTech Connect

    Stair, D.M. Jr.; Tolbert, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    Increased stream velocity resulting from increased runoff may cause considerable alterations in benthic communities. Stream velocity in disturbed watersheds can exceed tolerance limits of even the most resistant species. Increased velocities may also adversely impact benthic communities by increasing bedload movement, thus destroying habitats or physically abrading individuals. Studies are underway to document bedload movement and effects on benthic communities in mining disturbed streams. Additional studies are being initiated to determine if there are additive effects from the combination of increased stream velocity and sediment movement.

  11. Geologic characteristics of benthic habitats in Glacier Bay, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harney, Jodi N.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Dartnell, Pete; Golden, Nadine E.; Chezar, Hank

    2006-01-01

    In April 2004, more than 40 hours of georeferenced submarine digital video was collected in water depths of 15-370 m in Glacier Bay to (1) ground-truth existing geophysical data (bathymetry and acoustic reflectance), (2) examine and record geologic characteristics of the sea floor, and (3) investigate the relation between substrate types and benthic communities, and (4) construct predictive maps of seafloor geomorphology and habitat distribution. Common substrates observed include rock, boulders, cobbles, rippled sand, bioturbated mud, and extensive beds of living horse mussels and scallops. Four principal sea-floor geomorphic types are distinguished by using video observations. Their distribution in lower and central Glacier Bay is predicted using a supervised, hierarchical decision-tree statistical classification of geophysical data.

  12. Benthic foraminifera of the Panamanian Province: distribution and origins.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, R.W.; Poag, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from 96 stations representing 33 localities on the eastern Pacific inner continental shelf, ranging from southern Peru to northern Baja California. Their distributions mark nearshore provincial boundaries that are nearly identical with those previously documented from the distribution of ostracodes and molluscs. Thirteen species are characteristic of the Panamanian Province, one is characteristic of the Chilean-Peruvian Province, and one is characteristic of the newly proposed Sonoran Subprovince. Seventeen species (7%) appear to be endemic to the eastern Pacific. Fifty-eight (25%) of the species recognized are disjunct from population centers in the western Pacific, 134 species (59%) are disjunct from modern assemblages of the Atlanto-Carribean region, and 40 species (17%) are disjunct from both the western Pacific and the Atlanto-Caribbean. The distribution of the remaining 57 species (25%) is poorly documented; we classify them as of unknown origin. -Authors

  13. The physics of broadcast spawning in benthic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Crimaldi, John P; Zimmer, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Most benthic invertebrates broadcast their gametes into the sea, whereupon successful fertilization relies on the complex interaction between the physics of the surrounding fluid flow and the biological properties and behavior of eggs and sperm. We present a holistic overview of the impact of instantaneous flow processes on fertilization across a range of scales. At large scales, transport and stirring by the flow control the distribution of gametes. Although mean dilution of gametes by turbulence is deleterious to fertilization, a variety of instantaneous flow phenomena can aggregate gametes before dilution occurs. We argue that these instantaneous flow processes are key to fertilization efficiency. At small scales, sperm motility and taxis enhance contact rates between sperm and chemoattractant-releasing eggs. We argue that sperm motility is a biological adaptation that replaces molecular diffusion in conventional mixing processes and enables gametes to bridge the gap that remains after aggregation by the flow. PMID:23957600

  14. Effect of exposure method on benthic organism responses

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, C.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Organism response to non-polar organics and inorganic contaminants is affected by the route and method of exposure. Little data exists, however, on the effect of different exposures on freshwater benthic and epibenthic organisms. The amphipod, Hyalella azteca and the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to contaminated sediments and overlying waters in the laboratory using traditional static-renewal exposure systems as well as in situ using different exposure chamber designs. Laboratory and field exposures were compared, focusing on survival and tissue residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Responses of test organisms were compared also to indigenous species. Results showed that laboratory and in situ exposures differ frequently, but optimal exposure systems are possible which reduce uncertainty in risk or hazard assessments that predict toxicity or bioaccumulation.

  15. Antarctic Benthic Fauna in the Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidawa, Anna; Janecki, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    In the last 50 years a significant climatic shift has been observed along the Antarctic Peninsula (air and seawater temperature rise, glacial retreat, localized instances of lowered shallow waters salinities). Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environmental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climate changes and subsequent glacial melting can be expected to have significant impacts on species physiology and distribution. The rise of sea water temperature coupled with such additional stress factors as melt water run-off, increased ice disturbance, disruption of food webs or invasion of alien species can be a serious problem for their long-term survival.

  16. Hexabromocyclododecane affects benthic-pelagic coupling in an experimental ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Clare; Näslund, Johan; Hansen, Joakim; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina; Sundström, Bo; Gustafsson, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant and a recognized PBT chemical. However, little is known about its effects on coastal species, and even less on ecosystem effects. We investigated the dose-response effects of HBCDD over 8 months in 1000 L experimental mesocosms assembled from coastal Baltic Sea ecosystem components. HBCDD was added via spiked plankton material and a range of structural and functional endpoints were measured during the experiment. Increasing HBCDD concentration decreased the biomass of large Macoma balthica, resulting in a decreased recirculation of nutrients to the water. Changes in plankton communities were also observed, either due to direct toxic HBCDD effects or indirect via changes in benthic-pelagic coupling of nutrients. Such complex ecosystem responses can only be quantified and understood by using realistic experimental set-ups, and including knowledge of system-specific ecological interactions. This is the first study of HBCDD effects on ecosystem level. PMID:26219072

  17. Benthic Exchange and Biogeochemical Cycling in Permeable Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettel, Markus; Berg, Peter; Kostka, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    The sandy sediments that blanket the inner shelf are situated in a zone where nutrient input from land and strong mixing produce maximum primary production and tight coupling between water column and sedimentary processes. The high permeability of the shelf sands renders them susceptible to pressure gradients generated by hydrodynamic and biological forces that modulate spatial and temporal patterns of water circulation through these sediments. The resulting dynamic three-dimensional patterns of particle and solute distribution generate a broad spectrum of biogeochemical reaction zones that facilitate effective decomposition of the pelagic and benthic primary production products. The intricate coupling between the water column and sediment makes it challenging to quantify the production and decomposition processes and the resultant fluxes in permeable shelf sands. Recent technical developments have led to insights into the high biogeochemical and biological activity of these permeable sediments and their role in the global cycles of matter.

  18. Benthic foraminifera and environmental changes in Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, E.; Gapotchenko, T.; Varekamp, J.C.; Mecray, E.I.; Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal faunas in Long Island Sound (LIS) in the 1940s and 1960s were of low diversity, and dominated by species of the genus Elphidium, mainly Elphidium excavatum clavatum, with common Buccella frigida and Eggerella advena. The distribution of these species was dominantly correlated with depth, but it was not clear which depth-related environmental variable was most important. Differences between faunas collected in 1996 and 1997, and in the 1940s and 1960s include a strong decrease in relative abundance of Eggerella advena over all LIS, an increase in relative abundance of Ammonia beccarii in western LIS, and a decrease in species diversity. The decreased diversity suggests that environmental stress caused the faunal changes. Oxygen isotope data for E. excavatum clavatum indicate that a change in salinity is not a probable cause. Carbon isotope data suggest that the supply of organic matter to the benthos increased since the early 1960s, with a stronger increase in western LIS where algal blooms have occurred since the early 1970s, possibly as a result of nutrient input by waste water treatment plants. These blooms or the resulting episodes of anoxia/hypoxia may have played a role in the increased relative abundance of A. beccarii. There is no clear explanation for the decreased abundance of E. advena, but changes in the phytoplankton composition (thus food supply) are a possible cause. Benthic foraminiferal faunal and stable isotope data have excellent potential as indicators of physicochemical environmental changes and their effects on the biota in LIS.

  19. Fish-derived nutrient hotspots shape coral reef benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Shantz, Andrew A; Ladd, Mark C; Schrack, Elizabeth; Burkepile, Deron E

    2015-12-01

    Animal-derived nutrients play an important role in structuring nutrient regimes within and between ecosystems. When animals undergo repetitive, aggregating behavior through time, they can create nutrient hotspots where rates of biogeochemical activity are higher than those found in the surrounding environment. In turn, these hotspots can influence ecosystem processes and community structure. We examined the potential for reef fishes from the family Haemulidae (grunts) to create nutrient hotspots and the potential impact of these hotspots on reef communities. To do so, we tracked the schooling locations of diurnally migrating grunts, which shelter at reef sites during the day but forage off reef each night, and measured the impact of these fish schools on benthic communities. We found that grunt schools showed a high degree of site fidelity, repeatedly returning to the same coral heads. These aggregations created nutrient hotspots around coral heads where nitrogen and phosphorus delivery was roughly 10 and 7 times the respective rates of delivery to structurally similar sites that lacked schools of these fishes. In turn, grazing rates of herbivorous fishes at grunt-derived hotspots were approximately 3 times those of sites where grunts were rare. These differences in nutrient delivery and grazing led to distinct benthic communities with higher cover of crustose coralline algae and less total algal abundance at grunt aggregation sites. Importantly, coral growth was roughly 1.5 times greater at grunt hotspots, likely due to the important nutrient subsidy. Our results suggest that schooling reef fish and their nutrient subsidies play an important role in mediating community structure on coral reefs and that overfishing may have important negative consequences on ecosystem functions. As such, management strategies must consider mesopredatory fishes in addition to current protection often offered to herbivores and top-tier predators. Furthermore, our results suggest that restoration strategies may benefit from focusing on providing structure for aggregating fishes on reefs with low topographic complexity or focusing the restoration of nursery raised corals around existing nutrient hotspots. PMID:26910945

  20. Benthic nutrient sources to hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Topping, B.R.; Lynch, D.D.; Carter, J.L.; Essaid, H.I.

    2009-01-01

    Three collecting trips were coordinated in April, May, and August 2006 to sample the water column and benthos of hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (OR, USA) through the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. A porewater profiler was designed and fabricated to obtain the first high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical, concentration gradients of macro- and micronutrients for diffusive-flux determinations. A consistently positive benthic flux for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was observed with solute release from the sediment, ranging between 0.4 and 6.1 mg/m2/d. The mass flux over an approximate 200-km2 lake area was comparable in magnitude to riverine inputs. An additional concern, related to fish toxicity was identified when dissolved ammonium also displayed consistently positive benthic fluxes of 4 to 134 mg/m2/d, again, comparable to riverine inputs. Although phosphorus was a logical initial choice by water quality managers for the limiting nutrient when nitrogen-fixing cyanophytes dominate, initial trace-element results from the lake and major inflowing tributaries suggested that the role of iron limitation on primary productivity should be investigated. Dissolved iron became depleted in the lake water column during the course of the algal bloom, while dissolved ammonium and SRP increased. Elevated macroinvertebrate densities, at least of the order of 104 individuals/m2, suggested, that the diffusive-flux estimates may be significantly enhanced, by bioturbation. In addition, heat-flux modeling indicated that groundwater advection of nutrients could also significantly contribute to internal nutrient loading. Accurate environmental assessments of lentic systems and reasonable expectations for point-source management require quantitative consideration of internal solute sources ?? 2009 SETAC.

  1. Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S.

    1995-05-01

    Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Benthic macrofauna data for San Francisco Bay, California, September 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Thompson, J.K.; Harmon, J.G.; Yost, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic macrofauna were collected during September 1986 to evaluate locations for long-term monitoring stations as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Effects Monitoring Program in San Francisco Bay, California. Three to ten replicate samples were collected with a modified Van Veen sampler (0.05 m2 area) at ten locations. One box core sample (0.06 m2 area) was collected at seven to the ten locations. Six of the box core samples were split into an upper 10 cm sample and a deeper sample before analysis. Macrofauna specimens were identified to the lowest possible taxon, usually genus and species, then counted. An average of 88 percent of the benthic macrofauna specimens were identified to the species level. The fraction identified varied among stations from 54 to 98 percent. Nematodes and oligochaetes accounted for most of the unidentified specimens. Relative to the total number of species identified in five replicates at each location, an average of 90 percent of the species were collected with three replicates. In general, species with high to moderate abundances were present in all replicates, and species collected only after three or more replicates averaged less than one specimen per replicate. Results from the box cores showed that the dominant species were most abundant in the upper 10 cm, the depth of sediment that can be adequately sampled with a modified Van Veen sampler. On the basis of the number of species and their abundances at each location, seven of the ten locations were selected for sampling in the regular program, which began in March 1987.

  3. Effects of triclosan on marine benthic and epibenthic organisms.

    PubMed

    Perron, Monique M; Ho, Kay T; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C

    2012-08-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Because of its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media, including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sediments. Triclosan is acutely toxic to numerous aquatic organisms, but very few studies have been performed on estuarine and marine benthic organisms. For whole sediment toxicity tests, the sediment-dwelling estuarine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and the epibenthic mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, are commonly used organisms. In the present study, median lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained for both of these organisms using water-only and whole sediment exposures. Acute 96-h water-only toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 73.4 and 74.3 g/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. For the 7-d whole sediment toxicity test, LC50 values were 303 and 257 mg/kg (dry wt) for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. Using equilibrium partitioning theory, these whole sediment values are equivalent to interstitial water LC50 values of 230 and 190 g/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively, which are within a threefold difference of the observed 96-h LC50 water-only values. Triclosan was found to accumulate in polychaete tissue in a 28-d bioaccumulation study with a biota-sediment accumulation factor of 0.23 kg organic carbon/kg lipid. These data provide some of the first toxicity data for triclosan with marine benthic and epibenthic species while also indicating a need to better understand the effects of other forms of sediment carbon, triclosan ionization, and organism metabolism of triclosan on the chemical's behavior and toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:22605471

  4. Benthic perspective on Earth's oldest evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O

    2015-01-27

    The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is currently viewed as a protracted process during which atmospheric oxygen increased above ∼10(-5) times the present atmospheric level (PAL). This threshold represents an estimated upper limit for sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF), an Archean signature of atmospheric anoxia that begins to disappear from the rock record at 2.45 Ga. However, an increasing number of papers have suggested that the timing for oxidative continental weathering, and by conventional thinking the onset of atmospheric oxygenation, was hundreds of million years earlier than previously thought despite the presence of S-MIF. We suggest that this apparent discrepancy can be resolved by the earliest oxidative-weathering reactions occurring in benthic and soil environments at profound redox disequilibrium with the atmosphere, such as biological soil crusts and freshwater microbial mats covering riverbed, lacustrine, and estuarine sediments. We calculate that oxygenic photosynthesis in these millimeter-thick ecosystems provides sufficient oxidizing equivalents to mobilize sulfate and redox-sensitive trace metals from land to the oceans while the atmosphere itself remained anoxic with its attendant S-MIF signature. As continental freeboard increased significantly between 3.0 and 2.5 Ga, the chemical and isotopic signatures of benthic oxidative weathering would have become more globally significant from a mass-balance perspective. These observations help reconcile evidence for pre-GOE oxidative weathering with the history of atmospheric chemistry, and support the plausible antiquity of a terrestrial biosphere populated by cyanobacteria well before the GOE. PMID:25583484

  5. Water conditions and geochemistry in northern Adriatic anoxia-prone areas and response of benthic faunas to oxygen deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuschin, Martin; Riedel, Bettina; Stachowitsch, Michael; Cermelj, Branko

    2010-05-01

    One predicted effect of global climate change, specifically global warming, is the increase in the temperatures and stratification of shallow coastal and estuarine systems. This, coupled with ongoing anthropogenic eutrophication, will exacerbate hypoxia and benthic mortalities, significantly damaging these critical marine ecosystems. These phenomena are particularly severe on sublitoral soft-bottoms such as the poorly sorted silty sands at the study site in the northern Adriatic Sea. We deployed a specially developed underwater chamber to artificially induce anoxia in situ. Our Experimental Anoxia Generating Unit (EAGU) is a large plexiglass chamber that combines a digital camera with oxygen/hydrogen sulphide/pH sensors along with flashes and battery packs. The unit can be deployed for up to five days to autonomously generate oxygen crises and quantify both physico-chemical parameters and benthic responses. The system is initially positioned in an "open" configuration (open-sided aluminium frame) over the benthic fauna ("control" experiment). After 24 h the EAGU is switched to its "closed" configuration (plexiglass enclosure) and repositioned over the same assemblage. In this contribution, we focus on the natural oxygen content, temperature and pH of bottom waters during summer, the course of oxygen decrease during our experiments and the onset of H2S development. Oxygen content of the bottom water, a few centimetres above the sediment-water interface, ranges from ~3.5-8 but is mostly between 4-6 ml l-1 during July to September of the study periods (2005 and 2006) and decreases to zero within ~1-3 days after initiation of our experiments. In parallel, H2S starts to develop at the onset of anoxia. Water temperatures at the bottom were stable during experiments and ranged from 18.5C to 21.4C, but pH decreased from 8.3 to 8.1 at the beginning to 7.9 to 7.7 at the end of the experiments. Sediment profiling indicates that the diffusive benthic boundary layer is approximately 2.5 mm thick and that oxygen values decrease from ~2 ml l-1 3.5 mm above the sediment water interface to virtually zero at the interface. PH-values in 2 mm depth decrease from 8.15 to 7.6 within the first 10 h of the experiment. This indicates that the most reactive organic matter is decomposing in the uppermost few mm of the sediment. These data can be related to behavioural responses and mortality sequences of benthic faunas, including echinoids, crustaceans, molluscs and anemones. Beginning hypoxia (?2.0 ml l-1 DO) elicited escape patterns such as increased horizontal and vertical locomotion of animals. Moderate hypoxia (?1.0 ml l-1 DO) triggered species-specific sublethal effects such as arm-tipping in ophiuroids or extension from the sediment in sea anemones. At severe hypoxia (?0.5 ml l-1 DO) infaunal organisms began to emerge and first mortalities occurred. Some crustaceans and echinoderms are among the first to die, but sea anemones and large gastropods can even survive the onset of hydrogen sulfide.

  6. Layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and an overview of current areas of research interest.

  7. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats in the US Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuary-wide benthic macrofauna?habitat associations were determined for 9 habitats (intertidal eelgrass [Zostera marina], dwarf eelgrass [Zostera japonica], oyster [Crassostrea gigas], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis], shell, sand, mud,...

  8. Effect of Organic Enrichment and Hypoxia on the Biodiversity of Benthic Communities in Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excessive input of nitrogen to coastal waters leads to eutrophication and hypoxia that reduce biodiversity and impair key ecosystem services provided by benthic communities; for example, fish and shellfish production, bioturbation, nutrient cycling, and water filtration. Hypoxia ...

  9. Mud, Macrofauna and Microbes: An ode to benthic organism-abiotic interactions at varying scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic environments are dynamic habitats, subject to variable sources and rates of sediment delivery, reworking from the abiotic and biotic processes, and complex biogeochemistry. These activities do not occur in a vacuum, and interact synergistically to influence food webs, bi...

  10. A Characterization of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Agricultural Drainage Ditches of the Northeast Arkansas Delta, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches have large differences in hydroperiod and provide additional water residence time to mitigate farm runoff before it reaches receiving water bodies. These ditch wetland habitats harbor a characteristic benthic macroinvertebrate fauna reflective of the assimilative capac...

  11. PROCEDURES FOR DERIVING EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING SEDIMENT BENCHMARKS (ESBS) FOR THE PROTECTION OF BENTHIC ORGANISMS: DIELDRIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations of the insecticide dieldrin in sediment which are protective of the presence of benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it acco...

  12. PROCEDURES FOR DERIVING EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING BENCHMARKS (ESBS) FOR THE PROTECTION OF BENTHIC ORGANISM: PAH MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations of PAH mixtures in sediment which are protective of the presence of benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it accounts for t...

  13. Seasonal variation of benthic macro invertebrates from Tons River of Garhwal Himalaya Uttarakhand.

    PubMed

    Negi, R K; Mamgain, Sheetal

    2013-11-15

    Present investigation was carried out to assess the seasonal variation of benthic macro-invertebrates from the Tons river, a tributary of Yamuna River in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttrakhand during December, 2007 to November, 2009. The seasonal benthic diversity was correlated with various physic-chemical parameters which documented that the macrobenthic diversity is mostly regulated by the dissolved oxygen in the water while temperature and free CO2 were found to be inversely correlated with the benthic fauna. Maximum diversity of benthos was reported at the upstream site ('H' 0.204) during the winter season while it was recorded minimum during the rainy season at all the sites. Maximum diversity is reported during the winter season at all the sites. The benthic fauna is represented by three phylum, 4 classes and 10 orders with Insecta emerging as the most dominant class. Maximum genera were reported from midstream site as it acts as ecotone between upstream and downstream. PMID:24511693

  14. DISCRIMINATING THE BENTHIC EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POINT SOURCES FROM SALINITY AND NITROGEN LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the influence of anthropogenic point sources on estuarine systems, environmental managers must be able to discern the level and effects of significant natural factors and nonpoint source inputs. We compared benthic community state, salinity and dissolved inorganic nit...

  15. Validation of soft bottom benthic habitats identified by single-beam acoustics.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R; Sampaio, L; Oliveira, J; Rodrigues, A M; Quintino, V

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic diversity charts were produced for a Portuguese soft bottom mid-shelf area, depth from 30 to 90 m, using a single-beam echo sounder coupled to the acoustic systems QTC VIEW Series IV and V. A similar acoustic pattern was identified by both systems, which, after ground-truth interpretation based in available sediment and biological data, established a preliminary spatial distribution model of the benthic habitats in this coastal area. However, some of the acoustic areas were interpreted using one or very few sediment and benthic samples. A specific validation survey was conducted a posteriori, in which the positioning of the sediment and benthic community sampling sites was based on the acoustic diversity previously identified. The results clearly confirm the benthic habitats distribution model suggested by the acoustic method, indicating a high potential for the use of such approach in the identification and mapping of large-scale soft bottom coastal shelf habitat diversity. PMID:16266728

  16. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J E; Samoilys, M A; Meeuwig, J J; Villongco, Z A D; Vincent, A C J

    2007-09-01

    Benthic status of 28 near-shore, artisanal, coral reef fishing grounds in the central Philippines was assessed (2000-2002) together with surveys of the seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Our measures of benthic quality and seahorse densities reveal some of the most degraded coral reefs in the world. Abiotic structure dominated the fishing grounds: 69% of the benthos comprised rubble (32%), sand/silt (28%) and dead coral (9%). Predominant biotic structure included live coral (12%) and Sargassum (11%). Rubble cover increased with increasing distance from municipal enforcement centers and coincided with substantial blast fishing in this region of the Philippines. Over 2 years, we measured a significant decrease in benthic 'heterogeneity' and a 16% increase in rubble cover. Poor benthic quality was concomitant with extremely low seahorse densities (524 fish per km(2)). Spatial management, such as marine reserves, may help to minimize habitat damage and to rebuild depleted populations of seahorses and other reef fauna. PMID:17645896

  17. A cross-continental comparison of the effects of flow intermittence on benthic invertebrate assemblages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although temporary rivers are widespread freshwater systems, they have been poorly studied by ecologists and are largely ignored in water management plans, practices and policies. If the effects of dry events on benthic invertebrates have been reported individually from different...

  18. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN ESTUARIES ALONG THE GULF OF MEXICO AND WESTERN ATLANTIC COASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates from 870 estuarine sites was examined to determine boundaries of biogeographical provinces along the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic coasts of the United States. Our objective was to confirm or challenge established boun...

  19. BENTHIC MICROBIAL RESPIRATION IN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN, PIEDMONT, AND COASTAL PLAINS, STREAMS OF THE EASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study had two objectives. First, in order to quantify the potential underestimation of community respiration caused by the exclusion of anaerobic processes, we compared benthic microbial respiration measured as 02 consumption with estimated based on DHA. Second, our previous ...

  20. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats in the US Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuary-wide benthic macrofauna─habitat associations were determined for 9 habitats (intertidal eelgrass [Zostera marina], dwarf eelgrass [Zostera japonica], oyster [Crassostrea gigas], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis], shell, sand, mud,...

  1. Ecological periodic tables for nekton and benthic macrofaunal community usage of estuarine habitats Slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables for nekton and benthic macrofaunal community usage of estuarine habitats Steven P. Ferraro, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR Background/Questions/Methods The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification, and the Her...

  2. ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF INDIGENOUS, NONINDIGENOUS, AND CRYPTOGENIC BENTHIC MACROFAUNA IN WILLAPA BAY, WASHINGTON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Zostera, Spartina, U...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE INDEX FOR MEASURING THE CONDITION OF STREAMS AT A REGIONAL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multimetric macroinvertebrate index of stream condition was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Region of the United States. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 562 first through third order streams between 1993 and 1995. Macroinvertebrates were collect...

  4. Relationship Between Nutrient Enrichment and Benthic Function: Local Effects and Spatial Patterns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication-induced changes to benthic structure and function are problems of enormous ecological and economic significance. Understanding the relationships between nutrient enrichment and effects, modifying factors such as localized transport time, and symptoms of eutrophica...

  5. Benthic community and sediment quality assessment of Port Hope Harbour, Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.R.; McKee, P.M.; Burt, A.J.; Goffin, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sediments in Port Hope Harbour, Lake Ontario, have been heavily contaminated by radionuclides and heavy metals from a radium recovery plant, a uranium refinery, and other industrial activities. Spatial patterns in surficial sediment contamination, benthic community structure, and bioaccumulation of contaminants were assessed to determine possible relationships and potential environmental hazards in the event of dredging. Benthic community differences in species composition and density between inner and outer harbour areas corresponded with both habitat and sediment quality differences. Sediment loss-on-ignition, nitrogen, iron, copper, lead, chromium, zinc, and nickel concentrations in the inner harbour exceeded provincial guidelines for open water disposal of dredged spoils. Only iron exceeded those guidelines in the other harbour. Tissue levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in benthic invertebrates were greatest at the most heavily contaminated stations in the inner harbour. Reduced benthic densities and maximum sediment contamination occurred near a refinery cooling water discharge. 59 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Biogeographical Patterns of Marine Benthic Invertebrates Along the Atlantic Coast of the Northeastern USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aim Examine the biogeography of marine benthic invertebrates of the Atlantic coast of the northeastern USA, compare the results to historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide biogeographic information needed to ...

  7. POTENTIAL USE OF BENTHIC ALGAE AS HYDROLOGIC INDICATORS FOR HEADWATER STREAMS: SOME DATA EXPLORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic algae were sampled to determine the utility of algal communities as indicators of hydrologic regime as part of a national survey involving habitat measurements and community assessments. Streams from four forests near Cincinnati were classified according to hydrologic pe...

  8. EVALUATION OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE BIOMASS METHODOLOGY. PART 1. LABORATORY ANALYTICAL METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of analytical methods employed for wet weight (live or preserved samples) of benthic marcoinvertebrates reveals that centrifugation at 140 x gravity for one minute yields constant biomass estimates. Duration of specimen exposure in ethanol, formalin, and formol (formal...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDIZED LARGE RIVER BIOASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS (LR-BP) FOR BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted research comparing several methods currently in use for the bioassessment and monitoring of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of large rivers. Fish data demonstrate that electrofishing 1000 m of shoreline is sufficient for bioassessments on boatable riv...

  10. Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Gunica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BENTHIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN A GREAT LAKES EMBAYMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Intensified Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) sampling grid in the St. Louis River estuary of western Lake Superior was used toassess the relationship between surficial sediment characteristics and benthic community structure. Ninety sites within two habit...

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLISM AND BIOACCUMULATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE IN BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism on bioaccumulation is well accepted, but rarely has been examined in many species of benthic invertebrates that commonly are found in contaminated sediments, or used in bioaccumulation or toxicity tests. ...

  13. RESPONSES OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES TO SEDIMENT BURIAL: THE IMPORTANCE OF MOBILITY AND ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine benthic organisms are frequently subjected to disturbance events caused by hydrodynamic processes that disrupt and move the sediment in which the animals reside, however the mechanisms by which physical disturbance processes affect infaunal and epifaunal populations and...

  14. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, exposed layered materials in the south polar region of Mars. Since Mariner 9 in 1972, the polar layered materials have been assumed to be geologically recent accumulations of dust and ice, but MOC images provide no clear evidence that the materials are particularly young or composed of a specific suite of materials. They might as easily be composed of ancient, sedimentary rock.

    Location near: 80.6oS, 230.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  15. Turnover and paleoenvironmental changes across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary at the Galanderud section (Northern Alborz, Iran) based on benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharianrostami, Masoud; Leckie, R. Mark; Font, Eric; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Koeberl, Christian

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution quantitative study of benthic foraminifera across the expanded and continuous Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary at the Galanderud section in northern Iran provides an excellent record of the K/Pg event. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages, in contrast to the planktic foraminifers, did not suffer mass extinction at the K/Pg boundary. Uppermost Maastrichtian assemblages are well preserved and highly diverse. Only ~3% of the benthic species became extinct, including Bolivinoides draco, Eouvigerina subsculptura, Neoflabellina sp. and Praebulimina reussi. Other species are temporarily absent for a short interval after the K/Pg boundary. Benthic foraminifera indicate outer neritic-uppermost bathyal depths during the Plummerita hantkeninoides Zone until 70 cm below the K/Pg boundary. This interval contains abundant species of Bolivinoides draco, Gaudryina pyramidata, Cibicidoides hyphalus, P. reussi, and Sitella cushmani. The paleodepth decreased to outer neritic in the uppermost Maastrichtian based on the dominance of Stensioeina excolata, G. pyramidata, Cibicidoides pseudoacutus, and Coryphostoma incrassata forma gigantea. On the other hand, some species such as P. reussi and C. hyphalus, which are normally found at bathyal depths, decreased in their abundances. These data suggest a sea-level fall at the end of Maastrichtian. Additional evidence for sea-level fall is a decrease of planktic/benthic ratio from ~60% to ~40% in the uppermost Maastrichtian. The K/Pg clay layer is characterized by a high abundance of opportunistic species such as Cibicidoides spp., C. pseudoacutus, and Tappanina selemensis. The drastic change of benthic foraminiferal assemblages coincides with a sharp drop in magnetic susceptibility and %CaCO3, mass extinction of planktic foraminifera, a sharp enrichment in Ir, and a 2.25‰ negative excursion in ∂13C at the K/Pg boundary, which is largely compatible with the catastrophic effects of an asteroid impact on Earth that briefly, but severely destabilized the oceanic phytoplankton food webs. Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) curves treated by the cumulative log-Gaussian function shows that hematite (or goethite) and magnetite are the main magnetic minerals in the K/Pg clay layer, whereas large and small magnetite characterize the Maastrichtian and the Danian sediments, respectively. The dominance of hematite over magnetite at the K/Pg boundary explains the lack of the characteristic positive magnetic susceptibility peak observed in other sections suggesting higher oxidation state of the Galanderud depositional environment during the impact. The presence of three calcareous dinoflagellate chalk layers and large excursions in O- and C-isotopic compositions in basal Danian Zone P0 highlight the instability of the ecosystem immediately following the K/Pg boundary. In the Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides Zones, there is an increase in both diversity and infaunal morphogroups, and a slight decrease of the epifaunal morphogroups; some deeper species increase in abundance including Gyroidinoides globosus and Marssonella oxycona. These changes might indicate a sea level rise and uppermost bathyal paleodepths in the early Danian, but it might also indicate improved conditions at the seafloor including greater flux of organic matter. These abrupt paleoenvironmental changes at the K/Pg boundary are correlated in age to the Chicxulub impact event and to the Deccan Phase 2; the contribution of each event is currently under study.

  16. Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A.; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J.; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.02.8 mol h?1 dm?2), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.0440.002 log10 cells h?1) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.160.05 mol L?1 h?1 dm?2). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial dynamics and biogeochemical parameters (i.e., DOC and oxygen availability, bacterial abundance and metabolism) in coral reef communities. PMID:22125645

  17. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.02.8 mol h? dm?), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.0440.002 log10 cells h?) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.160.05 mol L? h? dm?). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial dynamics and biogeochemical parameters (i.e., DOC and oxygen availability, bacterial abundance and metabolism) in coral reef communities. PMID:22125645

  18. Consequences of Increasing Hypoxic Disturbance on Benthic Communities and Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Villns, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Lukkari, Kaarina; Hewitt, Judi; Norkko, Alf

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota) effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface) by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days) in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential), gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH4+ and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO43? were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO43? sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress) explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbance-driven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the benthic habitat matters, and that the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function is likely to be affected by a range of factors in complex, natural environments. PMID:23091592

  19. Trace metals, PCBs, and PAHs in benthic (epipelic) diatoms from intertidal sediments; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Stronkhorst, J.; Misdorp, R. ); Vos, P.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Intertidal sediments in many estuaries around the world have a history of contamination resulting from long term discharges of industrial, agricultural and domestic waste effluents. These contaminated sediments are now regarded as a major source of toxicants for bottom-related organisms which, in turn, may pass on certain contaminants (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) to organisms higher in the foodchain. Many studies have been conducted on the contamination of benthic macrofauna, estuarine fish and birds, but to our knowledge no research has yet been carried out on benthic diatoms which form the lowest trophic level of an intertidal ecosystem. Research on the effects of micro-contaminants on primary producers in marine ecosystems is mainly performed with phytoplankton. In the estuaries of temperate regions, benthic diatoms make a significant contribution to primary production in the ecosystem and are predated especially by deposit feeding Polychaete and Mollusca. Knowledge of the level of contamination in benthic diatoms is of major importance to recognize possible effects on growth rate and species composition of the benthic diatom populations and to understand the accumulation of toxicants into the foodchain. For chemical analysis it is difficult to obtain [open quote]pure[close quote] samples of benthic diatoms because they form part of the sediment. A similar problem occurs with the sampling of phytoplankton in turbid estuarine waters. The aim of this pilot study was (a) to improve a trap technique to collect pure samples of benthic diatoms of at least 2 gram dry weight for analysis of trace metals, PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (b) to compare the concentrations in benthic diatoms with levels in sediment and some bottom-related organisms. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stief, P.

    2013-07-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments often is enhanced even more than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies revealed that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen.

  1. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stief, P.

    2013-12-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments is enhanced more strongly than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies reveal that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen.

  2. Age differences between Atlantic and Pacific benthic d18O change at terminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Because a large fraction of benthic ?18O change is due to global ice volume change, benthic ?18O is often used as stratigraphic tool to place marine records on a common age model and as a proxy for the timing of ice volume/sea level change. These applications require the assumptions that ?18O change is rapidly transmitted throughout the deep ocean and that the effects of hydrographic changes are in phase with ice volume. Recently, Skinner and Shackleton [2005] found that the timing of benthic ?18O change at the last termination differed by 4500 years between two sites in the Atlantic and Pacific. Based on Mg/Ca paleothermometry, they argued that these age discrepancies resulted from a late temperature increase in the Pacific and millennial-scale circulation changes in the Atlantic. Do these results imply that benthic ?18O change may not accurately record the timing of terminations? We compare benthic ?18O records from 34 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific to evaluate the impact of ocean mixing rates and deep water changes on the relative timing of terminations recorded in benthic ?18O. Statistical analysis of sedimentation rates derived from the alignment of benthic ?18O suggests an Atlantic lead over Pacific benthic ?18O change for all terminations of the last 600 kyr. The magnitude of sedimentation rate change suggests an average termination age difference of 1000-1500 years between the Atlantic and Pacific, consistent with or slightly greater than the delay expected due to ocean mixing rates, given that most glacial meltwater probably enters the North Atlantic.

  3. Spatial Variability of Benthic-Pelagic Coupling in an Estuary Ecosystem: Consequences for Microphytobenthos Resuspension Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Ubertini, Martin; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Gangnery, Aline; Grangeré, Karine; Le Gendre, Romain; Orvain, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The high degree of physical factors in intertidal estuarine ecosystem increases material processing between benthic and pelagic compartments. In these ecosystems, microphytobenthos resuspension is a major phenomenon since its contribution to higher trophic levels can be highly significant. Understanding the sediment and associated microphytobenthos resuspension and its fate in the water column is indispensable for measuring the food available to benthic and pelagic food webs. To identify and hierarchize the physical/biological factors potentially involved in MPB resuspension, the entire intertidal area and surrounding water column of an estuarine ecosystem, the Bay des Veys, was sampled during ebb tide. A wide range of physical parameters (hydrodynamic regime, grain size of the sediment, and suspended matter) and biological parameters (flora and fauna assemblages, chlorophyll) were analyzed to characterize benthic-pelagic coupling at the bay scale. Samples were collected in two contrasted periods, spring and late summer, to assess the impact of forcing variables on benthic-pelagic coupling. A mapping approach using kriging interpolation enabled us to overlay benthic and pelagic maps of physical and biological variables, for both hydrological conditions and trophic indicators. Pelagic Chl a concentration was the best predictor explaining the suspension-feeders spatial distribution. Our results also suggest a perennial spatio-temporal structure of both benthic and pelagic compartments in the ecosystem, at least when the system is not imposed to intense wind, with MPB distribution controlled by both grain size and bathymetry. The benthic component appeared to control the pelagic one via resuspension phenomena at the scale of the bay. Co-inertia analysis showed closer benthic-pelagic coupling between the variables in spring. The higher MPB biomass observed in summer suggests a higher contribution to filter-feeders diets, indicating a higher resuspension effect in summer than in spring, in turn suggesting an important role of macrofauna bioturbation and filter feeding (Cerastoderma edule). PMID:22952910

  4. Spatial variability of benthic-pelagic coupling in an estuary ecosystem: consequences for microphytobenthos resuspension phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Ubertini, Martin; Lefebvre, Sbastien; Gangnery, Aline; Granger, Karine; Le Gendre, Romain; Orvain, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The high degree of physical factors in intertidal estuarine ecosystem increases material processing between benthic and pelagic compartments. In these ecosystems, microphytobenthos resuspension is a major phenomenon since its contribution to higher trophic levels can be highly significant. Understanding the sediment and associated microphytobenthos resuspension and its fate in the water column is indispensable for measuring the food available to benthic and pelagic food webs. To identify and hierarchize the physical/biological factors potentially involved in MPB resuspension, the entire intertidal area and surrounding water column of an estuarine ecosystem, the Bay des Veys, was sampled during ebb tide. A wide range of physical parameters (hydrodynamic regime, grain size of the sediment, and suspended matter) and biological parameters (flora and fauna assemblages, chlorophyll) were analyzed to characterize benthic-pelagic coupling at the bay scale. Samples were collected in two contrasted periods, spring and late summer, to assess the impact of forcing variables on benthic-pelagic coupling. A mapping approach using kriging interpolation enabled us to overlay benthic and pelagic maps of physical and biological variables, for both hydrological conditions and trophic indicators. Pelagic Chl a concentration was the best predictor explaining the suspension-feeders spatial distribution. Our results also suggest a perennial spatio-temporal structure of both benthic and pelagic compartments in the ecosystem, at least when the system is not imposed to intense wind, with MPB distribution controlled by both grain size and bathymetry. The benthic component appeared to control the pelagic one via resuspension phenomena at the scale of the bay. Co-inertia analysis showed closer benthic-pelagic coupling between the variables in spring. The higher MPB biomass observed in summer suggests a higher contribution to filter-feeders diets, indicating a higher resuspension effect in summer than in spring, in turn suggesting an important role of macrofauna bioturbation and filter feeding (Cerastoderma edule). PMID:22952910

  5. Environmental Drivers of Benthic Flux Variation and Ecosystem Functioning in Salish Sea and Northeast Pacific Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Belley, Rénald; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Archambault, Philippe; Juniper, S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    The upwelling of deep waters from the oxygen minimum zone in the Northeast Pacific from the continental slope to the shelf and into the Salish Sea during spring and summer offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem functioning in the form of benthic fluxes along natural gradients. Using the ROV ROPOS we collected sediment cores from 10 sites in May and July 2011, and September 2013 to perform shipboard incubations and flux measurements. Specifically, we measured benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients to evaluate potential environmental drivers of benthic flux variation and ecosystem functioning along natural gradients of temperature and bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations. The range of temperature and dissolved oxygen encountered across our study sites allowed us to apply a suite of multivariate analyses rarely used in flux studies to identify bottom water temperature as the primary environmental driver of benthic flux variation and organic matter remineralization. Redundancy analysis revealed that bottom water characteristics (temperature and dissolved oxygen), quality of organic matter (chl a:phaeo and C:N ratios) and sediment characteristics (mean grain size and porosity) explained 51.5% of benthic flux variation. Multivariate analyses identified significant spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes, demonstrating key differences between the Northeast Pacific and Salish Sea. Moreover, Northeast Pacific slope fluxes were generally lower than shelf fluxes. Spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes in the Salish Sea were driven primarily by differences in temperature and quality of organic matter on the seafloor following phytoplankton blooms. These results demonstrate the utility of multivariate approaches in differentiating among potential drivers of seafloor ecosystem functioning, and indicate that current and future predictive models of organic matter remineralization and ecosystem functioning of soft-muddy shelf and slope seafloor habitats should consider bottom water temperature variation. Bottom temperature has important implications for estimates of seasonal and spatial benthic flux variation, benthic–pelagic coupling, and impacts of predicted ocean warming at high latitudes. PMID:26942608

  6. Consequences of increasing hypoxic disturbance on benthic communities and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Villns, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Lukkari, Kaarina; Hewitt, Judi; Norkko, Alf

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota) effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface) by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days) in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential), gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH(4)(+) and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO(4)(3-) were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO(4)(3-) sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress) explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbance-driven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the benthic habitat matters, and that the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function is likely to be affected by a range of factors in complex, natural environments. PMID:23091592

  7. Metal contamination in benthic macroinvertebrates in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiba, W A C; Passerini, M D; Tundisi, J G

    2011-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates have many useful properties that make possible the use of these organisms as sentinel in biomonitoring programmes in freshwater. Combined with the characteristics of the water and sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates are potential indicators of environmental quality. Thus, the spatial occurrence of potentially toxic metals (Al, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni) in the water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates samples were investigated in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil in the city of São Carlos, São Paulo state, with the aim of verifying the metals and environment interaction with benthic communities regarding bioaccumulation. Hypothetically, there can be contamination by metals in the aquatic environment in the city due to lack of industrial effluent treatment. All samples were analysed by the USEPA adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sub-basin studied is contaminated by toxic metals in superficial water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates. The Bioaccumulation Factor showed a tendency for metal bioaccumulation by the benthic organisms for almost all the metal species. The results show a potential human and ecosystem health risk, contributing to metal contamination studies in aquatic environments in urban areas. PMID:21755156

  8. Concentrations of selected heavy metals in benthic diatoms and sediment in the Westerschelde Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Absil, M.C.P.; Scheppingen, Y. van

    1996-12-31

    In recent years considerable data have been compiled on heavy metal levels in biota in marine and estuarine environments. With respect to the fauna, much information is available on accumulation and effects of heavy metals in birds, fish and benthic macrofauna. Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic flora has been studied mostly in benthic macroalgae, in particular in relation to the use as a biological monitor. The response of planktonic algal species to heavy metals has been studied extensively in cultured populations. Also. heavy metal concentrations in natural plankton have been studied. As far as we know, very few data are available on the concentrations of heavy metals in the lowest benthic trophic level, the benthic microflora. It is a major food supply for numerous intertidal species, so it is obvious that microflora might play an important role in the accumulation of contaminants through coastal food chains. The aim of this research was to adjust a recently developed collection technique for benthic diatoms so that it is suitable for large-scale field studies. The method was then used to assess the concentration of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in benthic diatoms and sediments along an estuarine gradient. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Invasive dreissenid mussels and benthic algae in Lake Michigan: characterizing effects on sediment bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Philip O; McLellan, Sandra L; Graham, Linda E; Young, Erica B

    2015-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes causing dramatic changes to benthic-pelagic interactions. Despite research on food web impacts, there is limited data on mussel effects on benthic bacterial communities. This study examined effects of dreissenid mussels and benthic algae on sediment bacterial community composition and diversity. Triplicate experimental sediment plus lake water microcosms were used and either mussels, benthic algae or both were added. Changes in water nutrient chemistry and sediment bacterial communities were monitored using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, over 21 days. When mussels were present, nitrate and soluble reactive P increased significantly as the dominant N and P forms. Bacterial diversity increased in all microcosms, although bacterial community composition was distinct between treatment. Higher nitrate in mussel microcosms was accompanied by increases in nitrifying taxa (Nitrospira, Nitrosomonas), which are important in oxidizing mussel-excreted ammonium. Microcosms with algal additions showed increases in bacterial taxa capable of degrading algal cellulose, and Pelagibacter (SAR11) disappeared from all but control microcosms. This study suggests that bacterial communities in lake sediments respond to mussels and algae. Functional analysis of bacterial communities provides insights into changes in microbially mediated benthic nutrient transformations associated with invasive dreissenid mussels and benthic algae in lake ecosystems. PMID:25764528

  10. Preliminary estimates of benthic fluxes of dissolved metals in Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents porewater and selected water column data collected from Coeur d'Alene Lake in September of 1992. Despite probable oxidation of the porewater samples during collection and handling, these data are used to calculate molecular diffusive fluxes of dissolved metals (that is, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Mn) across the sediment-water interface. While these data and calculations provide preliminary information on benthic metal fluxes in Coeur d'Alene Lake, further work is needed to verify their direction and magnitude. The benthic flux calculations indicate that the sediment is generally a source of dissolved Zn, Cu, Mn, and, possibly, Pb to the overlying water column. These benthic fluxes are compared with two other major sources of metals to Coeur d'Alene Lake-the Coeur d'Alene and St. Joe Rivers. Comparisons indicate that benthic fluxes of Zn, Pb, and Cu are generally less than half of the fluxes of these metals into the lake from the Coeur d'Alene River. However, in a few cases, the calculated benthic metal fluxes exceed the Coeur d'Alene River fluxes. Benthic fluxes of Zn and, possibly, Pb may be greater than the corresponding metal fluxes from the St. Joe River. These results have implications for changes in the relative importance of metal sources to the lake as remediation activities in the Coeur d'Alene River basin proceed.

  11. Associations between degraded benthic communities and contaminated sediments: Sabine Lake, Lake Pontchartrain, and Choctawhatchee Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, V.D.; Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) in the Gulf of Mexico supplements its base sampling effort each year with localized, intensive spatial sampling in selected large estuarine systems. By selecting random locations within 70 km{sup 2} hexagonal areas, individual estuaries were sampled using EMAP methods but at four times the density as base sampling. In 1992, 19 sites were sampled in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. In 1 993, 18 sites were sampled in Sabine Lake, Texas and 12 sites were sampled in Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida. At all sites, sediment grabs were taken and analyzed for benthic species composition and abundance, for toxicity to Ampelisca, and for organic and inorganic sediment contaminants. An indicator of biotic integrity, the benthic index, was calculated to represent the status of benthic communities. A series of statistical techniques, such as stepwise regression analysis, were employed to determine whether the variation in the benthic index could be associated with variation in sediment contaminants, sediment toxicity, or levels of dissolved oxygen. Spatial distributions of these parameters were examined to determine the geographical co-occurrence of degraded benthic communities and environmental stressors. In Lake Pontchartrain, for example, 85% of the variation in the benthic index was associated with decreased levels of dissolved oxygen, and increased concentrations of PCBs, alkanes, copper, tin, and zinc in the sediments.

  12. Biomagnification of mercury through the benthic food webs of a temperate estuary: Masan Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Hyunji; Shin, Kyung-hoon; Kim, Min-seob; Kundu, Sampa Rani; Lee, Byeong-gweon; Han, Seunghee

    2012-06-01

    The authors examined food web magnification factors of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) for the benthic organisms in Masan Bay, a semiclosed, temperate estuary located on the southeastern coast of Korea. For benthic invertebrates, concentrations of THg and MeHg (%MeHg) ranged from 9.57 to 195 and 2.56 to 111 ng/g dry weight (12.2-85.6%), respectively. Benthic fish THg and MeHg (%MeHg) concentrations ranged widely from 10.8 to 618 and 2.90 to 529 ng/g dry weight (22.9-93.9%), respectively. The linear regression slopes of log [Hg] relative to ?(15)N (i.e., food web magnification factors) found for the Masan Bay benthic organisms were 0.119 for THg and 0.168 for MeHg. These values are similar to the food web magnification factors of benthic organisms and lower than those of pelagic organisms of various coastal marine environments. It suggests that pelagic organisms might be at greater risk of THg and MeHg accumulation than benthic biota. PMID:22447737

  13. Long-term monitoring of the sedimentary processes in the central part of Sagami Bay, Japan: rationale, logistics and overview of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Shimanaga, Motohiro; Kanda, Jota; Soh, Wonn; Kato, Yoshihisa; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yamaoka, Akio; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Koji; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2003-04-01

    Deep-sea benthic ecosystems are mainly sustained by sinking organic materials that are produced in the euphotic zone. Benthic-pelagic coupling is the key to understanding both material cycles and benthic ecology in deep-sea environments, in particular in topographically flat open oceanic settings. However, it remains unclear whether benthic-pelagic coupling exists in eutrophic deep-sea environments at the ocean margins where areas of undulating and steep bottom topography are partly closely surrounded by land. Land-locked deep-sea settings may be characterized by different particle behaviors both in the water column and in relation to submarine topography. Mechanisms of particle accumulation may be different from those found in open ocean sedimentary systems. An interdisciplinary programme, Project Sagami, was carried out to understand seasonal carbon cycling in a eutrophic deep-sea environment (Sagami Bay) with steep bottom topography along the western margin of the Pacific, off central Japan. We collected data from ocean color photographs obtained using a sea observation satellite, surface water samples, hydrographic casts with turbidity sensor, sediment trap moorings and multiple core samplings at a permanent station in the central part of Sagami Bay between 1997 and 1998. Bottom nepheloid layers were also observed in video images recorded at a real-time, sea-floor observatory off Hatsushima in Sagami Bay. Distinct spring blooms were observed during mid-February through May in 1997. Mass flux deposited in sediment traps did not show a distinct spring bloom signal because of the influence of resuspended materials. However, dense clouds of suspended particles were observed only in the spring in the benthic nepheloid layer. This phenomenon corresponds well to the increased deposition of phytodetritus after the spring bloom. A phytodetrital layer started to form on the sediment surface about two weeks after the start of the spring bloom. Chlorophyll- a was detected in the top 2 cm of the sediment only when a phytodetritus layer was present. Protozoan and metazoan meiobenthos increased in density after phytodetritus deposition. Thus, benthic-pelagic coupling was certainly observed even in a marginal ocean environment with undulated bottom topography. Seasonal changes in features of the sediment-water interface were also documented.

  14. Last glacial benthic foraminiferal communities in the southeastern Sea of Okhotsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, I. A.; Khusid, T. A.; Chekhovskaya, M. P.; Matul, A.

    2003-04-01

    Examination of benthic foraminifers in glacial sediments from two piston cores (V34-98, 50^o 06.6'N, 153^o 12.0'E, water depth 1175 m; V34-90, 48^o49.9'N, 150^o 27.6'E, water depth 1590 m) taken in the Sea of Okhotsk off southern Kamchatka and at the southern slope of the Akademii Nauk Rise, respectively, allows the following paleoceanographic conclusions: (1) The temperature of bottom waters near the Kuril island arc was probably higher during the last glacial period than that in the Akademii Nauk Rise area. This is evident from the substantially lower content of cold-resistant foraminiferal species Alabaminella weddellensis and Islandiella norcrossi in core V34-98 in comparison with their abundance in coeval sediments of core V34-90, where these two species together constitute about two thirds of the total foraminiferal community. Additional evidence for this assumption is provided by stable occurence of thermophilic species Cassidulina laevigata in glacial sediments of the area adjacent to the Kuril Islands. (2) Bottom waters in the area adjacent to the Akademii Nauk Rise were probably better ventilated during the glacial period compared with the Kuril Islands area as indicated by high abundance of Uvigerina senticosa, which prefers well-aerated waters. The dissolved oxygen deficiency in bottom waters intensified the process of calcium carbonate dissolution, which is evident from more intense dissolution of planktonic foraminifers in the near-Kuril area as compared with that in the Akademii Nauk Rise area where their shells almost lack dissolution signs. (3) Against the background of the general low productivity of the Sea of Okhotsk surface waters during the last glacial period, waters of the area adjacent to the northern Kuril island arc were characterized by higher productivity values than in the Akademii Nauk Rise area. This is reflected in the higher Corg content as well as in high Uvigerina peregrina abundance and occurrence of diatom-enriched layers in glacial sediments of the former area. (4) Judging from low-amplitude variations in the proportion of dominant species, hydrological conditions in the bottom layer above the Akademii Nauk Rise during the last glacial period were more stable than in the area adjacent to the northern Kuril Islands. The radiolarian data from the last glacial sediments of the core LV27-15-1, located near to the discussed cores, exibit small variations in the species' distribution, since, may point on the stable environments in the subsurface and intermediate layers.

  15. Benthic Foraminifera in the Changing Ecosystem of Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, B.; Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is an estuary in a heavily urbanized region; Long Island lies to its South, New York City (NYC) to its West and Connecticut to its North. The Connecticut River contributes >70% of the fresh water influx. LIS has a narrow opening to the West (into East River), but exchange with the ocean occurs dominantly at its eastern end, resulting in an east-west gradient in salinity. An east-west gradient is also present in indicators of anthropogenic contamination in the surface sediments (e.g., trace metals) because western LIS is close to the major source of anthropogenic input (NYC). In addition, bottom currents focus fine-grained, contaminant-loaded sediments there. Since the early 1970's western LIS and parts of central LIS have suffered summer hypoxia, probably as a result of increased algal growth caused by anthropogenic nitrogen input. Benthic foraminifera are eukaryote heterotrophic organisms with a calcareous or agglutinated test. We investigated changes in their populations over time in about 2m-long gravity cores in westernmost (WLIS75GGC1; 73o 40'W, 40o 52'N, 19m waterdepth) and coastal central LIS (B1GGC1; 73o 4'W, 41o 10'N, 8m water depth), to document environmental changes over the last millennium, including the time of European settlement and the industrial revolution and population increase. An age model was derived from metal pollution records and 14C dating. Before European settlement, the low-diversity benthic faunas in core B1GGC1, at a depth within the zone of light penetration, were dominated by Elphidium excavatum, a species feeding on living diatoms. In western LIS (below the zone of light penetration) this species was less abundant and Elphidium incertum and Buccella frigida were common. In both cores, the absolute abundance of benthic foraminifera and the relative abundance of Elphidium excavatum increased in the early 1800's, coinciding with a time of rapid increase in human population around LIS and slightly before an increase in trace metal concentration. The ecological changes may have been caused by increased productivity of diatoms resulting from beginning anthropogenic eutrophication. From the middle 1960's on, absolute foraminiferal abundance decreased and Ammonia beccarii, formerly absent or rare, became common to dominant in WLIS75GGC1; in B1GGC1 a similar but less severe change started in the 1970's. The increase in relative abundance of A. beccarii could have been caused by hypoxia (possibly in conjunction with rising bottom water temperatures), but both Ammonia and Elphidium species survive hypoxia in the laboratory. We suggest that high N/Si resulting from strong eutrophication might favor primary producers other than diatoms (e.g., dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria), making E. excavatum less competitive. The LIS coastal ecosystem thus changed significantly with the enhanced nutrient input associated with human population growth in the middle 1800's, and again with more severe eutrophication over the last few decades.

  16. An oceanographic observation of the 2013 Mt.Etna pyroclastic fallout in the Ionian deep seafloor: multiparametric investigation through benthic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Bue, Nadia; Sgroi, Tiziana; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Marinaro, Giuditta; Embriaco, Davide; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Very large amounts of volcanic ash are released into the atmosphere during eruptive events. Taken over the atmospheric forcing tephra may be carried over great distances remaining in suspension for a long time. Nevertheless, the wind is not the only responsible for transport and dispersion of volcanic particles, but, especially in volcanic areas close to the coast, the ash fallout in marine areas plays an interesting role in the sedimentation processes affecting the benthic environments. During the Mt. Etna eruptive events of 2013, the volcanic ash fallout occurred in the Western Ionian Sea deep layers was recorded by an oceanographic sensor mounted on the cabled benthic node NEMO-SN1. The seafloor observatory was deployed in the framework of the European Research Infrastructure EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory) at a depth of 2100 m, about 25 km off-shore Eastern Sicily. The presence of a specific Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) able to monitor currents and direction of water particles in a depth range of about 30-50m above the seafloor, allowed to watch interesting episodes of suspended matter at the deep layers in correspondence with the pyroclastic activity which affected the ESE sector of the Etna volcano. The analysis of the acoustic backscattering signal of this sensor, combined with seismological and oceanographic data recorded by the benthic station, allowed to carry out a multidisciplinary study about the possible interaction between the Mt. Etna eruptive activity and the local oceanographic dynamic. This approach leads to consider that sedimentation processes of volcanic ash occurred, allowing to investigate on the very fast horizontal and vertical transport observed. Moreover, the surprising sedimentation rate recorded, probably results from intense aggregation and alteration processes affecting the ash particles in seawater. The importance of the presence of a multidisciplinary benthic observatory in sensible areas, such as the Western Ionian Sea, is confirmed by the possibility to record and monitor important processes otherwise unexplored, and also by the opportunity to carry out multidisciplinary studies indispensable to explain the observed processes.

  17. The effects of beach nourishment on benthic invertebrates in eastern Australia: impacts and variable recovery.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Noriega, Rocio; Jones, Alan; Dye, Theresa

    2012-10-01

    Beach erosion is likely to accelerate, driven by predicted consequences of climate change and coastal development. Erosion is increasingly combated by beach nourishment, adding sand to eroding shores. Because a range of engineering techniques exists to nourish beaches, and because these techniques differ in their environmental effects, assessments of ecological impacts need to be tailored and specific. Here we report on impacts and recovery of benthic invertebrates impacted by beach nourishment operations undertaken at Palm Beach (SE Queensland, Australia). Assessments are made based on a beyond-BACI design, where samples were taken once before nourishment and twice afterwards at the impact and two control sites. Because almost all of the sand was deposited on the upper beach and later moved with bulldozers down-shore, we specifically examined whether the effects of nourishment varied at different heights of the beach-a little-studied question which has management implications. Impacts on the fauna were massive on the upper and middle levels of the beach: samples collected two days after the conclusion of nourishment were entirely devoid of all invertebrate life ('azoic'), whereas weaker effects of nourishment were detectable on the lower shore. Recovery after five months also varied between shore levels. The sediment of the upper level near the dunes remained azoic, the fauna of the middle shore had recovered partially, and the lower level had recovered in most respects. These findings indicate that the height and position of sand placement are important. For example, rather than depositing fill sand on the intertidal beach, it could be placed in the shallow subtidal zone, followed by slow up-shore accretion driven by hydrodynamic forces. Alternatively, techniques that spread the fill sand in thin layers (to minimize mortality by burial) and leave unfilled intertidal refuge islands (to provide colonists) may minimize the ecological impacts of beach nourishment. PMID:22878101

  18. Recent benthic ostracoda of Pahang River Delta, Pahang Darul Makmur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noraswana, N. F.; Ramlan, O.

    2014-09-01

    A study on the distribution of recent benthic Ostracoda in marine sediment was carried out around Pahang River Delta, Pahang Darul Makmur. A total of 24 surface sediments were taken from the sampling stations between latitude 3°20' and 3°39'N and longitude 103°26' and 103°35'E. From this study, 71 species of ostracods belonging to 17 families and 42 genera were identified. The abundant and dominant species is Pontocypris virdis with 326 specimens obtained. The dominant family is Trachyleberididae (16 species, 585 specimens). The distribution of ostracoda is from 13 to 637 specimens. The species diversity is from 6 to 29 species. The diversity index, H(s) is in the range of 1.71 to 3.08. There are five common species (Hemicytheridea cancellata, Parakrithella australis, Propontocypris rostrata, Loxoconcha paiki and Lankacythere coralloides) in the study area. A comparison showed that a total of 53 species identified had been previously recorded in Malacca Straits, South China Sea and Java Sea. Five species are newly recorded in Malaysians waters. The species are Papillatabairdia elongata. Mimicocythere pseudomelobesoides, Kotoracythere doratus, Xestoleberis maculanitida and Bosasella profunda.

  19. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  20. Li partitioning in the benthic foraminifera Amphistegina lessonii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Gerald; Sadekov, Aleksey; Thoms, Silke; Mewes, Antje; Nehrke, Gernot; Greaves, Mervyn; Misra, Sambuddha; Bijma, Jelle; Elderfield, Henry

    2015-12-01

    The shallow water benthic foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii was grown in seawater of variable Li and Ca concentration and shell Li/Ca was determined by means of LA-ICPMS. Shell Li/Ca is positively correlated to seawater Li/Ca only when the Li concentration of seawater is changed. If the seawater Ca concentration is changed, shell Li/Ca remains constant. This indicates that Li does not compete with Ca for incorporation in the shell of A. lessonii. A recently proposed calcification model can be applied to divalent cations (e.g., Mg and Sr), which compete for binding sites of ion transporters and positions in the calcite lattice. By contrast, the transport pathway of monovalent cations such as Li is probably diffusion based (e.g., ion-channels), and monovalent cations do not compete with Ca for a position in the calcite lattice. Here we present a new model for Li partitioning into foraminiferal calcite which predicts our experimental results and should also be applicable to other alkali metals.

  1. Stimulating sediment bioremediation with benthic microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and sustainable technologies for cleaning up of contaminated sediments are under urgent demand. Bioremediation by utilizing the natural metabolic activities of sediment-inhabited microorganisms has been widely accepted as a viable option, but the relatively low efficiency and poor controllability severely limite its application. Here, we bring out the concept that electrochemical approaches may be used as an efficient means to stimulate sediment bioremediation. Although still at the very beginning, benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFC) as a remediation technology show many potential benefits, such as accelerated decontamination, self-sustained operation, relatively easy deployment and control, and environmental benignity. The unique features of BMFC setup and operation also give rise to substantially different challenges compared to conventional MFCs. In this review, we present a critical overview on the characteristics, possible application niches, and state-of-the-art progress of this technology. Especially, the current limitations in respect of system design, electrode selection, microbial control and selection of deployment environment are discussed in details, and the needed future research endeavors to promote its practical application are highlighted. PMID:25560929

  2. Standardising the assessment of Functional Integrity in benthic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Silvia; Hewitt, Judi; Thrush, Simon; Freeman, Debbie

    2015-04-01

    Ecological integrity is an overarching concept that integrates multiple properties of ecosystems, including structure, function and resilience to external change. We explore the links between ecological integrity and structural surrogates for ecosystem functioning to develop a cost-effective assessment of Functional Integrity for marine habitats based on biological traits, abundance and heterogeneity, focused on the visible components of the seafloor, i.e., epibenthic flora and fauna and seabed biogenic habitat features. The assessment was based on diversity and redundancy of functional traits of the identified benthic components, supplemented by estimates of spatial heterogeneity (habitat transitions) and vertical habitat complexity. This approach was developed using video data collected in different years with different sampling strategies in two locations: Kawau Bay in North Island of New Zealand, and Port Pegasus in Stewart Island, off South Island of New Zealand; this last location was a priori expected to be nearly-pristine. Despite variability in sampling techniques and environmental settings, the approach proved effective and evidenced higher measures of Functional Integrity in the Port Pegasus location. This study introduces a first step to measure ecological integrity by successfully converting video data to surrogates of Functional Integrity, in a way expected to be habitat independent.

  3. Modeling the effect of tides and waves on benthic biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2012-12-01

    We propose a simple model for growth of benthic biofilm subject to variable hydrodynamic disturbances and with a biofilm-dependent erodibility (biostabilization). Model results show that, for disturbances with equal intensity, the biofilm is eroded or not depending on its current biomass, which is a function of the past evolution trajectory. Because of the finite time needed for a biofilm to develop, both the intensity and frequency of periodical disturbances, such as tidal currents, determine whether the biofilm can approach its equilibrium biomass. Spring-neap tidal modulation favors biofilm development, since the reduction of the current shear stress associated with neap tides allows biofilm growth, thus increasing biostabilization and the biofilm's likelihood to withstand the subsequent energetic spring tides. On the other hand, diurnal tidal modulations are negative for biofilm development, because the diel biofilm growth is almost negligible. Under stochastic disturbances associated with wind waves, there are two most-likely states for the biofilm biomass: either close to zero or close to the equilibrium value, depending on wave intensity. If biostabilization is reduced or eliminated, the probability of intermediate values for biofilm biomass becomes also significant. The role of biostabilization is hence to exacerbate the probability of the end-member states. Finally, because of the nonmonotonic relationship between water depth and wave induced bed stresses, only extremely shallow and deep areas favor biofilm persistence. If light attenuation with depth is considered, deep water becomes unsuitable for biofilm growth when water turbidity is high.

  4. Sensitivity of Heterogeneous Marine Benthic Habitats to Subtle Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Rodil, Ivn F.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Thrush, Simon F.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the consequences of low level disturbances on the functioning of ecological communities because of the pervasiveness and frequency of this type of environmental change. In this study we investigated the response of a heterogeneous, subtidal, soft-sediment habitat to small experimental additions of organic matter and calcium carbonate to examine the sensitivity of benthic ecosystem functioning to changes in sediment characteristics that relate to the environmental threats of coastal eutrophication and ocean acidification. Our results documented significant changes between key biogeochemical and sedimentary variables such as gross primary production, ammonium uptake and dissolved reactive phosphorus flux following treatment additions. Moreover, the application of treatments affected relationships between macrofauna communities, sediment characteristics (e.g., chlorophyll a content) and biogeochemical processes (oxygen and nutrient fluxes). In this experiment organic matter and calcium carbonate showed persistent opposing effects on sedimentary processes, and we demonstrated that highly heterogeneous sediment habitats can be surprisingly sensitive to subtle perturbations. Our results have important biological implications in a world with relentless anthropogenic inputs of atmospheric CO2 and nutrients in coastal waters. PMID:24312332

  5. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500–750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  6. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Mllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates. PMID:12474895

  7. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (~2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end.

  8. Effects of chemical disturbances on intertidal benthic assemblages.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Pinto, Mariana; Ignacio, Barbara Lage

    2015-02-15

    Contamination is a particular harmful type of chemical disturbance and predicting their effects on natural systems is very complex. Effects of disturbances vary in space and time and depend, among other things, on the type and age of organisms, the habitat being studied and the complex interactions occurring in the systems. Most impact analyses of contaminants are however still done with limited number of selected organisms under laboratory conditions. Manipulative experiments done in situ are important to measure ecologically relevant responses of contaminant effects on marine systems. Ecological approaches on contamination studies, accounting for interactions among species and the environment are essential to understand how such disturbances affect systems. We evaluated the effects of bleach and permethrin, two common and pervasive contaminants, on intertidal benthic assemblages in two different successional stages, mature and young. There were no impacts on the overall structure of assemblages, regardless of their age. The lack of effects on the structure of assemblages might be due to the intrinsic characteristic of the habitat studied, which provide few sinks for contaminants, as well as the inherent features of the organisms themselves. Bleach did cause, however, a decrease in the abundance of limpets, which can have further consequences to these systems. This study shows the importance of studies on chemical disturbances done under relevant natural scenarios and that efficient management policies of natural systems will only achieve successful responses with properly designed experiments under natural conditions. PMID:25460934

  9. Seaweed-assisted, benthic gravel transport by tidal currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Shannon E.; Dashtgard, Shahin E.

    2012-07-01

    Traction transport of pebbles and cobbles occurs subtidally at current velocities below 0.5 m s- 1 when seaweed attached to clasts provides additional lift and drag to the clast. In the Juan de Fuca Strait, British Columbia, Canada, the seaweed Cymanthere triplicata commonly attaches to pebbles and provides sufficient additional surface area for tidal currents to drag the clast along the seafloor. Using in situ measurements of current velocities at 13 m water depth, the threshold for initiation of motion of a 30 mm pebble with attached seaweed is 0.3 m s- 1. This is approximately one order of magnitude less than the activation velocity for a 30 mm pebble without attached seaweed. In addition to kelp-rafted (floated) gravel, seaweed-assisted, benthic gravel transport is possible in marine settings where unidirectional currents (e.g., tidal currents, storm-induced bottom currents) are sufficient to transport pebbles alongshore, and into and across the offshore (below fairweather wave base). If preserved in the rock record, deposits of algal-enhanced gravel deposited via unidirectional, subtidal currents will likely appear as isolated gravel clasts encased in sandstone, reflecting the similar current velocities required to transport these two clast groups.

  10. Optical Delineation of Benthic Habitat Using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Moline, Mark A.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2007-06-01

    To improve understanding and characterization of coastal regions, there has been an increasing emphasis on autonomous systems that can sample the ocean on relevant scales. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) with active propulsion are especially well suited for studies of the coastal ocean because they are able to provide systematic and near-synoptic spatial observations. With this capability, science users are beginning to integrate sensor suits for a broad range of specific and often novel applications. Here, the relatively mature Remote Environmental Monitoring Units (REMUS) AUV system is configured with multi-spectral radiometers to delineate benthic habitat in Sequim Bay, WA. The vehicle was deployed in a grid pattern along 5 km of coastline in depths from 30 to less than 2 meters. Similar to satellite and/or aerial remote sensing, the bandwidth ratios from the downward looking radiance sensor and upward looking irradiance sensor were used to identify beds of eelgrass on sub-meter scales. Strong correlations were found between the optical reflectance signals and the geo-referenced in situ data collected with underwater video within the grid. Results demonstrate the ability of AUVs to map littoral habitats at high resolution and highlight the overall utility of the REMUS vehicle for nearshore oceanography.

  11. Oil from the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp.

    PubMed

    Nurachman, Zeily; Brataningtyas, Dewi Susan; Hartati; Panggabean, Lily Maria Goretty

    2012-11-01

    The potential of the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp. for biodiesel feedstock was investigated. Growth profiles were analyzed by changing nutrient compositions in three different media (Walne, plain seawater, and modified seawater) and irradiance intensities. Navicula sp. cells showed significant growth in Walne and modified seawater medium but not in plain seawater medium. The microalgae grew well in a pH range of 7.8-8.4, and the cells were very sensitive to the intensity of direct sunlight exposure. The average cell concentration obtained from the cultures in plain seawater, Walne, and modified seawater media at the beginning of the stationary phase was 0.70, 2.17, and 2.54g/L, respectively. Electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry showed that the triacylglycerols of the algae oil were identified as POP (palmitic-oleic-palmitic), POO (palmitic-oleic-oleic), and OOLn (oleic-oleic-linoleic). The oil productivity of Navicula sp. cultivated in Walne and modified seawater media was 90 and 124?LL(-1) culture d(-1). The Navicula sp. biodiesel exhibited a kinematic viscosity of 1.299mm(2)/s, density of 0.8347g/mL, and internal energy of 0.90kJ/mL. PMID:22926527

  12. Impact of crab bioturbation on benthic flux and nitrogen dynamics of Southwest Atlantic intertidal marshes and mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul, Eugenia; Bazterrica, Mara C.; Escapa, Mauricio; Grela, Mara A.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-05-01

    The effect of the SW Atlantic intertidal burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata on benthic metabolism, benthic flux, and benthic N cycling processes was investigated through field experiments and in situ benthic chambers incubations. Our experimental results show that the presence and activity of N. granulata and its burrows may affect the direction and magnitude of nutrient benthic fluxes. Bioturbation enhanced ammonium efflux at mudflats, and influx at marshes. The flux of nitrate toward the sediment was stimulated by crabs at light and dark conditions in marshes, but only under light exposure in mudflats. Crab bioturbation stimulated benthic metabolism, N mineralization, nitrification and denitrification potentials in both sites. Crabs seem to have contrasting effects on dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) availability between marshes and mudflats, as reflected on benthic DIN flux. This different effect on DIN availability and also the possible different effects of crabs on N 2-fixers organisms could explain the opposite N 2 fixation pattern found for both habitats, since crabs promoted N 2 fixation in marshes, but diminished its rate in mudflats. Thus, the results obtained here through manipulative field experiments using benthic chambers suggest that macrofauna may influence the N benthic cycle and DIN fluxes in estuarine sediments. Besides, these macrofauna effects could be context-dependent, being many of them opposite between mudflats and marshes. We concluded that the above mentioned effects and the bioturbation-macrophytes interaction may be affecting the dissolved nutrient exportation from marshes to open waters.

  13. Heavy ? 15N in Intertidal Benthic Algae and Invertebrates in the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands): Effect of River Nitrogen Inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, P.; Stal, L. J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-09-01

    The study investigated ? 15N in the intertidal benthic food webs from the middle Westerschelde Estuary and the middle Oosterschelde. Much heavier ? 15N values were observed for the main benthic primary producers and invertebrates in the Westerschelde Estuary. In the Oosterschelde, mean ? 15N values ranged from 14 to 73 for SOM and suspended POM, respectively, to 63 to 91 for Fucus vesiculosus and benthic diatoms, respectively. Mean ? 15N values in benthic invertebrates ranged from 97 for Gammarus locusta to 154 for Tubificoides sp. In the Westerschelde Estuary, mean ? 15N increased from 81 to 86 for suspended POM and SOM, respectively, to heavier ? 15N from 159 to 285 for F. vesiculosus and benthic diatoms, respectively. Mean ? 15N for intertidal invertebrates ranged from 181 for Lumbricillus sp. to 207 for Eulimnogammarus obtusatus. Higher enrichment in 15N in benthic primary producers and invertebrates from the Westerschelde Estuary are most likely due to the incorporation of 15N-enriched DIN carried by the Scheldt River by benthic algae and, then by benthic consumers. These results point to the fact that ? 15N in benthic estuarine food webs may respond directly to anthropogenic nitrogen inputs delivered into estuaries by rivers which drain highly urbanized areas.

  14. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  15. Effects of N and P enrichment on competition between phytoplankton and benthic algae in shallow lakes: a mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Mei, Xueying; Gulati, Ramesh D; Liu, Zhengwen

    2015-03-01

    Competition for resources between coexisting phytoplankton and benthic algae, but with different habitats and roles in functioning of lake ecosystems, profoundly affects dynamics of shallow lakes in the process of eutrophication. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that combined enrichment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) would be a greater benefit to phytoplankton than benthic algae. The growth of phytoplankton and benthic algae was measured as chlorophyll a (Chl a) in 12 shallow aquatic mesocosms supplemented with N, P, or both. We found that enrichment with N enhanced growth of benthic algae, but not phytoplankton. P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algal growth, and no effect on the growth of phytoplankton. N+P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algae, but enhanced the growth of phytoplankton, thus reducing the proportion of benthic algae contributing to the combined biomass of these two groups of primary producers. Thus, combined N+P enrichment is more favorable to phytoplankton in competition with benthic algae than enrichment with either N or P alone. Our study indicates that combined enrichment with N+P promotes the dominance of phytoplankton over benthic algae, with consequences for the trophic dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems. PMID:25304240

  16. The use of fossil benthic foraminifera to define reference conditions for present-day marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, V. M. P.; Hess, S.; Dolven, J. K.; Alve, E.

    2012-04-01

    The implementation of legislations is generating a fruitful debate amongst marine scientists about how to define efficient and reliable bio-assessment tools to monitor the ecological quality status (EcoQS) of marine waters. According to those legislations, EcoQS assessment needs a "reference condition" with which to compare the present-day condition at a site. The fossil record has a potential to reconstruct PaleoEcoQS and thereby establish in situ reference conditions from pre-impact times. Unlike most macrofaunal groups which are the most commonly used biological quality indicator in these environments, benthic foraminifera leave a fossil record and therefore allow the reconstruction of human-induced environmental disturbance over decades to centuries. Foraminifera have the potential to serve as ecosystem characterization tools in modern and past marine environments. We compared the response of benthic foraminifera, macrofauna and selected environmental parameters from the same sites in areas with relatively stable salinity and temperature conditions but otherwise contrasting environmental properties (e.g., varying degree of anthropogenic impact). In August 2008, replicate samples for living (stained) benthic foraminifera and macrofauna from 27 stations in 11 silled fjords along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast were examined. Environmental data (bottom-water dissolved-oxygen, TOC, TN and pigments) were analysed for each station. The same kind of data were analysed from 2 recolonisation sites in the inner Oslofjord. In addition, the PaleoEcoQS during the past century was reconstructed using benthic foraminifera and selected environmental parameters from 11 stations in the inner Oslofjord. Results show that living benthic foraminifera are at least as reliable to define present-day EcoQS as conventional methods. Fossil benthic foraminifera can also define ecological status of reference conditions from pre-impacted times. This is not possible using conventional methods. Consequently, benthic foraminifera are excellent bioindicators of human-induced environmental impacts over time.

  17. Determining the relative sensitivity of benthic diatoms to atrazine using rapid toxicity testing: a novel method.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides pose a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems, especially to phototrophic organisms such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms may be a valuable indicator of the toxic impacts of herbicides in aquatic systems. However, this requires information on the herbicide sensitivity of a wide range of freshwater benthic diatom taxa. Unfortunately this information is only available for a limited number of species as current methods of developing new algae toxicity tests on individual taxa are lengthy and costly. To address this issue, we developed a new rapid toxicity test method to test natural benthic communities, from which the relative herbicide sensitivity of many individual taxa can be derived. This involved the collection of natural benthic communities from rocks in situ, which were placed directly into laboratory toxicity tests. Sensitivity data for several diatom genera in a 48 hour exposure toxicity test were produced, without the need for cultures or multiple site visits. After exposure to the highest treatment of atrazine (500 ?g L(-1)) there were significant declines of healthy cells in the most sensitive genera: Gomphonema declined by 74%, Amphora by 62%, Cymbella by 54% and Ulnaria by 34% compared to control levels. In contrast, the genera, Eunotia, Achnanthidium and Navicula, had no statistically significant decline in cell health. This method can identify the diatom taxa most at risk of herbicide toxicity within the natural benthic diatom community. The rapid toxicity testing method presented is a simple and effective method to obtain sensitivity data for multiple taxa within a natural benthic diatom community in a relatively short period of time. PMID:24742551

  18. Spatial-temporal feeding dynamics of benthic communities in an estuary-marine gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Emily S.; Kasai, Akihide; Ueno, Masahiro; Ishihi, Yuka; Yokoyama, Hisashi; Yamashita, Yoh

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the fluctuations of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in benthic consumers and their potential food sources to determine the spatial and temporal variations in the utilization of available organic matter, indicating the origin and pathways of energy from Yura Estuary to Tango Sea, Japan. Field samplings were conducted from the upper estuary to offshore with sampling frequency of twice per season from April (spring) 2006 to February (winter) 2007. The δ13C signatures of the upper and lower estuary benthos showed depleted and in wide range (-28.9‰ to -13.5‰) compared to the enriched and within narrow range signatures of marine benthos (-20.6‰ to -14.0‰) in all seasons. On the contrary, the δ15N signatures of benthic communities showed decreasing trend seaward and summer values were different from the other seasons. Using the dual isotope and multisource mixing models, we estimated the relative contributions of potential food sources to the benthos diet. River POM played an important source of energy for the estuarine benthos, especially in winter when river discharge was high. Marine POM served as an important alternative food for the estuarine benthos from spring to autumn when seawater intruded the bottom estuary. Benthic microalgae were the major food source at the shallow coast throughout the year, while marine POM fueled the deep coast and offshore benthic food webs. Spatial and temporal feeding variations in estuarine benthic communities were driven by the hydrology of the estuary, whereas primary production and transport of food source dictated diet variations of marine benthic communities. The elucidation of the dynamic energy subsidy among aquatic systems highlights the importance of the land-sea transition zones that is crucial for benthic secondary productions.

  19. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  20. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.; Maciolek, Nancy J.; Ota, Allan Y.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five benthic infaunal samples were collected from the San Francisco Deep-Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) over a 10-year period from January 1996 to September 2004. Each sample was 0.1 m 2, cut to a depth of 10 cm, and sieved through a 300-?m mesh. A total of 810 species of benthic invertebrates were identified; the majority of taxa (65.4%) new to science. The fauna represents a rich lower slope infaunal assemblage that rivals similarly studied locations in the western North Atlantic. No regional impact or degradation of benthic infauna due to dredged material disposal was detected. All reference stations and stations on the site boundary maintained high species richness and diversity during the monitoring period. Exceptions included an occasional sample with anomalously high numbers of one or two species that reduced the diversity and/or equitability. Within SF-DODS species richness and diversity were often reduced. Stations within the disposal site were recolonized by the same taxa that normally occurred in adjacent reference areas. Initial colonizers of fresh dredged material included spionid and paraonid polychaetes that were typical dominants at the site. At least one polychaete species, Ophelina sp. 1, sometimes colonized dredged materials containing coarse sand. One sample at Station 13, located in the middle of SF-DODS (September 2002), contained 57 species of benthic invertebrates, suggesting that colonization of fresh dredged material is rapid. It seems unlikely that larval dispersal and settlement account for this rapid recolonization; therefore it is postulated that adult organisms from adjacent areas move to the disturbed sites via boundary layer currents. The steep continental slope adjacent to SF-DODS is subject to turbidity flows and the resident fauna are likely pre-adapted to rapidly colonize disturbed sediments. Larval dispersal, especially by spionid polychaetes such as Prionospio delta, may also be important in colonizing newly deposited sediments. Subtle year-to-year shifts in faunal assemblages were evident at stations on the boundary of SF-DODS. At these stations species richness and diversity remained high, but numerically dominant taxa differed, possibly due to changes in sediment grain size associated with the dredged material. However, some year-to-year changes appeared to be regional in nature. Large epifaunal organisms such as the elasapoid holothurian Scotoplanes globosa appeared to be locally important in modifying surficial sediments: it moves through the sediment like a bulldozer, disturbing the surface and disrupting resident infauna as it ingests sediment. Other deposit-feeding holothurians such as Ypsilothuria bitentaculata were found throughout the study area including sediments with fresh dredged material. A long, narrow-bodied tube-like agglutinated foraminiferan of the genus Bathysiphon is commonly found in sediments containing dredged material. This foraminiferan is poorly understood, but may be opportunistic on soft dredged material.

  1. Towards an integrated view of benthic and pelagic processes in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea can be classified as a semi-enclosed shelf on the western-European continent. Atlantic influences are mainly through the Fair Isle current Channel in the North, and through the Strait of Dover in the South. An anti-clockwise circulation prevails, driven by mainly semi-diurnal tides and winds. The German Bight is located in the south-eastern part of the North Sea, and is strongly influenced by continental rivers. The outflow from the rivers Scheldt, Maas and Rhine is carried towards the German Bight with the residual currents. The German rivers Ems, Weser and Elbe directly debouche into the German Bight. On the shallow shelf, the water column is completely mixed by tidal forces and wind, largely preventing downward flux of particles and instead fostering temporary deposition and resuspension, which influences benthic mineralization. Hence, complex interactions between pelagic and benthic processes occur. Previous budget calculations indicate that the nutrient inventory has to be processed several times to support observed primary production, and, depending on water depth; only 10-20% remineralisation occurs in sediments of the German Bight whereas about 50% of organic matter is remineralised in the sediments of the shallow Wadden Sea. In this presentation, we use in-situ and ex-situ field data on pelagic and benthic oxygen respiration and benthic nutrient fluxes to assess the intense mineralization activity in the German Bight, the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization. Measurements of pelagic oxygen respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic oxygen uptake measurements based on flux-chamber landers and ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores revealed that benthic remineralisation rates are about an order of magnitude smaller than pelagic rates, in agreement with previous budget estimates. Both benthic and pelagic oxygen respiration show a strong seasonality; with higher oxygen uptake rates in the warm, productive season. During the summer season, oxygen uptake is significantly higher on silty or muddy, organic-rich sediments than on fine sands or gravel. Epi- and infauna, however, increase the benthic oxygen uptake and nutrient fluxes apparently irrespective of the grain size of the underlying lithogenic sedimentary particles or the water depth. These first results originate from the projects "NOAH - North Sea: Observation and Assessment of Habitats" and "WiMo - Wissenschaftliche Monitoringkonzepte für die Deutsche Bucht / Scientific monitoring concepts for the German Bight".

  2. Effects of waste disposal on benthic faunal succession on the abyssal seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, David K.; Richardson, Michael D.

    1998-05-01

    Strategies to predict, and thus limit, potentially detrimental environmental impacts of abyssal disposal of wastes are severely limited by our lack of knowledge of deep-sea processes and lack of opportunity to directly study waste disposal in abyssal environments. Probable successional sequences following burial of benthic faunas by sewage sludge and dredged material on the abyssal seafloor are drawn by analogy with well-known processes in shallow-marine water. Scales of change and recovery of abyssal benthic faunas from episodic deposition of waste material are examined by extrapolation from what is currently known about turbidite sedimentary provinces, in particular, the Venezuela Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain. Results suggest that initial benthic faunal recolonization would take place within years following episodic depositions of waste on the abyssal seafloor. Anoxic conditions or chemical inhibitory effects may delay initial benthic recolonization for hundreds of years. Establishment of equilibrium benthic faunal assemblages probably takes hundreds to potentially thousands of years. Potentially detrimental effects dictate that the surface areas of individual waste deposits should be minimized and the deposits should be isolated by capping with nontoxic materials or chemical barriers.

  3. Benthic macroinvertebrates diversity and water quality assessment at Sungai Congkak recreational area, Hulu Langat, Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaqim-Alias, M.; Ahmad, A. K.

    2013-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrates diversity and water quality assessment was conducted at Sungai Congkak recreational area in Hulu Langat, Selangor. Sums of eight sampling stations were selected with a distance of 100-200 m interval between each station. Benthic macroinvertebrates was sampled using a Surber net, while water sampling and analysis were undertaken according to HACH standard methods. A total of 3754 individuals from 40 families of benthic macroinvertebrates were recorded at this river. Ecological indices namely Shannon diversity index (2.49), Pielou evenness index (0.77) and Margalef richness index (4.06) demonstrate that Sungai Congkak is at good condition and benthic macroinvertebrates has homogeneous distribution along the sampling sites. Elmidae, Hydrophilidae, Baetidae and Perlidae were most dominant families present in that area and adapted progressively with excellent water quality (> 300 individuals). As regards to Malaysian's Water Quality Index (WQI), the study area at Sungai Congkak is classified in class I which has good water quality conditions. The Pearson correlation test indicates that ecological indices have strong correlation toward WQI at all sampling stations. As a conclusion, the benthic macroinvertebrates and WQI data demonstrated that Sungai Congkak is clean and suitable as recreational stream based on this study.

  4. Decadal-scale effects of benthic habitat and marine reserve protection on Philippine goatfish (F: Mullidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Garry R.; Bergseth, Brock J.; Rizzari, Justin R.; Alcala, Angel C.

    2015-09-01

    Reef fish populations can be affected by both fishing and changes in benthic habitat. Yet, partitioning these effects is often difficult, usually requiring an appropriate sampling design and long-term monitoring. Here we quantify, over a 30-yr period, the effects of benthic habitat change and no-take marine reserve (NTMR) protection on the density and species richness of a lightly harvested benthic-feeding reef fish family, the Mullidae (goatfish), at four Philippine islands. Boosted regression trees demonstrated that goatfish density and species richness had strong negative associations with hard coral cover and strong positive associations with cover of dead substratum. No-take marine reserve protection had no effect on the density or species richness of goatfish over 19 and 30 yr at Sumilon and Apo islands, respectively. However, environmental disturbances (e.g., typhoons, coral bleaching) that reduced hard coral cover subsequently led to increases in goatfish numbers for periods ranging from 2 to 8 yr. After initial increases due to benthic disturbance, goatfish populations decreased during coral recovery, occurring on timescales of 10-20 yr. This long-term, "natural experiment" demonstrated that changes to benthic habitat (bottom-up control) had a far greater effect on Philippine goatfish populations than protection from fishing (a top-down effect) in NTMRs. Given the strong positive response of goatfish populations to loss of live hard coral cover, this group of fishes may be a valuable indicator species for habitat degradation on coral reefs.

  5. Effects of Stream Fishes on Benthic Primary Productivity: A Mechanistic Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, C. W.

    2005-05-01

    I simultaneously tested three alternative hypotheses (the trophic cascade, nutrient enhancement via terrestrial nutrient translocation, and nutrient enhancement via bioturbation) for consumer regulation of primary productivity (PPR) by three widely distributed stream fish species (Orangethroat Darter, Western Mosquitofish, and Bullhead Minnow). I used stream mesocosms fitted with fish and terrestrial input barriers to address relative importance of localized fish predation versus access to terrestrial inputs for fish consumer effects. Orangethroat Darter, a benthic invertivore, increased PPR through an apparent trophic cascade, by localized reduction of benthic grazing invertebrate densities. Western mosquitofish, a surface feeding insectivore, increased PPR by enhancing nutrients through terrestrial nutrient translocation, and had no effect on benthic grazer invertebrate density. Bullhead Minnow, a benthic omnivore that disturbed sediments during foraging, increased PPR through nutrient enhancement via bioturbation, but within specific stream mesocosm areas two which the fish was restricted it also reduced benthic grazing invertebrates. Thus, suggesting this species may have affected PPR through a combination bioturbation and trophic cascade mechanisms. These mechanistic pathways are likely common processes by which fish affect food web structure and ecosystem function in many stream ecosystems.

  6. Contrasting effects of hydrological stability and flow extremes on benthic and hyporheic invertebrate communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Wood, Paul J.; Reid, Ian

    2010-05-01

    In lotic ecosystems, the most common disturbance events occur at the extremes of the hydrological continuum, i.e. spates and streambed drying. During spates, high flow velocities can mobilise sediments and displace invertebrates, and during streambed drying, loss of free water can cause mass mortality of many aquatic taxa. In both cases, invertebrates inhabiting the surface sediments are subject to a greater frequency and magnitude of disturbance than those in the hyporheic zone, and this habitat may therefore act as a refugium. Between extreme events, stable hydrological conditions allow competitive species to thrive, which can cause biotic interactions to increase. We compared the effects of flow extremes and hydrological stability on benthic and hyporheic invertebrate communities. Hydrological conditions included spates, flow recession, and localised streambed drying. During flow recession, competitive benthic taxa, particularly Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda) increased in abundance in surface sediments, causing community diversity to decline. A concurrent increase in the hyporheic abundance of G. pulex indicated that the hyporheic zone may act as a refugium from increasing biotic pressures in the benthic sediments. In contrast, spate events caused severe reductions in both benthic and hyporheic invertebrate abundance, and declines in G. pulex abundance were particularly pronounced; spate events were therefore important in increasing both benthic and hyporheic community diversity.

  7. Eocene benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Central Anatolia (Turkey): Biostratigraphy, stable isotope data, paleoenvironmental and paleontological interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinçer, Feyza

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) values from Eocene aged shallow marine deposits in two different basins (Haymana and Kırşehir-Kaman) of Central Anatolia and benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy's corresponding sequences were analyzed to determine paleontological and paleoenvironmental changes. The shallow marine units (Çayraz and Altıpınar formations), deposited as a result of different geological processes in the same period, show differences in paleontological and geochemical properties of the tests. The geological process controlled by environmental factors affect the formation of the chemical structure of foraminiferal calcite. These Lutetian and Bartonian aged formations are represented by five Shallow Benthic Zones. While, the Çayraz section is represented by SBZ 14-18, Boztepe section is represented by SBZ 13-17. With an increase in temperature, the variety of benthic foraminifera decreased, and Assilina exponens became the dominant species in the warm conditions. The most important proxy is δ13C, which reflects the paleoproductivity (food supply) where benthic foraminifera lived. In addition, food supply can be considered to be a more important factor than temperature, as it controls the diversity and abundance of benthic foraminifera.

  8. Predicting ecological changes on benthic estuarine assemblages through decadal climate trends along Brazilian Marine Ecoregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, Angelo F.; Netto, Sérgio A.; Pagliosa, Paulo R.; Barros, Francisco; Christofoletti, Ronaldo A.; Rosa Filho, José S.; Colling, André; Lana, Paulo C.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries are threatened coastal ecosystems that support relevant ecological functions worldwide. The predicted global climate changes demand actions to understand, anticipate and avoid further damage to estuarine habitats. In this study we reviewed data on polychaete assemblages, as a surrogate for overall benthic communities, from 51 estuaries along five Marine Ecoregions of Brazil (Amazonia, NE Brazil, E Brazil, SE Brazil and Rio Grande). We critically evaluated the adaptive capacity and ultimately the resilience to decadal changes in temperature and rainfall of the polychaete assemblages. As a support for theoretical predictions on changes linked to global warming we compared the variability of benthic assemblages across the ecoregions with a 40-year time series of temperature and rainfall data. We found a significant upward trend in temperature during the last four decades at all marine ecoregions of Brazil, while rainfall increase was restricted to the SE Brazil ecoregion. Benthic assemblages and climate trends varied significantly among and within ecoregions. The high variability in climate patterns in estuaries within the same ecoregion may lead to correspondingly high levels of noise on the expected responses of benthic fauna. Nonetheless, we expect changes in community structure and productivity of benthic species at marine ecoregions under increasing influence of higher temperatures, extreme events and pollution.

  9. Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Subsurface unmixing for benthic habitat mapping using hyperspectral imagery and lidar-derived bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Madronero, Maria C.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Goodman, James A.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping of benthic habitats from hyperspectral imagery can be achieved by integrating bio-optical models with common techniques for hyperspectral image processing, such as spectral unmixing. Several algorithms have been described in the literature to compensate or remove the effects of the water column and extract information about the benthic habitat characteristics utilizing only measured hyperspectral imagery as input. More recently, the increasing availability of lidar-derived bathymetry information offers the possibility to incorporate this data into existing algorithms, thereby reducing the number of unknowns in the problem, for the improved retrieval of benthic habitat properties. This study demonstrates how bathymetry information improves the mapping of benthic habitats using two algorithms that combine bio-optical models with linear spectral unmixing. Hyperspectral data, both simulated and measured, in-situ spectral data, and lidar-derived bathymetry data are used for the analysis. The simulated data is used to study the capabilities of the selected algorithm to improve estimates of benthic habitat composition by combining bathymetry data with the hyperspectral imagery. Hyperspectral images captured over Emique in Puerto Rico using an AISA Eagle sensor is used to further test the algorithms using real data. Results from analyzing this imagery demonstrate increased agreement between algorithm output and existing habitat maps and ground truth when bathymetry data is used jointly with hyperspectral imagery.

  11. In Situ Boundary Layer Coral Metabolism in the Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillis, Wade

    2013-04-01

    and Chris Langdon, Brice Loose, Dwight Gledhill, Diana Hsueh, Derek Manzello, Ian Enochs, Ryan Moyer We present net ecosystem productivity (nep) and net ecosystem calcification (nec) in coral and seagrass ecosystems using the boundary layer gradient flux technique (CROSS). Coastal anthropogenic inputs and changes in global ocean chemistry in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has emerged in recent years as a topic of considerable concern. Coral reefs are particularly vulnerable from eroded environmental conditions including ocean acidification and water pollution. The Atlantic Ocean Acidification Testbed (AOAT) project monitors metabolism to ascertain the continuing health of coral reef ecosystems. The CROSS boundary layer nep/nec approach is one component of this diagnostic program. Certification of CROSS as an operational monitoring tool is underway in the AOAT. CROSS inspects a benthic community and measures productivity/respiration and calcification/dissolution over an area of 10 square meters. Being a boundary layer tool, advection and complex mesoscale flows are not a factor or concern and CROSS is autonomous and can be used at deep benthic sites. The interrogation area is not enclosed therefore exposed to ambient light, flow, and nutrient levels. CROSS is easy to deploy, unambiguous, and affordable. Repeated measurements have been made from 2011-2012 in reefal systems in La Parguera Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys, USA. Diurnal, seasonal and regional metabolism will be compared and discussed. The ability to accurately probe benthic ecosystems provides a powerful management and research tool to policy makers and researchers.

  12. Layered Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03692 Layered Fan

    This beautiful fan deposit is located at the end of a mega-gully that empties into the southern trough of Coprates Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.9N, Longitude 299.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to help mitigate hurricane damage to the mainland, restoring these habitats prior to the onset of future storms will help protect the islands themselves and the surrounding habitats. During Hurricane Katrina, coastal barrier islands reduced storm surge by approximately 10 percent and moderated wave heights (Wamsley and others, 2009). Islands protected the mainland by preventing ocean waves from maintaining their size as they approached the mainland. In addition to storm protection, it is advantageous to restore these islands to preserve the cultural heritage present there (for example, Fort Massachusetts) and because of the influence that these islands have on marine ecology. For example, these islands help maintain a salinity regime favorable to oysters in the Mississippi Sound and provide critical habitats for many migratory birds and endangered species such as sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, and Dermochelys coriacea), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009a). As land manager for the GUIS, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with the State of Mississippi and the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a set of recommendations to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) that will guide restoration planning. The final set of recommendations includes directly renourishing both West Ship Island (to protect Fort Massachusetts) and East Ship Island (to restore the French Warehouse archaeological site); filling Camille Cut to recreate a continuous Ship Island; and restoring natural regional sediment transport processes by placing sand in the littoral zone just east of Petit Bois Island. Prevailing sediment transport processes will provide natural renourishment of the westward islands in the barrier system (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009b). One difficulty in developing the final recommendations is that few data are available to incorporate into restoration plans related to bathymetry, sediment type, and biota. For example, the most recent bathymetry available dates to when East and West Ship Islands were a single continuous island (1917). As a result, the MsCIP program has encouraged post-hurricane bathymetric data collection for future reference. Furthermore, managing a complex environment such as this barrier island system for habitat conservation and best resource usage requires significant knowledge about those habitats and resources. To effectively address these issues, a complete and comprehensive understanding of the type, geographic extent, and condition of marine resources included within the GUIS is required. However, the data related to the GUIS marine resources are limited either spatially or temporally. Specifically, there is limited knowledge and information about the distribution of benthic habitats and the characteristics of the offshore region of the GUIS, even though these are the habitats that will be most affected by habitat restoration. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive map of the benthic marine habitats within the GUIS to give park managers the ability to develop strategies for coastal and ocean-resource management and to aid decisionmakers in evaluating conservation priorities.

  14. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages reveal the history of the Burdigalian Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piller, W. E.; Grunert, P.; Harzhauser, M.

    2013-12-01

    The opening and closure of seaways have immanent paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic and paleobiogeographic consequences as they determine the exchange of water masses. During the Oligocene to Miocene severe alterations of marine gateway configuration shaped the evolution of the Mediterranean - Paratethys region. From early to middle Burdigalian (20.4-17.5 Myrs) the Burdigalian Seaway connected the western Mediterranean Sea with the Central Paratethys Sea via the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB). Its evolution resulted in profound paleoceanograpic and -geographic changes, and initiated a wave of faunal immigration from the Atlantic and Mediterranean into the Paratethys that had a severe impact on marine ecosystems. A detailed Early Miocene proxy record integrating seismic images, microfossil assemblages and geochemical analyses has been recently established for the Puchkirchen Basin (PB) as part of the NAFB. Herein, we exemplarily show the reconstruction of the dynamic early to middle Burdigalian paleoenvironment based on a quantitative evaluation of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from drill-sites and outcrops. Four major phases in PB development are distinguished, and new stratigraphic constraints allow discussing the results in the context of the evolution of the Burdigalian Seaway: 1. The global early Burdigalian sea-level rise initiated a marine transgression in the NAFB. In the PB, a long-lived basin-axial channel system was reactivated resulting in turbiditic and mass-flow deposition. The unstable upper bathyal environment is reflected in a low diverse autochthonous benthic foraminiferal fauna mainly composed of Bathysiphon filiformis. 2. The perpetuating transgression flooded large shelf areas and established the Burdigalian Seaway. The channel belt was cut off from its sediment sources and shut down. Subsequently, sedimentation was controlled by episodic turbidites from the southern basin margin, and large NE prograding delta fans. High sedimentation rates and strong terrestrial input led to the development of diverse foraminiferal faunas that are largely composed of agglutinated species. The encountered astrorhizids, ammodiscids and textualriids are adapted to high organic matter input and suboxic bottom-waters. Assemblages dominated by Bathysiphon filiformis occur in phases of turbidite deposition. 3. At ~19 Ma the Burdigalian Seaway became a vast shelf sea when increasing sedimentation rates led to the upfill of the PB. At the same time marine sedimentation reached its maximum extent in the NAFB. Characteristic hyaline shelf faunas composed of Lenticulina, Amphicoryna, Melonis, Cibcidoides and Ammonia developed along the inner-outer neritic shelf environments. 4. The beginning of a regression at ~18 Ma heralded the closure of the Burdigalian Seaway. Biofacies distribution shows a prograding tide-influenced shelf and widespread shallow water environments largely dominated by Ammonia, Elphidium and Cibicidoides developed. The closure of the Burdigalian Seaway initiated a major paleogeographic reorganization resulting in the final retreat of the Central Paratethys towards the east.

  15. The contents of labile sulfides in the bottom sediments of the central part of the Sea of Azov: Impact on benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Burkatskii, O. N.

    2007-10-01

    At 17 stations in the central part of the Sea of Azov, the contents of labile (acid-soluble) sulfides were determined in the upper layer (0-3 cm) of the bottom sediments. At 14 of these stations, the contents of sulfides in the oozy silts were over 300 mg S/dm3 of wet sediment; at seven of the stations, the contents of sulfide were as high as 420-720 mg S/dm3 of wet ooze, or 0.1-0.2% of dry weight. At the other three stations, where neutral matter such as shells and sand prevailed in the samples, the contents of sulfides varied from 80 to 110 mg S/dm3. At these stations, a high density and species diversity of the benthic fauna was retained. At other stations with labile sulfide contents over 200-300 mg S/dm3, the benthos biomass decreased by one or two orders of magnitude. At most of them, it was below 3 g/m2 and the small gastropod Hydrobia tolerant to sulfides dominated. The data obtained show that, in the central part of the Sea of Azov, reduced sediments with high contents of labile sulfides migrate towards the bottom surface, which conforms to the high intensity of the hydrogen sulfide formation process caused by the bacterial sulfate reduction. The study considers the environmental effects of the sulfide contamination of the upper layer of the bottom sediments in the Sea of Azov as a key factor causing the recurrent hypoxy in the near-bottom layers of the water, the suffocation occurrence, and the progressive depletion of the benthic and pelagic fauna.

  16. Biological vs. Physical Mixing Effects on Benthic Food Web Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Braeckman, Ulrike; Provoost, Pieter; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Middelburg, Jack J.; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Biological particle mixing (bioturbation) and solute transfer (bio-irrigation) contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria) and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering) or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator) and Abra alba (bioturbator) compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The 13C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1) microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2) microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3) control microcosms and (4) microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (Δδ13C) of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom 13C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (µg C m−2), which included TO13C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food source for nematodes, the macrobenthic effect was more pronounced in niche establishment than the negative structuring effects such as competition. PMID:21455308

  17. Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Ulrike; Provoost, Pieter; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Middelburg, Jack J; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Biological particle mixing (bioturbation) and solute transfer (bio-irrigation) contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria) and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering) or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator) and Abra alba (bioturbator) compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The (13)C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1) microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2) microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3) control microcosms and (4) microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (??(13)C) of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom (13)C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (g C m(-2)), which included TO(13)C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food source for nematodes, the macrobenthic effect was more pronounced in niche establishment than the negative structuring effects such as competition. PMID:21455308

  18. Competition between Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Benthic Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nicolaisen, Mette H.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Aa Lomstein, Bente

    2004-01-01

    The abundance, activity, and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were studied in prepared microcosms with and without microphytobenthic activity. In the microcosm without alga activity, both AOB abundance, estimated by real-time PCR, and potential nitrification increased during the course of the experiment. AOB present in the oxic zone of these sediments were able to fully exploit their nitrification potential because NH4+ did not limit growth. In contrast, AOB in the alga-colonized sediments reached less than 20% of their potential activity, suggesting starvation of cells. Starvation resulted in a decrease with time in the abundance of AOB as well as in nitrification potential. This decrease was correlated with an increase in alga biomass, suggesting competitive exclusion of AOB by microalgae. Induction of N limitation in the oxic zone of the alga-colonized sediments and O2 limitation of the majority of AOB in darkness were major mechanisms by which microalgae suppressed the growth and survival of AOB. The competition pressure from the algae seemed to act on the entire population of AOB, as no differences were observed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amoA fragments during the course of the experiment. Enumeration of bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene copies and d-amino acids suggested that the algae also affected other bacterial groups negatively. Our data indicate that direct competitive interaction takes place between algae and AOB and that benthic algae are superior competitors because they have higher N uptake rates and grow faster than AOB. PMID:15345441

  19. Marine benthic ecological functioning over decreasing taxonomic richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnroos, Anna; Bonsdorff, Erik; Bremner, Julie; Blomqvist, Mats; Josefson, Alf B.; Garcia, Clement; Warzocha, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Alterations to ecosystem function due to reductions in species richness are predicted to increase as humans continue to affect the marine environment, especially in coastal areas, which serve as the interface between land and sea. The potential functional consequences due to reductions in species diversity have attracted considerable attention recently but little is known about the consequence of such loss in natural communities. We examined how the potential for function is affected by natural reductions in taxon richness using empirical (non-simulated) coastal marine benthic macrofaunal data from the Skagerrak-Baltic Sea region (N. Europe), where taxon richness decreases 25-fold, from 151 to 6 taxa. To estimate functional changes we defined multiple traits (10 traits and 51 categories) on which trait category richness, functional diversity (FD) and number of taxa per trait category were calculated. Our results show that decrease in taxon richness leads to an overall reduction in function but functional richness remains comparatively high even at the lowest level of taxon richness. Although the taxonomic reduction was sharp, up to 96% of total taxon richness, we identified both potential thresholds in functioning and subtler changes where function was maintained along the gradient. The functional changes were not only caused by reductions in taxa per trait category, some categories were maintained or even increased. Primarily, the reduction in species richness altered trait categories related to feeding, living and movement and thus potentially could have an effect on various ecosystem processes. This highlights the importance of recognising ecosystem multifunctionality, especially at low taxonomic richness. We also found that in this system rare species (singletons) did not stand for the functional complexities and changes. Our findings were consistent with theoretical and experimental predictions and suggest that a large proportion of the information about alterations of function is found in measures such as functional diversity and number of taxa per trait category.

  20. Small scale variability of benthic assemblages: biogenic neighborhood effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, M

    2001-03-30

    In this study, patterns of community development were investigated within vs. outside 'habitats'. These habitats represented five different monospecific assemblages of one of the following species: the brown alga Fucus serratus, the red alga Delesseria sanguinea, the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis, the seagrass Zostera marina and the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Natural assemblages were allowed to develop on paired artificial substrata-separated by ca. 1 m-within (treatment) vs. outside (control) of habitats. The same colonizer species settled on treatment and control substrata for given habitats. However, after 5 months of settlement and post-settlement dynamics, their proportional abundance and the structure of treatment and control assemblages differed in many instances. Variability among replicates of a given treatment, seperated by up to 50 m, was large, indicating a patchy spatial distribution of organisms. Despite this spatial heterogeneity among within-treatment replicates, analysis of similarity revealed that in most instances significantly different assemblages developed between treatments on a small spatial scale depending on whether substrata were positioned within as compared to outside a given habitat.Consequently, the algae, seagrass or mussels constituting a habitat seem to control the structure of the benthic assemblage developing in their vicinity by one or more possible mechanisms: reduction of larval advection, exudation of metabolites that influence settlement and/or post-settlement survival, and/or-in the case of mussel assemblages-predation on larvae.In addition to spatial variability in larval supply, stochasticity in succession, substratum heterogeneity, competition and predation effects, this investigation reveals the potential of a further assemblage structuring factor: the impact of neighboring organisms. PMID:11239628

  1. Benthic foraminifera from polluted marine environment of Sulaibikhat Bay (Kuwait).

    PubMed

    Al-Zamel, A Z; Al-Sarawi, M A; Khader, S R; Al-Rifaiy, I A

    2009-02-01

    Quantitative analyses of recent benthic foraminiferal assemblages (living and dead) were carried out on the surface sediments of Sulaibikhat Bay. Marked contrast in foraminiferal assemblages between the shallow tidal mudflats and the deep tidal channel and their relation to the extent of pollution were observed. Cluster analysis of quantitative data on the distribution of foraminiferal tests revealed three assemblages that depend mainly on the intensity of pollution; (1) a highly polluted tidal flat assemblage, (2) normal (or less polluted) mud flat assemblage and, (3) tidal channel and subtidal assemblage. The highly polluted assemblage characterized by a drop in species densities (< 100 tests/20 cm(3) sediment) but with high average diversity (5.8 Yule-Simpson Index). The microfauna of the less polluted flat displays relatively lower diversity (4.6) but high density of tests (47.2% of the total picked tests). The most abundant species of this assemblage is Ammonia tepida, displays its maximum density in this assemblage. Ammonia tepida drops in density from 17.12% to 3.07% in the polluted assemblage. Tidal channel foraminiferal assemblages should normally display lower diversities than those of tidal flats, because tidal current in the channels tend to wash away most nutrient materials. However, this is not the case of the present study area which could be due to environmental setting of the Sulaibikhat Bay in which tidal currents bring in exceptionally high amounts of nutrients from Shatt Al-Arab Estuary and in which the tidal flats are strongly and adversely polluted. PMID:18389379

  2. Benthic invertebrate bioassays with toxic sediment and pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, John P.; Rosiu, Cornell J.; Graney, Robert L.; Henry, Mary G.

    1990-01-01

    The relative sensitivities of bioassays to determine the toxicity of sediments were investigated and three methods of making the sample dilutions required to generate dose-response relationships were compared. The assays studied were: (a) Microtox(R), a 15-min assay of Photobacterium phosphoreum bioluminescence inhibition by pore water; (b) 48-h Daphnia magna lethality test in pore water; (c) 10-d subchronic assay of lethality to and reduction of weight gain by Chironomus tentans performed in either whole sediment or pore water; (d) 168-h acute lethality assay of Hexagenia limbata in either whole sediment or pore water. The three methods of diluting sediments were: (a) extracting pore water from the toxic location and dilution with pore water from the control station; (b) diluting whole sediment from the toxic location with control whole sediment from a reference location, then extracting pore water; and (c) diluting toxic, whole sediment with whole sediment from a reference location, then using the whole sediment in bioassays. Based on lethality, H. limbata was the most sensitive organism to the toxicity of Detroit River sediment. Lethality of D. magna was similar to that of H. limbata in whole sediment and can be used to predict effects of whole sediment toxicity to H. limbata. The concentration required to cause a 50% reduction in C. tentans growth (10-d EC50) was approximately that which caused 50% lethality of D. magna (48-h LC50) and was similar to the toxicity that restricts benthic invertebrate colonization of contaminated sediments. While the three dilution techniques gave similar results with some assays, they gave very different results in other assays. The dose-response relationships determined by the three dilution techniques would be expected to vary with sediment, toxicant and bioassay type, and the dose-response relationship derived from each technique needs to be interpreted accordingly.

  3. Gradients of benthic pelagic coupling and carbon budgets in the Adriatic and Northern Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, P.; Helder, W.; Koning, E.; Miserocchi, S.; Danovaro, R.; Malaguti, A.

    2002-06-01

    The Adriatic sea is generally viewed as a long bay in the Central Mediterranean, stretching SE to NW for 800 km, from the Strait of Otranto to the Gulf of Venice, with an extremely long, geometrically complex coastline, creating a high diversity of hydrodynamic and sedimentary environments. The seafloor slopes down from the North shallow shelf (mean depth 35 m) through the middle Adriatic depression (250 m depth in the Pomo Pit) to the bathyal reached in the Southern Adriatic pit (1260 m). Typical physiographic and climatic features strongly influence biological productivity. The productivity of the Northern Adriatic is among the highest in the Mediterranean, while it becomes lower in the offshore waters of the Central and Southern subbasins, defining clear oligotrophic and benthic-pelagic coupling gradients from the Northern to the Southern edge of the basin. Assessing the benthic response to particulate fluxes of organic matter from the photic layer was a target of the EU-MATER Project. The applied methodological strategy involved measurements of primary production by 14C in situ incubation technique, of particulate fluxes through the water column by moored sediment traps, of sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) by in situ and on-deck incubations, and of carbon burial fluxes at three sites in the Southern Adriatic (A1), the Otranto Strait (O2) and the Ionian sea (I1), along the main pathway of outflowing water masses. In this paper, yearly budget calculations of carbon are presented for stations, selected as being representative of wider areas in the three subbasins, to give a picture of the Adriatic basin as a whole. Data from the Northern basin, obtained by the same methodology, come from previous research programmes carried out in the framework of EU Marine projects (STEP/Adria and MTP 1/Euromarge AS). The carbon fraction reaching the seafloor was quantified as the sum of SCOC and burial fluxes and was compared to 14C primary production measurements in the photic zone. Both primary production estimates and carbon respired in the sediment (SCOC) show a clear depth dependence, with the former ranging between 588 g C m -2 year -1 in the Northern shelf off the Po river delta, and 62 g C m -2 year -1 in the Ionian sea, and the latter between 130 and 2 g C m -2 year -1 at the same sites. Burial efficiencies (the ratios of buried carbon to carbon rain) decrease from 47% to 3%. Sediment organic matter lability was investigated through its composition in terms of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates and the sum of their concentrations as expressed in carbon equivalents (biopolimeric carbon fraction, BPC). Compositional differences are clearly indicated between the Northern and the Middle-South Adriatic subbasins due to mixing with terrestrial carbon in the North and longer residence times in the water column in the Middle-South, with the Pomo Pit representing an accumulating site of refractory organic carbon. From carbon budget calculations for the deep sites, taking into account trap measured fluxes to the sediment, lateral input seems to play a role at the deep sites and especially in the Pomo Pit.

  4. Benthic foraminiferal response to trace element pollution-the case study of the Gulf of Milazzo, NE Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Claudia; Pepe, Fabrizio; Scopelliti, Giovanna; Calabrò, Monica; Caruso, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The response of benthic foraminiferal assemblages to trace element pollution in the marine sediments of the Gulf of Milazzo (north-eastern Sicily) was investigated. Since the 1960s, this coastal area has been a preferred site for the development of two small marinas and a commercial harbour as well as for heavy industry. Forty samples collected in the uppermost 3-4 cm of an undisturbed layer of sediment in the littoral environment were used for this benthic foraminiferal analysis. The enrichment factors (EFs) of selected trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were also calculated. Changes both in benthic foraminiferal assemblages and in some trace elements concentrations have provided evidence that the gulf's littoral zone can be subdivided into three sectors characterised by environmental changes in the marine ecosystem. In the sector unpolluted, close to the Milazzo Cape, foraminiferal assemblages exhibit high values of species richness and foraminiferal density while trace element concentrations and their EFs are very low. Here, the highest densities of Miliolids and epiphytic species are present. On the contrary, in the sector polluted, from the marinas to the crude oil refinery, foraminiferal density and species diversity are low, and assemblages are dominated, albeit with very low densities, by species that tolerate stressed environmental conditions, such as LOFAs, agglutinants and Ammonia spp. Here, the highest trace elements concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu and related EFs were detected. Eastwards, in the sector moderately polluted, foraminiferal populations are quite poor. They are characterised by low values of species richness and foraminiferal densities, nevertheless trace element concentrations become lower than in the other sectors and their EFs are often below 1. Deformed foraminifera, with percentages up to 7.14 %, were found in all three of the sectors. Differences in benthic foraminiferal assemblages, coupled with results from statistical analysis, indicate that anthropogenic trace element pollution could be considered as one of the most important causes of the modifications of foraminiferal assemblages in the study area. PMID:23828269

  5. Evaluation of potential relationships between benthic community structure and toxic metals in Laizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang

    2014-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between benthic community structure and toxic metals using bivariate/multivariate techniques at 17 sediment locations in Laizhou Bay, North China. Sediment chemical data were evaluated against geochemical background values and sediment quality guidelines, which identified Cu and As as contaminants of concern with a moderate potential for adverse effects. Benthic community data were subjected to non-metric multidimensional scaling, which generated four groups of stations. Spearman rank correlation was then employed to explore the relationships between the major axes of heavy metals and benthic community structure. However, weak and insignificant correlations were found between these axes, indicating that contaminants of concern may not be the primary explanatory factors. Polychaeta were abundant in southern Laizhou Bay, serving as a warning regarding the health status of the ecosystem. Integrated sediment quality assessment showed sediments from northern central locations were impaired, displaying less diverse benthos and higher metal contamination. PMID:25113101

  6. Sediment characteristics and benthic ecological status in contrasting marine environments of subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alice K Y; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2016-02-15

    Sediment characteristics and benthic communities on a finer sampling scale in four contrasting environments in subtropical Hong Kong were analyzed in summer and winter 2012. In two harbour habitats which suffered from historic sewage pollution or hypoxic events, organic carbon, nutrient and trace metal content in the sediment were significantly higher than that in an offshore area and a marine reserve. The relatively low organic and nutrient content in the offshore habitat could be resulted from enhanced resuspension of such materials from the seabed owing to intense water mixing and disturbance caused by bottom trawling. The biotic indices AMBI and M-AMBI were shown to be useful in assessing the benthic ecological status of these habitats. Such indices can also be more sensitive than sediment physico-chemical parameters in differentiating the response of macrofauna to seasonal changes in the benthic environment. PMID:26749224

  7. Benthic foraminifera show some resilience to ocean acidification in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pettit, L R; Hart, M B; Medina-Sánchez, A N; Smart, C W; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Hall-Spencer, J M; Prol-Ledesma, R M

    2013-08-30

    Extensive CO2 vents have been discovered in the Wagner Basin, northern Gulf of California, where they create large areas with lowered seawater pH. Such areas are suitable for investigations of long-term biological effects of ocean acidification and effects of CO2 leakage from subsea carbon capture storage. Here, we show responses of benthic foraminifera to seawater pH gradients at 74-207m water depth. Living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera included Nonionella basispinata, Epistominella bradyana and Bulimina marginata. Studies on foraminifera at CO2 vents in the Mediterranean and off Papua New Guinea have shown dramatic long-term effects of acidified seawater. We found living calcareous benthic foraminifera in low pH conditions in the northern Gulf of California, although there was an impoverished species assemblage and evidence of post-mortem test dissolution. PMID:23473095

  8. Testing benthic foraminiferal distributions as a contemporary quantitative approach to biomonitoring estuarine heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Foster, William J; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric; Rogerson, Mike

    2012-05-01

    Biomonitoring of estuarine pollution is the subject of active research, and benthic foraminifera are an attractive group to use for these purposes due to their ubiquitous presence in saline water and wide diversity. Here, we describe a case study of biomonitoring using benthic foraminifera in the French Mediterranean lagoon, Bages-Sigean lagoon. In this case, the major pollutants of interest are heavy metals in the sediment, particularly contaminated by Cu and Cd derived from industrial and agricultural sources. The foraminiferal assemblages of the Bages-Sigean lagoon are typical of normal paralic environments, but unusually almost completely lack agglutinated forms. The density of benthic foraminifera was shown to be more influenced by the sediment characteristics rather than heavy metal pollution. However, the relative abundance of Quinqueloculina bicostata was shown to increase in the most polluted areas and we propose that this taxon may be used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution. PMID:22321172

  9. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages as pollution proxies in the northern coast of Gabes Gulf, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Aloulou, Fatma; EllEuch, Boubaker; Kallel, Monem

    2012-01-01

    A study of chemical and sedimentological parameters integrated with benthic foraminifera investigation was conducted along the northern coast of Gabes Gulf. Thirty-two samples were studied and a total of 68 benthic foraminiferal species were identified. Heavy metals enrichment factors and total hydrocarbon concentrations showed both metal and petrogenic pollution related mainly to phosphogypsum, sewage, and fishing activities. Statistical analysis (bivariate correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis) show a possible control of these pollutants on density, diversity, as well as the taxonomic composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages. The extent to which the population was found less dense and less diversified corresponded to the degree to which the sediment was contaminated. In these contaminated sites, an increase in relative abundance of opportunistic species such Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica was found. Far from pollution, foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by species characteristic of Mediterranean shallow water (Ammonia beccarii, Ammonia parkinsoniana, Elphidium crispum, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium advenum, Peneroplis planatus, Peneroplis pertesus). PMID:21476104

  10. Sequential sampling: A cost-effective approach for monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates in environmental impact assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resh, Vincent H.; Price, Donald G.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential sampling is a method for monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates that can significantly reduce the number of samples required to reach a decision, and consequently, decrease the cost of benthic sampling in environmental impact assessments. Rather than depending on a fixed number of samples, this analysis cumulatively compares measured parameter values (for example, density, community diversity) from individual samples, with thresholds that are based on specified degrees of precision. In addition to reducing sample size, a monitoring program based on sequential sampling can provide clear-cut decisions as to whether a priori-defined changes in the measured parameter(s) have or have not occurred. As examples, sequential sampling programs have been developed to evaluate the impact of geothermal energy development on benthic macroinvertebrate diversity at The Geysers, California, and for monitoring the impact of crude oil contamination on chironomid midge [ Cricotopus bicinctus (Meigen) and C. mackenziensis Oliver] population densities in the Trail River, Northwest Territories, Canada.

  11. Long-term benthic monitoring programs for the mesohaline Chesapeake Bay. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Hiegel, M.H.; Fisher, K.; Johnson, G.F.

    1982-04-01

    This report presents a summary of data collected and an updated progress report for a long-term benthic study conducted to measure the long-term effects of power plant operations on benthic populations and to identify long-term trends and annual cycles in these populations. Benthic organisms and the physical/chemical characteristics of sediments and water were sampled between July 1981 and May 1982 in the mesohaline portion of the Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac estuary. The surveys were concentrated near the Morgantown and Calvert Cliffs, Maryland power plant. Salinities during 1981-1982 were high relative to long-term salinity records with the deviation from average salinities being larger in the Potomac than the mainstem of the Bay.

  12. Dynamics of Invertebrate Benthic Communities and Drift in a Regulated River of Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyero, Luz; Valladolid, María; Arauzo, Mercedes

    2005-08-01

    We document invertebrate benthic and drift dynamics in a regulated river in central Spain at two temporal scales: seasonal (for both benthos and drift) and daily (for drift). The benthic abundance of individuals and taxon richness generally increased in the summer. Drift abundance showed no seasonal or daily variation, but taxon richness of drifting individuals was higher in the spring. Both ben-thos and drift showed clear seasonal changes in taxonomic composition. Interestingly, some benthic taxa showed their highest abundances in the spring, while others were more abundant in the summer. In contrast, most drifting taxa were more abundant in the spring. Different functional feeding groups showed different patterns of variation throughout the year, both in the benthos and the drift. Daily variations in drift were present in very few taxa and functional feeding groups, and only in some seasons.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic organisms off Adélie Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goutte, A; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Chastel, O; Cherel, Y; Eléaume, M; Massé, G

    2013-12-15

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) were described in benthic and pelagic species collected off Adélie Land, Antarctica. Strong differences were observed among species, with reduced PeCB and HCB levels in benthic species, and elevated PCB levels in the Antarctic yellowbelly rockcod, the Antarctic sea urchin and the snow petrel. Lower-chlorinated congeners were predominant in krill; penta-PCBs in benthic organisms; hexa- and hepta-PCBs in seabirds and cryopelagic fish. This segregation may result from sedimentation process, specific accumulation and excretion, and/or biotransformation processes. The presence of PBDEs in Antarctic coastal organisms may originate from atmospheric transport and partly from a contamination by local sources. Although POP levels in Antarctic marine organisms were substantially lower than in Arctic and temperate organisms, very little is known about their toxic effects on these cold-adapted species, with high degree of endemism. PMID:24237994

  14. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on benthic macroinvertebrate communities along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast.

    PubMed

    Engle, Virginia D; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Cooksey, Cynthia

    2009-03-01

    The effects of Hurricane Katrina on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, USA, were assessed in October, 2005, 2 months after the hurricane made landfall between New Orleans, LA and Biloxi, MS. Benthic macrofaunal samples, sediment chemical concentrations, and water quality measurements from 60 sites in Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Sound were compared with pre-hurricane conditions from 2000-2004. Post-hurricane benthic communities had significant reductions in numbers of taxa, H(') diversity, and abundance as well as shifts in composition and ranking of dominant taxa. These effects were not associated with changes in chemical contamination, organic enrichment of sediments, or hypoxia and were likely due to hurricane-related scouring and changes in salinity. PMID:19052887

  15. Benthic recovery during open sea fish farming abatement in Western Mediterranean, Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lzaro, Carlos; Marin, Arnaldo

    2006-12-01

    Fish farming is an important source of organic matter input in coastal waters, which contributes to eutrophication. In this study, the macrofaunal benthic community was studied after the cessation of fish farming with the aim of improving our understanding of benthic succession and sediment recovery in a marine ecosystem. The results showed that the best environmental variables for assessing organic pollution were acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and redox potential. Succession and recovery was best explained by macrofaunal analysis based on community composition as well as on trophic groups. The patterns of recovery differed between each impacted station. For this reason, succession could not be accurately predicted due to the unique environmental parameters and the singular community functional structure of each location. The Azti Marine Benthic Index (AMBI) proved its validity for assessing pollution but did not distinguish between successional stages. PMID:16890280

  16. Marine Benthic Communities of Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds and What they're Good For

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic invertebrates of Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds include those adapted to near-shore habitats with variable temperature and salinity, mid-shelf species with narrower requirements, and boreal species that avoid elevated temperatures. Studies of benthic fauna in th...

  17. BENTHIC MICROALGAL CONTROL ON THE NUTRIENT FLUX IN INTER-TIDAL FLATS OF THE LOWER YAQUINA ESTUARY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sites were selected across the intertidal zone of the lower Yaquina Bay to investigate the role of benthic microalgae in benthic nutrient fluxes. Study sites were selected where microalage were present but without seagrass or mud shrimp. Sediment columns were collected th...

  18. Spatial variation in organic matter utilization by benthic communities from Yura River-Estuary to offshore of Tango Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Emily S.; Kasai, Akihide; Ueno, Masahiro; Won, Nam-il; Ishihi, Yuka; Yokoyama, Hisashi; Yamashita, Yoh

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of δ 13C and δ 15N of organic matter among benthic communities from the upper estuary of Yura River to offshore of Tango Sea, Japan, to determine spatial variation in utilization of organic matter by benthic communities. The δ 13C values of benthic animals ranged from -27 to -15‰ in the upper estuary, -21 to -15‰ in the lower estuary, -20 to -16‰ in the shallow coast (5-10 m depths), -18 to -16‰ in the deep coast (30-60 m depths) and -19 to -15‰ in offshore (100-150 m depths) stations. Adapting the dual isotope values to mixing models, we estimated the relative contributions of potential food sources to the benthos diet. Phytoplankton and macroalgae that intruded the estuary in summer were utilized as alternative food aside from the terrestrial-origin organic matter assimilated by the estuarine benthic consumers. Resuspended benthic microalgae were important source of energy in the shallow coastal stations, while abundant supply of phytodetritus fueled the deep coastal and offshore benthic food webs. Spatial difference in the diet of benthic communities depends largely on the shifts in the primary carbon source. Thus, benthic communities are important link of autochthonous/allochthonous production and secondary production in the continuous river-estuary-marine system.

  19. CHANGES IN THE FRESHWATER BENTHIC COMMUNITY OF LAKE ONTARIO SINCE THE INVASION OF DREISSENA 1972-1997

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population changes of three major benthic taxa are discussed in relation to Dreissena spp. Lake Ontario was sampled pre-invasion (1972) and post-invasion (1994, 1997) for abundance of benthic organisms. In offshore sediments of Lake Ontario, neither species composition nor abunda...

  20. Development of a regional littoral benthic macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) for lakes from the National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from the lake littoral zone. The purpose of the sampling was to assess the feasibility of a multi-metric index (MMI) to assess the condition of the littoral benthic macroinvertebrate...

  1. Necrophagy by a benthic omnivore influences biomagnification of methylmercury in fish.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Anna M; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Oris, James T

    2011-04-01

    Omnivory has an important role in the movement of energy, nutrients, and contaminants between benthic and pelagic food webs. While top-predator fish are known to supplement a mostly piscivorous diet with benthic organisms, a more obscure benthic-pelagic coupling occurs when benthic invertebrates forage on fish carcasses, referred to as necrophagy. The combination of these two benthic-pelagic links, top-predator fish feeding on benthic organisms that have fed on dead fish, can generate a trophic feedback cycle that conserves energy and nutrients and may have implications for biomagnification of methylmercury (MeHg) in fish. We investigated the role of necrophagy by crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), via a trophic feedback cycle, on the biomagnification of MeHg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a cosmopolitan top predator fish known to feed on crayfish. Controlled laboratory tests quantified the uptake of MeHg by both organisms from artificial and natural food (whole crayfish or bass tissue). Assimilation efficiency (AE) of MeHg was greater for bass fed crayfish (790.5%) than those fed artificial food (603%). Furthermore, AE of MeHg was greatest for largemouth bass fed crayfish that fed on MeHg-dosed dead fish (i.e., trophic feedback cycle; 9417%). A model, parameterized with results of the laboratory experiments, was used to make steady-state projections of MeHg biomagnification factors. Model projections also indicate that MeHg biomagnification would be greatest for largemouth bass from a trophic feedback cycle. These results suggest that food web ecology has an important role in determining MeHg levels in predatory fish and underscore the need for further investigation into the magnitude that necrophagy may affect MeHg biomagnification in aquatic systems. PMID:21356175

  2. Low benthic respiration and nutrient flux at the highly productive Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Han; Choi, Ayeon; Jin Yang, Eun; Lee, SangHoon; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We investigated rates of total oxygen uptake (TOU) sulfate reduction (SRR), and benthic nutrient flux (BNF) in sediments of polynya (730-825 m water depth), ice shelf (1064 m water depth), and marginal sea-ice zone (530 m water depth) to evaluate the role of benthic mineralization in degrading organic material produced by primary production in the Amundsen Sea polynya (ASP), Antarctica. Despite high primary production (110 mmol C m-2 d-1) in the water column, benthic carbon mineralization in the ASP (average, 2.1±0.3 mmol C m-2 d-1) was strikingly lower than in other less productive polar regions, accounting for only 1.9% of primary production. Low sediment accumulation rates (0.18-0.20 cm yr-1) and sinking fluxes of organic matter likely caused the low oxygen consumption rates (2.44-3.11 mmol m-2 d-1) and low effluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (0.12-0.13 mmol m-2 d-1) and phosphate (0.017-0.018 mmol m-2 d-1) in the ASP. Carbon oxidation by sulfate reduction (0.11-0.19 mmol C m-2 d-1) comprised only 10% of total benthic mineralization, indicating that anaerobic C oxidation plays a minor role in total C oxidation. Our results, including low sediment accumulation rates and benthic metabolic rates, suggest that most organic carbon produced by Phaeocystis blooms would be respired to CO2 in the water column, and thus the organic carbon reaching the sediment is not adequate to stimulate benthic metabolism in the ASP.

  3. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly the amount of overhanging vegetation and fine sediment. This research illustrates the importance of using multiple taxa for biological assessments and the need to consider management legacies when investigating responses to management and conservation actions.

  4. Benthic Community Responses during Different Construction Stage of Large Coastal Development (Saemangeum, Republic of Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; An, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Saemangeum reclamation project in South Korea represents one of the largest construction efforts in coastal environments and provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the benthic community responses in the large scale human disturbances. The changes of benthic ecosystems were monitored in the course of construction stage. Depending on the construction stage (Partial Closure (PC) stage: May 2004 ~Jan. 2006, Complete Closure (CC) stage: May 2006~Nov. 2006), Stable (S) stage: May 2007 ~ Aug. 2008), subtidal benthic ecosystems around Saemangeum were affected differently. In particular, the dramatic change of benthic community was observed in DI (Direct influence) area located inside the barrage. The benthic community change was temporal and minimum in the IDI (In-direct Influence) area located outside the barrage. During PC stage, the species number and density tended to increase in DI, but they rapidly decreased during CC stage. They increased again during S stage in DI but the most of the species were composed of opportunistic species indicating a deteriorated environment. In IDI, the species number and density also increased during PC stage and decreased during CC stage, but unlike DI, the increase of species number and density in S stage was not observed. In DI area, the benthic community structure had changed due to hypoxia, desalination and landization after CC stage, and the opportunistic species like Theora fragilis, Tharyx sp., Heteromastus filiformis had dominated after S-stage. In IDI area, however, abrupt environmental changes had not appeared and species number and density had been constant and species composition did not change even after the CC stage.

  5. Benthic foraminifera as indicators of pollution in high latitude marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, N.; Junttila, J.; Husum, K.; Carroll, J.; Klitgaard-Kristensen, D.; Hald, M.

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of studies demonstrate the potential of benthic foraminifera to characterize ecological status. However, the use of benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators has previously not been tested in high latitudes. This research contributes to the development of foraminifera as a bio-monitoring technique for the Arctic region, as industrial activities in this region will increase in the coming years. Surface sediments (0-1 cm) from sites close to gas fields in the SW Barents Sea were studied. In addition, to elucidate the range from less to very affected, surface sediments from the harbor of the town of Hammerfest (70 N) were studied. At least 300 living benthic foraminifera from the size fraction 100 m-1 mm were counted and identified at species level. Pollution levels (heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants) and sediment properties (grainsize and TOC) were also analyzed. Pollution levels at the sea floor in the SW Barents Sea are of background to good level (level I-II) according to the definitions by the Water Framework Directorate (WFD). Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are influenced by natural environmental parameters such as water mass properties, water depth, nutrient availability, bottom current strength, and grain size. Surface sediments from the Hammerfest harbor are of moderate environmental status (WFD level II-III) based on heavy metal concentrations and of bad environmental status (WFD IV-V) based on persistent organic pollutant concentrations. Opportunistic benthic foraminifera are dominating the assemblages. The most polluted areas in the harbor are barren for foraminifera or have high amounts of deformed shells. In both environments the foraminiferal diversity of the samples, does not correspond to expected environmental status based on the pollution levels of the sediments. Environmental status classes, based on benthic foraminifera instead of macrofauna, would allow rapid analyses of the environmental impact of pollution.

  6. Multiscale patterns in the diversity and organization of benthic intertidal fauna among French Atlantic estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Hugues; Gouillieux, Benot; Alizier, Sandrine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Bachelet, Guy; Barill, Anne-Laure; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Derolez, Valrie; Desroy, Nicolas; Grall, Jacques; Grmare, Antoine; Hacquebart, Pascal; Jourde, Jrme; Labrune, Cline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Meirland, Alain; Nebout, Thiebaut; Olivier, Frdric; Pelaprat, Corine; Ruellet, Thierry; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Thorin, Sbastien

    2014-07-01

    Based on a parallel sampling conducted during autumn 2008, a comparative study of the intertidal benthic macrofauna among 10 estuarine systems located along the Channel and Atlantic coasts of France was performed in order to assess the level of fauna similarity among these sites and to identify possible environmental factors involved in the observed pattern at both large (among sites) and smaller (benthic assemblages) scales. More precisely this study focused on unraveling the observed pattern of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity observed at among-site scale by exploring both biotic and abiotic factors acting at the among- and within-site scales. Results showed a limited level of similarity at the among-site level in terms of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity. The observed pattern did not fit with existing transitional water classification methods based on fish or benthic assemblages developed in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). More particularly, the coastal plain estuaries displayed higher among-site similarity compared to ria systems. These coastal plain estuaries were characterized by higher influence of river discharge, lower communication with the ocean and high suspended particulate matter levels. On the other hand, the ria-type systems were more dissimilar and different from the coastal plain estuaries. The level of similarity among estuaries was mainly linked to the relative extent of the intertidal Scrobicularia plana-Cerastoderma edule and Tellina tenuis or Venus communities as a possible consequence of salinity regime, suspended matter concentrations and fine particles supply with consequences on the trophic functioning, structure and organization of benthic fauna. Despite biogeographical patterns, the results also suggest that, in the context of the WFD, these estuaries should only be compared on the basis of the most common intertidal habitat occurring throughout all estuarine systems and that the EUNIS biotope classification might be used for this purpose. In addition, an original inverse relation between ?-diversity and area was shown; however, its relevance might be questioned.

  7. Benthic diversity gradients and shifting baselines: implications for assessing environmental status.

    PubMed

    Villns, A; Norkko, A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing pressure on marine biodiversity emphasizes the importance of finding benchmarks against which to assess change. This is, however, a notoriously difficult task in estuarine ecosystems, where environmental gradients are steep, and where benthic biodiversity is highly variable in space and time. Although recent emphasis on diverse, healthy benthic communities in legislative frameworks has increased the number of indices developed for assessing benthic status, there is a lack of quantitative baselines in benthic diversity that would enable comparisons across broad spatial scales, encompassing different environmental settings and bioregions. By taking advantage of long-term monitoring data, spanning hundreds of stations over the past 40 years, we provide a comprehensive analysis of benthic a, beta, and gamma diversity, encompassing the entire' salinity gradient of the open sea areas of the large, brackish-water Baltic Sea. Using a relatively simple measure, average regional diversity, we define area-specific reference conditions and acceptable deviation against which to gauge current conditions in benthic macrofaunal diversity. Results show a severely impaired condition throughout large areas of the Baltic for the assessment period 2001-2006. All ecosystems are plagued by baselines that shift in time and space, and their definition is not trivial, but average regional diversity may offer a transparent way to deal with such changes in low-diversity systems. Identifying baselines will be of increasing importance given the potential of climatic drivers to interact with local anthropogenic stressors to affect patterns of biodiversity. Our analysis provides an evaluation of the current condition in a system that has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic impact and changing oceanographic conditions, and it provides a basis for future impact assessment and ecosystem-based management. PMID:21939052

  8. Crater lake cichlids individually specialize along the benthiclimnetic axis

    PubMed Central

    Kusche, Henrik; Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn Rebecca; Meyer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A common pattern of adaptive diversification in freshwater fishes is the repeated evolution of elongated open water (limnetic) species and high-bodied shore (benthic) species from generalist ancestors. Studies on phenotype-diet correlations have suggested that population-wide individual specialization occurs at an early evolutionary and ecological stage of divergence and niche partitioning. This variable restricted niche use across individuals can provide the raw material for earliest stages of sympatric divergence. We investigated variation in morphology and diet as well as their correlations along the benthic-limnetic axis in an extremely young Midas cichlid species, Amphilophus tolteca, endemic to the Nicaraguan crater lake Asososca Managua. We found that A.tolteca varied continuously in ecologically relevant traits such as body shape and lower pharyngeal jaw morphology. The correlation of these phenotypes with niche suggested that individuals are specialized along the benthic-limnetic axis. No genetic differentiation within the crater lake was detected based on genotypes from 13 microsatellite loci. Overall, we found that individual specialization in this young crater lake species encompasses the limnetic-as well as the benthic macro-habitat. Yet there is no evidence for any diversification within the species, making this a candidate system for studying what might be the early stages preceding sympatric divergence. A common pattern of adaptive diversification in freshwater fishes is the repeated evolution of open water (limnetic) species and of shore (benthic) species. Individual specialization can reflect earliest stages of evolutionary and ecological divergence. We here demonstrate individual specialization along the benthiclimnetic axis in a young adaptive radiation of crater lake cichlid fishes. PMID:24772288

  9. Oxygen Respiration rates of benthic foraminifera measured under laboratory conditions using oxygen microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geslin, Emmanuelle; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Langlet, D.; Metzger, E.; Jorissen, F.

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen respiration rates of benthic foraminifera are not well documented because of the difficulties to measure them. However, the determination of the respiration rates of benthic foraminifera is important in order: 1) to compare the metabolic rates of different species, of various size, and with different microhabitats in the sediment; 2) to estimate the contribution of benthic foraminifera in the aerobic mineralization of organic matter. Benthic foraminifera from 4 different natural environments were used: three species from the intertidal rocky shore of Yeu island, two species from the muddy Bay of Aiguillon, two species from the Bay of Biscay and eleven species from the Rhne prodelta (France). Living foraminifera were placed in a small tube, in which oxygen gradients were determined using oxygen microelectrodes. Respiration rates were calculated on the basis of the oxygen fluxes measured in the vivinity of the foraminiferal specimens. Foraminiferal biovolumes were estimated on the basis of the overall shape of the various species (for example, Ammonia is assimilated to a half sphere) and the width of the shell walls. The results show a wide range of respiration rates according to the species (around 90 to 5300 pmol. cell-1.day-1) and a clear correlation with the biovolume of the foraminifera. No clear relationship between respiration rates and microhabitat is observed. A comparison with previously published data shows that our estimations are generally lower for the small size species. For example, the respiration rate estimations published recently by Nomaki et al. (Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 37, 281-286, 2007) show a range of 900 to 10 000 pmol. cell-1.day-1. The total contribution of benthic foraminifera in the aerobic mineralization of organic matter is estimated for the studied areas. The first results suggest a minor role of benthic foraminifera in this process, which strongly contrasts with their strong contribution to anaerobic mineralisation of organic matter in the same areas (Pina-Ochoa et al., PNAS, 2009).

  10. Distribution and abundance of benthic organisms in the Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, Rodger F.; Green, D. Brady

    1977-01-01

    General comparisons were made between benthic organism samples collected in 1960-61 and 1972-73 from five sites in the Sacramento River between Red Bluff and Knights Landing, Calif. The composition of benthic organisms from both collection periods was similar. The 1972-73 data showed variable patterns in monthly changes at each site and downstream changes each month with number of organisms per square meter, number of taxa per square meter, and diversity index. Generally, the mean number of taxa per square meter and diversity index for all sampling periods were higher in the upper reach than the lower reach of the Sacramento River. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. An unusually large phytoplankton spring bloom drives rapid changes in benthic diversity and ecosystem function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingtian; Warwick, Richard M.; McNeill, Caroline L.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Sheehan, Aaron; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the Western English Channel experienced an unusually large and long-lived phytoplankton spring bloom. When compared with data from the past 20 years, average phytoplankton biomass at Station L4 (part of the Western Channel Observatory) was approximately 3× greater and lasted 50% longer than any previous year. Regular (mostly weekly) box core samples were collected from this site before, during and after the bloom to determine its impact on macrofaunal abundance, diversity, biomass, community structure and function. The spring bloom of 2012 was shown to support a large and rapid response in the majority of benthic taxa and functional groups. However, key differences in the precise nature of this response, as well as in its timing, was observed between different macrofauna feeding groups. Deposit feeders responded almost instantly at the start of the bloom, primarily thorough an increase in abundance. Suspension feeders and opportunistic/predatory/carnivorous taxa responded slightly more slowly and primarily with an increase in biomass. At the end of the bloom a rapid decline in macrobenthic abundance, diversity and biomass closely followed the decline in phytoplankton biomass. With suspension feeders showing evidence of this decline a few weeks before deposit feeders, it was concluded that this collapse in benthic communities was driven primarily by food availability and competition. However, it is possible that environmental hypoxia and the presence of toxic benthic cyanobacteria could also have contributed to this decline. This study shows evidence for strong benthic-pelagic coupling at L4; a shallow (50 m), coastal, fine-sand habitat. It also demonstrates that in such habitats, it is not just planktonic organisms that demonstrate clear community phenology. Different functional groups within the benthic assemblage will respond to the spring bloom in specific manner, with implications for key ecosystem functions and processes, such as secondary production and bioturbation. Only by taking integrated benthic and pelagic observations over such fine temporal scales (weekly) was the current study able to identify the intimate structure of the benthic response. Similar studies from other habitats and under different bloom conditions are urgently needed to fully appreciate the strength of benthic-pelagic coupling in shallow coastal environments.

  12. Multiple tube sampler for benthic and pelagic invertebrates in shallow wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Swanson, G.A.; MacKay, J.

    1992-01-01

    Sampling devices that minimize bias and function in aquatic habitats used by waterfowl are needed. We devised a multiple tube sampling device for quantitative sampling of small (<3 cm) aquatic invertebrates in wetlands. The sampler reduced bias associated with sampling macroinvertebrates that utilize the benthic-pelagic interface because it simultaneously collects benthic and water column invertebrates. The sampler was statistically superior to other sampling devices because each sampling effort provided 4 subsamples and a within-sample variance that could be estimated. The device also was durable and reasonably inexpensive to construct.

  13. Benthic macrofauna and ancillary data for San Francisco Bay, California, March to November 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Ota, Allan Y.; Harmon, J.G.; Shay, J.M.; Adorado, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Benthic macrofauna and ancillary data were collected during 1987 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Effects Monitoring Program in San Francisco Bay, California. Data were collected during five cruises at 2-month intervals from March through November. Benthic macrofauna for identification of species and sediment for size analysis were sampled at eight stations. Ancillary data, which consisted of salinity, temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and suspended sediment, were collected at 12 stations. Salinity and temperature were measured at three stations that coincided with continuous water quality monitors. Abundances and geographical distributions of a newly introduced species of clam were measured. (USGS)

  14. Effects of gut sediment contents on measurements of metal levels in benthic invertebrates - a cautionary note

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    Studies of heavy metal levels in benthic organisms typically do not correct for gut sediment metal levels other than by allowing a period of depuration in clean water. The effectiveness of depuration has recently been questioned in British Columbia in the particular case of the marine clam Yoldia. In light of this controversy, it appears appropriate to present data from a study of heavy metal levels in sediments and benthic organisms in the Lower Fraser River, BC, regarding the effects of gut sediment contents.

  15. The distribution and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna in Pondicherry mangroves, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Species distribution, abundance and diversity of mangrove benthic macroinvertebrate fauna and the relationships to environmental conditions are important parts of understanding the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems. In this study seasonal variation in the distribution of macrobenthos and related environmental parameters were explored at four mangrove stations along the Pondicherry coast of India, from September 2008 to July 2010. Multivariate statistical analyses, including cluster analysis, principal component analysis and non-multidimensional scales plot were employed to help define trophic status, water quality and benthic characteristic at the four monitoring stations. Results Among the 528 samples collected over 168 ha of mangrove forest 76 species of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna were identified. Macrofauna were mainly composed of deposit feeders, dominated numerically by molluscs and crustaceans. Statistical analyses yielded the following descriptors of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna species distribution: densities between 1401113 ind. m-2, dominance 0.17-0.50, diversity 1.80-2.83 bits ind-1, richness 0.47-0.74 and evenness 0.45-0.72, equitability 0.38-0.77, berger parker 0.31-0.77 and fisher alpha 2.46-5.70. Increases of species diversity and abundance were recorded during the post monsoon season at station 1 and the lowest diversity was recorded at station 2 during the monsoon season. The pollution indicator organisms Cassidula nucleus, Melampus ceylonicus, Sphaerassiminea minuta were found only at the two most polluted regions, i.e. stations 3 and 4. Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna abundances were inversely related to salinity at the four stations, Based on Bray-Curtis similarity through hierarchical clustering implemented in PAST, it was possible to define three distinct benthic assemblages at the stations. Conclusions From a different multivariate statistical analysis of the different environmental parameters regarding species diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna, it was found that benthic communities are highly affected by all the environmental parameters governing the distribution and diversity variation of the macrofaunal community in Pondicherry mangroves. Salinity, dissolved oxygen levels, organic matter content, sulphide concentration were the most significant parameters. PMID:23937801

  16. Interactions between benthic predators and zooplanktonic prey are affected by turbulent waves.

    PubMed

    Robinson, H E; Finelli, C M; Koehl, M A R

    2013-11-01

    Predators capture prey in complex and variable environments. In the ocean, bottom-dwelling (benthic) organisms are subjected to water currents, waves, and turbulent eddies. For benthic predators that feed on small animals carried in the water (zooplankton), flow not only delivers prey, but can also shape predator-prey interactions. Benthic passive suspension feeders collect prey delivered by movement of ambient water onto capture-surfaces, whereas motile benthic predators, such as burrow-dwelling fish, dart out to catch passing zooplankton. How does the flow of ambient water affect these contrasting modes of predation by benthic zooplanktivores? We studied the effects of turbulent, wavy flow on the encounter, capture, and retention of motile zooplanktonic prey (copepods, Acartia spp.) by passive benthic suspension feeders (sea anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima). Predator-prey interactions were video-recorded in a wave-generating flume under two regimes of oscillating flow with different peak wave velocities and levels of turbulent kinetic energy ("weak" and "strong" waves). Rates of encounter (number of prey passing through a sea anemone's capture zone per time), capture (prey contacting and sticking to tentacles per time), and retention (prey retained on tentacles, without struggling free or washing off, per time) were measured at both strengths of waves. Strong waves enhanced encounter rates both for dead copepods and for actively swimming copepods, but there was so much variability in the behavior of the live prey that the effect of wave strength on encounter rates was not significant. Trapping efficiency (number of prey retained per number encountered) was the same in both flow regimes because, although fewer prey executed maneuvers to escape capture in strong waves, more of the captured prey was washed off the predators' tentacles. Although peak water velocities and turbulence of waves did not affect feeding rates of passive suspension-feeding sea anemones, increases in these aspects of flow have been shown to enhance feeding rates and efficiency of motile benthic fish that lunge out of their burrows to catch zooplankton. Faster, more turbulent flow interferes with the ability of prey to detect predators and execute escape maneuvers, and thus enhances capture rates both for passive suspension-feeding predators and for actively swimming predators. However, prey captured in the mouths of fish are not washed away by ambient flow, whereas prey captured on the tentacles of suspension feeders can be swept off before they are ingested. Therefore, the effects of flowing water on predation on zooplankton by benthic animals depend on the feeding mode of the predator. PMID:23942646

  17. Correspondence of stream benthic invertebrate assemblages to regional classification schemes in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabeni, C.F.; Doisy, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic invertebrates from 44 reference streams throughout the state of Missouri were examined for their concordance with established regionalization systems, both aquatic and terrestrial. Invertebrate assemblages coincided nicely with Pflieger's established aquatic faunal regions system, expanding its generality to more than fish assemblages. Our benthic invertebrate and Pflieger's fish assemblages coincided well with both Bailey's ecological sections and Omernik's ecoregions. Subregionalization using Pflieger's subregions and Bailey's subsections further reduced unexplained variation and is recommended for use wherever possible. The concordance of the aquatic fauna and terrestrial features implies the possibility of coordinated regional management among different natural resource disciplines.

  18. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, S.E.; Asper, V.L.

    1997-09-01

    The authors objective was to characterize distributions of chloropigment fluorescence in relation to physical processes in the benthic boundary layer in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Ocean Margins Program`s (OMP) goal of quantifying carbon transport across the continental shelf. Their approach involved participation in the Ocean Margins Program (OMP) field experiment on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras by conducting multi-sensor fluorescence measurements of photosynthetic pigments. Specific tasks included (1) pre- and post-deployment calibration of multiple fluorescence sensors in conjunction with Woods Hole personnel; (2) collection and analysis of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and total particulate carbon in water column samples to aid in interpretation of the fluorescence time-series during the field experiment; (3) collaboration in the analysis and interpretation of 1994 and 1996 time-series data in support of efforts to quantify pigment and particulate organic carbon transport on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras. This third component included analysis of data obtained with a multi-sensor fiber-optic fluorometer in the benthic boundary layer of the inner shelf off Cape Hatteras during summer 1994.

  19. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Results Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearmans rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p <0.05) and negatively with clay and organic matter, except for evenness values (p >0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution and community structuring is more strongly influenced by sediment particle characteristics than by the chemical properties of the water (pH and salinity). Conclusions Infaunal estuarine communities, which are typically adapted to survive relatively acidic conditions, may be less exposed, less sensitive, and less vulnerable than epibenthic or pelagic communities to further acidification of above-sediment waters. These data question the extent to which all marine infaunal communities, including oceanic communities, are likely to be affected by future global CO2-driven acidification. PMID:25396048

  20. The relation between invertebrate drift and two primary controls, discharge and benthic densities, in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Theodore A.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Grams, Paul E.; Yard, Michael D.; Copp, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invertebrate drift is a fundamental process in streams and rivers. Studies from laboratory experiments and small streams have identified numerous extrinsic (e.g. discharge, light intensity, water quality) and intrinsic factors (invertebrate life stage, benthic density, behaviour) that govern invertebrate drift concentrations (# m?3), but the factors that govern invertebrate drift in larger rivers remain poorly understood. For example, while large increases or decreases in discharge can lead to large increases in invertebrate drift, the role of smaller, incremental changes in discharge is poorly described. In addition, while we might expect invertebrate drift concentrations to be proportional to benthic densities (# m?2), the benthicdrift relation has not been rigorously evaluated. 2. Here, we develop a framework for modelling invertebrate drift that is derived from sediment transport studies. We use this framework to guide the analysis of high-resolution data sets of benthic density and drift concentration for four important invertebrate taxa from the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (mean daily discharge 325 m3 s?1) that were collected over 18 months and include multiple observations within days. Ramping of regulated flows on this river segment provides an experimental treatment that is repeated daily and allowed us to describe the functional relations between invertebrate drift and two primary controls, discharge and benthic densities. 3. Twofold daily variation in discharge resulted in a >10-fold increase in drift concentrations of benthic invertebrates associated with pools and detritus (i.e. Gammarus lacustris and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). In contrast, drift concentrations of sessile blackfly larvae (Simuliium arcticum), which are associated with high-velocity cobble microhabitats, decreased by over 80% as discharge doubled. Drift concentrations of Chironomidae increased proportional to discharge. 4. Drift of all four taxa was positively related to benthic density. Drift concentrations of Gammarus, Potamopyrgus and Chironomidae were proportional to benthic density. Drift concentrations of Simulium were positively related to benthic density, but the benthicdrift relation was less than proportional (i.e. a doubling of benthic density only led to a 40% increase in drift concentrations). 5. Our study demonstrates that invertebrate drift concentrations in the Colorado River are jointly controlled by discharge and benthic densities, but these controls operate at different timescales. Twofold daily variation in discharge associated with hydropeaking was the primary control on within-day variation in invertebrate drift concentrations. In contrast, benthic density, which varied 10- to 1000-fold among sampling dates, depending on the taxa, was the primary control on invertebrate drift concentrations over longer timescales (weeks to months).

  1. Relationship between the pore density in benthic foraminifera and bottom-water oxygen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnt, T.; Friedrich, O.; Schmiedl, G.; Milker, Y.; Mackensen, A.; Schiebel, R.

    2012-04-01

    Reliable estimates of bottom-water oxygen contents are crucial to understand the formation of past oxygen-depleted environments. Here, we investigate the relationship between pore density in calcareous benthic foraminiferal (BF) tests and measured oxygen concentrations of the surrounding bottom-waters (BW-O2) in living (Rose Bengal stained) specimens of the shallow-infaunal species Bolivina pacifica, and the three deep-infaunal species Fursenkoina mexicana, Globobulimina turgida, and Chilostomella oolina. Used samples span a wide oxygen-gradient across oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) off Namibia and Pakistan. Bolivina pacifica, F. mexicana and G. turgida display a significant negative exponential correlation between the pore density and BW-O2, indicating a morphological response of the foraminifers to decreasing oxygenation. Supporting previous results, we suggest that an increasing number of pores improves the ability of oxygen uptake in low-oxygen environments. This morphological response can be used to establish an independent proxy for BW-O2. The inter-specific comparison of the dependency of pore density and BW-O2 reveals a steeper gradient for B. pacifica than for F. mexicana, and G. turgida. We hypothesize that the inter-specific pore density-BW-O2-relationship may reflect their species-specific microhabitat preferences. The shallow-infaunal species B. pacifica is probably stronger affected by oxygen depletions than the two deep-infaunal species F. mexicana, and G. turgida. Our results for the deep-infaunal species C. oolina show no significant relationship between pore density and BW-O2. This suggests that C. oolina has another life-strategy to survive sustained low-oxic conditions than increasing its pore density. Overall, we propose that the pore density of individual BF species provides a valuable independent proxy to reconstruct ancient bottom-water oxygenation. To test the application of this proxy in fossil assemblages, we used the organic-carbon rich sapropel layer S1 in two cores from the North Agean Sea to illustrate the decrease in BW-O2 before and during the sapropel formation as well as the BW-O2 increase afterwards.

  2. SPATIAL PATTERNS AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF BENTHIC ALGAL ASSEMBLAGES IN MID-ATLANTIC STREAMS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We attempted to identify spatial patterns and determinants for benthic algal assemblages in Mid-Atlantic streams. Periphyton, water chemistry, stream physical habitat, riparian conditions, and land cover/use in watersheds were characterized at 89 randomly selected stream sites i...

  3. Subtidal benthic macroinfaunal assemblages in tropical estuaries: generality amongst highly variable gradients.

    PubMed

    Barros, Francisco; de Carvalho, Gilson Correia; Costa, Yuri; Hatje, Vanessa

    2012-10-01

    South American estuaries are frequently not included in the search for general ecological models and studies dealing with biological assemblages in estuaries frequently do not sample the entire salinity gradient. We sampled three tropical estuaries, two times each, on ten stations distributed along each system. Six replicates were collected in each station for the benthic macroinfauna and sediment samples for grain size and inorganic contaminant analyses. There were finer sediments at the lower than at the upper estuarine portions. There was a decrease in the diversity, at family level, from marine to freshwater and the differences on the structure of the benthic assemblages were mostly spatial. In spite of the many different characteristics of the three estuaries (e.g. catchment size, pollution levels, proximity with the inner continental shelf) several consistent patterns of benthic macrofauna distribution along these systems were still observed. It suggested a general empirical model regarding the distribution of different benthic invertebrates along tropical salinity gradients which can be tested in different estuaries around the world. PMID:22975382

  4. Paradox of estuarine quality: benthic indicators and indices, consensus or debate for the future.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive will have instituted the concept of Ecological Quality Status (EQS) as a way to assess the biological quality of water masses. The EQS will be based mainly upon the composition of the different biological compartments in the ecosystem specially the benthos as compared to certain reference sites. Such management tools are already well established for freshwater (i.e. biotic indices), but not for coastal and estuarine (i.e. transitional) waters. In the framework of the Seine-Aval programme a workshop on benthic indicators was organized at Wimereux (France) in June 2005. The aim of this workshop and this paper is (1) to present the experiences of the Seine Aval researchers, and the French scientific approaches to benthic indicators, with those international experiences and approaches that have been published or are under development; and (2) to examine the existing benthic tools and their possible use in the characterization of the state of estuarine ecosystems. The debate during the workshop and the numerous recently published on the WFD are discussed in term of the implementation of the WFD in transitional water bodies using benthic indicators and indices. Some proposals for the future underline the needs to re-examine and adapt the different index thresholds, to take into account physical disturbances, to inventory the existing conditions vs reference conditions and to be as pragmatic as possible in using the WFD in transitional waters. PMID:17007892

  5. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  6. Development of Benthic Indicators for Nearshore Coastal Waters of New Jersey - A REMAP Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is providing the first complete, consistent dataset on the condition of benthic communities in the nation's estuaries. Prior to NCA, New Jersey based its evaluation of the ecological condition of its coastal waters solely on dissolved oxyg...

  7. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN ESTUARIES ALONG THE GULF OF MEXICO AND WESTERN ATLANTIC COASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates from 870 estuarine sites was examimed in order to either confirm or challenge established boundaries of biogeographical provinces along the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic coasts of the United States. The objective was t...

  8. DEVELOPING AND APPLYING A BENTHIC INDEX OF ESTUARINE CONDITION FOR THE VIRGINIAN BIOGEOGRAPHIC PROVINCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A benthic index of estuarine condition was constructed for the Virginian Biogeographic Province (from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia) with data collected during summers of 1990 through 1993 by the US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment...

  9. Temporal variations of benthic diatom community and its main influencing factors in a subtropical river, China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiang; Xia, Xiaoling; Zhao, Qiaoling; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-01-01

    Benthic diatoms are the main component in many aquatic ecosystems such as streams, creeks and rivers, and they function as important primary producers and chemical modulators for other organisms in the ecosystems. In this study, the composition of benthic diatoms was investigated and further explored the primary physicals and chemicals affecting their temporal variations in the upper Han River, China. There were seasonal variations in physical and chemical variables in waters over the sampling period of 2007-2010. Water temperature (t), chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), silica and fluoride were much higher in the high flow season (i.e., July or August) than these in the base flow season. Three species Achnanthidium minutissimum (composed of 10.7% of the total diatom abundance), Achnanthidium pyrenaicum (11.9%), and Achnanthidium subatomus (12.7%) accounting for more than 5% of the total diatom abundance were persistently dominant in all seasons, while the other two prostrate and motile species including Eolimna minima and Nitzschia dissipata also dominant in the base flow season. The species richness always peaked in autumn with significant difference with summer (p?benthic diatom varied and peaked in April. Analyses indicated that the temporal variation in benthic diatom communities was strongly related to t, nitrogen, organic pollutants (indicated by COD and DOC), and hydrological regime. The research will expand the understanding of water chemistry monitoring, and improve watershed- scale management and conservation efforts in the upper Han River, China. PMID:23794080

  10. Half-Against-Half structure in classification of benthic macroinvertebrate images.

    PubMed

    Joutsijoki, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates play a key role when water quality assessments are made. Benthic macroinvertebrates are difficult to identify and their identification need special expertise. Furthermore, manual identification is slow and expensive process. This paper concerns benthic macroinverte-brate classification when Half-Against-Half (HAH) structure was applied to Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and Minimum Mahalanobis Distance Classifier (MMDC) classifiers. Especially, LDA, QDA and MMDC classifiers were for first time applied with HAH structure to benthic macroinvertebrate classification. We performed thorough experiments altogether with ten methods. In the case of HAH-SVM we managed to improve classification results from the earlier research by using a different approach to class division problem. We obtained 96.1% classification accuracy with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel. Moreover, new variants of LDA, QDA and MMDC classification methods achieved 89.5% and 91.6% classification accuracies which can be considered as a good result in such a difficult classification task. PMID:24110520

  11. Recent benthic foraminifera from the Caribbean continental slope and shelf off west of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia

    2015-07-01

    A quantitative benthic foraminiferal analysis was conducted on 30 sea-floor sediment samples distributed along the continental slope and shelf in Fuerte Area (Colombian Caribbean), between 39 and 2469 m water depth. The aims of the research were to provide data on the distribution of southwestern Caribbean Recent benthic foraminifera, to estimate changes in the foraminiferal distribution related to the bathymetry and the characteristics of the substrate, to define a data-bank on distribution of recent tropical benthic foraminifera from the southwestern Caribbean, to provide reference on foraminiferal distribution that can be used in bathymetric reconstructions of ancient environments. Three different assemblages corresponding to three different environments were identified by cluster analysis. Assemblage A, characterized by variable percentages of porcellaneous, hyaline and agglutinated benthic foraminifera indicative of shelf environments. Assemblage B, dominated by calcareous hyaline foraminifera mainly composed of infaunal foraminifera corresponding to upper bathyal, marine conditions. Assemblage C, composed by agglutinated and calcareous hyaline foraminifera characteristic of normal deep-water marine environments.

  12. Eutrophication and Hypoxia Degrade Ecosystem Functions and Services of Narragansett Bay Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excessive input of nitrogen to estuaries and coastal waters leads to eutrophication; the resulting organic matter over-enrichment of the sediments and seasonal hypoxia of the bottom water have well-known deleterious effects on benthic community biodiversity, abundance, and biomas...

  13. Intertidal Eelgrass Response to Benthic Macroalgal Accumulation in a Pacific Northwest Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    High accumulations of benthic macroalgae from excessive nutrient inputs to estuaries is commonly cited as a major cause of seagrass decline. Two measures of macroalgal abundance, biomass and percent cover, have been used in an assessment framework for estuarine condition propose...

  14. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEAGRASSES, BENTHIC MACROALGAE AND NUTRIENTS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest estuaries are characterized by large tidal ranges (2-3 m) that routinely expose submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as seagrass and benthic macroalgae. The dominant native seagrass in PNW estuaries is the eelgrass Zostera marina. However, in recent decades...

  16. Effects of heavy metals on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in New Zealand streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.W.; Clements, W.H.

    1998-11-01

    The authors performed chemical analyses of heavy metals in water and periphyton, toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and an indigenous mayfly (Deleatidium sp.), and field surveys of benthic macroinvertebrates to estimate the degree of metal pollution in three catchments in the Coromandel Peninsula of New Zealand. Good agreement was found between toxicity tests and measures of benthic community structure, particularly at stations with the highest metal levels. Responses of benthic communities at stations with low or moderate levels of metal contamination were variable and were probably confounded by factors other than heavy metals. Effects of heavy metals on benthic communities in New Zealand streams were similar to those reported for metal-polluted streams in North America and Europe, suggesting that responses to metal contamination are predictable. Abundance and species richness of mayflies, number of taxa in the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, and total taxonomic richness were the best indicators of heavy metals in New Zealand streams. In contrast, the quantitative macroinvertebrate community index (QMCI), a biotic index proposed for assessing effects of organic enrichment in New Zealand streams, could not distinguish between reference and metal-polluted streams. The poor performance of the QMCI was primarily due to incorrect tolerance scores for some taxa to heavy metals. Because of concerns regarding the subjective assignment of tolerance values to species, the authors recommend that tolerance values for dominant species in New Zealand streams should be verified experimentally in stream microcosms.

  17. High-throughput sequencing and morphology perform equally well for benthic monitoring of marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pillet, Loïc; Wilding, Thomas A; Black, Kenneth D; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental diversity surveys are crucial for the bioassessment of anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems. Traditional benthic monitoring relying on morphotaxonomic inventories of macrofaunal communities is expensive, time-consuming and expertise-demanding. High-throughput sequencing of environmental DNA barcodes (metabarcoding) offers an alternative to describe biological communities. However, whether the metabarcoding approach meets the quality standards of benthic monitoring remains to be tested. Here, we compared morphological and eDNA/RNA-based inventories of metazoans from samples collected at 10 stations around a fish farm in Scotland, including near-cage and distant zones. For each of 5 replicate samples per station, we sequenced the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene using the Illumina technology. After filtering, we obtained 841,766 metazoan sequences clustered in 163 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We assigned the OTUs by combining local BLAST searches with phylogenetic analyses. We calculated two commonly used indices: the Infaunal Trophic Index and the AZTI Marine Biotic Index. We found that the molecular data faithfully reflect the morphology-based indices and provides an equivalent assessment of the impact associated with fish farms activities. We advocate that future benthic monitoring should integrate metabarcoding as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of marine benthic ecosystems. PMID:26355099

  18. Paleoecology of benthic foraminifera from the Miocene of the San Jacinto Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, John Sebastian; Fiorini, Flavia; Andres Trejos, Raul; Vallejo, Diego Felipe; Pardo, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative benthic foraminifera analysis was conducted on 34 samples collected from a borehole core (393.72m deep) drilled by Colombian Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) on 2009 in the San Jacinto basin (Northern Colombia). The aims of the research were to define a taxonomical data-bank of Miocene benthic foraminifera for this region, to use the benthic foraminifera assemblages to interpret the paleoenvironment and to identify paleoenvironmental changes. The bottom of the section was dated between lowest Burdigalian to middle Langhian (20.393-17.721 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils bioevents: LO Helicosphaera ampliaperta, HCO Sphenolithus belemnos and LCO Sphenolithus heteromorphus. The benthic foraminifera fauna identified in the studied samples is composed for the majority of calcareous hyaline tests and is dominated by infaunal taxas. Species belonging to the genera Uvigerina and Lenticulina are commonly occurring in the studied section together with other species typical of outer-shelf upper-bathyal environment. Cibicidoides spp., abundant in the lower part of the section, abruptly decreases in abundance in the upper part. Species belonging to the opportunistic genera Bulimina and Bolivina are more abundant in the upper part of the section. Variability in the abundance of opportunistic species can be associated with tectonic disturbance on the Sinu-San Jacinto fold belt (NW of Colombia) as a result of collision of the Caribbean plate against NW of South America. The tectonics could lead a perturbation on deep ocean sedimentation and circulation.

  19. IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA AND BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE RESPONSE AS INDEX OF IMPACT FROM URBANIZATION ON FRESHWATER WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of benthic macroinvertebrates to monitor water quality and ecological integrity is not as well established for wetlands as it is for rivers, streams and lakes where this form of biomonitoring is now a formalized procedure. he impact to wetlands from urbanization (as measu...

  20. High-throughput sequencing and morphology perform equally well for benthic monitoring of marine ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pillet, Loïc; Wilding, Thomas A.; Black, Kenneth D.; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental diversity surveys are crucial for the bioassessment of anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems. Traditional benthic monitoring relying on morphotaxonomic inventories of macrofaunal communities is expensive, time-consuming and expertise-demanding. High-throughput sequencing of environmental DNA barcodes (metabarcoding) offers an alternative to describe biological communities. However, whether the metabarcoding approach meets the quality standards of benthic monitoring remains to be tested. Here, we compared morphological and eDNA/RNA-based inventories of metazoans from samples collected at 10 stations around a fish farm in Scotland, including near-cage and distant zones. For each of 5 replicate samples per station, we sequenced the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene using the Illumina technology. After filtering, we obtained 841,766 metazoan sequences clustered in 163 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We assigned the OTUs by combining local BLAST searches with phylogenetic analyses. We calculated two commonly used indices: the Infaunal Trophic Index and the AZTI Marine Biotic Index. We found that the molecular data faithfully reflect the morphology-based indices and provides an equivalent assessment of the impact associated with fish farms activities. We advocate that future benthic monitoring should integrate metabarcoding as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of marine benthic ecosystems. PMID:26355099

  1. Abundance variations of benthic foraminifera in Upper Oligocene and Miocene strata of south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, L.L.; Sen Gupta, B.K.

    1986-09-01

    Abundance variations of benthic foraminifera in some upper Oligocene and Miocene strata of south Louisiana were studied to evaluate trends of species dominance, associations, and faunal diversity. Fifty-seven well-cutting samples were obtained from eleven wells in six parishes: Vermilion, St. Mary, St. Martin, Assumption, Terrebonne, and Lafourche. In addition, core samples were obtained from two wells in Terrebonne Parish.

  2. Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Guánica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November – December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

  3. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  4. DMSP in Corals and Benthic Algae from the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, A. D.; Jones, G. B.; Jones, R. J.

    2002-10-01

    In this study the first measurements of DMSP in six species of corals and ten species of benthic algae collected from four coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef are reported, together with DMSP measurements made on cultured zooxanthellae. Concentrations ranged from 21 to 3831 (mean=743) fmol DMSP zooxanthellae -1 in corals, 0·16 to 2·96 nmol DMSP cm -2 (mean=90) for benthic macroalgae, and 48-285 fmol DMSP zooxanthellae -1 (mean=153) for cultured zooxanthellae. The highest concentrations of DMSP in corals occurred in Acropora formosa (mean=371 fmol DMSP zooxanthellae -1) and Acropora palifera (mean=3341 fmol DMSP zooxanthellae -1) with concentrations in A. palifera the highest DMSP concentrations reported in corals examined to date. As well as inter-specific differences in DMSP, intra-specific variation was also observed. Adjacent colonies of A. formosa that are known to have different thermal bleaching thresholds and morphologically distinct zooxanthellae, were also observed to have different DMSP concentrations, with the zooxanthellae in the colony that bleached containing DMSP at an average concentration of 436 fmol zooxanthellae -1, whilst the non-bleaching colony contained DMSP at an average concentration of 171 fmol zooxanthellae -1. The results of the present study have been used to calculate the area normalized DMSP concentrations in benthic algae (mean=0·015 mmol m -2) and corals (mean=2·22 mmol m -2) from the GBR. This data indicates that benthic algae and corals are a significant reservoir of DMSP in GBR waters.

  5. Benthic macroinvertebrates in lake ecological assessment: A review of methods, intercalibration and practical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Poikane, Sandra; Johnson, Richard K; Sandin, Leonard; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Solimini, Angelo G; Urbanič, Gorazd; Arbačiauskas, Kęstutis; Aroviita, Jukka; Gabriels, Wim; Miler, Oliver; Pusch, Martin T; Timm, Henn; Böhmer, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Legislation in Europe has been adopted to determine and improve the ecological integrity of inland and coastal waters. Assessment is based on four biotic groups, including benthic macroinvertebrate communities. For lakes, benthic invertebrates have been recognized as one of the most difficult organism groups to use in ecological assessment, and hitherto their use in ecological assessment has been limited. In this study, we review and intercalibrate 13 benthic invertebrate-based tools across Europe. These assessment tools address different human impacts: acidification (3 methods), eutrophication (3 methods), morphological alterations (2 methods), and a combination of the last two (5 methods). For intercalibration, the methods were grouped into four intercalibration groups, according to the habitat sampled and putative pressure. Boundaries of the 'good ecological status' were compared and harmonized using direct or indirect comparison approaches. To enable indirect comparison of the methods, three common pressure indices and two common biological multimetric indices were developed for larger geographical areas. Additionally, we identified the best-performing methods based on their responsiveness to different human impacts. Based on these experiences, we provide practical recommendations for the development and harmonization of benthic invertebrate assessment methods in lakes and similar habitats. PMID:26580734

  6. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SIX DIFFERENT BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE SAMPLING METHODS FOR RIVERINE ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    At each of 60 sites, we collected benthic macroinvertebrates using six different protocols (including the EMAP methods for non-wadeable rivers) and physical habitat data using the USEPA-EMAP-SW protocols for non-wadeable rivers. We used PCA with physical habitat data and DCA wit...

  7. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies. Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species). This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  8. Vertical distribution of benthic infauna in continental slope sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.

    The vertical distribution of 30 species of benthic infauna from continental slope (583-3000 m) sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina was closely correlated with feeding types. Carnivores, omnivores, filter feeders, and surface deposit feeders were mostly concentrated in the upper 0-2 cm of the cores. The depth distribution of subsurface deposit feeders was more variable, even among related taxa.

  9. Benthic assemblage composition on subtidal reefs along a latitudinal gradient in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, D. A.; Kendrick, G. A.; Waddington, K. I.; Van Niel, K. P.; Meeuwig, J. J.; Harvey, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    At regional scales, the distribution of species and the structure of assemblages vary with latitude within many marine and terrestrial systems. The oligotrophic coastal waters of Western Australia (WA) support highly speciose and endemic assemblages, yet spatial patterns in benthic structure are currently poorly known. We examined benthic assemblage composition along a latitudinal gradient of 28.5-33.5S and a depth gradient of 14-62 m, on subtidal reefs in warm-temperate WA. We surveyed benthos using a remotely triggered digital stills camera. In total, we sampled macroalgae and sessile invertebrates at 201 sites spread across four locations. Percent cover of coarse taxonomic groups and dominant species was estimated from over 2000 photoquadrat samples. We recorded significant differences in benthic assemblage composition between locations, and along depth gradients within each location. However, the magnitude of change with depth was not consistent between locations, and shifts in assemblage composition along the depth gradients were not as pronounced as expected. The percent cover of all dominant benthic groupings differed between locations, and several key taxa, such as the kelp Scytothalia dorycarpa, brown foliose macroalgae, hard corals and sponges, changed predictably along the latitudinal gradient. Our study adopted a coarse taxonomic, but assemblage-wide, approach to describing macrobenthic assemblages, and clear differences between locations and depths were detected. The surveys have provided baseline data on broad scale ecosystem structure against which to detect future ecological change.

  10. Benthic macroinvertebrate surveys in Chequamegon Bay in support of invasive species early detection research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the impetus and approach for MED invasive species early detection research generally and presents preliminary results concerning benthic composition and non-native species found in the 2013 Chequamegon Bay survey. The audience is a group of researchers...

  11. Relationships between stripmining-induced changes and benthic insect communities in the southern Appalachian Region

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    Increased demands for coal to supply America's energy needs, as well as the controversy surrounding the requirements and enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, point directly to the need for determination of specific factors associated with stripmining alteration that produce major environmental impacts. Numerous studies have demonstrated physical and chemical alterations to southern Appalachian streams subject to stripmining effluents found that the two major factors resulting in physical alterations were increased runoff and resultant sedimentation. Studies in streams receiving acid mine drainage showed that benthic insect communities differed in undisturbed and stripmining disturbed streams. Branson and Batch noted differences in benthic communities in Kentucky streams disturbed by non-acid stripmining. Tolbert found significant differences in benthic communities between undisturbed and nonacid mining streams. This paper describes research to determine what stripmining-altered parameters are responsible for differences in benthic insect communities. The results of this study can be applied toward validation of control measures required by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.

  12. Marine benthic habitat mapping of the West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodson, Timothy O.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Powell, Ross D.

    2013-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, groundtruthed observations, and geological interpretations. The West Arm of Glacier Bay is a recently deglaciated fjord system under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the recently developed Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Due to the high flux of glacially sourced fines, mud is the dominant substrate within the West Arm. Water-column characteristics are addressed using a combination of CTD and circulation model results. We also present sediment accumulation data derived from differential bathymetry. These data show the West Arm is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS classification scheme and as a baseline for ongoing and future mapping efforts and correlations between seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glacimarine processes.

  13. Benthic diatom composition in isolated forested wetlands subject to drying: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological indicator of w...

  14. Benthic diatom composition in wet and dry isolated forested wetlands: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal changes in hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological ind...

  15. Application of a Eutrophic Condition Index to Benthic Macroalgal Accumulation in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of benthic macroalgal accumulation in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest, USA, were conducted over a 12-year period, including aerial mapping and ground surveys. The results were applied to an assessment framework for eutrophication developed by the European Unio...

  16. Sediment resuspension effects on the benthic microbial loop in experimental microcosms.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Fiordelmondo, Carla; Danovaro, Roberto

    2005-11-01

    Sediment resuspension induced by anthropogenic disturbance is becoming a major threat of marine coastal ecosystems worldwide. The effects of sediment resuspension on the pelagic domain and on macro- and meiobenthos are well documented in the literature, whereas the effects on the benthic microbial components are nearly neglected. We have investigated the effects of sediment resuspension at two different disturbance levels on benthic bacterial abundance, biomass, and activities and on heterotrophic nanobenthos abundance in experimental microcosms. The results of our experiments pointed out that, independently from the amount of involved energy, sediment resuspension determined a general decrease of all benthic microbial components. The main effects consisted of a decreased abundance of the metabolically active bacterial fraction and of heterotrophic nanobenthos abundance. However, the amount of energy involved in sediment resuspension had differential effects on the structure and functioning of the benthic microbial loop, but only in the short term (i.e., within 36 h). Sediment resuspension had a stimulatory effect on activities of surviving bacterial cells, which, in turn, resulted in increased sediment organic C turnover rates. We hypothesize that such an effect, enhancing nutrient availability, might have relevant consequences on the trophic state of coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:16341638

  17. BENTHIC MACROALGAE, DISSOLVED SULFIDES, AND AMPHIPODS IN SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS OF YAQUINA BAY ESTUARY, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of benthic green macroalgae at two sites in Yaquina Bay Estuary, Oregon, in 1999 showed that percent cover and biomass values in June were much higher at one site, Idaho Point, than at the other site, Coquille Point. The frequency of detectable hydrogen sulfide odor late...

  18. BENTHIC PRODUCTION AS THE BASE FOR FOOD WEBS IN ALASKAN ARCTIC LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plankton are traditionally viewed as the basis for limnetic food webs, with zooplankton acting as an energy gateway between phytoplanktonic primary producers and fish. Often, benthic production is considered to be important primarily to the benthos and in shallow systems, such as...

  19. ESTIMATING DENSITIES OF ESTUARINE EELGRASS AND BENTHIC MACROALGAE VIA AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research was to distinguish meadows of native eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) from adjacent beds of benthic green macroalgae in the exposed intertidal zone of Pacific Northwest estuaries, using false-color near-infrared aerial photography. Aerial photographs of Yaq...

  20. Application of Multiple Index Development Approaches to Benthic Invertebrate Data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work had indicated that the Virginian Province Index did not perform well in a smaller estuarine complex. While it was hoped that the existing Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity, with its greater number of metrics and habitat separation would be more adapt...

  1. BENTHIC AND WATER COLUMN PROCESSES IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON OXYGEN FLUXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murrell, M.C., J.D. Hagy, J.G. Campbell and J.M. Caffrey. In press. Benthic and Water Column Processes in a Subtropical Estuary: Effects of Light on Oxygen Fluxes (Abstract). To be presented at the ASLO 2004 Summer Meeting: The Changing Landscapes of Oceans and Freshwater, 13-18 ...

  2. Comparison of Adjective vs. Benthic Sources of Nutrients to a Former Salt Pond under Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, B.; Kuwabara, J. S.; Garrett, K.; Takekawa, J.; Piotter, S.; Parchaso, F.

    2013-12-01

    With the implementation of the South Bay Restoration Program in 2008, water quality in the Alviso Salt Ponds, California, has been monitored to document the effects of changing hydrologic connections among the ponds and the adjacent pond, slough and estuary. In 2010 and 2012, pore-water profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1) were deployed in Pond A3W, a former salt pond just north of Moffett Federal Airfield that mixes hydrologically through culverts and weirs with Guadalupe Slough and neighboring ponds, to assess the magnitude of diffusive benthic flux, generated primarily by remobilization of surface-reactive solutes in bed sediment accumulated over annual to decadal time scales. The study, focusing on macronutrient sources that may stimulate harmful algal blooms, revealed that orthophosphate, ammonia, and silica benthic flux were consistently positive (out of the sediment) in both 2010 and 2012, while nitrate and nitrite fluxes were negligible. Because tidal height can affect the size and direction of flow, a diurnal study of nutrient advective flux into and out of the pond was measured during neap and spring tides. These advective fluxes (kg/yr) were compared to benthic flux estimates for the pond extrapolated over the 2.27 (km2) pond surface. Benthic flux of inorganic nitrogen species, averaged over all sites and dates, was about 80,000 + 48,000 kilograms per year (kg/yr), well above the adjective flux range of -50 to 1,500 kg/yr. By contrast, the average benthic flux of orthophosphate was about 12,000 + 4,400 kg/yr, well below the advective flux range of 21,500 to 30,000 kg/yr. Benthic flux estimates determined by porewater gradients do not include enhancement processes such as bioturbation, bioirrigation, wind resuspension, and potential groundwater inflows. However, they provide a conservative measure and can be an effective management screening tool. These results indicate that benthic transport may be an important source of biologically reactive solutes for both nutrients and toxicants, an important consideration during restoration since there are trophic transfer implications.

  3. Broad-scale factors influencing the biodiversity of coastal benthic communities of the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrush, Simon; Dayton, Paul; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Cummings, Vonda; Andrew, Neil; Hawes, Ian; Kim, Stacy; Kvitek, Rikk; Schwarz, Anne-Maree

    2006-04-01

    Early ecological research in McMurdo Sound revealed local spatial gradients in community structure associated with variations in anchor ice disturbance, fast ice and snow cover, and the effects of predators. Research contrasting the east and west sides of McMurdo Sound has shown major differences in benthic communities, which have been attributed to oceanographic influences on the advection of water-column productivity and the frequency of fast ice break-out. Despite these regional and local differences, coastal benthic communities in McMurdo Sound show a high level of stability, and contain a variety of large and potentially very long-lived species. In Terra Nova Bay, about half way along the Victoria Land Coast of the western Ross Sea, the coastal benthic communities provide some insightful contrasts with those in McMurdo Sound. For example, the abundance and depth distribution of dominant species such as Sterechinus neumayeri and Adamussium colbecki are markedly different from McMurdo Sound. In both locations communities dominated by large sponges are most prolific in regions that are free from iceberg disturbance of the seabed. A recent assessment of northern Victoria Land coastal benthic communities, in conjunction with multibeam imagery of the seafloor, further highlights the importance of iceberg disturbance in structuring Antarctic benthic communities. A comparative synthesis of these coastal ecological studies enables us to generate hypotheses concerning the relative importance of different environmental drivers in structuring benthic communities. Overlain on the regular latitudinal shifts in physical factors such as light regime, are regional fluctuations that are controlled by atmospheric and oceanographic circulation patterns and coastal topography/bathymetry. Change in diversity along the western coast of the Ross Sea is predicted to be influenced by three main factors (1) ice disturbance (e.g., via anchor ice and advection of supercooled water or icebergs), (2) photosynthetically available radiation (affected by ice and snow cover and water clarity), (3) the locations of polynyas and advection of planktonic production and larvae. Interactions between these factors are expected to result in non-linear changes along the latitudinal gradient. While predictions generated from these hypotheses remain to be rigorously tested, they provide indications of how benthic communities may respond to changes in production, disturbance and the stability of coastal sea ice.

  4. Importance of benthic production to fish populations in Lake Mead prior to the establishment of quagga mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Umek, John; Chandra, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael; Wittmann, Marion; Sullivan, Joe; Orsak, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Limnologists recently have developed an interest in quantifying benthic resource contributions to higher-level consumers. Much of this research focuses on natural lakes with very little research in reservoirs. In this study, we provide a contemporary snapshot of the food web structure of Lake Mead to evaluate the contribution of benthic resources to fish consumers. In addition, we document the available food to fishes on soft sediments and changes to the invertebrate community over 2 time periods. Benthic invertebrate food availability for fishes is greater in Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Las Vegas Bay is dominated by oligochaetes, whose biomass increased with depth, while Overton Arm is dominated by chironomids, whose biomass did not change with depth. Diet and isotopic measurements indicate the fish community largely relies on benthic resources regardless of basin (Las Vegas Bay >80%; Overton Arm >92%); however, the threadfin shad likely contribute more to largemouth and striped bass production in Overton Arm versus Las Vegas Bay. A 2-time period analysis, pre and post quagga mussel establishment and during lake level declines, suggests there is no change in the density of benthic invertebrates in Boulder Basin, but there were greater abundances of select taxa in this basin by season and depth than in other basins. Given the potential of alterations as a result of the expansion of quagga mussel and the reliance of the fishery on benthic resources, future investigation of basin specific, benthic processes is recommended.

  5. Food sources of benthic animals on intertidal and subtidal bottoms in inner Ariake Sound, southern Japan, determined by stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Hisashi; Sakami, Tomoko; Ishihi, Yuka

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of possible food sources, including riverine particulate organic matter, reeds, benthic microalgae, seaweeds, cultured laver ( Porphyra) and coastal phytoplankton, for commercial bivalves and co-occurring benthic animals, 73 macrofaunal species were collected from intertidal and subtidal soft bottoms in the inner part of Ariake Sound, Kyushu, southern Japan, and their isotopic compositions were analyzed. The results revealed that (1) both intertidal and subtidal food webs were constituted of 3 trophic levels, (2) suspension-feeding bivalves utilize a mixture of benthic microalgae and coastal phytoplankton, and omnivores and carnivores incorporate benthic microalgae and phytoplankton through their intermediate prey, and (3) 3 bivalves ( Scapharca kagoshimensis, Modiolus metcalfei and Atrina lischkeana) inhabiting both intertidal and subtidal bottoms showed similar seasonal fluctuations, suggesting no difference in the diet composition among the species and between the 2 habitats. We conclude that a large biomass of benthic microalgae which was approximately equal to that of phytoplankton and the strong tidal currents that would resuspend benthic microalgae and transport them to subtidal bottom areas account for the benthic microalgal and phytoplankton based trophic structure in the inner part of Ariake Sound.

  6. Effects of Benthic Flux on Dissolved-Mercury Distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, J. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Stewart, A. R.; Fend, S. V.; Parchaso, F.; Moon, G. E.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Agee, J. L.; Kieu, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    Benthic flux measurements of dissolved mercury species were made on sediment cores from Camp Far West Reservoir, a reservoir in which elevated mercury levels in sport fish had previously been documented. The reservoir is located downstream of historic hydraulic placer-gold mining and ore processing activities in the Bear River watershed of the northern Sierra Nevada. Field and laboratory studies were conducted in April and November of 2002 (one of the driest years on record for the area) to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved mercury species between bottom sediment and the water column at three locations within the reservoir. Ancillary data, including nutrient and ligand fluxes, and benthic biological characterizations, were also gathered to provide a water-quality framework with which to interpret the mercury results. The following are the major observations made from interdependent physical, biological, and chemical data. Bottom water total mercury (HgT) concentrations ranged from 2.94 to 18.3 pM. Dissolved HgT benthic fluxes were generally higher in April than in November 2002 (based on site averages from replicate cores). HgT fluxes of 36.3 and -28.4 pmoles-m-2-h-1 were measured in cores from the deep site which was suboxic in November, contrasting with positive fluxes of 306 and 272 pmoles-m-2-h-1 at that site in April 2002 when the bottom water was oxic. All six measurements of HgT flux in April 2002 and five of six in November 2002 resulted in positive values (i.e., out of the sediment into the overlying water column). Consistent with benthic fluxes for HgT, dissolved MeHg fluxes were: (a) generally positive in April 2002, (b) negligible at all sites in November 2002, and (c) at least two orders of magnitude lower than total-mercury fluxes, roughly consistent with concentration differences between species. Observed concentration ranges for MeHg in bottom water ranged from less than the detection limit (0.20 pM) at the two shallower, up-gradient sites to 0.48 +/- 0.03 pM (n=3) at the deepest sampling site in November 2002. Dissolved MeHg concentrations in the bottom waters were significantly lower under the low-flow conditions of November 2002 relative to high flow in April 2002, but spatial trends were not temporally consistent. The reservoir was highly phosphate-limited with molar N:P ratios in water column samples ranging from 136 to >5,000 (compared to the Redfield N:P molar ratio of 16). Sulfide benthic fluxes were highest (1,180 +/- 50 nmoles-m-2-h-1) at the deepest site in November 2002 following at least 2 weeks of hypolimnetic anoxia (based on prior water-column monitoring), and lowest at the same site in April 2002 (290 +/- 30 nmoles-m-2-h-1) under oxic, high-flow conditions. Sparse benthic macroinvertebrate distributions, mirrored by low benthic-chlorophyll concentrations, were considered to be inconsequential factors mediating benthic flux. Despite their seasonal variability, the magnitude of benthic flux estimates for HgT were consistently comparable to or greater than riverine sources during a relatively dry year. Diffusive transport of dissolved, bioavailable mercury species between the reservoir bed and water column may therefore be an important process regulating the concentration of mercury species in the reservoir water column.

  7. Structures of benthic prokaryotic communities and their hydrolytic enzyme activities resuspended from samples of intertidal mudflats: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, Clarisse; Agogué, Hélène; Bonnemoy, Frédérique; Guizien, Katell; Orvain, Francis; Dupuy, Christine

    2014-09-01

    Resuspended sediment can increase plankton biomass and the growth of bacteria, thus influencing the coastal planktonic microbial food web. But little is known about resuspension itself: is it a single massive change or a whole series of events and how does it affect the quantity and quality of resuspended prokaryotic cells? We simulated the sequential erosion of mud cores to better understand the fate and role of benthic prokaryotes resuspended in the water column. We analyzed the total, attached and free-living prokaryotic cells resuspended, their structure and the activities of their hydrolytic enzymes in terms of the biotic and abiotic factors that affect the composition of microphytobenthic biofilm. Free living prokaryotes were resuspended during the fluff layer erosion phase (for shear velocities below 5 cm · s- 1) regardless of the bed sediment composition. At the higher shear velocities, resuspended prokaryotes were attached to particulate matter. Free and attached cells are thus unevenly distributed, scattered throughout the organic matter (OM) in the uppermost mm of the sediment. Only 10-27% of the total cells initially resuspended were living and most of the Bacteria were Cyanobacteria and Gamma-proteobacteria; their numbers increased to over 30% in parallel with the hydrolytic enzyme activity at highest shear velocity. These conditions released prokaryotic cells having different functions that lie deep in the sediment; the most important of them are Archaea. Finally, composition of resuspended bacterial populations varied with resuspension intensity, and intense resuspension events boosted the microbial dynamics and enzyme activities in the bottom layers of sea water.

  8. Mg isotope fractionation in biogenic carbonates of deep-sea coral, benthic foraminifera, and hermatypic coral.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Nozomu; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2011-11-01

    High-precision Mg isotope measurements by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied for determinations of magnesium isotopic fractionation of biogenic calcium carbonates from seawater with a rapid Mg purification technique. The mean δ(26)Mg values of scleractinian corals, giant clam, benthic foraminifera, and calcite deep-sea corals were -0.87‰, -2.57‰, -2.34‰, and -2.43‰, suggesting preferential precipitation of light Mg isotopes to produce carbonate skeleton in biomineralization. Mg isotope fractionation in deep-sea coral, which has high Mg calcite skeleton, showed a clear temperature (T) dependence from 2.5 °C to 19.5 °C: 1,000 × ln(α) = -2.63 (±0.076) + 0.0138 (±0.0051) × T(R(2) = 0.82, p < 0.01). The δ(26)Mg values of large benthic foraminifera, which are also composed of a high-Mg calcite skeleton, can be plotted on the same regression line as that for deep-sea coral. Since the precipitation rates of deep-sea coral and benthic foraminifera are several orders of magnitude different, the results suggest that kinetic isotope fractionation may not be a major controlling factor for high-Mg calcite. The Mg isotope fractionation factors and the slope of temperature dependence from deep-sea corals and benthic foraminifera are similar to that for an inorganically precipitated calcite speleothem. Taking into account element partitioning and the calcification rate of biogenic CaCO(3), the similarity among inorganic minerals, deep-sea corals, and benthic foraminiferas may indicate a strong mineralogical control on Mg isotope fractionation for high-Mg calcite. On the other hand, δ(26)Mg in hermatypic corals composed of aragonite has been comparable with previous data on biogenic aragonite of coral, sclerosponges, and scaphopad, regardless of species differences of samples. PMID:21805065

  9. Effects of heavy metals pollution on benthic foraminifera assemblage: the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Najla; Zghal, Ihsen; Bouzid, Jalel; Abdennaceur Ouali, Jamel

    2014-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera are amongst the most abundant protists found in huge marine and brackish water habitat. During the last few decades, many researches had been focused on using benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of marine pollution caused by industrial, domestic and agricultural waste, oil or heavy metal contamination. The aim of this research is to investigate heavy metals pollution in superficial sediments in two industrial locations at the Gulf of Gabes and to examine the reaction of benthic foraminifera towards metallic concentration. The Gulf of Gabes, located on the eastern coast of Tunisia, is regarded as an extremely vital zone and considered as one of the most important area for fishing in the country. During last years, the coastal area of this region had known an important demographic and industrial development, leading to the presence of uncontrolled discharge. Fifteen superficial sediment samples were collected along the coastline of Skhira and Ghannouch- Gabes. They have been analyzed for Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations as well as for the species composition of benthic foraminifera. Results show three levels of metallic contamination with high concentration of cadmium and zinc. Thirty five benthic foraminifera species were identified. Ammonia parkinsoniana, Ammonia beccarii, Peneroplis planatus, Triloculina trigonula and Adelosina longirostraare are the most abundant and common species. Increasing pollution results in a lower species diversity as well as population density, with the presence of a barren zone, and more frequent abnormal specimens. A complementary statistical analysis (PCA/FA and matrix correlation) shows that heavy metals are resulting from the same anthropogenic source and negative correlation between faunal parameters (density and diversity) and pollutants concentrations.

  10. Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

  11. Interactions among benthic insects, algae, and bacteria in a geothermally influenced stream. [Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the interactions between benthic macroinvertebrates and microorganisms in stream habitats that were exposed to varying levels of geothermal contamination. Stream microcosms were used in situ to evaluate the separate effects of the thermal and chemical components of geothermal effluents on aquatic biota in Big Sulphur Creek, a third-order stream at the Geysers. The thermal component of those effluents had greater influence than the chemical component in determining benthic community structure. The effects of grazing by the herbivorous caddisfly Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen) on benthic algae and bacteria were experimentally studied in an undisturbed segment of Big Sulphur Creek. Exclusion of Helicopsyche larvae from introduced substrates resulted in high standing crops of algae and bacteria, but a low algal turnover rate. On substrate that was grazed by natural densities of Helicopsyche larvae, algal and bacterial standing crops were reduced by 83-98%, but the turnover rate of algae was substantially increased. Thus, grazing by Helicopsyche resulted in a low-biomass algal community that, because of a high turnover rate, was able to support a high biomass of consumers. These results emphasize the importance of consumer-producer interactions in stream ecosystems; disturbance of either component during geothermal development may result in substantial changes at other trophic levels as well. Complementary studies to those summarized above include (1) comparison of introduced and natural substrates for sampling benthic organisms, (2) distributional analysis of benthic biota along a geothermal gradient, and (3) evaluation of seasonal dynamics of suspended microorganisms in three streams that have different geothermal characteristics. This dissertation concludes with a review of primary consumption patterns in aquatic insects.

  12. A survey of the benthic microfauna (foraminifera, Ostracoda) on the Basque shelf, southern Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Ana; Rodriguez-Lazaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Jouanneau, Jean-Marie; Weber, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    In this work we describe by the first time the microfaunal content (foraminifers and ostracods) of the benthos of the Basque continental shelf, by studying the spatial distributions of benthic foraminifer and ostracod assemblages in relation to the environmental parameters affecting the sediments of this region of the Bay of Biscay. Most abundant benthic foraminifer species in the surface samples are Brizalina spathulata, Bulimina marginata, Cassidulina laevigata, Hyalinea balthica, Lobatula lobatula, Rosalina globularis, Textularia sagittula and Uvigerina peregrina. Most abundant and widespread ostracod species are Lindisfarnia guttata, Costa edwardsii and Pterygocythereis ceratoptera-jonesi group. Multivariate analyses (Cluster Q, R; DCA) of samples and species of these organisms have been performed to provide an accurate description of these distributions. Based on these analyses six different facies are characterised in this shelf, according to their microfaunal content as well as to the average values of environmental parameters (CaCO 3, POC, silt-clay and hypoxic biological markers). Of these facies, the eastern fringe and the mudpatch have a more pronounced hypoxic character relative to the western facies in this shelf. Results provided by benthic foraminifer and ostracod assemblages totally agree and indicate their dependence of the environmental parameters of the sediment. In the eastern area the influence of deeper waters has been detected, probably as upwelling through the canyons, evidenced by the occurrence of bathyal species of foraminifers ( Fontbotia wuellerstorfi, Hoeglundina elegans) and ostracods ( Krithe spp., Cytheropteron spp., Buntonia spp.). The noticeable oil-affection found in benthic specimens, very likely caused by the oil-spill of the "Prestige" in the benthonic environment of the Basque continental shelf, has been detected eight months after the spill. Despite the studied bathymetric range of 50 to 150 m, the depth interval of specimens affected by oil-spill is that of the outer shelf (93-150 m). Benthic microfauna evidence oil-pollution in the bottom sediments and demonstrate a wider affected area in the bottom of the Basque shelf than previously stated.

  13. Oxygenation episodes on the continental shelf of central Peru: Remote forcing and benthic ecosystem response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutirrez, Dimitri; Enrquez, E.; Purca, S.; Quipzcoa, L.; Marquina, R.; Flores, G.; Graco, M.

    2008-10-01

    The interplay between the oxygen minimum zone and remotely-forced oxygenation episodes determines the fate of the benthic subsystem off the Central Peruvian coast. We analyzed a 12 year monthly time-series of oceanographic and benthic parameters at 94 m depth off Callao, Central Peru (12S), to analyze: (i) near-bottom oxygen level on the continental shelf in relation to dynamic height on the equator (095W); and (ii) benthic ecosystem responses to oxygen change (macrobiotic infauna, meiofauna, and sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, Thioploca spp.). Shelf oxygenation episodes occurred after equatorial dynamic height increases one month before, consistent with the propagation of coastal trapped waves. Several but not all of these episodes occurred during El Nios. The benthic biota responded to oxygenation episodes by undergoing succession through three major ecological states. Under strong oxygen deficiency or anoxia, the sediments were nearly defaunated of macro-invertebrates and Thioploca was scarce, such that nematode biomass dominated the macro- and meiobiotas. When frequency of oxygenation events reduced the periods of anoxia, but the prevailing oxygen range was 10-20 ?mol L -1, mats of Thioploca formed and dominated the biomass. Finally, with frequent and intense (>40 ?mol L -1) oxygenation, the sediments were colonized by macrofauna, which then dominated biomass. The Thioploca state evolved during the 2002-2003 weak EN, while the macrofauna state was developed during the onset of the strong1997-1998 EN. Repeated episodes of strong oxygen deficiency during the summer of 2004, in parallel with the occurrence of red tides in surface waters, resulted in the collapse of Thioploca mats and development of the Nematode state. Ecological interactions may affect persistence or the transition between benthic ecosystem states.

  14. Possible energetic linkage between primary production and deep-sea benthic archaea: insight from biogeochemical lipidomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2013-04-01

    Marine archaea have been recognized as a cosmopolitan player for global carbon and nitrogen cycles in the water column and sub-seafloor environments. Recent molecular evidence based on lipids and DNA suggests that uncultured benthic archaea dominate biomass in marine sediment, implying past primary production is a crucial factor for their presently ongoing heterotrophy (e.g., 1-4). Focusing on benthic archaeal heterotrophic processes in deep-sea sediment, we preliminarily traced 13C-signature in archaeal lipids to determine de novo and salvage pathway by in situ 13C-experiment. On the basis of the differential 13C-uptake, we suggest that benthic archaea recycles sedimentary relic membrane lipids to minimize the energy expenditure during 405 days (5). The 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR analysis indicated a community shift in the composition of the benthic archaeal community (e.g., Marine Group I, Marine Benthic Group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group). In bacteria and eukarya, it is commonly recognized that free fatty acids are incorporated into cells and converted to acyl-CoA, which are eventually incorporated into membrane lipids as a salvage pathway (cf. 6). Considering the suggestion of salvage pathway in archaeal membrane synthesis (7,8), we discuss archaeal heterotrophic processes in terms of possible biogeochemical lipidomics. Reference [1] Biddle et al., (2006) PNAS, 103, 3846-3851. [2] Lipp et al., (2008) Nature, 454, 991-994. [3] Kallmeyer et al., (2012) PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1203849109 [4] Hinrichs and Inagaki, (2012) Science, 338, 204-205. [5] Takano et al., (2010) Nature Geosci., 3, 858-861. [6] Silbert et al., (1968) J Bacteriol., 95, 1658-1665. [7] Poulter et al., (1988) JACS, 110, 2620-2624. [8] Ohnuma et al., (1996) J Biochem., 119, 541-547.

  15. An analysis of benthic biological dynamics in a North Sea ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, J. C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of the benthic biological submodel of the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model II (ERSEM II). This submodel consists of a detailed model description of the benthic system which is integrated with a marine ecosystem model which attempts to address the full range of pelagic and benthic biogeochemical and physical processes. The submodel simulates the seasonal dynamics of a number of functional groups, ranging from decomposers to predators and their interaction with detrital matter in the sediments. The improvements and extensions to the benthic biology submodel compared with the previous published version of the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model are described. The improvements comprise: the reformulation of turbation and irrigation as functions of faunal activity, the inclusion of oxygen stress limitations and mortalities, a refinement of the description of detritus, additions to the diet of the filter feeders in line with the extensions to the primary production module and an extensive re-parameterisation. Using the 1 1 North Sea application, the submodel predictions are compared with data and the performance of the submodel assessed. Using the results of the submodel, the relation between benthic biological dynamics and its principal determinants, depth and overlying production is examined. The model is found to give qualitatively correct results. The transition in community type from anaerobe/deposit feeder in the south to a more mixed community in the north, involving aerobes and meiobenthos is also correctly predicted by the model. The biology is demonstrated to have a strong influence on nutrient efflux. The lack of resuspension/deposition processes is identified as the most significant omission from the current model.

  16. Biogeography of Planktonic and Benthic Archaeal Communities in a Subtropical Eutrophic Estuary of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anyi; Hou, Liyuan; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that Archaea are widespread and abundant in aquatic and terrestrial habitats and play fundamental roles in global biogeochemical cycles, yet the pattern and its ecological drivers of biogeographic distribution of archaeal community in estuarine ecosystem are still not well understood. Here, we investigated planktonic and benthic archaeal communities in the human-impacted Jiulong River estuary (JRE), southern China by using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing. RT-PCR analysis indicated that Archaea accounted for an average of 0.79 and 5.31% of prokaryotic biomass in water and sediment samples of the JRE, respectively. The diversity of planktonic archaeal community decreased gradually from the river runoff to seawater, whereas that of benthic community did not show the similar pattern. The results of taxonomic assignments indicated that Thaumarchaeota (Nitrosopumilus and Cenarchaeum), Methanocorpusculum, and Methanospirillum were significantly more abundant in planktonic than benthic communities, whereas the relative abundances of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group, Marine Benthic Group-B/-D, anaerobic methane-oxidizingArchaea -1/-2D, and South Africa Gold Mine Euryarchaeotic Group 1 were higher in sediments than in surface waters. Moreover, planktonic archaeal community composition varied significantly at broad and finer-scale taxonomic levels along the salinity gradient. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that salinity is the main factor structuring the JRE planktonic but not benthic archaeal community at both total community and population level. SourceTrakcer analysis indicated that river might be a major source of archaea in the freshwater zone of the JRE. Overall, this study advances our understanding of the biogeographic patterns and its ecological drivers of estuarine archaeal communities. PMID:25805214

  17. Benthic community structure and sediment processes on an intertidal flat: results from the ECOFLAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Peter M. J.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Heip, Carlo H. R.

    2001-12-01

    Interactions between physical and biological processes in intertidal sediments have been the focus of studies in the framework of the ECOFLAT project. Process studies were focused on the Molenplaat, a 1.5 km 2 intertidal flat in the Westerschelde estuary, The Netherlands. Distinct spatial patterns in the biological community on the flat were found and related to patterns in bottom shear stress as derived from a hydrodynamic model. Based on these survey results five stations were selected with contrasting sediment composition and benthic communities. Long-term net sedimentation of mainly sand was deduced from radionuclide profiles. Sedimentation of mud on the surface of part of the intertidal flat was shown to be a seasonally cyclic process, with a magnitude sufficient to significantly affect the mud balance of the estuary. Measurements of erodability as a function of tidal current showed a biological control on this variable. Benthic microalgae stabilise the sediment surface, whereas the benthic macrofauna has a destabilising effect. Food web studies show that the contrasting biological communities (microbenthos, meiobenthos, macrobenthos) at muddy and sandy sites have substantial differences in the quantitative aspects of their food web. Turnover of microalgae is much lower at muddy than at sandy sites, and this is mostly related to a lower grazing pressure. It is hypothesised that high mud content decreases the availability of benthic microalgae to grazers. We demonstrate a positive feedback between benthic microalgae and mud sedimentation which may lead to the existence of different stable states. This may explain the existence of relatively sharp boundaries and strong community contrasts in the presence of weak and smooth environmental gradients.

  18. Benthic-Pelagic Coupling: Effects on Nematode Communities along Southern European Continental Margins

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Ellen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Manini, Elena; Bezerra, Tania Nara; Vanreusel, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Along a west-to-east axis spanning the Galicia Bank region (Iberian margin) and the Mediterranean basin, a reduction in surface primary productivity and in seafloor flux of particulate organic carbon was mirrored in the in situ organic matter quantity and quality within the underlying deep-sea sediments at different water depths (1200, 1900 and 3000 m). Nematode standing stock (abundance and biomass) and genus and trophic composition were investigated to evaluate downward benthic-pelagic coupling. The longitudinal decline in seafloor particulate organic carbon flux was reflected by a reduction in benthic phytopigment concentrations and nematode standing stock. An exception was the station sampled at the Galicia Bank seamount, where despite the maximal particulate organic carbon flux estimate, we observed reduced pigment levels and nematode standing stock. The strong hydrodynamic forcing at this station was believed to be the main cause of the local decoupling between pelagic and benthic processes. Besides a longitudinal cline in nematode standing stock, we noticed a west-to-east gradient in nematode genus and feeding type composition (owing to an increasing importance of predatory/scavenging nematodes with longitude) governed by potential proxies for food availability (percentage of nitrogen, organic carbon, and total organic matter). Within-station variability in generic composition was elevated in sediments with lower phytopigment concentrations. Standing stock appeared to be regulated by sedimentation rates and benthic environmental variables, whereas genus composition covaried only with benthic environmental variables. The coupling between deep-sea nematode assemblages and surface water processes evidenced in the present study suggests that it is likely that climate change will affect the composition and function of deep-sea nematodes. PMID:23565176

  19. Benthic Food Webs of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Relative Importance of Ultimate Carbon Sources in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Mctigue, N.; Bucolo, P. A.; Connelly, T. L.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea-ice cover, coastal erosion, and freshwater run-off have the potential to greatly influence carbon assimilation pathways and affect trophic structure in benthic communities across the western Arctic. In the Chukchi Sea, variations in the duration and timing of ice cover affect the delivery of ice algae to a relatively shallow (40-50 m) shelf benthos. Although ice algae are known as an important spring carbon subsidy for marine benthic fauna, ice algal contributions may also help initiate productivity of an active microphytobenthos. Recent studies provide clear evidence that the microphytobenthos are photosynthetically active, and have sufficient light and nutrients for in situ growth. The assimilation of benthic diatoms from both sources may explain the 13C enrichment observed in benthic primary consumers throughout the northern Chukchi. On the eastern Beaufort Sea coast, shallow (2-4 m) estuarine lagoon systems receive massive subsidies of terrestrial carbon that is assimilated by a benthic fauna of significant importance to upper trophic level species, but again, distinct 13C enrichment in benthic primary consumers suggests the existence of an uncharacterized food source. Since ice algae are absent, we believe the 13C enrichment in benthic fauna is caused by the assimilation of benthic microalgae, as reflected in seasonally high benthic chlorophyll in spring under replete light and nutrient conditions. Our observations suggest that changes in ice cover, on both temporal and spatial scales, are likely to have significant effects on the magnitude and timing of organic matter delivery to both shelf and nearshore systems, and that locally produced organic matter may become an increasingly important carbon subsidy that affects trophic assimilation and secondary ecosystem productivity.

  20. Historical assessments and comparisons of benthic communities and physical habitat in two agricultural streams in California's San Joaquin watershed.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Killen, William D

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to assess trends in physical habitat and benthic communities (macroinvertebrates) annually in two agricultural streams (Del Puerto Creek and Salt Slough) in California's San Joaquin Valley from 2001 to 2005, determine the relationship between benthic communities and both water quality and physical habitat from both streams over the 5-year period, and compare benthic communities and physical habitat in both streams from 2001 to 2005. Physical habitat, measured with 10 metrics and a total score, was reported to be fairly stable over 5 years in Del Puerto Creek but somewhat variable in Salt Slough. Benthic communities, measured with 18 metrics, were reported to be marginally variable over time in Del Puerto Creek but fairly stable in Salt Slough. Rank correlation analysis for both water bodies combined showed that channel alteration, embeddedness, riparian buffer, and velocity/depth/diversity were the most important physical habitat metrics influencing the various benthic metrics. Correlations of water quality parameters and benthic community metrics for both water bodies combined showed that turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were the most important water quality parameters influencing the different benthic metrics. A comparison of physical habitat metrics (including total score) for both water bodies over the 5-year period showed that habitat metrics were more positive in Del Puerto Creek when compared to Salt Slough. A comparison of benthic metrics in both water bodies showed that approximately one-third of the metrics were significantly different between the two water bodies. Generally, the more positive benthic metric scores were reported in Del Puerto Creek, which suggests that the communities in this creek are more robust than Salt Slough. PMID:17000551

  1. Magnetic characterization of distal IRD layers at the NW Iberia Continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, D.; Mohamed, K. J.; Andrade, A.; Rodrguez-Germade, I.; Coimbra, R. L.; Rubio, B.; Bernabeu, A. M.; Alvarez-Iglesias, P.; Frederichs, T.

    2012-12-01

    Deep marine environments are a sink for diverse materials from very distinct sources. The magnetic signal retrieved from these sediments reflect a combination of magnetic carriers, arriving as IRD (ice rafted debris), transported as nepheloid layers or as result of aeolian contribution (Thompson and Oldfield, 1986; Verosub and Roberts, 1995; Dekkers, 1997; Maher and Thompson, 1999; Evans and Heller, 2004). IRD layers are widelly distributed along the Northern Atlantic, representing a distal input transported by icebergs released from the major continental ice caps during the Heinrich events (eg. Robinson, 1986; Heinrich, 1988; Bond et al., 1992; Oppo et al., 1998; Kissel et al., 1999). At latitudes ranging the Rudimann belt (40-55N) (Rudimann, 1977; Rudimann and McIntire, 1981), IRD layers can be identified by the rapid increase in magnetic susceptibility values (?) up to 400x10-6SI, from background values lower than 100x10-6 SI (Robinson et al., 1995), providing key information on climatically forced events and allowing a tighter chronostratigraphic control, as demonstrated by other authors on nearby areas (eg. Lebreiro et al., 1996; Zahn et al., 1997; Moreno et al., 2002). The mixing of these materials with local/regional components may difficult their depiction, and also the occurence of diagenetic processes that alter their original magnetic composition, to the point of undetection by standard magnetic analysis (susceptibility). Particularly, that was the case on the Galicia Bank half-graben sediment cores, dominated by local biogenic and detrital turbiditic levels during MIS2, in which IRDs are interbedded, topped by hemipelagic sediments deposited during the last 14 ka (Alonso et al, 2008, Rey et al, 2008). Original low concentration, influence of diamagnetic carbonate materials, and /or elimination of magnetic carriers by diagenesis masked some of the IRD levels, only recognizable by detail magnetomineralogical characterization of the materials transported during the Heinrich events. H-events in the study area have been assigned to those horizons that exceed 0.5 times the standard deviation background value recalculated to Ln(k) of a given core after detail magnetic characterization of "IRD-suspicious" layers. The robustness of the method have been demonstrated against increasing grain size trends loops on the ARM vs. K plots, the identification of larger size magnetite grains by low temperature techniques, EDX assisted BS-SEM, consistency with elemental FRX derived composition down-core trends, and 14C ages in hemipelagic layers. The method allowed fast recognition of events H1 to H5 at the study area and subsequently the creation of a robust and inexpensive geochronological framework. Further to this, we have been able to identify the presence of H-layer derived diagenetic greigite in some of the horizons. Bond, G. et al., 1992. Nature, 360, 245- 249. Heinrich, 1988. Quaternary Research, 29, 142-152 . Kissel, 2005. C. R. Geoscience 337, 908-918 Lebreiro, et al.,1996. Marine Geology 131, 47-56. Moreno et al. 2002. EPSL, 202, 465-480. Rey et al., 2008. Mar. Geol, 249, 64-92 . Robinson et al. 1995. Paleoceanography, 10, 221-250 . Ruddiman, W.F. (1977). Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 88, 1-12 . Thouveny, et al. 2000. EPSL, 180, 61-75. Cont. Proj. CTM2007-61227/MAR, GCL2010-16688, 09MMA012312PR & 10MMA312022PR

  2. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species diversity in the NE Atlantic and NW Arabian sea: a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Bett, Brian J.; Shires, Rizpah; Lambshead, P. John D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a synthesis of species diversity data (Fishers' alpha index, Shannon-Wiener (log 2), ES(100), Rank 1 Dominance) for "live" (stained) foraminifera from five bathyal (1340 m depth) and abyssal (4450-4950 m depth) sites in the NE Atlantic and a 3400 m-deep site in the Arabian Sea. Three Atlantic sites (Porcupine Seabight, BIOTRANS, Porcupine Abyssal Plain) are subject to seasonal phytodetritus inputs that support low diversity populations (8-17 species). In other respects the foraminifera are highly diverse. The meiofaunal fractions (>45 or >63 ?m; including fragmented and phytodetritus species) of abyssal Atlantic samples yielded >110 and >170 species in the 0-1 cm and 0-10 cm layers, respectively; the Arabian Sea sample (0-1 cm layer only) yielded 232 species. In both cases, values for diversity measures were very high. Diversity was rather lower in bathyal Porcupine Seabight samples (0-1 cm layer), which yielded <100 species. The foraminiferal macrofauna (>500 ?m; Porcupine and Madeira Abyssal Plains) was also speciose (113-133 species), but diversity measures were lower and dominance higher than for the meiofauna. All assemblages contained numerous undescribed species, many belonging to poorly known monothalamous, soft-bodied taxa. Sample diversity was influenced by several factors. Combining phytodetrital and sediment populations reduced diversity and increased dominance slightly; the inclusion of deeper sediment layers and finer sieve fractions had the opposite effect. The inclusion of fragments had more impact on macrofaunal than on meiofaunal diversity, although in both cases the effect was inconsistent (either positive or negative). Porcupine and Madeira Abyssal Plain multicore samples (>63 ?m fraction) contained substantially more foraminiferal species than nematode species; the numbers of foraminiferal species in boxcore samples (>500 ?m fraction) were comparable to, or greater than, literature values for macrofaunal taxa such as polychaetes and isopods. Few of the more abundant species at our Atlantic abyssal plain and Arabian Sea sites are endemic. This is consistent with literature evidence that many common deep-sea foraminiferal species are cosmopolitan and implies that global foraminiferal diversity may be more modest than the high sample diversity might suggest. Calcareous foraminifera, which are well-known taxonomically and have a good fossil record, may provide a model for diversity patterns among the deep-sea benthic biota in general.

  3. The impact of bedform migration on benthic oxygen fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Winter, Christian; Janssen, Felix; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Holtappels, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    Permeable sediments are found wide spread in river beds and on continental shelves. The transport of these sediments is forced by bottom water currents and leads to the formation of bedforms such as ripples and dunes. The bottom water flow across the bedforms results in pressure gradients that drive pore water flow within the permeable sediment and enhance the supply of reactive substrates for biogeochemical processes. This transport-reaction system has been extensively studied for the case of stationary bedforms, whereas bedform migration—the most ubiquitous form of sediment transport—has been often ignored. To study the impact of sediment transport on pore water flow, we incorporated an empirical model of bedform migration into a numerical transport-reaction model for porous media, using oxygen as reactive solute. The modeled oxygen flux changes significantly as soon as the sediment divides into an upper mobile layer (migrating bedform) and a stationary layer underneath. The bedform is increasingly flushed with oxic bottom water, whereas pressure gradients and pore water flow reverse at increasing rate underneath the bedform. This suppresses net pore water displacement and reduces the oxygen penetration depth up to 90%. In effect, the overall oxygen uptake decreases significantly with bedform migration although bottom water velocities increase. This counterintuitive effect is systematically described for a range of different sediment types, current velocities, and respiration rates and should be considered in future studies.

  4. Benthic foraminiferal response to the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and coincident paleoceanographic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    1996-01-01

    Late Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal faunas from the Caribbean Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 502 (3052 m) and East Pacific DSDP Site 503 (3572 m) were analyzed to interpret bottom-water masses and paleoceanographic changes occurring as the Isthmus of Panama emerged. Major changes during the past 7 Myr occur at 6.7-6.2, 3.4, 2.0, and 1.1 Ma in the Caribbean and 6.7-6.4, 4.0-3.2, 2.1, 1.4, and 0.7 Ma in the Pacific. Prior to 6.7 Ma, benthic foraminiferal faunas at both sites indicate the presence of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). After 6.7 Ma benthic foraminiferal faunas indicate a shift to warmer water masses: North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Caribbean and Pacific Deep Water (PDW) in the Pacific. Flow of NADW may have continued across the rising sill between the Caribbean and Pacific until 5.6 Ma when the Pacific benthic foraminiferal faunas suggest a decrease in bottom-water temperatures. After 5.6 Ma deep-water to intermediate-water flow across the sill appears to have stopped as the bottom-water masses on either side of the sill diverge. The second change recorded by benthic foraminiferal faunas occurs at 3.4 Ma in the Caribbean and 4.0-3.2 Ma in the Pacific. At this time the Caribbean is flooded with cold AABW, which is either gradually warmed or is replaced by Glacial Bottom Water (GBW) at 2.0 Ma and by NADW at 1.1 Ma. These changes are related to global climatic events and to the depth of the sill between the Caribbean and Atlantic rather than the rising Isthmus of Panama. Benthic foraminiferal faunas at East Pacific Site 503 indicate a gradual change from cold PDW to warmer PDW between 4.0 and 3.2 Ma. The PDW is replaced by the warmer, poorly oxygenated PIW at 2.1 Ma. Although the PDW affects the faunas during colder intervals between 1.4 and 0.7 Ma, the PIW remains the principal bottom- water mass in the Guatemala Basin of the East Pacific.

  5. Overview of the chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates along the western Antarctic peninsula.

    PubMed

    McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Baker, Bill J

    2010-12-01

    Thirteen years ago in a review that appeared in the American Zoologist, we presented the first survey of the chemical and ecological bioactivity of Antarctic shallow-water marine invertebrates. In essence, we reported that despite theoretical predictions to the contrary the incidence of chemical defenses among sessile and sluggish Antarctic marine invertebrates was widespread. Since that time we and others have significantly expanded upon the base of knowledge of Antarctic marine invertebrates' chemical ecology, both from the perspective of examining marine invertebrates in new, distinct geographic provinces, as well as broadening the evaluation of the ecological significance of secondary metabolites. Importantly, many of these studies have been framed within established theoretical constructs, particularly the Optimal Defense Theory. In the present article, we review the current knowledge of chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates comprising communities along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), a region of Antarctica that is both physically and biologically distinct from the rest of the continent. Our overview indicates that, similar to other regions of Antarctica, anti-predator chemical defenses are widespread among species occurring along the WAP. In some groups, such as the sponges, the incidence of chemical defenses against predation is comparable to, or even slightly higher than, that found in tropical marine systems. While there is substantial knowledge of the chemical defenses of benthic marine invertebrates against predators, much less is known about chemical anti-foulants. The sole survey conducted to date suggests that secondary metabolites in benthic sponges are likely to be important in the prevention of fouling by benthic diatoms, yet generally lack activity against marine bacteria. Our understanding of the sensory ecology of Antarctic benthic marine invertebrates, despite its great potential, remains in its infancy. For example, along the WAP, community-level non-consumptive effects occur when amphipods chemically sense fish predators and respond by seeking refuge in chemically-defended macroalgae. Such interactions may be important in releasing amphipods from predation pressure and facilitating their unusually high abundances along the WAP. Moreover, recent studies on the sensory biology of the Antarctic keystone sea star Odontaster validus indicate that chemotactile-mediated interactions between conspecifics and other sympatric predatory sea stars may have significant ramifications in structuring community dynamics. Finally, from a global environmental perspective, understanding how chemical ecology structures marine benthic communities along the WAP must increasingly be viewed in the context of the dramatic impacts of rapid climatic change now occurring in this biogeographic region. PMID:21558253

  6. The timing of termination I in benthic ?18O of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Mediterranean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konijnendijk, T.

    2014-12-01

    Terminations used to be regarded as effectively globally synchronous events. As such they were used (amongst other features) in aligning cores by Lisiecki and Raymo (2005) in their widely accepted global benthic stack. Skinner and Shackleton (2005) showed, however, that this assumption of synchronicity may not hold. In a detailed study of the last glacial-interglacial transition, an Atlantic record from the Iberian Margin and a record from the deep eastern equatorial Pacific - both dated by 14C for a solid, independent age estimate - show a significant discrepancy in timing: ~4,000 years. Indeed, in 2009 Lisiecki and Raymo published a separate reconstruction for the Atlantic and Pacific records in their stack, and found indications for diachronous termination signals for the last five terminations. We compared the Atlantic and Pacific records of Skinner and Shackleton (2005) to the benthic isotope record of ODP site 968 in the eastern Mediterranean published by Ziegler et al. (2010), to see how the Mediterranean record feeds into this discussion. The age model for this record is constrained by the carbon dated boundaries of saproprel 1 as well as correlation to the radiometrically dated cave record of Sanbao-Hulu (Wang et al., 2008). The benthic ?18O record of ODP site 968 resembles the Pacific record much more than the geographically closer Iberian Margin record. This raises questions: whether the Late Glacial/Early Holocene benthic record of MD99-2334K on the Iberian Margin is representative of Atlantic benthic ?18O; what oceanographic factors could have influenced the benthic ?18O of the sites involved; whether there is, after all, a globally synchronous, two-step deglaciation in the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and Pacific basins. Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005. DOI: 10.1029/2004PA001071 Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005. DOI: 10.1029/2009PA001732 Skinner and Shackleton, 2005: DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.11.008 Wang et al. 2008: doi:10.1038/nature06692. Ziegler et al., 2010: DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.03.011

  7. Controls on the CO2 system by benthic-pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Heiko; Braeckman, Ulrike; Meysman, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The shallowness of coastal seas permits close interaction between the sediments, the water column and the atmosphere. Furthermore, shallow coastal seas are regions of high primary production which leads to high fluxes of organic matter to the sediment. In the context of coastal oceans acting as a continental shelf pump, that is transferring CO2 from coastal seas into the open ocean, the role of benthic processes are only partly understood. Recent studies from the East China Sea and the North Sea show that sediments could play a more important role than previously anticipated. This so-called "benthic-pelagic alkalinity connection" states that anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in sediments are an important alkalinity source for coastal seas like the North Sea. During a basin wide North Sea cruise in September 2011, we measured rates of sedimentary alkalinity (TA) generation within permeable and muddy sediments of the North Sea at 19 stations. Using closed sediment incubations, benthic fluxes of alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, nutrients and oxygen were determined. In May 2012 we sampled an additional 7 stations in the Dutch coastal zone for the same parameters. Here we present preliminary results from both cruises. In the northern North Sea benthic TA fluxes were zero. For the southern North Sea TA fluxes varied between 0 and 21 mmol m-2 d-1 (September 2011) and 3-19 mmol m-2 d-1 (May 2012). Fluxes for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were generally higher than TA fluxes with a maximum of 29 mmol m-2 d-1 (September 2011). Furthermore, positive correlations between oxygen consumption rates and TA/DIC fluxes are showing significant higher TA and DIC fluxes in sediments with high oxygen consumption rates compared to sediments with lower oxygen consumption rates. Our results show that benthic fluxes are an important source for the TA and DIC budgets in the southern North Sea. Benthic alkalinity fluxes can potentially alter the pCO2 of the seawater and thus influence the CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. Alkalinity generation in sediments can therefore play an important role in the pH dynamics and therefore acidification in coastal systems.

  8. Carbon flows in the benthic food web at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, Dick; Bergmann, Melanie; Soetaert, Karline; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Hasemann, Christiane; Klages, Michael; Schewe, Ingo; Soltwedel, Thomas; Budaeva, Nataliya E.

    2011-11-01

    The HAUSGARTEN observatory is located in the eastern Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) and used as long-term monitoring site to follow changes in the Arctic benthic ecosystem. Linear inverse modelling was applied to decipher carbon flows among the compartments of the benthic food web at the central HAUSGARTEN station (2500 m) based on an empirical data set consisting of data on biomass, prokaryote production, total carbon deposition and community respiration. The model resolved 99 carbon flows among 4 abiotic and 10 biotic compartments, ranging from prokaryotes up to megafauna. Total carbon input was 3.780.31 mmol C m -2 d -1, which is a comparatively small fraction of total primary production in the area. The community respiration