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Sample records for benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derivatives

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities of Benzaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives and Their Palladium (II) and Platinum (II) Complexes against Various Human Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hernndeza, Wilfredo; Paz, Juan; Vaisberg, Abraham; Spodine, Evgenia; Richter, Rainer; Beyer, Lothar

    2008-01-01

    The palladium (II) bis-chelate Pd (L1?3)2 and platinum (II) tetranuclear Pt4(L4)4 complexes of benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derivatives have been synthesized, and characterized by elemental analysis and IR, FAB(+)-mass and NMR (1H, 13C) spectroscopy. The complex Pd(L2)2 [HL2 = m-CN-benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone] shows a square-planar geometry with two deprotonated ligands (L) coordinated to PdII through the nitrogen and sulphur atoms in a transarrangement, while the complex Pt4(L4)4 [HL4 = 4-phenyl-1-benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone] has a tetranuclear geometry with four tridentate ligands coordinated to four PtII ions through the carbon (aromatic ring), nitrogen, and sulphur atoms where the ligands are deprotonated at the NH group. The in vitro antitumor activity of the ligands and their complexes was determined against different human tumor cell lines, which revealed that the palladium (II) and platinum (II) complexes are more cytotoxic than their ligands with IC50 values at the range of 0.073.67 ?M. The tetranuclear complex Pt4(L4)4, with the phenyl group in the terminal amine of the ligand, showed higher antiproliferative activity (CI50 = 0.070.12 ?M) than the other tested palladium (II) complexes. PMID:19148285

  2. Vibrational, NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic investigation and NLO studies on benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone using computational calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, N.; Prabakar, P. C. Jobe; Ramalingam, S.; Pandian, G. V.; Anbusrinivasan, P.

    2016-04-01

    In order to investigate the vibrational, electronic and NLO characteristics of the compound; benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (BTSC), the XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV-visible spectra were recorded and were analysed with the calculated spectra by using HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The XRD results revealed that the stabilized molecular systems were confined in orthorhombic unit cell system. The cause for the change of chemical and physical properties behind the compound has been discussed makes use of Mulliken charge levels and NBO in detail. The shift of molecular vibrational pattern by the fusing of ligand; thiosemicarbazone group with benzaldehyde has been keenly observed. The occurrence of in phase and out of phase molecular interaction over the frontier molecular orbitals was determined to evaluate the degeneracy of the electronic energy levels. The thermodynamical studies of the temperature region 100-1000 K to detect the thermal stabilization of the crystal phase of the compound were investigated. The NLO properties were evaluated by the determination of the polarizability and hyperpolarizability of the compound in crystal phase. The physical stabilization of the geometry of the compound has been explained by geometry deformation analysis.

  3. Benzaldehyde

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzaldehyde ; CASRN 100 - 52 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  4. Hydrogen bonds and antiviral activity of benzaldehyde derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    We have obtained the Fourier transform IR spectra of solutions of benzaldehyde derivatives having different antiviral activities against a herpes virus. We observe a correlation between the presence of hydrogen bonds in the benzaldehyde molecules and the appearance of antiviral properties in the compounds. For compounds having antiviral activity, we have obtained spectral data suggesting the existence of hydrogen bonds of the type C=O???H-O and O-H???O in the molecules. When the hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl groups are replaced by a methyl group, no intramolecular hydrogen bonds are formed and the compounds lose their antiviral activity.

  5. Structural studies and investigation on the activity of imidazole-derived thiosemicarbazones and hydrazones against crop-related fungi.

    PubMed

    Reis, Débora C; Despaigne, Angel A Recio; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Silva, Nayane F; Vilela, Camila F; Mendes, Isolda C; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2013-01-01

    New imidazole derived thiosemicarbazones and hydrazones were prepared by condensation of 4(5)-imidazole carboxaldehyde, 4-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)benzaldehyde and 4-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)acetophenone with a thiosemicarbazide or hydrazide. All compounds were characterized by quantitative elemental analysis, IR and NMR techniques. Eight structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The antifungal activities of the compounds were evaluated. None of the compounds exhibited significant activity against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans, while 4(5)-imidazolecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (ImT) and 4-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)benzaldehyde thiosemicabazone (4ImBzT) were highly and selectively active against Cladosporium cladosporioides. 4(5)-Imidazolecarboxaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone (4(5)ImPh), 4(5)-imidazolecarboxaldehyde-para-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (4(5)ImpClPh), 4(5)-imidazolecarboxaldehyde-para-nitrobenzoyl hydrazone (4(5)ImpNO2Ph), 4-(imidazole-1-yl)acetophenone-para-chloro-benzoyl hydrazone (4ImAcpClPh) and 4-(imidazole-1-yl)acetophenone-para-nitro-benzoylhydrazone (4ImAcpNO2Ph) were highly active against Candida glabrata. 4(5)ImpClPh and 4(5)ImpNO2Ph were very effective against C. cladosporioides. In many cases, activity was superior to that of the reference compound nystatin. PMID:24129274

  6. The antimicrobial activity of lapachol and its thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Marina Azevêdo; Johann, Susana; Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Mendes, Isolda Castro; Beraldo, Heloisa; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Alves, Tânia Maria de Almeida; de Sá, Nívea Pereira; Zani, Carlos Leomar

    2013-01-01

    Lapachol was chemically modified to obtain its thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives. These compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against several bacteria and fungi by the broth microdilution method. The thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives of lapachol exhibited antimicrobial activity against the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05 and 0.10 µmol/mL, respectively. The thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives were also active against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii (MICs of 0.10 and 0.20 µmol/mL, respectively). In addition, the lapachol thiosemicarbazone derivative was active against 11 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, with MICs ranging from 0.01-0.10 µmol/mL. The lapachol-derived thiosemicarbazone was not cytotoxic to normal cells at the concentrations that were active against fungi and bacteria. We synthesised, for the first time, thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives of lapachol. The MICs for the lapachol-derived thiosemicarbazone against S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. gattii and several isolates of P. brasiliensis indicated that this compound has the potential to be developed into novel drugs to treat infections caused these microbes. PMID:23778660

  7. Isatin based thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potential bioactive agents: Anti-oxidant and molecular docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haribabu, J.; Subhashree, G. R.; Saranya, S.; Gomathi, K.; Karvembu, R.; Gayathri, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new series of isatin based thiosemicarbazones has been synthesized from benzylisatin and unsubstituted/substituted thiosemicarbazides (1-5). The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, and UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1H &13C NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. Three dimensional molecular structure of three compounds (1, 3 and 4) was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Anti-oxidant activity of the thiosemicarbazone derivatives showed their excellent scavenging effect against free radicals. In addition, all the compounds showed good anti-haemolytic activity. In silico molecular docking studies were performed to screen the anti-inflammatory and anti-tuberculosis properties of thiosemicarbazone derivatives.

  8. Synthesis of novel highly functionalized 4-thiazolidinone derivatives from 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Benmohammed, Abdelmadjid; Khoumeri, Omar; Djafri, Ayada; Terme, Thierry; Vanelle, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    We present herein the synthesis in good yields of two series of highly functionalized thiazolidinone derivatives from the reactions of various 4-phenyl-3-thio-semicarbazones with ethyl 2-bromoacetate and diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, respectively. PMID:24619352

  9. DNA binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxicity studies on ruthenium(II) complexes of benzaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2013-03-15

    Four new ruthenium(II) complexes with N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL(1)) and (E)-N-methyl-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL(2)), were prepared and fully characterized by various spectro-analytical techniques. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL(1) and HL(2) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the complexes bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant studies of the ligands and complexes showed the significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes against MCF-7 cell line was assayed which showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC(50) values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations. PMID:23376221

  10. Intermolecular interaction of thiosemicarbazone derivatives to solvents and a potential Aedes aegypti target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, João Bosco P.; Hallwass, Fernando; da Silva, Aluizio G.; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N.; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P.; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T.; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2015-08-01

    DFT calculations were used to access information about structure, energy and electronic properties of series of phenyl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazone derivatives with demonstrated activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti in stage L4. The way as the thiosemicarbazone derivatives can interact with solvents like DMSO and water were analyzed from the comparison between calculated and experimental 1H NMR chemical shifts. The evidences of thiosemicarbazone derivatives making H-bond interaction to solvent have provide us insights on how they can interact with a potential A. aegypti's biological target, the Sterol Carrier Protein-2.

  11. Anti-HIV activity of thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives of (+/-)-3-menthone.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vibha; Pandeya, S N; Pannecouque, Christophe; Witvrouw, Myriam; De Clercq, E

    2002-05-01

    A series of thiosemicarbazones and semicarbazone derivatives of (+/-)-3-menthone have been synthesized and their anti-HIV activity evaluated against HIV-1(III(B))and HIV-2 (ROD). The studies revealed that maximum protection is offered by chloro-substituted derivatives 2 and 7 against HIV-1 (III(B)) and HIV-2 (ROD). PMID:12210774

  12. Insights into the binding of thiosemicarbazone derivatives with human serum albumin: spectroscopy and molecular modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Subramani; Bharanidharan, Ganesan; Kesherwani, Manish; Mani, Karthik Ananth; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-06-01

    4-[(1Z)-1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylidene)ethyl]phenyl acetate [Ace semi],4-[(1Z)-1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylidene)ethyl]phenyl propanoate [Pro semi] from the family of thiosemicarbazones derivative has been newly synthesized. It has good anticancer activity as well as antibacterial and it is also less toxic in nature, its binding characteristics are therefore of huge interest for understanding pharmacokinetic mechanism of the drug. The binding of thiosemicarbazone derivative to human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by studying its quenching mechanism, binding kinetics and the molecular distance (r) between donor (HSA) and acceptor (thiosemicarbazone derivative) was estimated according to Forster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer using fluorescence spectroscopy. The binding dynamics has been elaborated using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and the feature of thiosemicarbazone derivative induced structural changes of HSA has been studied by circular dichorism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Molecular modelling simulations explore the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding which stabilizes the interaction. PMID:26368536

  13. Synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of novel chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Demet; Karaküçük-İyidoğan, Ayşegül; Ulaşli, Mustafa; Taşkin-Tok, Tuğba; Oruç-Emre, Emİne Elçİn; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    A series of new chiral thiosemicarbazones derived from homochiral amines in both enantiomeric forms were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against A549 (human alveolar adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and HGC-27 (human stomach carcinoma) cell lines. Some of compounds showed inhibitory activities on the growth of cancer cell lines. Especially, compound exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 4.6 μM) against HGC-27 as compared with the reference compound, sindaxel (IC50 10.3 μM), and could be used as a lead compound to search new chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as antiproliferative agents. PMID:25399965

  14. Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives as inhibitors of the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Fouda, A S; Gouda, M M; El-Rahman, S I

    2000-05-01

    The effect of benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid has been investigated using thermometric and polarization techniques. The inhibitive efficiency ranking of these compounds from both techniques was found to be: 2>3>1>4. The inhibitors acted as mixed-type inhibitors but the cathode is more polarized. The relative inhibitive efficiency of these compounds has been explained on the basis of structure of the inhibitors and their mode of interaction at the surface. Results show that these additives are adsorbed on an aluminium surface according to the Langmuir isotherm. Polarization measurements indicated that the rate of corrosion of aluminium rapidly increases with temperature over the range 30-55 degrees C both in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors. Some thermodynamic data of the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. PMID:10823698

  15. Biocidal polymers: synthesis and antimicrobial properties of benzaldehyde derivatives immobilized onto amine-terminated polyacrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The design and applications of antimicrobial polymers is a growing field. Antimicrobial polymers can help to solve the problems associated with the use of conventional antimicrobial agents. Polymers with active functional groups can act as a carrier system for antimicrobial agents. In our study, we aim to prepare and develop some antimicrobial polymers for biomedical applications and water treatment. Results The antimicrobial polymers based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were prepared. Functional groups were created onto polyacrylonitrile via amination using different types of diamines such as ethylenediamine (EDA) and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) to yield amine-terminated polymers. Antimicrobial polymers were obtained by immobilization of benzaldehyde and its derivatives which include, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto amine-terminated polymers. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared polymers against different types of microorganisms including Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Escherichia coli; and Salmonella typhi) as well as fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Cryptpcoccus neoformans) were explored by the cut plug method and viable cell counting methods. Conclusions Amine-terminated polyacrylonitrile were used as a novel polymeric carrier for benzaldehyde derivatives as antimicrobial agents. The prepared polymers can inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. The activity was varied according to the tested microorganism as well as the polymer microstructure. It was found that the activity increased with increasing the number phenolic hydroxyl group of the bioactive group. Finally, it is anticipated that the prepared antimicrobial polymers would be of great help in the field of biomedical applications and biological water treatment. PMID:23025798

  16. Antimalarial activity of thiosemicarbazones and purine derived nitriles

    PubMed Central

    Mallari, Jeremy P.; Guiguemde, Wendyam A.; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a devastating illness caused by multiple species of the Plasmodium genus. The parasite’s food vacuole of falcipain proteases have been extensively studied as potential drug targets. Here we report the testing of two established cysteine protease inhibitor scaffolds against both chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant parasites. A subset of purine derived nitriles killed the parasite with moderate potency, and these inhibitors do not seem to exert their antiproliferative effects as cysteine protease inhibitors. Compound potency was determined to be similar against both parasite strains, indicating a low probability of cross resistance with chloroquine. These compounds represent a novel antimalarial scaffold, and a potential starting point for the development new inhibitors. PMID:19447616

  17. Synthesis of isatin thiosemicarbazones derivatives: In vitro anti-cancer, DNA binding and cleavage activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amna Qasem; Teoh, Siang Guan; Salhin, Abdussalam; Eltayeb, Naser Eltaher; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Majid, A. M. S. Abdul

    New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (kb = 5.03-33.00 × 105 M-1) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47 × 104 M-1) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new naphthalene substituted thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent antifungal and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Altıntop, Mehlika Dilek; Atlı, Özlem; Ilgın, Sinem; Demirel, Rasime; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2016-01-27

    New thiosemicarbazone derivatives (1-10) were obtained via the reaction of 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiosemicarbazide with fluoro-substituted aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal effects against pathogenic yeasts and molds using broth microdilution assay. Ames and umuC assays were carried out to determine the genotoxicity of the most effective antifungal derivatives. Furthermore, all compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma and NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines using XTT test. Among these derivatives, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,3-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (1) and 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,5-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (3) can be identified as the most promising antifungal derivatives due to their notable inhibitory effects on Candida species and no cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. According to Ames and umuC assays, compounds 1 and 3 were classified as non-mutagenic compounds. On the other hand, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-(2,4-difluorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (2) can be considered as the most promising anticancer agent against A549 cell line owing to its notable inhibitory effect on A549 cells with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL when compared with cisplatin (IC50 = 16.28 μg/mL) and no cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:26706351

  19. Copper(II) complexes with 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: Spectral studies and toxicity against Artemia salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, Karina O.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Wardell, James L.; Louro, Sonia R. W.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2009-07-01

    The copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2Am4DH)Cl 2] ( 1), [Cu(H2Am4Me)Cl 2] ( 2), [Cu(H2Am4Et)Cl 2] ( 3) and [Cu(2Am4Ph)Cl] ( 4) with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me), N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Am4Ph) derivatives were studied by means of infrared and EPR spectral techniques. The crystal structure of 4 was determined. The studied compounds proved to be toxic to Artemia salina, suggesting that they could present cytotoxic activity against solid tumors. Among the free thiosemicarbazones H2Am4Ph presented higher toxicity than all other compounds, which showed comparable effects. In the case of complexes 2 and 3 toxicity is probably attributable to the complex as an entity or to a synergistic effect involving the thiosemicarbazone and copper. H2Am4Ph and complexes 2 and 3 revealed to be the most promising compounds as potential antineoplasic agents.

  20. In vitro evaluation of the activity of thiosemicarbazone derivatives against mycotoxigenic fungi affecting cereals.

    PubMed

    Degola, Francesca; Morcia, Caterina; Bisceglie, Franco; Mussi, Francesca; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Pelosi, Giorgio; Terzi, Valeria; Buschini, Annamaria; Restivo, Francesco Maria; Lodi, Tiziana

    2015-05-01

    With a steadily increasing world population, a more efficient system of food production is of paramount importance. One of the major causes of food spoilage is the presence of fungal pathogens and the production and accumulation of mycotoxins. In the present work we report a study on the activity of a series of functionalized thiosemicarbazones (namely cuminaldehyde, trans-cinnamaldehyde, quinoline-2-carboxyaldehyde, 5-fluoroisatin thiosemicarbazone and 5-fluoroisatin N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone), as antifungal and anti-mycotoxin agents, against the two major genera of cereal mycotoxigenic fungi, i.e. Fusarium and Aspergillus. These thiosemicarbazones display different patterns of efficacy on fungal growth and on mycotoxin accumulation depending on the fungal species. Some of the molecules display a greater effect on mycotoxin synthesis than on fungal growth. PMID:25702884

  1. Oxygenation of methylarenes to benzaldehyde derivatives by a polyoxometalate mediated electron transfer-oxygen transfer reaction in aqueous sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Bidyut Bikash; Efremenko, Irena; Neumann, Ronny

    2015-05-13

    The synthesis of benzaldehyde derivatives by oxygenation of methylarenes is of significant conceptual and practical interest because these compounds are important chemical intermediates whose synthesis is still carried out by nonsustainable methods with very low atom economy and formation of copious amounts of waste. Now an oxygenation reaction with a 100% theoretical atom economy using a polyoxometalate oxygen donor has been found. The product yield is typically above 95% with no "overoxidation" to benzoic acids; H2 is released by electrolysis, enabling additional reaction cycles. An electrocatalytic cycle is also feasible. This reaction is possible through the use of an aqueous sulfuric acid solvent, in an aqueous biphasic reaction mode that also allows simple catalyst recycling and recovery. The solvent plays a key role in the reaction mechanism by protonating the polyoxometalate thereby enabling the activation of the methylarenes by an electron transfer process. After additional proton transfer and oxygen transfer steps, benzylic alcohols are formed that further react by an electron transfer-proton transfer sequence forming benzaldehyde derivatives. PMID:25901934

  2. Inhibitory effect of synthetic aromatic heterocycle thiosemicarbazone derivatives on mushroom tyrosinase: Insights from fluorescence, (1)H NMR titration and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan; Dong, Huanhuan; Yu, Yanying; Cao, Shuwen

    2016-01-01

    Three structurally similar aromatic heterocyclic compounds 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde (a), 2-furaldehyde (b), 2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde (c) were chosen and a series of their thiosemicarbazone derivatives(1a-3a, 1b-3b and 1c-3c) were synthesized to evaluate their biological activities as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on tyrosinase were investigated by using spectrofluorimetry, (1)H NMR titration and molecular docking techniques. From the results of fluorescence spectrum and (1)H NMR titration, it was found that forming complexes between the sulfur atom from thiourea and copper ion of enzyme center may play a key role for inhibition activity. Moreover, investigation of (1)H NMR spectra further revealed that formation of hydrogen bond between inhibitor and enzyme may be helpful to above complexes formation. The results were well coincident with the suggestion of molecular docking and obviously showed that 2-thiophone N(4)-thiosemicarbazone (1a), 2-furfuran N(4)-thiosemicarbazone (1b) and 2-pyrrole N(4)-thiosemicarbazone (1c) are potential inhibitors which deserves further investigation. PMID:26213029

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of naphthalene-based thiosemicarbazone derivatives as new anticancer agents against LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Altintop, Mehlika Dilek; Sever, Belgin; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kuş, Gökhan; Oztopcu-Vatan, Pinar; Kabadere, Selda; Kaplancikli, Zafer Asim

    2016-06-01

    Fourteen new naphthalene-based thiosemicarbazone derivatives were designed as anticancer agents against LNCaP human prostate cancer cells and synthesized. MTT assay indicated that compounds 6, 8 and 11 exhibited inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Among these compounds, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide (6), which caused more than 50% death on LNCaP cells, was chosen for flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis pointed out that compound 6 also showed apoptotic effect on LNCaP cells. Compound 6 can be considered as a promising anticancer agent against LNCaP cells owing to its potent cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effect. PMID:25826149

  4. Gold-catalyzed annulations of 2-alkynyl benzaldehydes with vinyl ethers: synthesis of dihydronaphthalene, isochromene, and bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepika; Liu, Le-Ping; Mashuta, Mark S; Hammond, G B

    2013-03-18

    With the suitable selection of a gold catalyst as well as the appropriate control of the reaction conditions, various new gold-catalyzed cyclizations of 2-alkynyl benzaldehyde with acyclic or cyclic vinyl ethers have been developed. Acetal-tethered dihydronaphthalene and isochromenes were obtained from the reactions of 2-alkynyl benzaldehydes with acyclic vinyl ethers under mild conditions. And, more interestingly, the gold-catalyzed reactions of 2-alkynyl benzaldehyde with a cyclic vinyl ether afforded the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative involving two molecules of cyclic vinyl ethers. These products contain interesting substructures that have been found in many biologically active molecules and natural products. In addition, a gold-catalyzed homo-dimerization of 2-phenylethynyl benzaldehyde 1a was observed when the reaction was carried out in the absence of vinyl ether, affording a set of separable diastereomeric products. Plausible mechanisms for these transformations are discussed; a gold-containing benzopyrylium was regarded as the crucial intermediate by which a number of these new transformations took place. PMID:23362089

  5. Pestalols A-E, new alkenyl phenol and benzaldehyde derivatives from endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. AcBC2 isolated from the Chinese mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Fan; Lin, Xiuping; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Wan, Junting; Zhang, Tianyu; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xian-Wen; Tu, Zhengchao; Liu, Yonghong

    2014-06-01

    Five alkenyl phenol and benzaldehyde derivatives, pestalols A-E (1-5), as well as seven known compounds (6-12), were isolated from endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. AcBC2 derived from the Chinese mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 showed cytotoxicity against a panel of 10 tumor cell lines. Compounds 1-5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 showed inhibitory activities against Influenza A virus subtype (H3N2) and Swine Flu (H1N1) viruses. Compound 2 also showed inhibitory activity against tuberculosis. PMID:24690916

  6. Pterostilbene carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, a resveratrol derivative inhibits 17β-Estradiol induced cell migration and proliferation in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Wishard, Rohan; Palla, Srinivasa Rao; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis, thus development of a novel angiogenesis inhibitor is essential for the improvement of therapeutics against cancer. Thrombospondins-1 (TSP-1) is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that acts through direct effects on endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, and activating apoptotic pathways. TSP-1 has been shown to disrupt estrogen-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Here we investigated the potential of pterostilbene carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (PTERC-T), a novel resveratrol (RESV) derivative, to inhibit angiogenesis induced by female sex steroids, particularly 17β-Estradiol (E2), on Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to elucidate the involvement of TSP-1 in PTERC-T action. Our results showed that PTERC-T significantly inhibited 17β-E2-stimulated proliferation of HUVECs and induced apoptosis as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, PTERC-T also inhibited endothelial cell migration, and invasion in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In contrast, RESV failed to inhibit 17β-E2 induced HUVECs proliferation and invasion at similar dose. PTERC-T was also found to increase TSP-1 protein expression levels in a dose-dependent manner which, however, was counteracted by co-incubation with p38MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTERC-T action. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of PTERC-T on 17β-E2 induced angiogenesis is associated, at least in part, with its induction of endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration through targeting TSP-1. Thus, PTERC-T could be considered as a potential lead compound for developing a class of new drugs targeting angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:26850466

  7. Oxidation of benzaldehydes to benzoic acid derivatives by three Desulfovibrio strains. [Desulfovibrio vulgaris; Desulfovibrio simplex; Desulfovibrio sp

    SciTech Connect

    Zellner, G.; Winter, J. ); Kneifel, H. )

    1990-07-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Marburg, Desulfovibrio simplex XVI, and Desulfovibrio sp. strain MP47 used benzaldehydes such as vanillin, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, syringaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-methoxybenzaldehyde as electron donors for sulfate reduction and carbon dioxide and/or components of yeast extract as carbon sources for cell synthesis. The aldehydes were oxidized to their corresponding benzoic acids. The three sulfate reducers oxidized up to 7 mM vanillin and up to 4 mM p-anisaldehyde. Higher concentrations of vanillin or p-anisaldehyde were toxic. In addition, pyridoxal hydrochloride and o-vanillin served as electron donors for sulfate reduction. Salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-aldehyde, pyridine-4-aldehyde, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol were not oxidized. No molecular hydrogen was detected in the gas phase. The oxidized aldehydes were not further degraded.

  8. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Gomes da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-(4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  9. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of indole-pyridine derived hydrazides, hydrazide-hydrazones, and thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Velezheva, Valeriya; Brennan, Patrick; Ivanov, Pavel; Kornienko, Albert; Lyubimov, Sergey; Kazarian, Konstantin; Nikonenko, Boris; Majorov, Konstantin; Apt, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We describe the design, synthesis, and in vitro antimycobacterial activity of a series of novel simple hybrid hydrazides and hydrazide-hydrazones combining indole and pyridine nuclei. The compounds are derivatives of 1-acetylindoxyl or substituted indole-3-carboxaldehydes tethered via a hydrazine group by simple CN or double CN bonds with 3- and 4-pyridines, 1-oxide 3- and 4-pyridine carbohydrazides. The most active of 15 compounds showed MICs values against an INH-sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv equal to that of INH (0.05-2μg/mL). Five compounds demonstrated appreciable activity against the INH-resistant M. tuberculosis CN-40 clinical isolate (MICs: 2-5μg/mL), providing justification for further in vivo studies. PMID:26725953

  10. 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde derived Schiff bases as small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors: rational identification of a new anticancer lead.

    PubMed

    Dutta Gupta, Sayan; Revathi, B; Mazaira, Gisela I; Galigniana, Mario D; Subrahmanyam, C V S; Gowrishankar, N L; Raghavendra, N M

    2015-04-01

    Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that heals diverse array of biomolecules ranging from multiple oncogenic proteins to the ones responsible for development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover they are over-expressed in cancer cells as a complex with co-chaperones and under-expressed in normal cells as a single free entity. Hence inhibitors of Hsp90 will be more effective and selective in destroying cancer cells with minimum chances of acquiring resistance to them. In continuation of our goal to rationally develop effective small molecule azomethines against Hsp90, we designed few more compounds belonging to the class of 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde derived imines (1-13) with our validated docking protocol. The molecules exhibiting good docking score were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. Subsequently, they were evaluated for their potential to suppress Hsp90 ATPase activity by Malachite green assay. The antiproliferative effect of the molecules were examined on PC3 prostate cancer cell lines by adopting 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay methodology. Finally, schiff base 13 emerged as the lead molecule for future design and development of Hsp90 inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:25727264

  11. Effects on rat testes of the thiosemicarbazone derivative Schiff base (4-(1-phenylmethylcyclobutane-3-yl)-2-(2-hydroxybenzylidenehydrazino)thiazole) and its cadmium(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Oner, Hakan; Karatepe, Mustafa; Karatas, Fikret; Oner, Jale; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Cukurovali, Alaaddin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structural and biochemical changes in testes of rats treated with the thiosemicarbazone derivative thiazole ring Schiff base, (4-(1-phenyl-methylcyclobutane-3-yl)-2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene-hydrazino) thiazole (L), and its Cd(II) complex (CdL(2)). The animals were divided into three groups. Group I was designated as control. The rats in groups II and III were injected subcutaneously with L or CdL(2) respectively at 150-mg kg(-1) doses at 3-day intervals for 15 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and testes were removed for histological examinations. Serum levels of vitamin A, E and MDA of the L-injected group were similar to the control group. While CdL(2) treatment decreased serum vitamin A and E levels, it increased the MDA level compared to other groups. Histologically, the testes structures of L-treated animals were similar to the control. Spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules of CdL(2)-treated animals displayed necrosis. Nuclei of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were pyknotic and heterochromatic. Homogenous pink particles were present in place of the spermatids. The interstitial areas were oedematous and intertubular vessels were plugged. In conclusion, the present results indicate that L does not cause biochemical and morphological alterations, but its Cd(II) complex has degenerative effects in normal rat testes. PMID:15540255

  12. Thiosemicarbazone p-Substituted Acetophenone Derivatives Promote the Loss of Mitochondrial Δψ, GSH Depletion, and Death in K562 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pessoto, Felipe S.; Yokomizo, Cesar H.; Prieto, Tatiana; Fernandes, Cleverton S.; Silva, Alan P.; Kaiser, Carlos R.; Basso, Ernani A.; Nantes, Iseli L.

    2015-01-01

    A series of thiosemicarbazone (TSC) p-substituted acetophenone derivatives were synthesized and chemically characterized. The p-substituents appended to the phenyl group of the TSC structures were hydrogen, fluor, chlorine, methyl, and nitro, producing compounds named TSC-H, TSC-F, TSC-Cl, TSC-Me, and TSC-NO2, respectively. The TSC compounds were evaluated for their capacity to induce mitochondrial permeability, to deplete mitochondrial thiol content, and to promote cell death in the K562 cell lineage using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. TSC-H, TSC-F, and TSC-Cl exhibited a bell-shaped dose-response curve for the induction of apoptosis in K562 cells due to the change from apoptosis to necrosis as the principal mechanism of cell death at the highest tested doses. TSC-Me and TSC-NO2 exhibited a typical dose-response profile, with a half maximal effective concentration of approximately 10 µM for cell death. Cell death was also evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, which revealed lower toxicity of these compounds for peripheral blood mononuclear cells than for K562 cells. The possible mechanisms leading to cell death are discussed based on the observed effects of the new TSC compounds on the cellular thiol content and on mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:26075034

  13. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, R W; Fewson, C A

    1988-01-01

    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase were all aromatic in nature, with para-substituted derivatives of benzyl alcohol being better substrates than other derivatives. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol were also substrates. Benzaldehyde was much the most effective substrate for benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II. Benzaldehydes with a single small substituent group in the meta or para position were better substrates than any other benzaldehyde derivatives. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II could also oxidize the aliphatic aldehydes hexan-1-al and octan-1-al, although poorly. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was substrate-inhibited by benzaldehyde when the assay concentration exceeded approx. 10 microM. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, but not benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, exhibited esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II were inhibited by the thiol-blocking reagents iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, 4-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. Benzyl alcohol or benzaldehyde respectively protected against these inhibitions. NAD+ also gave some protection. Neither benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase nor benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was inhibited by the metal-ion-chelating agents EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, pyrazole or 2-phenanthroline. Neither enzyme was inhibited by a range of plausible metabolic inhibitors such as mandelate, phenylglyoxylate, benzoate, succinate, acetyl-CoA, ATP or ADP. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was sensitive to inhibition by several aromatic aldehydes; in particular, ortho-substituted benzaldehydes such as 2-bromo-, 2-chloro- and 2-fluoro-benzaldehydes were potent inhibitors of the enzyme. PMID:3060114

  14. Spectrophotometric, voltammetric and cytotoxicity studies of 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone and its N(4)-substituted derivatives: A combined experimental-computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgemci, Emine Guler; Saf, Ahmet Ozgur; Tasdemir, Halil Ugur; Türkkan, Ercan; Bingol, Haluk; Turan, Suna Ozbas; Akkiprik, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    In this study, 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (HMAT) and its novel N(4) substituted derivatives were synthesized and characterized by different techniques. The optical band gap of the compounds and the energy of HOMO were experimentally examined by UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry measurements, respectively. Furthermore, the conformational spaces of the compounds were scanned with molecular mechanics method. The geometry optimization, HOMO and LUMO energies, the energy gap of the HOMO-LUMO, dipole moment of the compounds were theoretically calculated by the density functional theory B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The minimal electronic excitation energy and maximum wavelength calculations of the compounds were also performed by TD-DFT//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Theoretically calculated values were compared with the related experimental values. The combined results exhibit that all compounds have good electron-donor properties which affect anti-proliferative activity. The cytotoxic effects of the compounds were also evaluated against HeLa (cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and PC-3 (prostatic carcinoma) cell lines using the standard MTT assay. All tested compounds showed antiproliferative effect having IC50 values in different range. In comparison with that of HMAT, it was obtained that while ethyl group on 4(N)-substituted position decreased in potent anti-proliferative effect, the phenyl group on the position increased in anti-proliferative effect for the tested cancer cell line. Considering the molecular energy parameters, the cytotoxicity activities of the compounds were discussed.

  15. Synthesis, spectral and antimicrobial activity of Zn(II) complexes with Schiff bases derived from 2-hydrazino-5-[substituted phenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole and benzaldehyde/2-hydroxyacetophenone/indoline-2,3-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Pandey, O. P.; Sengupta, S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized by reacting zinc acetate with Schiff bases derived from 2-hydrazino-5-[substituted phenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 2-hydroxyacetophenone/benzaldehyde/indoline-2,3-dione. All these complexes are soluble in DMF and DMSO; low molar conductance values indicate that they are non electrolytes. Elemental analyses suggest that the complexes have 1:2 metal to ligands stoichiometry of the types [ZnL2(H2O)2](L = monoanionic Schiff bases derived from 2-hydrazino-5-[substituted phenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 2-hydroxyacetophenone/indoline-2,3-dione) [ZnL2‧(OOCCH3)2(H2O)2](L‧ = neutral Schiff bases derived from 2-hydrazino-5-[substituted phenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole and benzaldehyde), and they were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. Particle sizes of synthesized compounds were measured with dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyser which indicates that particle diameter are of the range ca. 100-200 nm. All these Schiff bases and their complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial (Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and antifungal activities (Colletotrichum falcatum (C. falcatum), Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Fusarium oxysporium (F. oxysporium) Curvularia pallescence (C. pallescence). The antimicrobial activities have shown that upon complexation the activity increases.

  16. Benzaldehyde-functionalized Polymer Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guorong; Fang, Huafeng; Cheng, Chong; Lu, Peng; Zhang, Ke; Walker, Amy V.; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer vesicles with diameters of ca. 100-600 nm and bearing benzaldehyde functionalities within the vesicular walls were constructed through self assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer PEO45-b-PVBA26 in water. The reactivity of the benzaldehyde functionalities was verified by crosslinking the polymersomes, and also by a one-pot crosslinking and functionalization approach to further render the vesicles fluorescent, each via reductive amination. In vitro studies found these labelled nanostructures to undergo cell association. PMID:19309173

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Molecular Structures of some Bismuth(III) Complexes with Thiosemicarbazones and Dithiocarbazonic Acid Methylester Derivatives with Activity against Helicobacter Pylori.

    PubMed

    Diemer, R; Dittes, U; Nuber, B; Seifried, V; Opferkuch, W; Keppler, B K

    1995-01-01

    The reactions of bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate and bismuth(III) chloride with heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones and derivatives of dithiocarbazonic acid methylester were used to synthesize the respective bismuth(III) complexes, which could be divided into five groups D-H because of their stoichiometrical properties and their molecular structures. The molecular structure and the near coordination sphere of the bismuth(III) central atom of four representative compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray studies. Bis[1-azepanyl-4-(2-pyridyl)-2,3-diazapenta-1,3-diene-1-thiolato-N',N(3),S]bismuth(III) nitrate (5) belongs to group D. The two tridentate ligands and the nitrate ion surround the bismuth atom. The best description of the coordination sphere appears to be that of a distorted trigonal dodecahedron with one position occupied by the lone pair of the bismuth atom. Bis[1-azepanyl-4-(2-thienyl)-2,3-diazapenta-1,3-diene-1-thiolato-N(3),S]bismuth(III) nitrate (9) is assigned to complex type E. Here, two deprotonated ligand molecules are coordinated to the bismuth(III) central atom as bidentate ligands. The structure of this complex can best be described as a distorted trigonal antiprism with a five-coordinated central atom. The two triangular faces are formed by the atoms S(4), N(6), O(11) and S(3), N(4) and the lone pair of the central atom. The two chelate rings are almost perpendicular to each other. Complex molecules of group F form dimeric units with bichloro-bridged bismuth atoms. The structure of di-mu-chlorobis[1-azepanyl-4-(2-pyridyl)-2,3-diazapenta-1,3-diene-1-thiolato-N',N(3),S-chloro]dibismuth(III) (15) can be described as two six-coordinated bismuth atoms, which are bound together via two bridging chlorine atoms. The two bismuth atoms Bi(1) and Bi(1a) and the two bridging chlorine atoms Cl(2) and Cl(2a) form the Bi(2)Cl(2) plane. The two tridentate ligand molecules coordinate via the same atoms as shown in complex 5. In addition, they form two parallel planes, which are perpendicular to the Bi(2)Cl(2) plane. With regard to the center of the Bi(1)-Bi(2) axis they are central point symmetrical, i.e. one pyridine ring lies above and the other beneath the Bi(2)Cl(2) plane. Bismuth(III) chloride and pyridine-2-carboxaldehydethiosemicarbazone 1 b or 2-acetylpyridine-thiosemicarbazone 1 c form complexes of group G. Three chlorine atoms and a bidentate ligand are coordinated to the bismuth(III) central atom. The bidentate ligand bound to the central atom through the N(3) atom and the sulfur atom of the thioketo group. The structure of 18 is completely different from the structures of the bismuth(III) complexes discussed so far and was therefore assigned to group H. The bismuth central atom is coordinated with two ligands, which are bound in different ways. One of them is deprotonated. This ligand is bound to the central atom via the sulfur atom S(3) of the thiolate group and the N(5) atom. An interaction between the sulfur atom of the thiophene ring and the bismuth atom is not possible.The other ligand molecule is not deprotonated. This ligand is bound to the bismuth(III) cation merely via the sulfur atom S(1) of the thioketo group. The best description of the coordination sphere of the bismuth atom is that of a distorted square bipyramidal polyhedron. The square face is formed by the atoms S(3), N(5), Cl(1), the lone pair and the bismuth atom within. The axial positions are occupied by the atoms S(1) and Cl(2). The bond angle between S(1), Bi(1) and Cl(2) differs by about eight degrees from the value determined for a regular square bipyramidal polyhedron of 180 degrees.Some of the newly synthesized bismuth complexes and three ligands have been tested against several strains of Helicobacter pylori bacteria in an agar dilution test. Almost all of the listed bismuth complexes show excellent inhibitory properties with regard to growth of H. pylori already at low concentrations. PMID:18472778

  18. The structure-activity relationships of the antiviral chemotherapeutic activity of isatin ?-thiosemicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, D. J.; Sadler, P. W.

    1960-01-01

    As part of an investigation devoted to the development of new antiviral agents a compound of established antiviral activity has been subjected to systematic structural modification. The structure-activity data so obtained have been used in the design of new compounds, some of which are described. The compound chosen was isatin ?-thiosemicarbazone, which has high activity against neurovaccinia infection in mice, and a 4-point parallel-line assay of in vivo chemotherapeutic activity has been developed, which has enabled the activity of the derivatives to be determined against isatin ?-thiosemicarbazone as a standard. The overall dimensions of the isatin ?-thiosemicarbazone molecule appear to be nearly maximal for the retention of high activity, as all substituents in the aromatic ring decrease the activity irrespective of their nature or position. The projection of the -CS.NH2 group in relation to the ring nitrogen was found to be critical, as the ?-thiosemicarbazone was inactive. A number of modifications of the side-chain were investigated:all led to reduction or loss of antiviral activity. The antiviral activity showed a positive correlation with chloroform solubility over a considerable range. The most active compound encountered was 1-ethylisatin ?-thiosemicarbazone, with an activity of 286 (isatin ?-thiosemicarbazone?100). Isatin ?-thiosemicarbazone showed no activity against 15 other viruses, and 20 related compounds showed on activity against ectromelia. PMID:13797622

  19. Metal-induced cyclization of thiosemicarbazones derived from beta-keto amides and beta-keto esters: open-chain and cyclized ligands in zinc(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Casas, José S; Castaño, María V; Castellano, Eduardo E; Ellena, Javier; García-Tasende, María S; Gato, Angeles; Sánchez, Agustín; Sanjuán, Luisa M; Sordo, José

    2002-03-25

    The reactions of Zn(OAc)(2) with acetoacetanilide, methyl acetoacetate, o-acetoacetanisidide, and ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate thiosemicarbazones (HTSC(1), HTSC(2), HTSC(3), and HTSC(4), respectively) were explored in methanol. With HTSC(1), HTSC(2), and HTSC(3), following isolation of the corresponding zinc(II) thiosemicarbazonates [Zn(TSC(x))(2)] (x = 1, 2, 3), the mother liquors afforded pyrazolonate complexes [ZnL(1)(2)(H(2)O)] (HL(1) = 2,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide) that had been formed by cyclization of the corresponding TSC(-). The reaction of HTSC(4) with zinc(II) acetate gave only the pyrazolonate complex [ZnL(2)(2)(H(2)O)] (HL(2) = 2,5-dihydro-3,4-dimethyl-5-oxo-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide). All compounds were studied by IR and NMR spectroscopy, and HTSC(3), [Zn(TSC(3))(2)] x DMSO, [ZnL(1)(2)(H(2)O)] x 2DMSO, and [ZnL(2)(2)(H(2)O)] x 2DMSO were also studied by X-ray diffractometry, giving a thorough picture of the cyclization process. In preliminary tests of the effects of HL(1) and [ZnL(1)(2)(H(2)O)] on rat paw inflammatory edema induced by carrageenan, HL(1) showed antiinflammatory activity. PMID:11896724

  20. Cyclopalladated organosilane-tethered thiosemicarbazones: novel strategies for improving antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Muneebah; Barnard, Linley; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Wiesner, Lubbe; Chibale, Kelly; Smith, Gregory S

    2016-04-01

    Two series of ferrocenyl- and aryl-derived cyclopalladated organosilane thiosemicarbazone complexes were synthesised via C-H bond activation. Selected compounds were evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (NF54) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Cyclopalladation of the thiosemicarbazones resulted in antiplasmodial activities in the low micromolar range. PMID:26911403

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of New Palladium(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes and Their Cytotoxic Activity against Various Human Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Wilfredo; Paz, Juan; Carrasco, Fernando; Spodine, Evgenia; Manzur, Jorge; Sieler, Joachim; Blaurock, Steffen; Beyer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    The palladium(II) bis-chelate complexes of the type [Pd(TSC1-5)2] (6–10), with their corresponding ligands 4-phenyl-1-(acetone)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC1 (1), 4-phenyl-1-(2′-chloro-benzaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC2 (2), 4-phenyl-1-(3′-hydroxy-benzaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC3 (3), 4-phenyl-1-(2′-naphthaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC4 (4), and 4-phenyl-1-(1′-nitro-2′-naphthaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC5 (5), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR). The molecular structure of HTSC3, HTSC4, and [Pd(TSC1)2] (6) have been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Complex 6 shows a square planar geometry with two deprotonated ligands coordinated to PdII through the azomethine nitrogen and thione sulfur atoms in a cis arrangement. The in vitro cytotoxic activity measurements indicate that the palladium(II) complexes (IC50 = 0.01–9.87 μM) exhibited higher antiproliferative activity than their free ligands (IC50 = 23.48–70.86 and >250 μM) against different types of human tumor cell lines. Among all the studied palladium(II) complexes, the [Pd(TSC3)2] (8) complex exhibited high antitumor activity on the DU145 prostate carcinoma and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, with low values of the inhibitory concentration (0.01 and 0.02 μM, resp.). PMID:24391528

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of New Palladium(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes and Their Cytotoxic Activity against Various Human Tumor Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Wilfredo; Paz, Juan; Carrasco, Fernando; Vaisberg, Abraham; Spodine, Evgenia; Manzur, Jorge; Hennig, Lothar; Sieler, Joachim; Blaurock, Steffen; Beyer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    The palladium(II) bis-chelate complexes of the type [Pd(TSC(1-5))2] (6-10), with their corresponding ligands 4-phenyl-1-(acetone)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC(1) (1), 4-phenyl-1-(2'-chloro-benzaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC(2) (2), 4-phenyl-1-(3'-hydroxy-benzaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC(3) (3), 4-phenyl-1-(2'-naphthaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC(4) (4), and 4-phenyl-1-(1'-nitro-2'-naphthaldehyde)-thiosemicarbazone, HTSC(5) (5), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (IR and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR). The molecular structure of HTSC(3), HTSC(4), and [Pd(TSC(1))2] (6) have been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Complex 6 shows a square planar geometry with two deprotonated ligands coordinated to Pd(II) through the azomethine nitrogen and thione sulfur atoms in a cis arrangement. The in vitro cytotoxic activity measurements indicate that the palladium(II) complexes (IC50 = 0.01-9.87 μM) exhibited higher antiproliferative activity than their free ligands (IC50 = 23.48-70.86 and >250 μM) against different types of human tumor cell lines. Among all the studied palladium(II) complexes, the [Pd(TSC(3))2] (8) complex exhibited high antitumor activity on the DU145 prostate carcinoma and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, with low values of the inhibitory concentration (0.01 and 0.02 μM, resp.). PMID:24391528

  3. The Kinetic Behavior of Benzaldehyde under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Gould, I.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Aldehydes represent an intermediate redox state between alcohols and carboxylic acids and are likely intermediates in the transformation of organic compounds in natural systems. We have conducted kinetic studies of a model aldehyde, benzaldehyde, in high-temperature water (250-350 °C, saturation pressure) in clear fused quartz (CFQ) autoclaves. Under these conditions, benzaldehyde is observed to undergo a disproportionation reaction to benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid reminiscent of the base-catalyzed Cannizzaro reaction known to occur at cooler temperatures. Benzene is also produced via decarbonylation of the aldehyde. We have obtained pseudo second-order rate constants for the decomposition of benzaldehyde at 250, 300, and 350 °C. Rates derived via repeated heating phases and subsequent quantitative 13C-NMR spectroscopy of a single NMR-compatible CFQ tube containing isotopically labeled benzaldehyde are consistent with those obtained by analysis of product suites from individual timed experiments via gas chromatography. Arrhenius parameters for these rate constants are consistent with published values for the reaction under supercritical conditions from one study (Tsao et al. 1992) yet the pre-exponential factor is approximately 7 orders of magnitude smaller than that derived from another study (Ikushima et al. 2001). Moreover, fitting our rate constants with the Eyring equation yields an entropy of activation (ΔS‡) of -26.6 kcal mol-1 K-1, which is consistent for a bimolecular transition state at the rate-limiting step. In contrast, the rates of Ikushima et al. yield a positive value of ΔS‡, which is inconsistent with the putative mechanism for the reaction. The linear Arrhenius behavior of the decomposition of benzaldehyde from high-temperature liquid to supercritical conditions demonstrates the potential for extrapolating experimentally derived rates of reactions for organic functional group transformations to conditions where diagenesis, alteration, metamorphism, and other hydrothermal processes of interest occur in natural systems. References Ikushima, Y., K. Hatakeda, O. Sato, T. Yokoyama, and M. Arai. 2001. Structure and base catalysis of supercritical water in the noncatalytic benzaldehyde disproportionation using water at high temperatures and pressures. Angewandte Chemie, 40, 210-213. Tsao, C.C., Y. Zhou, X. Liu, and T.J. Houser. 1992. Reactions of supercritical water with benzaldehyde, benzylidenebenzylamine, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 5, 107-113.

  4. Influence of vehicle on topical efficacy of 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone and related derivatives on in vivo type 2 herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, R W; Huffman, J H; Schafer, T W; Shipman, C

    1990-01-01

    2-Acetylpyridine semicarbazone (APSC), 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (APTSC) and 2-acetylpyridine-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazonoe (APMTSC) were evaluated against type-2 herpes simplex virus (HSV-2)-induced genitalis and encephalitis in mice and guinea pigs. The antiviral activity of these compounds was compared with that of acyclovir. With 1,3-butanediol as a topical treatment vehicle, 1% APSC and APTSC showed significant activity against the genital infection in mice, as evidenced by increased survivors and decreased severity of vaginal lesions. Reduced titers of virus recovered from the lesions were also observed with APTSC treatments. Eight different commercially available vehicles were compared to determine in which topically administered 1% APTSC would be most efficacious against the vaginal disease induced in mice. Significant results were observed with Squibb cream base, Eucerin base, and K-Y jelly; these effects were essentially equivalent to using 1,3-butanediol Unibase, Aquaphor, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol and petrolatum were less effective as carrier vehicles. The herpesvirus genital infection in guinea pigs was treated with 1% APMTSC and APTSC comparing Squibb cream, Eucerin and K-Y jelly bases; while neither compound exerted striking effects against this infection in any vehicle, 1% APMTSC in Squibb cream was effective in increasing mean survival time and reducing lesion score and titers of recoverable virus. In this experiment, treatments with 1 and 5% acyclovir in polyethylene glycol base were effective in reducing titers of virus from the vaginal area. Orally administered APTSC (12.5, 25, 50 mg/kg/day given twice daily for 7 days) caused moderate prevention of death of mice infected intraperitoneally with HSV-2; subcutaneous injection of the compound was markedly effective with efficacy comparable to that of acyclovir at 120 mg/kg/day. PMID:2155092

  5. Stability of the Resistance to the Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone, a Non-Nucleoside Polymerase Inhibitor of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eliana F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1–5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1–5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  6. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N⁴-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, K; Sithambaresan, M; Aiswarya, N; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra

    2015-03-15

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ=0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g||>g⊥>2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the d(x2-y2) ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined. PMID:25546494

  7. Overtone spectroscopy of some benzaldehyde derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Rai, D. K.; Rai, S. B.

    2001-06-01

    Overtone spectrum of o, m and p-nitrobenzaldehydes and p-chlorobenzaldehyde has been studied in 2000-12000 cm-1 region. Vibrational frequencies and anharmonicity constants for aryl as well as alkyl CH stretch vibrations have been determined. We have also determined the internuclear distances for the aryl CH bond in the different molecules. The small variation observed in these distances is an indication of the substitution effect. It is observed that in the case of p-disubstituted benzenes, the shift in aryl CH bond is proportional to sum of the Hammet s of the substituents. However in thecase of o-disubstituted benzenes it is only 80% of the para- substituted shift.

  8. Antiretroviral activity of thiosemicarbazone metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giorgio; Bisceglie, Franco; Bignami, Fabio; Ronzi, Paola; Schiavone, Pasqualina; Re, Maria Carla; Casoli, Claudio; Pilotti, Elisabetta

    2010-12-23

    Thiosemicarbazones display a wide antimicrobial activity by targeting bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Here, we report our studies on the antiviral activity of two thiosemicarbazone metal complexes, [bis(citronellalthiosemicarbazonato)nickel(II)] and [aqua(pyridoxalthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II)] chloride monohydrate, against the retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1/-2. Both compounds exhibit antiviral properties against HIV but not against HTLVs . In particular, the copper complex shows the most potent anti-HIV activity by acting at the post-entry steps of the viral cycle. PMID:21121632

  9. Microwave synthesis of mixed ligand diimine-thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): biophysical reactivity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Beckford, Floyd A; Shaloski, Michael; Leblanc, Gabriel; Thessing, Jeffrey; Lewis-Alleyne, Lesley C; Holder, Alvin A; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-12-28

    A novel microwave-assisted synthetic method has been used to synthesise a series of mixed ligand ruthenium(II) compounds containing diimine as well as bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligands. The compounds contain the diimine 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and the thiosemicarbazone is derived from 9-anthraldehyde. Based on elemental analyses and spectroscopic data, the compounds are best formulated as [(phen)(2)Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF(6))(2) and [(phen)(2)Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF(6))(2) where thiosemicarbazone = 9-anthraldehydethiosemicarbazone, 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone, and 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone. Fluorescence competition studies with ethidium bromide, along with viscometric measurements suggests that the complexes bind calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) relatively strongly via an intercalative mode possibly involving the aromatic rings of the diimine ligands. The complexes show good cytotoxic profiles against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) as well as HCT 116 and HT-29 (colorectal carcinoma) cell lines. PMID:20023905

  10. The DFT study on the reaction between benzaldehyde and 4-amine-4H-1,2,4-triazole and their derivatives as a source of stable hemiaminals and Schiff bases. Effect of substitution and solvation on the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Berski, Slawomir; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Ciunik, Leszek Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Reaction mechanism for the benzaldehyde (ald) and 4-amine-4H-1,2,4-triazole (4at) has been investigated at the DFT (B3LYP)/6-31+G(d) computational level. Three transition states (TS) have been identified. The TS1 corresponds to hydrogen transfer from the NH2 group to the C = O bond and nucleophillic attack of the carbon atom from the aldehyde group on the nitrogen atom from the NH2 group in 4at. The result of this reaction is the hemiaminal molecule. The TS2 characterises an internal rearrangement of the benzene and triazole rings in the hemiaminal molecule. The TS3 leads to breaking of the O-H bond, the elimination reaction of the H2O molecule, and formation of the C=N bond. The final product of this reaction is a Schiff base. In order to determine the most favorable conditions for hemiaminal formation, the influence of electronic structure modification on the energetic properties during the reaction of benzaldehyde and 4-amine-4H-1,2,4-triazole has been studied. Thirteen substituents: NH2, OH, OCH3, CH3, F, I, Cl, Br, COH, COOH, CF3, CN, NO2, with different Hammett's constant values (σ = -0.66-+0.78) have been considered. Finally, the reaction mechanism has been investigated in the presence of 1 to 5 water molecules. PMID:25701089

  11. Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and DNA-interaction studies of novel anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazones with tautomerizable methylene group.

    PubMed

    Marković, Violeta; Janićijević, Ana; Stanojković, Tatjana; Kolundžija, Branka; Sladić, Dušan; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Joksović, Ljubinka; Djurdjević, Predrag T; Todorović, Nina; Trifunović, Snežana; Joksović, Milan D

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazone derivatives in a tautomerizable keto-imine form was synthesized and tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells (HeLa, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, K562, A549) and human normal MRC-5 cells. Several compounds efficiently inhibited cancer cell growth at micromolar concentrations, especially against K562 and HeLa cells. As determined by flow cytometric analysis, anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazone caused significant increase in the number of sub-G1 phase of HeLa cells and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, inhibition of caspase-3, -8, and -9 with specific caspase inhibitors reduced the apoptosis mediated by the tested compounds in HeLa cells. All anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazones exhibit calf thymus DNA-binding activity, but no cleavage of plasmid DNA was observed. PMID:23644206

  12. Photoelectrochemical detection of benzaldehyde in foodstuffs

    SciTech Connect

    LaCourse, W.R.; Krull, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical detection (PED) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was used to quantitatively determine benzaldehyde in extracts, beverages, and foodstuffs. Photoelectrochemical detection is responsive to alkyl and aryl ketones and aldehydes and offers the advantages of 2-3 orders of magnitude linearity, 5-1-ng limits of detection, and a high degree of selectivity without chemical derivatization. This is the first application of the PED to sample analysis.

  13. In vitro antiparasitic activity of new thiosemicarbazones in strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rodríguez, Adriana; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Bautista, Juan Luis; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Torrens, Hugo; Guevara-Gómez, Yolanda; Pina-Canseco, Socorro; Torres, Martha Bucio; Cabrera-Bravo, Margarita; Martinez, Cesar Mendoza; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

    2014-11-24

    In this study thiosemicarbazones derivatives of 5-[(trifluoromethyl)phenylthio]-2-furaldehyde were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their efficiency in challenging the growth of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. A number of compounds were synthesized from 5-bromo-2-furfuraldehyde using nucleophilic aromatic substitution, with a series of trifluoromethyl thiolates, followed by condensation reactions with thiosemicarbazide. Their molecular structures were determined by (1)H, (13)C and (19)F NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy. When tested with T. cruzi, they showed a stronger reaction, similar to nifurtimox and benznidazole, with the 5-[nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyltio]-2-furaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (compound 4) showing the highest antiparasitic activity. This improved activity may be explained due to the nitro group present in the molecule, which potentiates its activity. The thiosemicarbazone derivatives in this study showed no apoptosis in platelets or monocytes, nor did they induce platelet activation. The trypanocidal activity of these substances represents a good starting point for a medicinal chemistry program aimed at therapy for Chagas' disease. PMID:25238291

  14. 2-Bromo-5-fluoro­benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Tureski, Robert E.; Tanski, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C7H4BrFO, the benzaldehyde O atom is found to be trans to the 2-bromo substituent. In the crystal, short Br⋯F inter­actions between the bromine and fluorine substituents are observed at distances of 3.1878 (14), 3.3641 (13) and 3.3675 (14) Å. Offset face-to-face π-stacking inter­actions are also observed for both of the independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit running parallel to the crystallographic b axis, characterized by centroid–centroid distances of 3.8699 (2) and 3.8699 (2) Å. PMID:24109335

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of thiosemicarbazones, hydrazinobenzothiazoles and arylhydrazones as anticancer agents with a potential to overcome multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Pape, Veronika F S; Tóth, Szilárd; Füredi, András; Szebényi, Kornélia; Lovrics, Anna; Szabó, Pál; Wiese, Michael; Szakács, Gergely

    2016-07-19

    There is a constant need for new therapies against multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer. An attractive strategy is to develop chelators that display significant antitumor activity in multidrug resistant cancer cell lines overexpressing the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein. In this study we used a panel of sensitive and MDR cancer cell lines to evaluate the toxicity of picolinylidene and salicylidene thiosemicarbazone, arylhydrazone, as well as picolinylidene and salicylidene hydrazino-benzothiazole derivatives. Our results confirm the collateral sensitivity of MDR cells to isatin-β-thiosemicarbazones, and identify several chelator scaffolds with a potential to overcome multidrug resistance. Analysis of structure-activity-relationships within the investigated compound library indicates that NNS and NNN donor chelators show superior toxicity as compared to ONS derivatives regardless of the resistance status of the cells. PMID:27161177

  16. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis. PMID:19292760

  17. Design, synthesis, and antimalarial activity of structural chimeras of thiosemicarbazone and ferroquine analogues.

    PubMed

    Biot, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno; Sergeant, Marie-Hélène; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Chibale, Kelly

    2007-12-01

    The design, synthesis, and antimalarial activity of chimeras of thiosemicarbazones (TSC) and ferroquine (FQ) is reported. Key structural elements derived from FQ were coupled to fragments capable of coordinating metal ions. Biological evaluation was conducted against four strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and against the parasitic cysteine protease falcipain-2. To establish the role of the ferrocenyl moiety in the antiplasmodial activity of this series, purely organic parent compounds were also synthesized and tested. The presence of the aminoquinoline structure, allowing transport of the compounds to the food vacuole of the parasite, seems to be the major contributor to antimalarial activity. PMID:17949976

  18. Substrate-specificity of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by TOL plasmid pWW0. Metabolic and mechanistic implications.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J P; Schwager, F; Harayama, S

    1992-01-01

    The substrate-specificities of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase, encoded by TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida mt-2, were determined. The rates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase-catalysed oxidation of substituted benzyl alcohols and reduction of substituted benzaldehydes were independent of the electronic nature of the substituents at positions 3 and 4. Substitutions at position 2 of benzyl alcohol affected the reactivity of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase: the velocity of the benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase-catalysed oxidation was lower for compounds possessing electron-withdrawing substitutions. In the reverse reaction of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, none of the substitutions tested influenced the apparent kcat. values. The rates of benzaldehyde dehydrogenase-catalysed oxidation of substituted benzaldehydes were influenced by the electronic nature of the substitutions: electron-withdrawing groups at positions 3 and 4 favoured the oxidation of benzaldehydes. Substitution at position 2 of benzaldehyde greatly diminished the benzaldehyde dehydrogenase-catalysed oxidation. Substitution at position 2 with electron-donating groups essentially abolished reactivity, and only substitutions that were strongly electron-withdrawing, such as nitro and fluoro groups, permitted enzyme-catalysed oxidation. The influence of the electronic nature and the position of substitutions on the aromatic ring of the substrate on the velocity of the catalysed reactions provided some indications concerning the transition state during the oxidation of the substrates, and on the rate-limiting steps of the enzymes. Pseudomonas putida mt-2 containing TOL plasmid pWW0 cannot grow on toluene derivatives substituted at position 2, nor can it grow on 2-substituted benzyl alcohols or aldehydes. One of the reasons for this may be the substrate-specificities of the benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. PMID:1590768

  19. A novel series of thiosemicarbazone drugs: From synthesis to structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein Pasha; Hadi, Jabbar S.; Alsalim, Tahseen A.; Ghali, Thaer S.; Bolandnazar, Zeinab

    2015-02-01

    A new series of thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) and their 1,3,4-thiadiazolines (TDZs) containing acetamide group have been synthesized from thiosemicarbazide compounds by the reaction of TSCs with cyclic ketones as well as aromatic aldehydes. The structures of newly synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives obtained by heterocyclization of the TSCs with acetic anhydride were experimentally characterized by spectral methods using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of the studied compounds were also studied theoretically by performing Density Functional Theory (DFT) to access reliable results to the experimental values. The molecular geometry, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and Mulliken atomic charges of the studied compounds have been calculated at the B3LYP method and standard 6-31+G(d,p) basis set starting from optimized geometry. The theoretical 13C chemical shift results were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) approach and their respective linear correlations were obtained.

  20. A novel series of thiosemicarbazone drugs: from synthesis to structure.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Hossein Pasha; Hadi, Jabbar S; Alsalim, Tahseen A; Ghali, Thaer S; Bolandnazar, Zeinab

    2015-02-25

    A new series of thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) and their 1,3,4-thiadiazolines (TDZs) containing acetamide group have been synthesized from thiosemicarbazide compounds by the reaction of TSCs with cyclic ketones as well as aromatic aldehydes. The structures of newly synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives obtained by heterocyclization of the TSCs with acetic anhydride were experimentally characterized by spectral methods using IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of the studied compounds were also studied theoretically by performing Density Functional Theory (DFT) to access reliable results to the experimental values. The molecular geometry, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and Mulliken atomic charges of the studied compounds have been calculated at the B3LYP method and standard 6-31+G(d,p) basis set starting from optimized geometry. The theoretical (13)C chemical shift results were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) approach and their respective linear correlations were obtained. PMID:25291504

  1. [Study of the effect of thiosemicarbazones against Toxoplasma gondii].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marco Antônio G B; Carreira, Gabriela M; Souza, Daniela P V; Nogueira, Paulo Marcos R; de Melo, Edésio J T; Maria, Edmilson J

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected disease, with an estimated occurrence of one-third of the population worldwide. Research in medicinal chemistry has for some years been pursuing the development of new drugs against toxoplasmosis, because current treatments cause serious side effects in the patient. The use of thiosemicarbazones as an alternative option for the treatment of various diseases has been published in recent years, due to their, among others, anticancer, antimalarial, antitrypanosomal, antibacterial, and antitoxoplasmosis activities, the latter being the subject of this study, which is based upon biological analyses and tests of the response of Toxoplasma gondii in the presence of thiosemicarbazones. PMID:23849723

  2. Effect of thiosemicarbazones on corrosion of steel in phosphoric acid produced by wet process

    SciTech Connect

    Khamis, E.; Ameer, M.A.; AlAndis, N.M.; Al-Senani, G.

    2000-02-01

    Corrosion inhibition of steel in phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) by thiosemicarbazide derivatives was studied using different chemical and electrochemical techniques. Protection efficiency up to 99% was obtained with small amounts (10{sup {minus}4} M) of cinnamaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (CTSCN). The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the modification of the molecular structure of the inhibitors. Empirical kinetic relationship was obtained describing the experimental data obtained from the different compounds used in this investigation. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the compounds acted primarily as mixed-type inhibitors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge-transfer resistance increased and the capacitance of the double layer decreased with increasing the concentration of the inhibitor in the medium, confirming adsorption process mechanism. At high concentrations (>10{sup 4} M), the capacitance of the double layer leveled off since maximum double-layer thickness was attained. Kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm described the experimental findings. Number of active sites, binding constant, and change of free energy were computed for all inhibitors studied. Based on the inhibitor, it was found that each organic molecule replaced one or more adsorbed water molecule from the steel surface. The influence of exposure time on the performance of crotonaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (CrTSCN) was studied. Results showed that the inhibitor performed better with time and at a critical concentration of 5 x 10{sup {minus}4} M.

  3. Molecular structure and electronic structure of 2-pyridine-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    SciTech Connect

    Biyushkin, V.N.; Chumakov, Yu.M.; Samus', N.M.; Baka, I.D.

    1987-07-01

    In a continuation of research into the relationship between the molecular structure, electronic structure, and antitumor activity of the thiosemicarbazones of ..cap alpha..-(N)-heterocyclic aldehydes an x-ray crystallographic investigation of 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone monohydrate was undertaken, and the electronic structure of the thiosemicarbazone molecule was calculated by a quantum-chemical method. The compound exhibits clearly defined activity against sarcoma 180.

  4. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Parker, Erica N; Song, Jiangli; Kishore Kumar, G D; Odutola, Samuel O; Chavarria, Gustavo E; Charlton-Sevcik, Amanda K; Strecker, Tracy E; Barnes, Ashleigh L; Sudhan, Dhivya R; Wittenborn, Thomas R; Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R; Chaplin, David J; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G

    2015-11-01

    Upregulation of cathepsin L in a variety of tumors and its ability to promote cancer cell invasion and migration through degradation of the extracellular matrix suggest that cathepsin L is a promising biological target for the development of anti-metastatic agents. Based on encouraging results from studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9 nM, 14.4 nM, and 8.1 nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10 μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5 μM. The most active cathepsin L inhibitors from this benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone series (1, 8, and 32) displayed low cytotoxicity toward normal primary cells [in this case human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)]. In an initial in vivo study, 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) was well-tolerated in a CDF1 mouse model bearing an implanted C3H mammary carcinoma, and showed efficacy in tumor growth delay. Low cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell invasion, and in vivo tolerability are desirable characteristics for anti-metastatic agents functioning through an inhibition of cathepsin L. Active members of this structurally diverse group of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin L inhibitors show promise as potential anti-metastatic, pre-clinical drug candidates. PMID:26462052

  5. Substituent group effects on the solubilization of polar aromatic solutes (phenols, anilines, and benzaldehydes) by N-hexadecylpyridinium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byunghwan; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Scamehorn, J.F. )

    1991-01-10

    Solubilization isotherms of polar aromatic solutes (phenols, anilines, and benzaldehydes) in N-hexadecylpyridinium chloride micelles have been determined at 25{degree}C by using the semiequilibrium dialysis method. Effects of various substituent groups (H, F, Cl, Br, CH{sub 3}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}, Et, i-Pr, and CF{sub 3}) have been studied for the solubilization of phenol, aniline, and benzaldehyde derivatives in aqueous solutions of the surfactant. Both hydrophobic and electrostatic effects are shown to be important in influencing the solubilization behavior. The simple expression, K = K{sub 0}(1 {minus} BX){sup 2}, is used to correlate the solubilization equilibrium constant (K) with the mole fraction of solute in the micelles (X). Linear free energy relationships can be used to correlate the solubilization results for the different classes of compounds.

  6. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal.

    PubMed

    Joselice e Silva, M; Alves, A J; Do Nascimento, S C

    1998-03-01

    Five new N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal were synthesized. Safrole, a natural product obtained from sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa), was oxidized to alcohol using BH3-THF and H2O2, followed by oxidation to aldehyde using pyridinium dichromate (PDC) and condensation with five N-substituted derivatives of thiosemicarbazide. Tests were performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity with continuous chain KB cells (epidermoide carcinoma of the floor of the mouth). Compounds 5 and 6 showed IC50 values of 1.5 and 4.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:9639871

  7. Biomass pyrolysis: thermal decomposition mechanisms of furfural and benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Vasiliou, AnGayle K; Kim, Jong Hyun; Ormond, Thomas K; Piech, Krzysztof M; Urness, Kimberly N; Scheer, Adam M; Robichaud, David J; Mukarakate, Calvin; Nimlos, Mark R; Daily, John W; Guan, Qi; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Ellison, G Barney

    2013-09-14

    The thermal decompositions of furfural and benzaldehyde have been studied in a heated microtubular flow reactor. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out by passing a dilute mixture of the aromatic aldehydes (roughly 0.1%-1%) entrained in a stream of buffer gas (either He or Ar) through a pulsed, heated SiC reactor that is 2-3 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. Typical pressures in the reactor are 75-150 Torr with the SiC tube wall temperature in the range of 1200-1800 K. Characteristic residence times in the reactor are 100-200 ?sec after which the gas mixture emerges as a skimmed molecular beam at a pressure of approximately 10 ?Torr. Products were detected using matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy, 118.2 nm (10.487 eV) photoionization mass spectroscopy and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. The initial steps in the thermal decomposition of furfural and benzaldehyde have been identified. Furfural undergoes unimolecular decomposition to furan + CO: C4H3O-CHO (+ M) ? CO + C4H4O. Sequential decomposition of furan leads to the production of HC?CH, CH2CO, CH3C?CH, CO, HCCCH2, and H atoms. In contrast, benzaldehyde resists decomposition until higher temperatures when it fragments to phenyl radical plus H atoms and CO: C6H5CHO (+ M) ? C6H5CO + H ? C6H5 + CO + H. The H atoms trigger a chain reaction by attacking C6H5CHO: H + C6H5CHO ? [C6H6CHO]* ? C6H6 + CO + H. The net result is the decomposition of benzaldehyde to produce benzene and CO. PMID:24050347

  8. Biomass pyrolysis: Thermal decomposition mechanisms of furfural and benzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliou, AnGayle K.; Kim, Jong Hyun; Ormond, Thomas K.; Piech, Krzysztof M.; Urness, Kimberly N.; Scheer, Adam M.; Robichaud, David J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Nimlos, Mark R.; Daily, John W.; Guan, Qi; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Ellison, G. Barney

    2013-09-01

    The thermal decompositions of furfural and benzaldehyde have been studied in a heated microtubular flow reactor. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out by passing a dilute mixture of the aromatic aldehydes (roughly 0.1%-1%) entrained in a stream of buffer gas (either He or Ar) through a pulsed, heated SiC reactor that is 2-3 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. Typical pressures in the reactor are 75-150 Torr with the SiC tube wall temperature in the range of 1200-1800 K. Characteristic residence times in the reactor are 100-200 μsec after which the gas mixture emerges as a skimmed molecular beam at a pressure of approximately 10 μTorr. Products were detected using matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy, 118.2 nm (10.487 eV) photoionization mass spectroscopy and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. The initial steps in the thermal decomposition of furfural and benzaldehyde have been identified. Furfural undergoes unimolecular decomposition to furan + CO: C4H3O-CHO (+ M) → CO + C4H4O. Sequential decomposition of furan leads to the production of HC≡CH, CH2CO, CH3C≡CH, CO, HCCCH2, and H atoms. In contrast, benzaldehyde resists decomposition until higher temperatures when it fragments to phenyl radical plus H atoms and CO: C6H5CHO (+ M) → C6H5CO + H → C6H5 + CO + H. The H atoms trigger a chain reaction by attacking C6H5CHO: H + C6H5CHO → [C6H6CHO]* → C6H6 + CO + H. The net result is the decomposition of benzaldehyde to produce benzene and CO.

  9. 2-Hydroxyimino-1-phenylethanone thiosemicarbazone monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sar?kavakl?, Nursabah; Babahan, ?knur; ?ahin, Ertan; Hkelek, Tuncer

    2008-01-01

    In the title thiosemicarbazone derivative, C9H10N4OSH2O, intramolecular NH?N hydrogen bonds result in the formation of two nearly coplanar five- and six-membered rings, which are also almost coplanar with the adjacent phenyl ring. The oxime group has an E configuration and is involved in intermolecular OH?O hydrogen bonding as a donor. In the crystal structure, intramolecular OH?S and NH?N and intermolecular OH?O and NH?S hydrogen bonds generate edge-fused R 2 2(8) and R 4 1(11) ring motifs. The hydrogen-bonded motifs are linked to each other to form a three-dimensional supramolecular network. PMID:21201956

  10. Synthesis and spectral characterization of acetophenone thiosemicarbazone--a nonlinear optical material.

    PubMed

    Santhakumari, R; Ramamurthi, K; Vasuki, G; Yamin, Bohari M; Bhagavannarayana, G

    2010-08-01

    Acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (APTSC) was synthesized. Solubility of APTSC was determined in ethanol and methanol at different temperatures. Single crystals were grown from ethanol by slow evaporation at room temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to FTIR, Laser-Raman and (1)H NMR spectral analyses to confirm the synthesized compound. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) was employed to evaluate the perfection of the grown crystal. The range and percentage of optical transmission was ascertained by recording UV-vis-NIR spectrum. The third order nonlinear optical parameters (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient) were derived by the Z-scan technique. PMID:20434945

  11. Inhibition kinetics of chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazones on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Cong; Chen, Liang-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Yong-Hua; Song, Kang-Kang; Zhou, Xing-Wang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-12-01

    2-Chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (2-Cl-BT) and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (4-Cl-BT) were synthesized, and their inhibitory kinetics on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. Results showed that these compounds exhibited significant inhibitory potency on both monophenolase activity and diphenolase activity of tyrosinase. For the monophenolase activity, both compounds could decrease the steady-state activity of the enzyme sharply, without any influence on the lag period. The IC50 values of them were estimated to be 15.4 μM and 6.7 μM, respectively. For the diphenolase activity, both compounds belonged to reversible inhibitors, but their mechanisms were different: 2-Cl-BT was a noncompetitive type inhibitor, while 4-Cl-BT was a mixed-type inhibitor. Their inhibition constants were determined and compared. PMID:21062043

  12. Novel ruthenium(II) cyclopentadienyl thiosemicarbazone compounds with antiproliferative activity on pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariana; Arce, Esteban Rodríguez; Sarniguet, Cynthia; Morais, Tânia S; Tomaz, Ana Isabel; Azar, Claudio Olea; Figueroa, Roberto; Diego Maya, J; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo; Helena Garcia, M; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah

    2015-12-01

    Searching for new prospective antitrypanosomal agents, three novel Ru(II)-cyclopentadienyl compounds, [Ru(η(5)-C5H5)(PPh3)L], with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. The compounds were evaluated in vitro on the blood circulating trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c strain), the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (strain 427) and on J774 murine macrophages and human-derived EA.hy926 endothelial cells. The compounds were active against both parasites with IC50 values in the micromolar or submicromolar range. Interestingly, they are much more active on T. cruzi than previously developed Ru(II) classical and organometallic compounds with the same bioactive ligands. The new compounds showed moderate to very good selectivity towards the parasites in respect to mammalian cells. The global results point at [RuCp(PPh3)L2] (L2=N-methyl derivative of 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazone and Cp=cyclopentadienyl) as the most promising compound for further developments (IC50T. cruzi=0.41μM; IC50T. brucei brucei=3.5μM). Moreover, this compound shows excellent selectivity towards T. cruzi (SI>49) and good selectivity towards T. brucei brucei (SI>6). In order to get insight into the mechanism of antiparasitic action, the intracellular free radical production capacity of the new compounds was assessed by ESR. DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pirroline-N-oxide) spin adducts related to the bioreduction of the complexes and to redox cycling processes were characterized. In addition, DNA competitive binding studies with ethidium bromide by fluorescence measurements showed that the compounds interact with this biomolecule. PMID:26275470

  13. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand diimine-piperonal thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): Biophysical investigations and biological evaluation as anticancer and antibacterial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Thessing, Jeffrey; Shaloski, Michael, Jr.; Canisius Mbarushimana, P.; Brock, Alyssa; Didion, Jacob; Woods, Jason; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-04-01

    We have used a novel microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories to synthesize a series of ruthenium-thiosemicarbazone complexes. The new thiosemicarbazone ligands are derived from benzo[ d][1,3]dioxole-5-carbaldehyde (piperonal) and the complexes are formulated as [(diimine) 2Ru(TSC)](PF 6) 2 (where the TSC is the bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand). The diimine in the complexes is either 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. The complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic means (NMR, IR and UV-Vis) as well as by elemental analysis. We have studied the biophysical characteristics of the complexes by investigating their anti-oxidant ability as well as their ability to disrupt the function of the human topoisomerase II enzyme. The complexes are moderately strong binders of DNA with binding constants of 10 4 M -1. They are also strong binders of human serum albumin having binding constants on the order of 10 4 M -1. The complexes show good in vitro anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HCT-116 and indeed show some cytotoxic selectivity for cancer cells. The IC 50 values range from 7 to 159 μM (after 72 h drug incubation). They also have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains of pathogenic bacteria with IC 50 values as low as 10 μM; little activity was seen against Gram-negative strains. It has been established that all the compounds are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II.

  14. Indole-7-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone as a flexidentate ligand toward ZnII, CdII, PdII and PtII ions: cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing properties of the PtII complex.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abeer A; Khaledi, Hamid; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Karimian, Hamed

    2014-03-14

    A new thiosemicarbazone (LH2) derived from indole-7-carbaldehyde was synthesized and reacted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) salts. The reactions with zinc and cadmium salts in 2 : 1 (ligand-metal) molar ratio afforded complexes of the type MX2(LH2)2, (X = Cl, Br or OAc), in which the thiosemicarbazone acts as a neutral S-monodentate ligand. In the presence of potassium hydroxide, the reaction of LH2 with ZnBr2 resulted in deprotonation of the thiosemicarbazone at the hydrazine and indole nitrogens to form Zn(L)(CH3OH). The reaction of LH2 with K2PdCl4 in the presence of triethylamine, afforded Pd(L)(LH2) which contains two thiosemicarbazone ligands: one being dianionic N,N,S-tridentate while the other one is neutral S-monodentate. When PdCl2(PPh3)2 was used as the Pd(II) ion source, Pd(L)(PPh3) was obtained. In a similar manner, the analogous platinum complex, Pt(L)(PPh3), was synthesized. The thiosemicarbazone in the latter two complexes behaves in a dianionic N,N,S-tridentate fashion. The platinum complex was found to have significant cytotoxicity toward four cancer cells lines, namely MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HT-29, and HCT-116 but not toward the normal liver WRL-68 cell line. The apoptosis-inducing properties of the Pt complex was explored through fluorescence microscopy visualization, DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide flow cytometry. PMID:24442181

  15. Explorations of Crystalline Effects on 4-(Benzyloxy)Benzaldehyde Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harismah, Kun; Ozkendir, O. Murat; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The properties of 4-(benzyloxy)benzaldehyde (BBA), as a pharmaceutically important compound, have been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of original crystalline and optimised gaseous structures have been evaluated to recognise the crystalline effects. In addition to the structural properties, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have also been evaluated for both investigated systems to better detect the effects in atomic levels. The results indicated that the structural shape of BBA is significantly changed in the optimised gaseous system, showing significant crystalline effects on the geometrical positions. Moreover, the magnitudes for energies and dipole moments indicate notable effects on the electronic properties. The evaluated NMR properties also show that the atoms of aromatic systems detect significant changes more than the atoms of aliphatic systems in the investigated BBA. And finally, the oxygen bridge atom plays a dominant role in combining two benzene rings of BBA.

  16. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Some Thiosemicarbazones and Their Applications as Intermediates for 5-Arylazothiazole Disperse Dyes.

    PubMed

    Gaffer, Hatem E; Khalifa, Mohamed E

    2015-01-01

    The solid-solid reactions of thiosemicarbazide with 4-formylantipyrine, 2-acetylpyrrole and camphor were performed to afford the thiosemicarbazones 1-3 which underwent hetero-cyclization with phenacyl bromide to furnish the corresponding thiazole derivatives 4-6. The yields of the reactions are quantitative in all cases and the products do not require further purification. A series of 5-arylazo-2-(substituted ylidene-hydrazinyl)-thiazole dyes 7-9 was then prepared by diazo coupling of thiazole derivatives 4-6 with several diazonium chlorides. The synthesized dyes were applied as disperse dyes for dyeing polyester fabric. The dyed fabrics exhibit good washing, perspiration, sublimation and light fastness properties, with little variation in their moderate to good rubbing fastness. PMID:26690111

  17. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-04-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes. PMID:26822067

  18. Computational investigation on stereochemistry in titanium-salicylaldehydes-catalyzed cyanation of benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Hu, Changwei; Yang, Huaqing; Su, Zhishan

    2008-07-01

    Theoretical simulation on the enantioselective cyanation of benzaldehyde over titanium-salicylaldehyde catalysts is performed with B3LYP//ONIOM methods. The calculations predict that the attack of cyanide to adsorbed benzaldehyde is the rate-determining step for the entire reaction. The stereochemistry of the titled reaction might be controlled not only by the attack directions of cyanide to benzaldehyde but also by different coordination modes of benzaldehyde to the chiral catalysts. In addition, to evaluate the accuracy of the employed method, the stereoselectivities of the reactions with five different chiral ligands are theoretically predicted. The theoretical predictions are qualitatively in agreement with experiments, and a linear relationship between calculated Delta DeltaG(double dagger) and experimental ones is obtained, especially for the reactions using the ligands with a single chiral center. PMID:18522428

  19. Supramolecular interactions in biologically relevant compounds. 2-Pyrazineformamide thiosemicarbazones and some products of their cyclization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiñeiras, Alfonso; García-Santos, Isabel; Nogueiras, Silvia; Rodríguez-González, Iria; Rodríguez-Riobó, Raúl

    2014-09-01

    Reaction of 2-cyanopyrazine with thiosemicarbazide or N-methylthiosemicarbazide afforded the (Z)-2-(amino(pyrazin-2-yl)methylene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (HPzAm4DH) and (Z)-2-(amino(pyrazin-2-yl)methylene)-N-methylhydrazine carbothioamide (HPzAm4M), respectively. (2Z,N‧E)-N‧-(4-Oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene)pyrazine-2-carbohydrazonamide (HPzAmot, 5) and (2Z,N‧E)-N‧-(3-methyl-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene)pyrazine-2-carbohydrazonamide (MPzAmot, 7) have been synthesized from these thiosemicarbazones with chloroacetic or bromoacetic acids, using a conventional synthetic methodology and microwave-assisted organic reaction enhancement. The crystal structures of the thiosemicarbazones and their solvates [HPzAm4DHṡ1/2 MeOH (1), HPzAm4DHṡH2O (2), HPzAm4M (3), HPzAm4Mṡ2H2O (4)] and the 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones (5 and 7) have been studied by X-ray diffractometry. All of the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Several by-products have also been isolated in a crystalline form, namely 3-((Z,E)-N‧-(4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene)carbamohydrazonium-yl)pyrazin-1-ium dibromide monohydrate, (H3PzAmot)Br2ṡH2O (6), 2-((5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio)acetic acid, (H2Pz124ttAc) (8), 2-amino-5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3-ium chloride monohydrate, (HPz134tda)ClṡH2O (9), and 2-(methylamino)-5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3-ium chloride N-methyl-5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine solvate, (HMPz134tda)Clṡ(MPz134tda) (10). The structures of these compounds were also analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The microwave-assisted organic reaction method for synthesis is easy, convenient, and ecofriendly when compared to the traditional synthetic methods. Crystal analysis revealed that the compounds have extended 3D supramolecular networks through high levels of H-bonding and weak molecular interactions between the molecular moieties and solvent molecules. The novel synthons, which are sustained by Nsbnd H⋯N and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding and other weak interactions, have been shown to assemble with 1,3-thizolidine-4-ones, 1,2,4-trizole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives in a zigzag or herringbone architecture.

  20. Investigation of the biological properties of (hetero)aromatic thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Serda, Maciej; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Jampilek, Josef; Pesko, Matus; Kralova, Katarina; Vejsova, Marcela; Musiol, Robert; Ratuszna, Alicja; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Two series of thiosemicarbazone-based iron chelators (twenty-seven compounds) were designed and synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach. Quinoline and halogenated phenyl were selected as parent scaffolds on the basis of a similarity search. The lipophilicity of the synthesized compounds was measured using HPLC and then calculated. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against eight pathogenic fungal strains. Only a few compounds showed moderate activity against fungi, and (E)-2-(quinolin-2-ylvinyl)-N,N-dimethylhydrazine-carbothioamide appeared to be more effective than fluconazole against most of the fungal strains tested. Antiproliferative activity was measured using a human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116). Several of the tested compounds showed submicromolar antiproliferative activity. Compounds were also tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all of the compounds. PMID:23151918

  1. Toxicological, toxicokinetic and gastroprotective evaluation of the benzaldehyde semicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A E D; Araujo, G L; Galassi, C M; Rodrigues, R F; Cassalli, G D; Kaiser, M; Dalla Costa, T; Beraldo, H; Tagliati, C A

    2013-05-01

    Benzaldehyde semicarbazone (BS) has presented positive results in several pharmacological models, including anticonvulsivant and anti-inflammatory models. The present study evaluated the preclinical toxicity (acute and subchronic), as well as the toxicokinetic and gastroprotective effects of BS against ethanol lesions. Oral doses of 300 and 2000mg/kg were used in the preclinical acute toxicity study; 100, 200, and 300mg/kg were used in both the subchronic toxicity evaluation and the gastric study; and 300mg/kg was used in the toxicokinetic study. No impact from the dose of 300mg/kg could be identified; while, one animal died at 2000mg/kg in the acute toxicity test. In the subchronic toxicity test, changes in the biochemical parameters of the liver, as well as in the histopatological evaluation, demonstrated that BS is a hepatotoxic drug. BS proved to be effective for moderate and severe gastric lesions. In the toxicokinetics study, BS presented a low concentration and rapid plasma disappearance. Several results also indicate that BS is likely to be mostly eliminated from the liver and may well undergo a first-pass effect after oral absorption. It was impossible to estimate the noobserved-adverse-effect-levels (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAEL) due to the presence of hepatotoxicity in all tested doses. PMID:23391596

  2. Half-sandwich ruthenium-arene complexes with thiosemicarbazones: Synthesis and biological evaluation of [(?6-p-cymene)Ru(piperonal thiosemicarbazones)Cl]Cl complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dourth, Deidra; Shaloski, Michael; Didion, Jacob; Thessing, Jeffrey; Woods, Jason; Crowell, Vernon; Gerasimchuk, Nikolay; Gonzalez-Sarras, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a number of organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes containing a series of bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from piperonal is reported. The structure of compounds have been confirmed by spectroscopic analysis (IR and NMR) as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis of [(?6-p-cymene)Ru(pPhTSC)Cl]Cl (4) (pPhTSC is piperonal-N(4)-phenylthiosemicarbazone). The interaction of the complexes ([(?6-p-cymene)Ru(pEtTSC)Cl]Cl) (3) (pEtTSC is piperonal-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone) and 4 with calf thymus DNA, human serum albumin (HSA) and pBR322 plasmid DNA were studied by spectroscopic, gel electrophoresis and hydrodynamic methods. The apparent binding constant for the interaction with DNA was determined to be 3.97 103 M?1 and 4.07 103 M?1 at 293 K for 3 and 4 respectively. The complexes bind strongly to HSA with binding constants of 2.94 104 M?1 and 12.2 104 M?1 at 296 K for 3 and 4 respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of 3 and 4 has been evaluated against two human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116 and Caco-2) with IC50 values in the range 26 150 M. Both 3 and 4 show good activity as a catalytic inhibitor of human topoisomerase II at concentrations as low as 20 M. The proficiency of 3 and 4 to act as antibacterial agents was also evaluated against six pathogenic bacterial strains with the best activity seen against Gram-positive strains. PMID:21666776

  3. Spectral studies of copper(II) complexes of 6-(3-thienyl) pyridine-2-thiosemicarbazone

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjoub, Omima Abdalla; Farina, Yang

    2014-09-03

    Two novel copper(II) complexes [Cu(HL)Cl]Cl.H{sub 2}O (1) and [Cu(L)NO{sub 3}]Ðœ‡H{sub 2}O (2) of the three NNS donor thiosemicarbazone ligand 6-(3-thienyl) pyridine-2-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesized. The ligand and its copper(II) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N, and S), FT-IR, UV-visible, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance. The thiosemicarbazone is present either as the thione form in complex 1 or as thiol form in complex 2 and is coordinated to copper(II) atom via the pyridine nitrogen atom, the azomethine nitrogen atom and the sulfur atom. The physicochemical and spectral data suggest square planar geometry for copper(II) atoms.

  4. The benzaldehyde oxidation paradox explained by the interception of peroxy radical by benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Meenakshisundaram; Nowicka, Ewa; Carter, Emma; Murphy, Damien M; Knight, David W; Bethell, Donald; Hutchings, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    Benzaldehyde readily undergoes autoxidation to form benzoic acid on exposure to air at room temperature. Yet it can be formed in high yield from, for example, benzyl alcohol by oxidation using a variety of procedures and catalysts. Here we report the evidence to resolve this apparent paradox. It is confirmed that benzyl alcohol (and a number of other alcohols), even at low concentrations in benzaldehyde, inhibits the autoxidation. Furthermore we report on the structural features required for inhibition. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping experiments demonstrate that benzyl alcohol intercepts, by hydrogen atom transfer, the benzoylperoxy radicals that play a key role in benzaldehyde autoxidation. A similar inhibition effect has also been observed for the aliphatic octanal/1-octanol system. PMID:24567108

  5. 4-{Phen­yl[4-(6-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridin-4-yl)phen­yl]amino}­benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-yang; Pan, Jian-Ting; Huang, Jian-Yan

    2014-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C35H25N3O, is a tri­phenyl­amine derivative with the 4-position substituted by an aldehyde group, and the 4′-position substituted by a 6-phenyl-2,2′-bi­pyridine group. The whole mol­ecule is non-planar and the dihedral angle between the core benzene and pyridine rings is 36.96 (5)°. The dihedral angle between the phenyl and benzaldehyde groups bonded to the amine N atom is 70.86 (5)°. PMID:25249893

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of a new series of antiparasitic aryloxyl thiosemicarbazones inhibiting Trypanosoma cruzi cruzain.

    PubMed

    Espíndola, José Wanderlan Pontes; Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo de Oliveira; Filho, Gevanio Bezerra de Oliveira; Oliveira E Silva, Dayane Albuquerque; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes; Bastos, Tanira Matutino; Simone, Carlos Alberto de; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Villela, Filipe Silva; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Castro, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz de; Pereira, Valéria Rego Alves; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; Sales Junior, Policarpo Ademar; Romanha, Alvaro José; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima

    2015-08-28

    The discovery of new antiparasitic compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is necessary. Novel aryloxy/aryl thiosemicarbazone-based conformationally constrained analogs of thiosemicarbazones (1) and (2) were developed as potential inhibitors of the T. cruzi protease cruzain, using a rigidification strategy of the iminic bond of (1) and (2). A structure-activity relationship analysis was performed in substituents attached in both aryl and aryloxy rings. This study indicated that apolar substituents or halogen atom substitution at the aryl position improved cruzain inhibition and antiparasitic activity in comparison to unsubstituted thiosemicarbazone. Two of these compounds displayed potent inhibitory antiparasitic activity by inhibiting cruzain and consequently were able to reduce the parasite burden in infected cells and cause parasite cell death through necrosis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that conformational restriction is a valuable strategy in the development of antiparasitic thiosemicarbazones. PMID:26231082

  7. Quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazones and their Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes as topoisomerase IIa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bisceglie, Franco; Musiari, Anastasia; Pinelli, Silvana; Alinovi, Rossella; Menozzi, Ilaria; Polverini, Eugenia; Tarasconi, Pieralberto; Tavone, Matteo; Pelosi, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    A series of quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized. In all complexes the ligands are in the E configuration with respect to the imino bond and behave as terdentate. The copper(II) complexes form square planar derivatives with one molecule of terdentate ligand and chloride ion. A further non-coordinated chloride ion compensates the overall charge. Nickel(II) ions form instead octahedral complexes with two ligands for each metal ion, independently from the stoichiometric metal:ligand ratio used in the synthesis. Ligands and complexes were tested for their antiproliferative properties on histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937. Copper(II) derivatives are systematically more active than the ligands and the nickel complexes. All copper derivatives result in inhibiting topoisomerase IIa in vitro. Computational methods were used to propose a model to explain the different extent of inhibition presented by these compounds. The positive charge of the dissociated form of the copper complexes may play a key role in their action. PMID:26335598

  8. Benzaldehyde in cherry flavour as a precursor of benzene formation in beverages.

    PubMed

    Loch, Christine; Reusch, Helmut; Ruge, Ingrid; Godelmann, Rolf; Pflaum, Tabea; Kuballa, Thomas; Schumacher, Sandra; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-09-01

    During sampling and analysis of alcohol-free beverages for food control purposes, a comparably high contamination of benzene (up to 4.6μg/L) has been detected in cherry-flavoured products, even when they were not preserved using benzoic acid (which is a known precursor of benzene formation). There has been some speculation in the literature that formation may occur from benzaldehyde, which is contained in natural and artificial cherry flavours. In this study, model experiments were able to confirm that benzaldehyde does indeed degrade to benzene under heating conditions, and especially in the presence of ascorbic acid. Analysis of a large collective of authentic beverages from the market (n=170) further confirmed that benzene content is significantly correlated to the presence of benzaldehyde (r=0.61, p<0.0001). In the case of cherry flavoured beverages, industrial best practices should include monitoring for benzene. Formulations containing either benzoic acid or benzaldehyde in combination with ascorbic acid should be avoided. PMID:27041300

  9. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many pathogenic fungi are becoming resistant to currently available drugs. Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that...

  10. Chemo-sensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using benzaldehyde analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activity of conventional antifungal agents, fludioxonil, strobilurin and antimycinA, which target the oxidative and osmotic stress response systems, was elevated by co-application of certain analogs of benzaldehyde. Fungal tolerance to 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was foun...

  11. Serotonin Mediates a Learned Increase in Attraction to High Concentrations of Benzaldehyde in Aged "C. elegans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, David; van der Kooy, Derek

    2008-01-01

    We utilized olfactory-mediated chemotaxis in "Caenorhabditis elegans" to examine the effect of aging on information processing and animal behavior. Wild-type (N2) young adults (day 4) initially approach and eventually avoid a point source of benzaldehyde. Aged adult animals (day 7) showed a stronger initial approach and a delayed avoidance to…

  12. The microwave and infrared spectroscopy of benzaldehyde: Conflict between theory and experimental deductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speakman, Lucas D.; Papas, Brian N.; Woodcock, H. Lee; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2004-03-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that ab initio calculations cannot accurately treat molecules comprised of a benzene ring with a ?-conjugated substituent, for example, benzaldehyde. Theoretical predictions of the benzaldehyde barrier to internal rotation are typically a factor of 2 too high in comparison to the experimental values of 4.67 (infared) and 4.90 (microwave) kcal mol-1. However, both experiments use Pitzer's 1946 model to compute the reduced moment of inertia and employ the experimentally observed torsional frequency to deduce benzaldehyde's rotational barrier. When Pitzer's model is applied to a system with a nonconjugated functional group, such as phenol, the model and theoretical values are in close agreement. Therefore, we conclude the model may not account for conjugation between the substituent and the ?-system of benzene. The experimental values of the benzaldehyde rotational barrier are therefore misleading. The true rotational barrier lies closer to the theoretically extrapolated limit of 7.7 kcal mol-1, based on coupled cluster theory.

  13. Serotonin Mediates a Learned Increase in Attraction to High Concentrations of Benzaldehyde in Aged "C. elegans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, David; van der Kooy, Derek

    2008-01-01

    We utilized olfactory-mediated chemotaxis in "Caenorhabditis elegans" to examine the effect of aging on information processing and animal behavior. Wild-type (N2) young adults (day 4) initially approach and eventually avoid a point source of benzaldehyde. Aged adult animals (day 7) showed a stronger initial approach and a delayed avoidance to

  14. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Steroidal Thiosemicarbazone Platinum (Pt(II)) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmin; Kong, Erbin; Gan, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiping; Lin, Qifu; Cui, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal compounds exhibit particular physiological activities. In this paper, some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes were synthesized by the condensation of steroidal ketones with thiosemicarbazide using estrone, chenodeoxycholic acid, and 7-deoxycholic acid as starting materials and complexation of steroidal thiosesemicarbazones with Pt(II). The complexes were characterized by IR, NMR, and MS, and their antiproliferative activities were evaluated. The results showed that some steroidal thiosemicarbazones platinum (Pt(II)) complexes displayed moderate cytotoxicity to HeLa and Bel-7404 cells. Thereinto, complex 6 showed an excellent inhibited selectivity to HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 9.2 μM and SI value of 21.7. At the same time, all compounds were almost inactive to HEK293T (normal kidney epithelial cells). The information obtained from the studies may be useful for the design of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26635511

  15. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of some steroidal thiosemicarbazones, semicarbazones and hydrozones.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chunfang; Cui, Jianguo; Su, Shaoyang; Lin, Qifu; Jia, Linyi; Fan, Lianghua; Huang, Yanmin

    2014-09-01

    Steroidal thiosemicarbazones, semicarbazones and hydrazones have received extensive attention of scientists recently because they exhibit some biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer. Using different steroids as starting materials, through different chemical methods, 24 steroidal compounds with thiosemicarbazone, semicarbazone or hydrazone groups in their structures, were synthesized, characterized by IR, NMR and MS. The antiproliferative activity of the compounds was evaluated against human gastric cancer (SGC-7901) and human liver cancer (Bel-7404) cells. The structure-activity relationship of these compounds was discussed. The results showed that compound 3 and 12a-12c exhibited significant inhibitory activity to Bel-7404 cells, and IC50 values of them were 4.2, 11.0, 7.4 and 15.0μM respectively (Cisplatin, IC50: 11.6μM). PMID:24928726

  16. Synthesis of prenylated benzaldehydes and their use in the synthesis of analogues of licochalcone A.

    PubMed

    Kromann, Hasse; Larsen, Mogens; Boesen, Thomas; Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, Simon Feldbaek

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, a general applicable synthesis of prenylated aromatic compounds exemplified by prenylated benzaldehydes starting from readily available acetophenones is described. The synthesized benzaldehydes are used to prepare a number of novel analogues of Licochalcone A, a known antibacterial compound, and for the exploration of the pharmacophoric elements that are essential for the antibacterial activity. It is shown that the hydroxyl group in the A ring is essential for the activity and that the hydroxyl group in the B ring has no influence on the antibacterial effect of Licochalcone A. Furthermore, it is shown that the prenyl group at the position 5 of the B ring also has a dominating influence on the activity. This aliphatic group can be replaced by other lipophilic long chained substituents in order to maintain the activity. PMID:15501549

  17. Rationalization of physicochemical characters of oxazolyl thiosemicarbazone analogs towards multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: a QSAR approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Revathi A; Gupta, Arun K; Soni, Love K; Kaskhedikar, S G

    2007-08-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the continuing pandemic of tuberculosis emphasizes the urgent need for the development of new and potent anti-tubercular agents. In an effort to develop new and more effective agents to treat tuberculosis emphasis was focused on quantification of structure-activity relationship of oxazolyl thiosemicarbazone derivatives. The de novo analysis gave insight to some important structural features i.e. nitro group on phenyl ring at R(1) position is optimal for the activity and might be responsible for electronic interaction, while phenyl ring at R position interact with the hydrophobic pocket more effectively as compared to unsubstituted or methyl substituted analogs. Hansch approach offered the understanding and parameterization of interactions of the inhibitor with receptor. Similarly QSAR analysis gave some important physicochemical properties, i.e. empirical aromatic index (ARR) and 3D-MoRSE code value of scattering angle at 8A(-1). These two physicochemical properties shall be helpful in the development of more potent analogs. PMID:17343958

  18. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase II? Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xingzhi; Li, Changzheng

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 3.5??M , HCT-116: 57.5 5.3??M, K562: 48.2 4.0??M, and PC-12: 19.4 2.2??M) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1) and alkylating agents (G2). BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase II?. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation. PMID:24995306

  19. Growth and characterization of novel organic 3-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde-N-methyl 4 Stilbazolium Tosylate crystals for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannathan, K.; Umarani, P.; Ratchagar, V.; Ramesh, V.; Kalainathan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The 3-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde-N-methyl 4-Stilbazolium Tosylate (3- HBST) is a new organic NLO crystal and it is a new derivative in stilbazolium tosylate family. In this work we have synthesized 3-HBST and the single crystal was grown by conventional slow cooling method. The structure and lattice parameters of the grown crystal were determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and it is exhibiting good crystalline nature which is observed from the powder XRD. In order to check the crystalline quality the rocking curve was recorded using multi crystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from both FTIR and NMR spectral analyses. The π-π* and n-π* optical transition energy levels were estimated from the absorption peaks. The NLO property was confirmed by measuring relative SHG efficiency by Kurtz powder test; it shows 24 times higher SHG efficiency than that of urea. In order to test the mechanical stability the Vickers and Knoop micro hardness measurement were carried out and found that the micro hardness number decreases with increasing load. The melting point was determined from Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC).

  20. Growth and characterization of novel organic 3-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde-N-methyl 4 Stilbazolium Tosylate crystals for NLO applications.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, K; Umarani, P; Ratchagar, V; Ramesh, V; Kalainathan, S

    2016-01-15

    The 3-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde-N-methyl 4-Stilbazolium Tosylate (3- HBST) is a new organic NLO crystal and it is a new derivative in stilbazolium tosylate family. In this work we have synthesized 3-HBST and the single crystal was grown by conventional slow cooling method. The structure and lattice parameters of the grown crystal were determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and it is exhibiting good crystalline nature which is observed from the powder XRD. In order to check the crystalline quality the rocking curve was recorded using multi crystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from both FTIR and NMR spectral analyses. The π-π* and n-π* optical transition energy levels were estimated from the absorption peaks. The NLO property was confirmed by measuring relative SHG efficiency by Kurtz powder test; it shows 24 times higher SHG efficiency than that of urea. In order to test the mechanical stability the Vickers and Knoop micro hardness measurement were carried out and found that the micro hardness number decreases with increasing load. The melting point was determined from Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC). PMID:26476071

  1. Probing the Active Center of Benzaldehyde Lyase with Substitutions and the Pseudosubstrate Analogue Benzoylphosphonic Acid Methyl Ester

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gabriel S.; Nemeria, Natalia; Chakraborty, Sumit; McLeish, Michael J.; Yep, Alejandra; Kenyon, George L.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2008-07-28

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of (R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde utilizing thiamin diphosphate and Mg{sup 2+} as cofactors. The enzyme is important for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a wide range of compounds via its carboligation reaction mechanism. In addition to its principal functions, BAL can slowly decarboxylate aromatic amino acids such as benzoylformic acid. It is also intriguing mechanistically due to the paucity of acid-base residues at the active center that can participate in proton transfer steps thought to be necessary for these types of reactions. Here methyl benzoylphosphonate, an excellent electrostatic analogue of benzoylformic acid, is used to probe the mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase. The structure of benzaldehyde lyase in its covalent complex with methyl benzoylphosphonate was determined to 2.49 {angstrom} (Protein Data Bank entry 3D7K) and represents the first structure of this enzyme with a compound bound in the active site. No large structural reorganization was detected compared to the complex of the enzyme with thiamin diphosphate. The configuration of the predecarboxylation thiamin-bound intermediate was clarified by the structure. Both spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies are consistent with inhibition resulting from the binding of MBP to the thiamin diphosphate in the active centers. We also delineated the role of His29 (the sole potential acid-base catalyst in the active site other than the highly conserved Glu50) and Trp163 in cofactor activation and catalysis by benzaldehyde lyase.

  2. fac-Bromidotricarbonyl[2-(diisopropylphosphanyl)benzaldehyde-κ2 O,P]rhenium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Apostolidis, Christos; Ahlmann, Martin; Walter, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the title complex, [ReBr(C13H19OP)(CO)3], displays a facial coordination of the three CO ligands and a κ2 O,P coordination mode of the 2-diisopropyl­phosphino­benzaldehyde ligands. The Re—C bond distance for the CO ligand trans to the P atom is, due to its trans influence, elongated to 1.943 (3) Å, showing that this CO ligand is more weakly bound to the Re centre than the other two. PMID:22969489

  3. Crystal structure of 4-(4-meth-oxy-phen-oxy)benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Andreas; Iovkova-Berends, Ljuba; Gilke, Stefan; Kossmann, Paul; Preut, Hans; Hiersemann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C14H12O3, was synthesized via the nucleophilic addition of 4-meth-oxy-phenol to 4-fluoro-benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the least-squares planes of the benzene rings is 71.52 (3)° and the C-O-C angle at the central O atom is 118.82 (8)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to generate supra-molecular layers in the bc plane. The layers are linked by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:26870476

  4. Crystal structure of 4-(4-meth­oxy­phen­oxy)benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Andreas; Iovkova-Berends, Ljuba; Gilke, Stefan; Kossmann, Paul; Preut, Hans; Hiersemann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C14H12O3, was synthesized via the nucleophilic addition of 4-meth­oxy­phenol to 4-fluoro­benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the least-squares planes of the benzene rings is 71.52 (3)° and the C—O—C angle at the central O atom is 118.82 (8)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to generate supra­molecular layers in the bc plane. The layers are linked by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:26870476

  5. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

  6. Ligational behavior of thiosemicarbazone, semicarbazone and thiocarbohydrazone ligands towards VO(IV), Ce(III), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) ions: Synthesis, structural characterization and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, M.; Seleem, H. S.; El-Shetary, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mono- and binuclear VO(IV), Ce(III), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) complexes of thiosemicarbazone, semicarbazone and thiocarbohydrazone ligands derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol were synthesized. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, ESR, 1H NMR and mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The thiosemicarbazone (H 4L 1) and the semicarbazone (H 4L 2) ligands behave as dibasic pentadentate ligands in case of VO(IV) and UO 2(VI) complexes, tribasic pentadentate in case of Ce(III) complexes and monobasic pentadentate in case of Th(IV) complexes. However, the thiocarbohydrazone ligand (H 3L 3) acts as a monobasic tridentate ligand in all complexes except the VO(IV) complex in which it acts as a dibasic tridentate ligand. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were also tested against Rhizobium bacteria and Fusarium-Oxysporium fungus. The metal complexes of H 4L 1 ligand showed a higher antibacterial effect than the free ligand while the other ligands (H 4L 2 and H 3L 3) showed a higher effect than their metal complexes. The antifungal effect of all metal complexes is lower than the free ligands.

  7. Spectral studies of coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with thiosemicarbazone of heterocyclic ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Umendra

    2005-12-01

    The paper presents the spectral analysis of cobalt(II) complexes with indoxyl thiosemicarbazone (ITSC) of general composition [CoL 2X 2] (where L = ITSC, X = Cl -, NO 3-, (1/2)SO 42-, NCS -). The geometry of the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral (electronic, IR, EPR, 1H NMR, mass) studies. The various physico-chemical techniques suggested a coordination number of six (octahedral) for chloro, nitrato and thiocyanato complexes. Whereas sulfato complex was found to have five coordinate trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. All the complexes are of high spin type showing magnetic moment corresponding to three unpaired electrons.

  8. Effect of benzaldehyde on the electrodeposition and corrosion properties of Ni-W alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Kumar, U.; Kennady, C. Joseph

    2015-10-01

    The effect of different concentrations of benzaldehyde on the electrodeposition of Ni-W alloy coatings on a mild steel substrate from a citrate electrolyte was investigated in this study. The electrolytic alkaline bath (pH 8.0) contained stoichiometric amounts of nickel sulfate, sodium tungstate, and trisodium citrate as precursors. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-W-alloy-coated specimens in 0.2 mol/L H2SO4 was studied using various electrochemical techniques. Tafel polarization studies reveal that the alloy coatings obtained from the bath containing 50 ppm benzaldehyde exhibit a protection efficiency of 95.33%. The corrosion rate also decreases by 21.5 times compared with that of the blank. A higher charge-transfer resistance of 1159.40 Ω·cm2 and a lower double-layer capacitance of 29.4 μF·cm-2 further confirm the better corrosion resistance of the alloy coating. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the deposits on the mild steel surface are consisted of nanocrystals. A lower surface roughness value ( R max) of the deposits is confirmed by atomic force microscopy.

  9. Investigation of the l-phenylacetylcarbinol process to substituted benzaldehydes of interest.

    PubMed

    Maroney, Kerrie Anne N; Culshaw, Peter N; Wermuth, Urs D; Cresswell, Sarah L

    2014-02-01

    The large scale industrial manufacture of the nasal decongestant pseudoephedrine is typically carried out by the reductive amination of l-phenylacetylcarbinol (l-PAC), which in turn is produced via the biotransformation of benzaldehyde using yeast. In recent years there has been increasing legislative control of the supply of pseudoephedrine due to it being diverted for the clandestine production of methylamphetamine and there is some evidence that a number of clandestine drug laboratory chemists have considered the application of the l-PAC process to manufacture their own pseudoephedrine. This work examined the use of a number of substituted benzaldehydes for the manufacture of the corresponding substituted l-PAC analogue followed by reductive amination to the corresponding substituted pseudoephedrine/ephedrine analogues. These substituted pseudoephedrine/ephedrine analogues were either reduced or oxidised to determine the feasibility of producing the corresponding methylamphetamine or methcathinone analogues. As a result, the l-PAC process was identified as a viable route for synthesis of substituted methylamphetamines and methcathinones. PMID:24447451

  10. Increased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species initiates selective cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 cell line resultant from redox active combination therapy using copper-thiosemicarbazone complexes.

    PubMed

    Akladios, Fady N; Andrew, Scott D; Parkinson, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    The combination of cytotoxic copper-thiosemicarbazone complexes with phenoxazines results in an up to 50-fold enhancement in the cytotoxic potential of the thiosemicarbazone against the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line over the effect attributable to drug additivity-allowing minimization of the more toxic copper-thiosemicarbazone component of the therapy. The combination of a benzophenoxazine with all classes of copper complex examined in this study proved more effective than combinations of the copper complexes with related isoelectronic azines. The combination approach results in rapid elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen levels followed by apoptotic cell death. Normal fibroblasts representative of non-cancerous cells (MRC-5) did not display a similar elevation of reactive oxygen levels when exposed to similar drug levels. The minimization of the copper-thiosemicarbazone component of the therapy results in an enhanced safety profile against normal fibroblasts. PMID:26951232

  11. Examination of the Impact of Copper(II) α-(N)-Heterocyclic Thiosemicarbazone Complexes on DNA Topoisomerase IIα.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James T; Jiang, Xiaohua; McGill, Bradley C; Lisic, Edward C; Deweese, Joseph E

    2016-04-18

    Type II DNA topoisomerases resolve topological knots and tangles in DNA that result from routine cellular processes and are effective targets for anticancer therapeutics. To this end, thiosemicarbazones have been identified as having the ability to kill cancer cells from several cell lines. Literature evidence suggests that at least some thiosemicarbazones have an impact on topoisomerase II activity. However, the mechanism is not as clearly defined. Therefore, we set out to analyze the activity of four α-(N)-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazone compounds against topoisomerase IIα. The ligands, acetylpyridine-ethylthiosemicarbazone (APY-ETSC) and acetylpyrazine-methylthiosemicarbazone (APZ-MTSC), and their copper(II) [Cu(II)] complexes [Cu(APY-ETSC)Cl] and [Cu(APZ-MTSC)Cl] were examined for the ability to impact the catalytic cycle of human topoisomerase IIα. Both [Cu(APY-ETSC)Cl] and [Cu(APZ-MTSC)Cl] were more effective at inhibiting DNA relaxation compared with the ligands alone. Further, both [Cu(APY-ETSC)Cl] and [Cu(APZ-MTSC)Cl] increased double-stranded DNA cleavage levels without inhibiting topoisomerase IIα-mediated DNA ligation. The Cu(II) complexes inactivate enzyme activity over time suggesting a critical interaction with the enzyme. Additionally, we found that the Cu(II)-thiosemicarbazone complexes do not significantly impact DNA cleavage by the catalytic core of the enzyme. This evidence is supported by the fact that both [Cu(APY-ETSC)Cl] and [Cu(APZ-MTSC)Cl], and to a lesser extent the ligands, inhibit topoisomerase IIα-mediated ATP hydrolysis. Based upon kinetic analysis, the Cu(II) complexes appear to be noncompetitive inhibitors of the ATPase domain of topoisomerase IIα. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Cu(II) complexes of α-(N)-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones catalytically inhibit the enzyme through the ATPase domain but also promote double-stranded DNA cleavage by the enzyme. PMID:26982206

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (acyl)hydrazones and thiosemicarbazones obtained via in situ condensation of iminium salts with nitrogen-containing nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Caneva, Chiara; Alfei, Silvana; De Maria, Monica; Ibba, Cristina; Delogu, Ilenia; Spallarossa, Andrea; Loddo, Roberta

    2015-11-01

    An unprecedented, highly convergent, high-yielding, one-pot synthesis of (acyl)hydrazones and thiosemicarbazones was carried out by the in situ condensation of isolable iminium chlorides of imidazolidin-2-(thio)one, tetrahydropyrimidin-2-thione and indole derivatives with nitrogen nucleophiles in the presence of a base. The developed reaction procedure is largely advantageous. It is highly parallelizable, no intermediates need to be isolated and minimal sample handling is required during the purification steps. Some relevant reaction parameters including reaction temperature and p[Formula: see text] of the base are discussed. NMR analysis was carried out to assess the stereochemistry of the obtained compounds. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction was found to be affected by the nature of the nitrogen-containing nucleophile being the majority of the derivatives isolated as single geometric isomers. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of the prepared compounds have been preliminary assessed. In cell-based screenings some of the derivatives proved to be cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations and interesting anti-Reo-1 properties have been detected. PMID:26077842

  13. Vanadium(IV/V) complexes of Triapine and related thiosemicarbazones: Synthesis, solution equilibrium and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Kowol, Christian R; Nagy, Nóra V; Jakusch, Tamás; Roller, Alexander; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K; Enyedy, Éva A

    2015-11-01

    The stoichiometry and thermodynamic stability of vanadium(IV/V) complexes of Triapine and two related α(N)-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) with potential antitumor activity have been determined by pH-potentiometry, EPR and (51)V NMR spectroscopy in 30% (w/w) dimethyl sulfoxide/water solvent mixtures. In all cases, mono-ligand complexes in different protonation states were identified. Dimethylation of the terminal amino group resulted in the formation of vanadium(IV/V) complexes with considerably higher stability. Three of the most stable complexes were also synthesized in solid state and comprehensively characterized. The biological evaluation of the synthesized vanadium complexes in comparison to the metal-free ligands in different human cancer cell lines revealed only minimal influence of the metal ion. Thus, in addition the coordination ability of salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (STSC) to vanadium(IV/V) ions was investigated. The exchange of the pyridine nitrogen of the α(N)-heterocyclic TSCs to a phenolate oxygen in STSC significantly increased the stability of the complexes in solution. Finally, this also resulted in increased cytotoxicity activity of a vanadium(V) complex of STSC compared to the metal-free ligand. PMID:26349014

  14. Identification of differential anti-neoplastic activity of copper bis(thiosemicarbazones) that is mediated by intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and lysosomal membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Christian; Al-Eisawi, Zaynab; Jansson, Patric J; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R

    2015-11-01

    Bis(thiosemicarbazones) and their copper (Cu) complexes possess unique anti-neoplastic properties. However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the structure-activity relationships of twelve bis(thiosemicarbazones) to elucidate factors regarding their anti-cancer efficacy. Importantly, the alkyl substitutions at the diimine position of the ligand backbone resulted in two distinct groups, namely, unsubstituted/monosubstituted and disubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazones). This alkyl substitution pattern governed their: (1) Cu(II/I) redox potentials; (2) ability to induce cellular (64)Cu release; (3) lipophilicity; and (4) anti-proliferative activity. The potent anti-cancer Cu complex of the unsubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazone) analog, glyoxal bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (GTSM), generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was attenuated by Cu sequestration by a non-toxic Cu chelator, tetrathiomolybdate, and the anti-oxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Fluorescence microscopy suggested that the anti-cancer activity of Cu(GTSM) was due, in part, to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). For the first time, this investigation highlights the role of ROS and LMP in the anti-cancer activity of bis(thiosemicarbazones). PMID:26335599

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PHENOLIC BENZALDEHYDES AND BENZOIC ACIDS AGAINST CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI, ESCHERICHIA COLI, LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, AND SALMONELLA ENTERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the bactericidal activities of 70 benzaldehydes and benzoic acids substituted in the benzene ring with zero, one, two, or three hydroxy (OH) and/or methoxy (OCH3) groups in a pH 7 buffer against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytog...

  16. Quantification of brown dog tick repellent, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, release from tick-resistant Beagle dogs, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  17. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and mechanism of the formation of benzaldehyde-S(IV) adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, T.M.; Boyce, S.D.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-05-22

    The kinetics and mechanism of the formation of ..cap alpha..-hydroxyphenylmethanesulfonate (HPMS) by the addition of bisulfite to benzaldehyde were studied at low pH. A three-term rate law was observed as d(HPMS)/dt - (k/sub 1/..cap alpha../sub 2/ + (k/sub 2/ + k/sub 3/K/sub H-/(H/sup +/))..cap alpha../sub 1/)(S(IV))/sub t/(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CHO) where ..cap alpha../sub 1/ = (HSO/sub 2//sup -/)/(S(IV)), ..cap alpha../sub 3/ = (SO/sub 2//sup 2 -/)/(S(IV)), and K/sub H/ is the proton association constant of benzaldehyde. The rate-limiting steps of each term appeared to be the nucleophilic attack of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ on the carbonyl carbon of benzaldehyde, the attack of HSO/sub 3//sup -/ on the carbonyl carbon, and the attack by HSO/sub 3//sup -/ on the protonated carbon of the carbocation, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/C/sup +/H(OH), respectively. Over the pH range of most natural systems, only the k/sub 1/ and k/sub 2/ steps contribute to adduct formation while the k/sub 3/ term becomes important for pH < 1. At 25/sup 0/C and ..mu.. = 1.0 M, the intrinsic rate constants were determined to be k/sub 1/ = (2.15 +- 0.09) x 10/sup 4/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, k/sub 2/ = (0.71 +- 0.03) M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, k/sub 3/ approx. 2.5 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Para-substitution on the benzaldehyde ring resulted in a slight increase in reactivity for p-NO/sub 2/- and p-Cl-, and a decrease for p-OH-, p-OCH/sub 3/-, and p-CH/sub 3/-C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CHO. The equilibrium association constant, K = (C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH(OH)SO/sub 3//sup -/)/(HSO/sub 3//sup -/)(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CHO), at 25/sup 0/C was determined to be 4.8 (+-0.8) x 10/sup 3/ at ..mu.. = 0.1 M and 0.98 (+- 0.11) x 10/sup 3/ M/sup -1/ at ..mu.. = 1.0 M. ..delta..H/sup 0/ and ..delta..S/sup 0/ was determined to be -64.6 kJ mol/sup -1/ and -146 J mol/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/, respectively.

  18. 4-{2-[2-(4-Formyl-phen-oxy)eth-oxy]eth-oxy}benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Cao, Yiqun

    2011-06-01

    The title compound, C(18)H(18)O(5), was obtained by the reaction of 4-hy-droxy-benzaldehyde with bis-(2,2-dichloro-eth-yl) ether in dimethyl-formamide. In the crystal, the mol-ecule lies on a twofold rotation axis that passes through the central O atom of the aliphatic chain, thus leading to one half-mol-ecule being present per asymmetric unit. The carbonyl, aryl and O-CH(2)-CH(2) groups are almost coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.030 Å. The aromatic rings are approximately perpendicular to each other, forming a dihedral angle of 78.31 sh;H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions help to consolidate the three-dimensional network. PMID:21754870

  19. Engineering NiO sensitive materials and its ultra-selective detection of benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuchao; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing interest in oxide semiconductor as components of gas sensing devices is motivated by environmental monitoring and intelligent control. NiO with different precursor solution were synthesized by aqueous chemical deposition and pyrolysis process. Here the method is quite facile, green and free of surfactant. Their morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition have been systemically characterized by various techniques. Interestingly, the microstructures of NiO can be engineered by different nickel salt (nitrate or chloride). These NiO based gas sensors showed substantially enhanced responses to benzaldehyde target analyte and exhibited fast response-recover feature. The observed gas sensing behavior is explained in terms of oxygen ionosorption mechanism. PMID:26803600

  20. 2-Hy­droxy-4-meth­oxy­benzaldehyde thio­semicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    The title Schiff base compound, C9H11N3O2S, was prepared by the reaction of equimolar quanti­ties of 2-hy­droxy-4-meth­oxy­benzaldehyde with thio­semicarbazide in methanol. The mol­ecule adopts a trans configuration with respect to the azo­methine group and an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are linked through inter­molecular N—H⋯O and N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21588582

  1. New organoruthenium complexes with bioactive thiosemicarbazones as co-ligands: potential anti-trypanosomal agents†

    PubMed Central

    Demoro, Bruno; Sarniguet, Cynthia; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto; Rossi, Miriam; Liebowitz, Daniel; Caruso, Francesco; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Moreno, Virtudes; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo A.; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah

    2012-01-01

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against neglected diseases produced by trypanosomatid parasites, and particularly against African Trypanosomiasis, whose etiological agent is Trypanosoma brucei, organoruthenium compounds with bioactive nitrofuran containing thiosemicarbazones (L) as co-ligands were obtained. Four ruthenium(ii) complexes with the formula [Ru2(p-cymene)2(L)2]X2, where X = Cl or PF6, were synthesized and the crystal structures of two of them were solved by X-ray diffraction methods. Two of the complexes show significant in vitro growth inhibition activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and are highly selective towards trypanosomal cells with respect to mammalian cells (J774 murine macrophages). These promising results make the title organoruthenium compounds good lead candidates for further developments towards potential antitrypanosomal organometallic drugs. PMID:22138896

  2. Spectroscopic, Thermal and Biological Studies on Some Trivalent Ruthenium and Rhodium NS Chelating Thiosemicarbazone Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinod K.; Srivastava, Shipra; Srivastava, Ankita

    2007-01-01

    The synthetic, spectroscopic, and biological studies of sixteen ring-substituted 4-phenylthiosemicarbazones and 4-nitrophenyl-thiosemicarbazones of anisaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde, and vanillin with ruthenium(III) and rhodium(III) chlorides are reported here. Their structures were determined on the basis of the elemental analyses, spectroscopic data (IR, electronic, 1H and 13C NMR) along with magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductivity and thermogravimetric analyses. Electrical conductance measurement revealed a 1 : 3 electrolytic nature of the complexes. The resulting colored products are monomeric in nature. On the basis of the above studies, three ligands were suggested to be coordinated to each metal atom by thione sulphur and azomethine nitrogen to form low-spin octahedral complexes with ruthenium(III) while forming diamagnetic complexes with rhodium(III). Both ligands and their complexes have been screened for their bactericidal activities and the results indicate that they exhibit a significant activity. PMID:17505530

  3. Synthesis and spectral studies of platinum metal complexes of benzoin thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiong, Offiong E.

    1994-11-01

    The platinum metal chelates of benzoin thiosemicarbazone obtained with Ru(III), Rh(III), Ir(III), Pd(II) and Pt(II) were prepared from their corresponding halide salts. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, IR, Raman, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV-visible spectra studies. Various ligand field parameters and nephelauxetic parameters were also calculated. The mode of bonding and the geometry of the ligand environment around the metal ion have been discussed in the light of the available data obtained. Complexes of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Ir(III) are six-coordinate octahedral, while Pd(II) and Pt(II) halide complexes are four-coordinated with halides bridging.

  4. Sequential extraction and determination of copper and nickel with 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A V; Reddy, Y K

    1986-07-01

    2,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (DAPT) forms a 1:1 complex with copper(II) which can be extracted into n-butanol or ethyl acetate from acetic acid-sodium acetate (pH 5.0) buffer, and a 1:1 nickel(II) complex which can be extracted into n-butanol from ammonium chloride-ammonia (pH 7.5) buffer. The difference between the pH(1 2 ) values for extraction of the two complexes is 3.4 and this has been exploited for their sequential extraction and determination. The molar absorptivities for the copper and nickel complexes are 1.5 x 10(4)l.mole(-1).cm(-1) at 390 nm and 8.2 x 10(3)l.mole(-1).cm(-1) at 385 nm respectively. The procedure has been applied to the analysis of cupronickel. PMID:18964152

  5. G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Tumor Selective Apoptosis of Acute Leukemia Cells by a Promising Benzophenone Thiosemicarbazone Compound

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Maia; Gomez, Natalia; Remes Lenicov, Federico; Echeverría, Emiliana; Shayo, Carina; Moglioni, Albertina; Fernández, Natalia; Davio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anti-mitotic therapies have been considered a hallmark in strategies against abnormally proliferating cells. Focusing on the extensively studied family of thiosemicarbazone (TSC) compounds, we have previously identified 4,4’-dimethoxybenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (T44Bf) as a promising pharmacological compound in a panel of human leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937, KG1a and Jurkat). Present findings indicate that T44Bf-mediated antiproliferative effects are associated with a reversible chronic mitotic arrest caused by defects in chromosome alignment, followed by induced programmed cell death. Furthermore, T44Bf selectively induces apoptosis in leukemia cell lines when compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The underlying mechanism of action involves the activation of the mitochondria signaling pathway, with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL as well as increased Bcl-2 (enhanced phosphorylated fraction) and pro-apoptotic protein Bad levels. In addition, ERK signaling pathway activation was found to be a requisite for T44Bf apoptotic activity. Our findings further describe a novel activity for a benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and propose T44Bf as a promising anti-mitotic prototype to develop chemotherapeutic agents to treat acute leukemia malignancies. PMID:26360247

  6. Screening organometallic binuclear thiosemicarbazone ruthenium complexes as potential anti-tumour agents: cytotoxic activity and human serum albumin binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Demoro, Bruno; de Almeida, Rodrigo F M; Marques, Fernanda; Matos, Cristina P; Otero, Lucía; Costa Pessoa, João; Santos, Isabel; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Moreno, Virtudes; Lorenzo, Julia; Gambino, Dinorah; Tomaz, Ana Isabel

    2013-05-21

    Four complexes combining the {Ru(p-cym)} moiety (p-cym = para-cymene) with thiosemicarbazone (TSC) ligands containing the 5-nitrofuryl pharmacophore were investigated in vitro for their properties as prospective anti-tumour agents. The compounds are dimeric structures of general formula [Ru2(p-cym)2(L)2]X2 where X = Cl(-), PF6(-) and L = deprotonated 5-nitrofuraldehyde TSC (L1), and the N-methyl (L2), N-ethyl (L3) and N-phenyl (L4) derivatives. The precursor [RuCl2(p-cym)]2, all TSC ligands L1-L4and their corresponding complexes 1-4 were screened in vitro for their cytotoxicity against a range of human cancer cell lines (HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemia, A2780 ovarian adenocarcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma and PC3 grade IV prostate carcinoma). While the precursor complex was found to be inactive and L4 exhibited moderate activity only in the MCF7 cell line, the coordination of L4 to the {Ru(p-cym)} moiety remarkably enhanced the activity of the whole complex. In fact, complex 4 [Ru2(p-cym)2(L4)2]Cl2 was found to be the most active agent of the whole series, and was studied further (as well as complex 1 for comparison). Concerning the mode of action, the mechanism of cell death for both 1 and 4 seemed to be related to apoptotic processes, and they strongly interacted with tubulin (involved in the cell cycle) and with integrin (involved in the cytoskeleton formation). As an approach to their pharmacokinetics, the interaction of 1 and 4 with human serum albumin (HSA) was assessed. A quantitative model for the binding of 4 to HSA is proposed from Circular Dichroism data, and validated by fluorescence results. Models of Förster resonance energy transfer and fluorescence quenching afforded the distance of 4 to the lone Trp214 residue. Importantly, HSA binding enhanced the cytotoxicity of 4 and correlated well with the HSA binding data. Our results consistently indicate that [Ru2(p-cymene)2(L4)2]Cl2 is quite promising as a prospective metallodrug for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23519281

  7. Highly selective luminescence sensing of nitrite and benzaldehyde based on 3d-4f heterometallic metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Framework-isomeric three-dimensional (3D) Zn-Ln heterometallic metal-organic frameworks, {[Ln2Zn(abtc)2(H2O)4]·2H2O}∞ {Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2)}, were synthesized using a convenient solvothermal reaction. They can serve as excellent sensors for the specific identification of benzaldehyde and NO2(-) through a fluorescence quenching process. PMID:27117937

  8. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Birkett, Michael A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed, the beagle, is mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in beagle odour. Ectoparasite location of animal hosts is affected by variation in these odour components and their ratios. The aim of this study was to quantify the release rate, and the ratio, of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde from beagles. The odour of three beagles was collected, for four days, over one week (day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7). The compounds were identified using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and authentic standards of compounds were used to generate external calibration curves for quantification. Both compounds were found in all dogs on all days. The amount of benzaldehyde was always higher than that of 2-hexanone and so their ratio varied from unity, on average (over time) being 3.128±0.365, 1.902±0.390, 1.670±0.671ngmL(-1) for beagle 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant (p<0.05, F-test) effect of time. The overall mean was 2.233±0.387ngmL(-1). These results further previous findings by documenting the presence of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde in beagle odour samples covering a 7-day period. This knowledge enables development of repellents to protect dogs from R. sanguineus s. l. infestation. PMID:27085013

  9. Benzaldehyde is a precursor of phenylpropylamino alkaloids as revealed by targeted metabolic profiling and comparative biochemical analyses in Ephedra spp.

    PubMed

    Krizevski, Raz; Bar, Einat; Shalit, O R; Levy, Asaf; Hagel, Jillian M; Kilpatrick, Korey; Marsolais, Frdric; Facchini, Peter J; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Sitrit, Yaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2012-09-01

    Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are phenylpropylamino alkaloids widely used in modern medicine. Some Ephedra species such as E. sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae), a widely used Chinese medicinal plant (Chinese name: Ma Huang), accumulate ephedrine alkaloids as active constituents. Other Ephedra species, such as E. foeminea Forssk. (syn. E. campylopoda C.A. Mey) lack ephedrine alkaloids and their postulated metabolic precursors 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione and (S)-cathinone. Solid-phase microextraction analysis of freshly picked young E. sinica and E. foeminea stems revealed the presence of increased benzaldehyde levels in E. foeminea, whereas 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione was detected only in E. sinica. Soluble protein preparations from E. sinica and E. foeminea stems catalyzed the conversion of benzaldehyde and pyruvate to (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol, (S)-phenylacetylcarbinol, (R)-2-hydroxypropiophenone (S)-2-hydroxypropiophenone and 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione. The activity, termed benzaldehyde carboxyligase (BCL) required the presence of magnesium and thiamine pyrophosphate and was 40 times higher in E. sinica as compared to E. foeminea. The distribution patterns of BCL activity in E. sinica tissues correlates well with the distribution pattern of the ephedrine alkaloids. (S)-Cathinone reductase enzymatic activities generating (1R,2S)-norephedrine and (1S,1R)-norephedrine were significantly higher in E. sinica relative to the levels displayed by E. foeminea. Surprisingly, (1R,2S)-norephedrine N-methyltransferase activity which is a downstream enzyme in ephedrine biosynthesis was significantly higher in E. foeminea than in E. sinica. Our studies further support that benzaldehyde is the metabolic precursor to phenylpropylamino alkaloids in E. sinica. PMID:22727117

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Novel Thiosemicarbazone and Its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Amry, Khalid; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Metal complexes were prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazone with CuCl2, NiCl2, CoCl2, Cu(OAc)2, Ni(OAc)2, and Co(OAc)2. The thiosemicarbazone coordinates to metal through the thionic sulfur and the azomethine nitrogen. The thiosemicarbazone was obtained by the thiosemicarbazide with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. The identities of these compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H, 13C-NMR, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activity of these compounds was first tested in vitro by the disc diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using chloramphenicol as reference drug. The results showed that compound 1.1 is better inhibitor of both types of tested bacteria as compared to chloramphenicol. PMID:24523641

  11. [The synthesis and biologic activity of analogs of 1,4-benzoquinone-guanylhydrazone-thiosemicarbazone. 2. Substitution at the quinone ring by alkyl groups].

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Gutsche, W; Wohlrabe, K; Tresselt, D; Horn, G; Fleck, W

    1986-02-01

    Because of the anticancer activity of 1,4-benzoquinone-guanylhydrazone-thiosemicarbazone (1a) some analogues were synthesized, containing alkyl groups at the quinone moiety. If necessary, the structure of the obtained compounds was confirmed by 1H-NMR-spectroscopy. The anticancer and the antibacterial activities were investigated. The guanylhydrazone-thiosemicarbazones of tolu-,p-xylo-and thymo-quinone showed much lower activities not only against the murine leukemias L 1210 and P 388, but also against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. No correlation could be found between the biological activity and the redox potential. PMID:3725863

  12. Flow Injection Analysis of Mercury Using 4-(Dimethylamino) Benzaldehyde-4-Ethylthiosemicarbazone as the Ionophore of a Coated Wire Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Tara F.; Salhin, Abdussalam; Ghani, Sulaiman Ab

    2012-01-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) incorporating a thiosemicarbazone-based coated wire electrode (CWE) was developed method for the determination of mercury(II). A 0.1 M KNO3 carrier stream with pH between 1 and 5 and flow rate of 1 mL·min−1 were used as optimum parameters. A linear plot within the concentration range of 5 × 10−6–0.1 M Hg(II), slope of 27.8 ± 1 mV per decade and correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.984 were obtained. The system was successfully applied for the determination of mercury(II) in dental amalgam solutions and spiked environmental water samples. Highly reproducible measurements with relative standard deviation (RSD < 1% (n = 3)) were obtained, giving a typical throughput of 30 samples·h−1. PMID:23202196

  13. Study on the Interaction between Isatin-β-Thiosemicarbazone and Calf Thymus DNA by Spectroscopic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pakravan, Parvaneh; Masoudian, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone (IBT) and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements. The IBT is stabilized by intercalation in the DNA (K [IBT –DNA] = 1.03×105 M−1), and displaces the NR dye from the NR–DNA complex. The binding constants Kf and number of binding sites (n≈1) of IBT with DNA were obtained by fluorescence quenching method at different temperatures. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between IBT and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is enthalpy-favored and entropy-disfavored. The changes in the base stacking of CT-DNA upon the binding of IBT are reflected in the circular dichroic (CD) spectral studies. The viscosity increase of CT-DNA solution is another evidence to indicate that, IBT is able to be intercalated in the DNA base pairs. PMID:25561917

  14. Crystal structures of crotonaldehyde semicarbazone and crotonaldehyde thiosemicarbazone from X-ray powder diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Arfan, Atef; Rukiah, Mwaffak

    2015-02-01

    Crotonaldehyde semicarbazone {systematic name: (E)-2-[(E)-but-2-en-1-yl-idene]hydrazinecarboxamide}, C5H9N3O, (I), and crotonaldehyde thio-semi-carba-zone {systematic name: (E)-2-[(E)-but-2-en-1-yldene]hydra-zinecarbo--thio-amide}, C5H9N3S, (II), show the same E conformation around the imine C=N bond. Compounds (I) and (II) were obtained by the condensation of crotonaldehyde with semicarbazide hydro-chloride and thio-semicarbazide, respectively. Each mol-ecule has an intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bond, which generates an S(5) ring. In (I), the crotonaldehyde fragment is twisted by 2.59 (5)° from the semicarbazide mean plane, while in (II) the corresponding angle (with the thio-semicarbazide mean plane) is 9.12 (5)°. The crystal packing is different in the two compounds: in (I) inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into layers parallel to the bc plane, while weak inter-molecular N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds in (II) link the mol-ecules into chains propagating in [110]. PMID:25878810

  15. Structural and biological evaluation of some metal complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and U(VI)O2 complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H2PVT) are reported. Theoretical calculations have been performed to obtain IR spectra of ligand and its complexes using AM1, Zindo/1, MM+ and PM3, methods. The Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. H2VPT shows no apparent digestion effect on the egg albumin while Mn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibited a considerable digestion effect following the order Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Hg(II). Moreover, Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes revealed strong digestion effect. Fe(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) acted as metal co- SOD enzyme factors, which are located in different compartments of the cell.

  16. Synthesis, structure and biological activity of nickel(II) complexes of 5-methyl 2-furfural thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Jouad, E M; Larcher, G; Allain, M; Riou, A; Bouet, G M; Khan, M A; Thanh, X D

    2001-09-01

    5-Methyl 2-furfuraldehyde thiosemicarbazone (M5HFTSC) with nickel(II) leads to three types of complexes: [Ni(M5HFTSC)(2)X(2)], [Ni(M5FTSC)(2)] and [Ni(M5FTSC)(2)] x 2DMF. In the first type the ligand remains in thione form, while in the two other, the anionic thiolato form is involved. The species [Ni(M5HFTSC)(2)X(2)] has been characterized spectroscopically. The structures of [Ni(M5FTSC)(2)] x 2DMF and [Ni(M5FTSC)(2)] have been solved using X-ray diffraction. Biological studies of [Ni(M5HFTSC)(2)Cl(2)] have been carried out in vitro for antifungal activity on human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, and in vivo for toxicity on mice. The results are compared to those of the ligand, the metal salt and a similar copper complex [Cu(M5HFTSC)Cl(2)]. PMID:11566328

  17. Binuclear ruthenium(III) bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: Synthesis, spectral, electrochemical studies and catalytic oxidation of alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed Subarkhan, M.; Ramesh, R.

    2015-03-01

    A new series of binuclear ruthenium(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes of general formula [(EPh3)2(X)2Ru-L-Ru(X)2(EPh3)2] (where E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = NS chelating bis(thiosemicarbazone ligands) has been synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, UV-Vis and EPR). IR spectra show that the thiosemicarbazones behave as monoanionic bidentate ligands coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulphur. The electronic spectra of the complexes indicate that the presence of d-d and intense LMCT transitions in the visible region. The complexes are paramagnetic (low spin d5) in nature and all the complexes show rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion with three different 'g' values (gx ≠ gy ≠ gz) at 77 K. All the complexes are redox active and exhibit an irreversible metal centered redox processes (RuIII-RuIII/RuIV-RuIV; RuIII-RuIII/RuII-RuII) within the potential range of 0.38-0.86 V and -0.39 to -0.66 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl. Further, the catalytic efficiency of one of the complexes [Ru2Cl2(AsPh3)4(L1)] (4) has been investigated in the case of oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide(NMO) as co-oxidant. The formation of high valent RuVdbnd O species is proposed as catalytic intermediate for the catalytic cycle.

  18. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal–organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2015-08-15

    A new 3D nanoporous metal–organic framework (MOF), [[Zn{sub 4}O(C{sub 24}H{sub 15}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O·DMF]{sub n} (1) based on 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single–crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions. - Graphical abstract: Absorption of two typical aldehydes (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde) by solvothermally synthesized of a 3D nano-porous MOF based on TATAB tricarboxylate ligand and Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • We present a 3D Zn(II)-MOF with TATAB linker by solvothermal method. • The framework possesses a new kvh1 topology. • The framework displays formaldehyde and benzaldehyde absorption property. • Conformational analysis was performed to determine the stable linker geometry.

  19. Hydrogenation of benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde in compressed CO2 medium with a Pt/C catalyst: a study on molecular interactions and pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fengyu; Fujita, Shin-ichiro; Akihara, Shuji; Arai, Masahiko

    2005-05-19

    The hydrogenation of benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde has been studied with a 5% Pt/C catalyst in compressed CO(2). The effect of CO(2) pressure on the total conversion was found to be different between the two aldehydes. The total conversion of benzaldehyde merely decreases with increasing CO(2) pressure, while that of cinnamaldehyde shows a maximum at a certain pressure. High-pressure FTIR measurements indicate the existence of interactions of CO(2) with the aldehydes. The absorption of nu(C=O) red-shifts at increasing CO(2) pressure, and this red-shift is more significant for cinnamaldehyde than for benzaldehyde, indicating that the C=O bond of the former becomes more reactive than the latter. The difference in the mode of interactions of CO(2) with these aldehydes has also been indicated by changes of nu(C=O) of CO(2). Thus, the conversion of benzaldehyde will decrease with increasing CO(2) pressure because of a simple dilution by introducing a larger quantity of CO(2). For cinnamaldehyde, the conversion will increase at low pressures because of increasing interactions with CO(2) molecules (increasing the reactivity of the C=O bond) but decrease at high pressures because of the simple dilution effect, similar to the case of benzaldehyde. The dense CO(2) molecules are not likely to change the catalytic activity of supported Pt particles, which was previously suggested from optical absorption of supported fine metal (Au) particles in a compressed CO(2) medium. PMID:16833774

  20. Targeting triple negative breast cancer cells by N3-substituted 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrasiabi, Zahra; Stovall, Preston; Finley, Kristen; Choudhury, Amitava; Barnes, Charles; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul; Vyas, Alok; Padhye, Subhash

    2013-10-01

    Novel N3-substituted 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone thiosemicarbazones and their copper, nickel and palladium complexes are structurally characterized and reported along with the single crystal X-ray structures of three ligands and one nickel complex. All compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative potential against Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells which have poor prognosis and no effective drugs to treat with. All compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity against these cells. Among the metal complexes evaluated, redox active copper complexes were found to be more potent. The possible mechanism for such enhanced activity can be attributed to the generation of oxidative stress, which was amenable for targeting through metal complexation.

  1. Cytotoxic and Antitumour Studies of Acetoacetanilide N(4)-methyl(phenyl)thiosemicarbazone and its Transition Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Priya, N. P.; Firdous, A. P.; Jeevana, R.; Aravindakshan, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic activities of acetoacetanilide N(4)-methyl(phenyl)thiosemicarbazone (L2H) and its seven different metal complexes were studied. Of these, IC50 value of the copper complex was found to be 46 μg/ml. Antitumour studies of this copper complex was carried out using Daltons Lymphoma Ascites cell-induced solid tumour model and Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell-induced ascites tumour model. Administration of the copper complex at different concentrations (10, 5 and 1 mg/kg b. wt) inhibited the solid tumour development in mice and increased the mean survival rate and the life span of Ascites tumour bearing mice in a concentration dependent manner.

  2. Synthesis of diverse dihydropyrimidine-related scaffolds by fluorous benzaldehyde-based Biginelli reaction and post-condensation modifications.

    PubMed

    Piqani, Bruno; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidinones and dihydropyrimidinethiones generated from the Biginelli reactions of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-attached benzaldehydes are used as common intermediates for post-condensation modifications such as cycloaddition, Liebeskind-Srogl reaction and Suzuki coupling to form biaryl-substituted dihydropyrimidinone, dihydropyrimidine, and thiazolopyrimidine compounds. The high efficiency of the diversity-oriented synthesis is achieved by conducting a multicomponent reaction for improved atom economy, under microwave heating for fast reaction, and with fluorous solid-phase extractions (F-SPE) for ease of purification. PMID:21977214

  3. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4-phenoxy-6,7-disubstituted quinolines possessing (thio)semicarbazones as c-Met kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xin; Bao, Guanglong; Wang, Limei; Cheng, Mingke; Zhao, Meng; Zhao, Sijia; Zhou, Hongyang; Gong, Ping

    2016-03-15

    In continuing our efforts to identify small molecules able to inhibit c-Met kinase, three series of novel 6,7-disubstituted-4-phenoxyquinoline derivatives (23a-w, 26a-d and 30a-d) bearing (thio)semicarbazone scaffold were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity. The biological data revealed that most compounds exhibited moderate-to-excellent activity against HT-29, MKN-45, A549 cancer cell lines and relative poor potency toward MDA-MB-231 cell as well as hardly any cytotoxicity in normal PBL cell. Eleven compounds were further examined for their inhibitory activity against c-Met kinase and three compounds (23h, 23n and 26a) demonstrated good inhibitory activity. This work resulted in the discovery of a potent c-Met inhibitor 23n, bearing 2-hydroxy-3-allylphenyl group at R(2) moiety, as a valuable lead molecule, which possessed remarkable cytotoxicity and high selectivity against A549 and HT-29 cell lines with IC50 values of 11nM and 27nM. Besides, it displayed excellent c-Met kinase inhibition on a single-digital nanomolar level (IC50=1.54nM). Meanwhile, the results from preliminarily in vivo study reflected that compound 23n showed promising overall PK profiles, consistent with the efficacy in both MKN-45 and HT-29 tumor xenograft mice model. These results clearly indicated that compound 23n is a potent and highly selective c-Met inhibitor and its favorable in vitro and in vivo profiles warrant further investigation. PMID:26897090

  4. Electrical Wiring of the Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC with a Polymer Containing Osmium Redox Centers: Biosensors for Benzaldehyde and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Badalyan, Artavazd; Dierich, Marlen; Stiba, Konstanze; Schwuchow, Viola; Leimkhler, Silke; Wollenberger, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors for the detection of benzaldehyde and ??aminobutyric acid (GABA) are reported using aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli immobilized in a polymer containing bound low potential osmium redox complexes. The electrically connected enzyme already electrooxidizes benzaldehyde at potentials below ?0.15 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, 1 M KCl). The pH-dependence of benzaldehyde oxidation can be strongly influenced by the ionic strength. The effect is similar with the soluble osmium redox complex and therefore indicates a clear electrostatic effect on the bioelectrocatalytic efficiency of PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. At lower ionic strength, the pH-optimum is high and can be switched to low pH-values at high ionic strength. This offers biosensing at high and low pH-values. A reagentless biosensor has been formed with enzyme wired onto a screen-printed electrode in a flow cell device. The response time to addition of benzaldehyde is 30 s, and the measuring range is between 10150 M and the detection limit of 5 M (signal to noise ratio 3:1) of benzaldehyde. The relative standard deviation in a series (n = 13) for 200 M benzaldehyde is 1.9%. For the biosensor, a response to succinic semialdehyde was also identified. Based on this response and the ability to work at high pH a biosensor for GABA is proposed by coimmobilizing GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T) and PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. PMID:25587431

  5. Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12–30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5–trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68 μg/cm3) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79 μg/cm3), 2,4–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95 μg/cm3), 2,5–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88 μg/cm3), 2–methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28 μg/cm3), 3–methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38 μg/cm3), 4–methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67 μg/cm3), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70 μg/cm3). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3–dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

  6. Comparative evaluation of Bis(thiosemicarbazone)- Biotin and Met-ac-TE3A for tumor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sweta; Tiwari, Anjani K.; Varshney, Raunak; Mathur, R.; Shukla, Gauri; Bag, N.; Singh, B.; Mishra, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    2,2‧,2″-(11-(2-((4-mercapto-1-methoxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclotetradecane-1,4,8-triyl)triacetic acid, Met-ac-TE3A and (E)-N-methyl-2-((E)-3-(2-(2-(5-((3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl)hydrazinecarbono-thioyl)hydrazonobutan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide, Bis(thiosemicarbazone)- Biotin were synthesized and evaluated for imaging application. The pharmacokinetics of these ligands were determined by tracer methods. In vitro human serum stability of 99mTc Met-ac-TE3A/99mTc Bis(thiosemicarbazone)-Biotin after 24 h was found to be 96.5% and 97.0% respectively. Blood kinetics of both ligands in normal rabbits showed biphasic clearance pattern. Ex vivo biodistribution study revealed significant initial tumor uptake and high tumor/muscles ratio which is a pre-requisite condition for a ligand to work as SPECT-radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging.

  7. Vibrational, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopic investigation, VCD and NLO studies on Benzophenone thiosemicarbazone using computational calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, N.; Jobe Prabakar, P. C.; Ramalingam, S.; Periandy, S.; Parasuraman, K.

    2016-04-01

    In order to explore the unbelievable NLO property of prepared Benzophenone thiosemicarbazone (BPTSC), the experimental and theoretical investigation has been made. The theoretical calculations were made using RHF and CAM-B3LYP methods at 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The title compound contains Cdbnd S ligand which helps to improve the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. The molecule has been examined in terms of the vibrational, electronic and optical properties. The entire molecular behavior was studied by their fundamental IR and Raman wavenumbers and was compared with the theoretical aspect. The molecular chirality has been studied by performing vibrational circular dichroism (circularly polarized infrared radiation). The Mulliken charge levels of the compound ensure the perturbation of atomic charges according to the ligand. The molecular interaction of frontier orbitals emphasizes the modification of chemical properties of the compound through the reaction path. The enormous amount of NLO activity was induced by the Benzophenone in thiosemicarbazone. The Gibbs free energy was evaluated at different temperature and from which the enhancement of chemical stability was stressed. The VCD spectrum was simulated and the optical dichroism of the compound has been analyzed.

  8. Comparative evaluation of Bis(thiosemicarbazone)- Biotin and Met-ac-TE3A for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sweta; Tiwari, Anjani K; Varshney, Raunak; Mathur, R; Shukla, Gauri; Bag, N; Singh, B; Mishra, Anil K

    2016-01-15

    2,2',2″-(11-(2-((4-mercapto-1-methoxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclotetradecane-1,4,8-triyl)triacetic acid, Met-ac-TE3A and (E)-N-methyl-2-((E)-3-(2-(2-(5-((3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl)hydrazinecarbono-thioyl)hydrazonobutan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide, Bis(thiosemicarbazone)- Biotin were synthesized and evaluated for imaging application. The pharmacokinetics of these ligands were determined by tracer methods. In vitro human serum stability of (99m)Tc Met-ac-TE3A/(99m)Tc Bis(thiosemicarbazone)-Biotin after 24h was found to be 96.5% and 97.0% respectively. Blood kinetics of both ligands in normal rabbits showed biphasic clearance pattern. Ex vivo biodistribution study revealed significant initial tumor uptake and high tumor/muscles ratio which is a pre-requisite condition for a ligand to work as SPECT-radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging. PMID:26436844

  9. Interaction of Triapine and related thiosemicarbazones with iron(III)/(II) and gallium(III): a comparative solution equilibrium study†

    PubMed Central

    Enyedy, Éva A.; Primik, Michael F.; Kowol, Christian R.; Arion, Vladimir B.; Kiss, Tamás; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    Stoichiometry and stability of GaIII, FeIII, FeII complexes of Triapine and five related α-N heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones with potential antitumor activity have been determined by pH-potentiometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and spectrofluorimetry in aqueous solution (with 30% DMSO), together with the characterization of the proton dissociation processes. Additionally, the redox properties of the iron complexes were studied by cyclic voltammetry at various pH values. Formation of high stability bis-ligand complexes was found in all cases, which are predominant at physiological pH with FeIII/FeII, whilst only at the acidic pH range with GaIII. The results show that among the thiosemicarbazones with various substituents the N-terminal dimethylation does not exert a measurable effect on the redox potential, but has the highest impact on the stability of the complexes as well as the cytotoxicity, especially in the absence of a pyridine-NH2 group in the molecule. In addition the fluorescence properties of the ligands in aqueous solution and their changes caused by GaIII were studied. PMID:21523301

  10. Novel aroylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone iron chelators with anti-malarial activity against chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive parasites.

    PubMed

    Walcourt, Asikiya; Loyevsky, Mark; Lovejoy, David B; Gordeuk, Victor R; Richardson, Des R

    2004-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is crucial for cellular proliferation, and Fe chelators have shown activity at preventing the growth of the malarial parasite in cell culture and in animal and human studies. We investigated the anti-malarial activity of novel aroylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone Fe chelators that show high activity at inhibiting the growth of tumour cells in cell culture [Blood 100 (2002) 666]. Experiments with the chelators were performed using the chloroquine-sensitive, 3D7, and chloroquine-resistant, 7G8, strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. The new ligands were significantly more active in both strains than the Fe chelator in widespread clinical use, desferrioxamine (DFO). The most effective chelators examined were 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone. The anti-malarial activity correlates with anti-proliferative activity against neoplastic cells demonstrated in a previous study. Our studies suggest that this class of lipophilic chelators may have potential as useful agents for the treatment of malaria. PMID:14687919

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structural studies and antibacterial and antitumor activities of diorganotin complexes with 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandani, Marzieh; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Erfani, Nasrollah; Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2013-04-01

    Three organotin(IV) complexes, Ph2Sn(mstsc) (1), Me2Sn(mstsc) (2) and Bu2Sn(mstsc) (3), have been synthesized from reaction of R2SnCl2 (R = Ph, Me and Bu) with 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H2mstsc). The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. The structures of 2 and 3 have been also confirmed by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of spectral and structural data thiosemicarbazone acts as a tridentate dianionic ligand and coordinates to tin through phenolic oxygen, the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur atoms. The metal coordination geometry for 2 and 3 is described as distorted square pyramid and the crystal lattices are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bands. On the basis of 119Sn NMR data, coordination number of tin retains five in solution. The in vitro antibacterial activity of ligand and its complexes has been evaluated against one Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Complex 2 exhibited good activity along with the standard antibacterial drugs. The in vitro cytotoxicities of the synthesized compounds against Jurkat cells were evaluated by the standard WST-1 assay. The activity decreases in the order 3 > 1 > 2 = H2mstsc.

  12. Antibacterial, antifungal and in vitro antileukaemia activity of metal complexes with thiosemicarbazones

    PubMed Central

    Pahontu, Elena; Julea, Felicia; Rosu, Tudor; Purcarea, Victor; Chumakov, Yurie; Petrenco, Petru; Gulea, Aurelian

    2015-01-01

    1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone 4-ethyl-thiosemicarbazone (HL) and its copper(II), vanadium(V) and nickel(II) complexes: [Cu(L)(Cl)]·C2H5OH·(1), [Cu(L)2]·H2O (2), [Cu(L)(Br)]·H2O·CH3OH (3), [Cu(L)(NO3)]·2C2H5OH (4), [VO2(L)]·2H2O (5), [Ni(L)2]·H2O (6), were synthesized and characterized. The ligand has been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The tridentate nature of the ligand is evident from the IR spectra. The copper(II), vanadium(V) and nickel(II) complexes have been characterized by different physico-chemical techniques such as molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements and electronic, infrared and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The structures of the ligand and its copper(II) (2, 4), and vanadium(V) (5) complexes have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The composition of the coordination polyhedron of the central atom in 2, 4 and 5 is different. The tetrahedral coordination geometry of Cu was found in complex 2 while in complex 4, it is square planar, in complex 5 the coordination polyhedron of the central ion is distorted square pyramid. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the complexes against Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and the antifungal activity against Candida albicans strains was higher for the metal complexes than for free ligand. The effect of the free ligand and its metal complexes on the proliferation of HL-60 cells was tested. PMID:25708540

  13. Evaluation of the Anti-Schistosoma mansoni Activity of Thiosemicarbazones and Thiazoles

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sheilla Andrade; de Oliveira Filho, Gevânio Bezerra; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes; Gomes, Paulo André Teixeira; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Barros, Andréia Ferreira; da Silva, Aline Caroline; dos Santos, Thiago André Ramos; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Gonçalves, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; Brayner, Fábio André; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by a trematode of the genus Schistosoma and affects over 207 million people. Chemotherapy is the only immediate recourse for minimizing the prevalence of this disease and involves predominately the administration of a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). Although PZQ has proven efficacy, there is a recognized need to develop new drugs as schistosomicides since studies have shown that repeated use of this drug in areas of endemicity may cause a temporary reduction in susceptibility in isolates of Schistosoma mansoni. Hydrazones, thiosemicarbazones, phthalimides, and thiazoles are thus regarded as privileged structures used for a broad spectrum of activities and are potential candidates for sources of new drug prototypes. The present study determined the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of 10 molecules containing these structures. During the assays, parameters such motility and mortality, oviposition, morphological changes in the tegument, cytotoxicity, and immunomodulatory activity caused by these compounds were evaluated. The results showed that compounds formed of thiazole and phthalimide led to higher mortality of worms, with a significant decline in motility, inhibition of pairing and oviposition, and a mortality rate of 100% starting from 144 h of exposure. These compounds also stimulated the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), thereby demonstrating the presence of immunomodulatory activity. The phthalyl thiazole LpQM-45 caused significant ultrastructural alterations, with destruction of the tegument in both male and female worms. According to the present study, phthalyl thiazole compounds possess antischistosomal activities and should form the basis for future experimental and clinical trials. PMID:24165185

  14. Enhanced sensitivity of self-assembled-monolayer-based SPR immunosensor for detection of benzaldehyde using a single-step multi-sandwich immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Gobi, K Vengatajalabathy; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Miura, Norio

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for detection of benzaldehyde (BZ). The functional sensing surface was fabricated by the immobilization of a benzaldehyde-ovalbumin conjugate (BZ-OVA) on Au-thiolate SAMs containing carboxyl end groups. Covalent binding of BZ-OVA on SAM was found to be dependent on the composition of the base SAM, and it is improved very much with the use of a mixed monolayer strategy. Based on SPR angle measurements, the functional sensor surface is established as a compact monolayer of BZ-OVA bound on the mixed SAM. The BZ-OVA-bound sensor surface undergoes immunoaffinity binding with anti-benzaldehyde antibody (BZ-Ab) selectively. An indirect inhibition immunoassay principle has been applied, in which analyte benzaldehyde solution was incubated with an optimal concentration of BZ-Ab for 5 min and injected over the sensor chip. Analyte benzaldehyde undergoes immunoreaction with BZ-Ab and makes it inactive for binding to BZ-OVA on the sensor chip. As a result, the SPR angle response decreases with an increase in the concentration of benzaldehyde. The fabricated immunosensor demonstrates a low detection limit (LDL) of 50 ppt (pg mL(-1)) with a response time of 5 min. Antibodies bound to the sensor chip during an immunoassay could be detached by a brief exposure to acidic pepsin. With this surface regeneration, reusability of the same sensor chip for as many as 30 determination cycles has been established. Sensitivity has been enhanced further with the application of an additional single-step multi-sandwich immunoassay step, in which the BZ-Ab bound to the sensor chip was treated with a mixture of biotin-labeled secondary antibody, streptavidin and biotin-bovine serum albumin (Bio-BSA) conjugate. With this approach, the SPR sensor signal increased by ca. 12 times and the low detection limit improved to 5 ppt with a total response time of no more than ca. 10 min. Figure A single-step multi-sandwich immunoassay step increases SPR sensor signal by ca. 12 times affording a low detection limit for benzaldehyde of 5 ppt. PMID:17318518

  15. Single-crystal growth of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde by the Bridgman technique and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, V.; Jayaprakasan, M.; Bairava Ganesh, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2006-08-01

    Single-crystal growth of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanillin), an excellent molecular nonlinear optical (NLO) material, from the melt using the Bridgman technique is reported for the first time. Differential thermal analysis experiments indicated that the substance melts congruently at 81 °C. A precise temperature profile plot of the resistive furnace used was measured using a simple PC-based time-temperature data logging system. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis of the grown crystal revealed the crystal belongs to the monoclinic system. Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to assign various modes and identify the functional groups. The crystal exhibited a wide window of transmission unlike other organic NLO crystals. The optical second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of vanillin was determined using the Kurtz powder technique.

  16. 4-{2-[2-(4-Formyl­phen­oxy)eth­oxy]eth­oxy}benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhen; Cao, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C18H18O5, was obtained by the reaction of 4-hy­droxy­benzaldehyde with bis­(2,2-dichloro­eth­yl) ether in dimethyl­formamide. In the crystal, the mol­ecule lies on a twofold rotation axis that passes through the central O atom of the aliphatic chain, thus leading to one half-mol­ecule being present per asymmetric unit. The carbonyl, aryl and O—CH2—CH2 groups are almost coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.030 Å. The aromatic rings are approximately perpendicular to each other, forming a dihedral angle of 78.31 sh;H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions help to consolidate the three-dimensional network. PMID:21754870

  17. Rotational Spectrum and Large Amplitude Motions of 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-DIMETHYL-BENZALDEHYDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, I.; Tudorie, M.; Jahn, M.; Grabow, J.-U.; Goubet, M.

    2012-06-01

    The microwave spectra of the 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-Dimethyl-Benzaldehyde (DMBA) molecules have been recorded for the first time in the 2-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the COBRA-FTMW spectrometer in Hannover, with an instrumental uncertainty of 0.5 kHz for unblended lines. The experimental assignments and fits are supplemented by ab initio quantum chemical calculations,conformational energy landscape, and dipole moment components. The analysis of the spectra for the three isomers are in progress. The latest results, including spectroscopic constants and large amplitude motion parameters, will be presented. This investigation follows the study of the spectra of the 4-Methyl-Benzaldehyde molecule. The DMBA isomers belong to a similar series of molecules formally obtained by adding a second methyl group at the aromatic ring. These molecules serve as prototype systems for the development of the theoretical model of asymmetric top molecules having Cs symmetry while containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), exhibiting different barrier heights and coupling terms to methyl internal rotation. Thus, the DMBA isomers represent benchmark species for testing the two-top internal rotors BELGI program written recently. Supported by the ANR-08-BLAN-0054 contract (France), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Land Niedersachsen (Germany). H. Saal, W. Caminati, I. Kleiner, A. R. Hight-Walker, J. T. Hougen, J.-U. Grabow, to be published. M. Tudorie, I. Kleiner, J. T. Hougen, S. Melandri, L. W. Sutikdja, W. Stahl, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 269 (2011), 211-225

  18. Potential mechanism of the anti-trypanosomal activity of organoruthenium complexes with bioactive thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Demoro, Bruno; Rossi, Miriam; Caruso, Francesco; Liebowitz, Daniel; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Maya, Juan Diego; Guiset, Helena; Moreno, Virtudes; Pizzo, Chiara; Mahler, Graciela; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah

    2013-06-01

    In the search for new metal-based drugs against diseases produced by trypanosomatid parasites, four organoruthenium(II) compounds [Ru2(p-cymene)2(L)2]X2, where L are bioactive 5-nitrofuryl-containing thiosemicarbazones and X = Cl or PF6, had been previously obtained. These compounds had shown activity on Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of African trypanosomiasis. Because of genomic similarities between trypanosomatides, these ruthenium compounds were evaluated, in the current work, on Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Two of them showed significant in vitro growth inhibition activity against the infective trypomastigote form of T. cruzi (Dm28c clone, IC50 = 11.69 and 59.42 μM for [Ru2(p-cymene)2(L4)2]Cl2 and [Ru2(p-cymene)2(L1)2]Cl2, respectively, where HL4 = 5-nitrofuryl-N-phenylthiosemicarbazone and HL1 = 5-nitrofurylthiosemicarbazone), showing fairly good selectivities toward trypanosomes with respect to mammalian cells (J774 murine macrophages). Moreover, [Ru2(p-cymene)2(L2)2]Cl2, where HL2 = 5-nitrofuryl-N-methylthiosemicarbazone, was synthesized in order to evaluate the effect of improved solubility on biological behavior. This new chloride salt showed higher activity against T. cruzi than that of the previously synthesized hexafluorophosphate one (Dm28c clone, IC50 = 14.30 μM for the former and 231.3 μM for the latter). In addition, the mode of antitrypanosomal action of the organoruthenium compounds was investigated. The complexes were not only able to generate toxic free radicals through bioreduction but they also interacted with two further potential parasite targets: DNA and cruzipain, a cysteine protease which plays a fundamental role in the biological cycle of these parasites. The results suggest a "multi-target" mechanism of trypanosomicidal action for the obtained complexes. PMID:23564472

  19. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Alam, Israt S; Arrowsmith, Rory L; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Carroll, Laurence; Aboagye, Eric O; Pascu, Sofia I

    2016-01-01

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under 'cold' and 'hot' biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. (68)Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration. PMID:26583314

  20. Synthesis, stereochemical, structural and biological studies of some 2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one N(4‧)-cyclohexyl thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethukumar, A.; Udhaya Kumar, C.; Agilandeshwari, R.; Arul Prakasam, B.

    2013-09-01

    A new series of 2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one N(4')-cyclohexyl thiosemicarbazones (13-23) were synthesized by corresponding 2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones (1-11) reaction with cyclohexyl thiosemicarbazide (12). The chemical structures were confirmed by means of IR, one and two dimensional NMR, Mass spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 13-23, exist in chair conformation with equatorial orientation of all the substituents at piperidine ring except the methyl group at C-5 of compounds 21-23 oriented at axial disposition to stabilize the chair conformation. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of compound 18, evidences that the configuration about Cdbnd N double bond is syn to C-5 carbon (E-form). All the synthesized compounds were screened their biological activity.

  1. Enhanced targeting of mitochondrial peroxide defense by the combined use of thiosemicarbazones and inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Myers, Charles R

    2016-02-01

    Peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3) accounts for about 90% of mitochondrial peroxidase activity, and its marked upregulation in many cancers is important for cell survival. Prx3 oxidation can critically alter peroxide signaling and defense and can be a seminal event in promoting cell death. Here it is shown that this mechanism can be exploited pharmacologically by combinations of clinically available drugs that compromise Prx3 function in different ways. Clinically relevant levels of the thiosemicarbazone iron chelators triapine (Tp) and 2,2'-Dipyridyl-N,N-dimethylsemicarbazone (Dp44mT) promote selective oxidation of mitochondrial Prx3, but not cytosolic Prx1, in multiple human lung and ovarian cancer lines. Decreased cell survival closely correlates with Prx3 oxidation. However, Prx3 oxidation is not merely an indicator of cell death as cytotoxic concentrations of cisplatin do not cause Prx3 oxidation. The siRNA-mediated suppression of either Prx3 or thioredoxin-2, which supports Prx3, enhances Tp's cytotoxicity. Tp-mediated Prx3 oxidation is driven by enhanced peroxide generation, but not by nitric oxide. Many tumors overexpress thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) which supports Prx activity. Direct inhibitors of TrxR (e.g. auranofin, cisplatin) markedly enhanced Tp's cytotoxicity, and auranofin enhanced Prx3 oxidation by low dose Tp. Together, these results support an important role for Prx3 oxidation in the cytotoxicity of Tp, and demonstrate that TrxR inhibitors can significantly enhance Tp's cytotoxicity. Thiosemicarbazone-based regimens could prove effective for targeting Prx3 in a variety of cancers. PMID:26686468

  2. Crystal structures of 5-Bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-carbaldehyde 4-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Petrenko, P. A.; Codita, T. B.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Poirier, D.; Gulea, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    5-Bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-carbaldehyde 4-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazones ( I-III, respectively) were synthesized and their crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. All these molecules are almost planar. The presence of bulky substituents at the terminal nitrogen atoms of these molecules does not lead to changes in the conformation of the thiosemicarbazide moiety. Depending on the nature of substituents in the phenol rings, the crystals are composed of either centrosymmetric dimers ( I) or infinite chains ( II and III). In the concentration range of 10-5-10-7 mol/L, thiosemicarbazones I-III selectively inhibit the growth of human myeloid leukemia HL60 cells.

  3. Tricarbonyl (99m)Tc(i) and Re(i)-thiosemicarbazone complexes: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation for targeting bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Rinku; Natarajan, Ramalingam; Sen, Tuhinadri; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee

    2015-09-28

    Methyl, ethyl and phenyl nitrofuryl thiosemicarbazone ligands (, and respectively) were radiolabeled with freshly prepared aqueous solution of a fac[(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) precursor. The radiochemical yield was around 98% as determined by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. The complexes exhibited substantial stability. The corresponding Re(i) complexes were prepared from a Re(CO)5Br precursor to understand the coordination behavior of the ligands against a tricarbonyl rhenium(i) precursor. The rhenium(i) complexes were characterized by means of IR, NMR and mass spectroscopic studies as well as by X-ray crystallography, and correlated with the technetium complexes by means of HPLC studies. Electrochemical reduction of monomeric Re(CO)3-complexes of nitrofuryl ethyl thiosemicarbazone was also studied using cyclic voltammetry. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc(CO)3-labeled thiosemicarbazones in rats intramuscularly infected with S. aureus exhibited substantial in vivo stability of the complex and moderate accumulation at the site of focal infection. PMID:26289802

  4. Novel thiosemicarbazones of the ApT and DpT series and their copper complexes: identification of pronounced redox activity and characterization of their antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Sharpe, Philip C; Bernhardt, Paul V; Richardson, Des R

    2010-08-12

    The novel chelators 2-acetylpyridine-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (HAp44mT) and di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (HDp44mT) have been examined to elucidate the structure-activity relationships necessary to form copper (Cu) complexes with pronounced antitumor activity. Electrochemical studies demonstrated that the Cu complexes of these ligands had lower redox potentials than their iron complexes. Moreover, the Cu complexes where the ligand/metal ratio was 1:1 rather than 2:1 had significantly higher intracellular oxidative properties and antitumor efficacy. Interestingly, the 2:1 complex was shown to dissociate to give significant amounts of the 1:1 complex that could be the major cytotoxic effector. Both types of Cu complex showed significantly more antiproliferative activity than the ligand alone. We also demonstrate the importance of the inductive effects of substituents on the carbonyl group of the parent ketone, which influence the Cu(II/I) redox potentials because of their proximity to the metal center. The structure-activity relationships described are important for the design of potent thiosemicarbazone Cu complexes. PMID:20597487

  5. Computational and experimental structure–reactivity relationships: evidence for a side reaction in Alpine-Borane reductions of d-benzaldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Reyes, N. Soledad; Meyer, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary stereoselectivity, approaching 100%, has been reported in the reductions of d-benzaldehydes by B-isopinocampheyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (Alpine-Borane). This is likely because of the extreme size disparity of groups on either side of the carbonyl. Here, we present a structure–reactivity study whereby the reductions of variably substituted d-benzaldehydes are explored using highly sensitive measures for enantiomeric excess and relative reactivity. These results are compared to the relative rates predicted from density functional calculations. The results indicate that 2,6–disubstitution adversely affects the stereoselectivity by means of a non-selective reduction via the dehydroboration product of Alpine-Borane, 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane. PMID:26989268

  6. Synthesis and spectral investigations of vanadium(IV/V) complexes derived from an ONS donor thiosemicarbazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalam, Neema Ani; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2009-01-01

    Four oxovanadium and one dioxovanadium complex with 2-hydroxyacetophenone N(4)-phenylthiosemicarbazone (H 2L) which are represented as [VOLphen]·2H 2O ( 1), [VOLbipy] ( 2), [VOLdmbipy] ( 3), [VOL] 2 ( 4) and [VO 2HL]·CH 3OH ( 5) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, electronic, infrared and EPR spectral techniques. In all the complexes 1- 4 the ligand coordinates through phenolic oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur. But in complex [VO 2HL]·CH 3OH, coordination takes place in thione form instead of thiolate sulfur. All the complexes except [VO 2HL]·CH 3OH are EPR active due to the presence of an unpaired electron. In frozen DMF at 77 K, all the oxovanadium(IV) complexes show axial anisotropy with two sets of eight line patterns.

  7. Suitable combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for kilo fold rate acceleration on benzaldehyde to benzoic acid conversion in aqueous media at room temperature: A kinetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Sumanta K.; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-05-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde by chromic acid in aqueous and aqueous surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, alkyl phenyl polyethylene glycol, Triton X-100 and N-cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) media have been investigated in the presence of promoter at 303 K. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) were determined from a logarithmic plot of absorbance as a function time. The rate constants were found to increase with introduction of heteroaromatic nitrogen base promoters such as Picolinic acid (PA), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The product benzoic acid has been characterized by conventional melting point experiment, NMR, HRMS and FTIR spectral analysis. The mechanism of both unpromoted and promoted reaction path has been proposed for the reaction. In presence of the anionic surfactant SDS, cationic surfactant CPC and neutral surfactant TX-100 the reaction can undergo simultaneously in both aqueous and micellar phase with an enhanced rate of oxidation in the micellar phase. Both SDS and TX-100 produce normal micellar effect whereas CPC produce reverse micellar effect in the presence of benzaldehyde. The observed net enhancement of rate effects has been explained by considering the hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the surfactants and reactants. SDS and bipy combination is the suitable one for benzaldehyde oxidation.

  8. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal-organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2015-08-01

    A new 3D nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF), [[Zn4O(C24H15N6O6)2(H2O)2]·6H2O·DMF]n (1) based on 4,4‧,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  9. Using heavy atom rare gas matrix to control the reactivity of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde: A comparison with benzaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, Nihal; Sharma, Archna; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui; Lapinski, Leszek

    2012-04-14

    Different patterns of photochemical behavior were observed for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (p-anisaldehyde) isolated in xenon and in argon matrices. Monomers of the compound isolated in solid Xe decarbonylate upon middle ultraviolet irradiation, yielding methoxybenzene (anisole), and CO. On the other hand, p-anisaldehyde isolated in an Ar matrix and subjected to identical irradiation, predominantly isomerizes to the closed-ring isomeric ketene (4-methoxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-ylidene) methanone. Experimental detection of a closed-ring ketene photoproduct, generated from an aromatic aldehyde, constitutes a rare observation. The difference between the patterns of photochemical transformations of p-anisaldehyde isolated in argon and xenon environments can be attributed to the external heavy-atom effect, where xenon enhances the rate of intersystem crossing from the singlet to the triplet manifold in which decarbonylation (via p-methoxybenzoyl radical) takes place. The parent compound, benzaldehyde, decarbonylates (to benzene + CO) when subjected to middle ultraviolet irradiation in both argon and xenon matrices. This demonstrates the role of the methoxy p-anisaldehyde substituent in activation of the reaction channel leading to the formation of the ketene photoproduct.

  10. Growth and characterization of benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH) single crystal: A proficient second order nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, M.; Abraham Rajasekar, S.

    2016-04-01

    The crystals (benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH)) appropriate for NLO appliance were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of BPH specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of Cc. The optical precision in the whole visible region was found to be excellent for non-linear optical claim. Excellence of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of BPH sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The dielectric studies were executed at varied temperatures and frequencies to investigate the electrical properties. Photoconductivity measurement enumerates consummate of inducing dipoles due to strong incident radiation and also divulge the nonlinear behaviour of the material. The third order nonlinear optical properties of BPH crystals were deliberate by Z-scan method.

  11. Using heavy atom rare gas matrix to control the reactivity of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde: A comparison with benzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuş, Nihal; Sharma, Archna; Reva, Igor; Lapinski, Leszek; Fausto, Rui

    2012-04-01

    Different patterns of photochemical behavior were observed for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (p-anisaldehyde) isolated in xenon and in argon matrices. Monomers of the compound isolated in solid Xe decarbonylate upon middle ultraviolet irradiation, yielding methoxybenzene (anisole), and CO. On the other hand, p-anisaldehyde isolated in an Ar matrix and subjected to identical irradiation, predominantly isomerizes to the closed-ring isomeric ketene (4-methoxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-ylidene) methanone. Experimental detection of a closed-ring ketene photoproduct, generated from an aromatic aldehyde, constitutes a rare observation. The difference between the patterns of photochemical transformations of p-anisaldehyde isolated in argon and xenon environments can be attributed to the external heavy-atom effect, where xenon enhances the rate of intersystem crossing from the singlet to the triplet manifold in which decarbonylation (via p-methoxybenzoyl radical) takes place. The parent compound, benzaldehyde, decarbonylates (to benzene + CO) when subjected to middle ultraviolet irradiation in both argon and xenon matrices. This demonstrates the role of the methoxy p-anisaldehyde substituent in activation of the reaction channel leading to the formation of the ketene photoproduct.

  12. Transition metal complexes of Vanillin- 4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H 2VPT); thermal, structural and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Reash, Gaber Abu; El-Ayaan, Usama; Gabr, I. M.; El-Rachawy, El-Bastawesy

    2010-04-01

    The present work carried out a study on the ligational behavior of the new ligand, Vanillin- 4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H 2VPT) 1 towards some transition metal ions namely, Mn 2+, Co 2+, Ni 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+,Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and U 6+. These complexes namely [Mn(HVPT)Cl] 2, [Co(VPT)(H 2O)] 2H 2O 3, [Ni(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 4, [Cu(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 5, [Zn(VPT)(H 2O)]H 2O 6, [Cd(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 7, [Hg(VPT)(H 2O)]H 2O 8 and [UO 2(H 2VPT)(OAc) 2]H 2O 9, were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, 1H NMR and UV-vis) and magnetic moment measurements. The suggested structures were confirmed by applying geometry optimization and conformational analysis. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all compounds are investigated. The interpretation, mathematical analysis and evaluation of kinetic parameters ( E, A, Δ H, Δ S and Δ G) of all thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equation. ESR spectra of [Cu(HVPT)Cl]H 2O at room temperature show broad signal, indicating spin-exchange interactions between copper(II) ions.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic, anticancer and antibacterial studies of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 2-carboxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Vandana

    2014-08-01

    Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of 2-carboxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L) were synthesized and investigated by their spectral and analytical data. These newly synthesized complexes have a composition of M(L)X(H2O)2 (where M = Ni(II), Cu(II) and X = Cl-, NO3-, CH3COO-) and (L) is the tridentate Schiff base ligand. The ligand and its complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements, FT-IR, ESR, 1H NMR and electronic spectral analysis. All the compounds were non-electrolytic in nature. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Ni(II) and a tetragonal geometry for Cu(II) complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their anticancer studies against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and calculated minimum inhibitory concentration and also for antibacterial activity using Kirby-Bauer single disk susceptibility test.

  14. Inhibition kinetics of cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae L.) larvae phenoloxidase activity by 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao-Bin; Luo, Wan-Chun; Jiang, Lin; Xie, Xian-Ye; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Lei

    2007-11-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme in insect development, responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones. In the present study, the kinetic assay in air-saturated solutions and the kinetic behavior of PO from Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) larvae in the oxidation of L-tyrosine (a monophenol) and L-DOPA (l-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) (a diphenol) was studied. The inhibitory effects of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-H-4-MBT) on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PO were also studied. The results show that 3-H-4-MBT can inhibit both the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PO. The lag period of L-tyrosine oxidation catalyzed by the enzyme was obviously lengthened and the steady-state activities of the enzyme sharply decreased. The inhibitor was found to be noncompetitively reversible with a K I (K I = K IS) of 0.30 micromol/L and an estimated IC50 of 0.14 +/- 0.02 micromol/L for monophenolase and 0.26 +/- 0.04 micromol/L for diphenolase. In the time course of the oxidation of L-DOPA catalyzed by the enzyme in the presence of different concentrations of 3-H-4-MBT, the rate decreased with increasing time until a straight line was approached. The microscopic rate constants for the reaction of 3-H-4-MBT with the enzyme were determined. PMID:18025600

  15. Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Synthesis, characterization and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prathima, B.; Subba Rao, Y.; Adinarayana Reddy, S.; Reddy, Y. P.; Varada Reddy, A.

    2010-09-01

    Benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligand (L) has been synthesized from benzyloxybenzaldehyde and 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazide. Complexes of this ligand with chlorides of Cu(II) and Ni(II) have been prepared. The structure of the ligand (L) is proposed based on elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. Its complexes with Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions are characterized from the studies of electronic as well as EPR spectra. On the basis of electronic and EPR studies, rhombically distorted octahedral structure has been proposed for Cu(II) complex while the Ni(II) complex has been found to acquire an octahedral structure. The ligand and their metal complexes have been tested in vitro for their biological effects. Their antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) have been investigated. The prepared metal complexes exhibit higher antibacterial activities than the parent ligand. The in vitro antioxidant activity of free ligand and its metal(II) complexes have also been investigated and the results however reveal that the ligand exhibits greater antioxidant activity than its complexes.

  16. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity of Bis(2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone)cadmium Halides (CdL(2)X(2); X = Br, I).

    PubMed

    Tian Yp, Yu-peng; Duan Cy, Chun-ying; Zhao Cy, Cun-yuan; You Xz, Xiao-zeng; Mak, Thomas C. W.; Zhang Zy, Ze-ying

    1997-03-12

    The new Schiff base ligand 2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L, 1) has been synthesized and characterized by spectral techniques and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Crystals of 1 are monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n with a = 12.964(4) Å, b = 5.131(5) Å, c = 4.970(1) Å, beta = 94.32(2) degrees, and Z = 4. The thiosemicarbazone moiety adopts a configuration with N(1) cis to N(3) and places the E configuration about both the bonds C(1)-N(2) and C(2)-N(3). The monodentate behavior of the neutral ligand (L) has been investigated in two cadmium halides CdL(2) Br(2) (2) and CdL(2)I(2) (3). Compound 2 crystallizes in space group Cc witha = 8.175(1) Å, b = 14.176(1) Å, c = 21.073(1) Å, beta = 94.02(1) degrees, and Z = 4. Compound 3 crystallizes in space group P&onemacr; with a = 10.9577(1) Å, b = 16.174(1) Å, c = 7.878(1) Å, alpha = 100.50(1) degrees, beta = 109.39(1) degrees, gamma = 83.67(1) degrees, and Z = 2. The coordination geometry about the cadmium(II) atom in compound 2 conforms to a tetrahedral configuration with two sulfur atoms from two unequivalent neutral ligands and two bromide atoms. Whereas the coordination geometry about the cadmium(II) atom in compound 3 is (4 + 1) distorted trigonal bipyramidal with two iodide atoms and one sulfur atom in the equatorial plane, the other thiosemicarbazone sulfur and the iodide atom I(1a) of an adjacent moiety occupy the axial positions. Compound 2 exhibits powder SHG efficiencies ca. 20 times that of urea, whereas compound 3 does not exhibit any SHG efficiency. Theory and experiment suggested that intermolecular contact is the main factor controlling the SHG efficiencies of compounds. PMID:11669693

  17. Novel and potent anti-tumor and anti-metastatic di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazones demonstrate marked differences in pharmacology between the first and second generation lead agents

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Vit; Stariat, Jan; Cermanova, Jolana; Potuckova, Eliska; Chladek, Jaroslav; Roh, Jaroslav; Bures, Jan; Jansova, Hana; Prusa, Petr; Sterba, Martin; Micuda, Stanislav; Simunek, Tomas; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.; Kovarikova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Di(2-pyridyl)ketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) and di(2-pyridyl)ketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC) are novel, highly potent and selective anti-tumor and anti-metastatic drugs. Despite their structural similarity, these agents differ in their efficacy and toxicity in-vivo. Considering this, a comparison of their pharmacokinetic and pharmaco/toxico-dynamic properties was conducted to reveal if these factors are involved in their differential activity. Both compounds were administered to Wistar rats intravenously (2 mg/kg) and their metabolism and disposition were studied using UHPLC-MS/MS. The cytotoxicity of both thiosemicarbazones and their metabolites was also examined using MCF-7, HL-60 and HCT116 tumor cells and 3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. Their intracellular iron-binding ability was characterized by the Calcein-AM assay and their iron mobilization efficacy was evaluated. In contrast to DpC, Dp44mT undergoes rapid demethylation in-vivo, which may be related to its markedly faster elimination (T1/2 = 1.7 h for Dp44mT vs. 10.7 h for DpC) and lower exposure. Incubation of these compounds with cancer cells or cardiac myoblasts did not result in any significant metabolism in-vitro. The metabolism of Dp44mT in-vivo resulted in decreased anti-cancer activity and toxicity. In conclusion, marked differences in the pharmacology of Dp44mT and DpC were observed and highlight the favorable pharmacokinetics of DpC for cancer treatment. PMID:26623727

  18. Indenoindolone derivatives as topoisomerase II-inhibiting anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Maneesh; Kandekar, Somnath; Baviskar, Ashish T; Das, Dipon; Preet, Ranjan; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Guchhait, Sankar K; Kundu, Chanakya N; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2013-02-15

    Based on known heterocyclic topoisomerase II inhibitors and anticancer agents, various indenoindolone derivatives were predicted as potential topoisomerase II-inhibiting anticancer agents. They are hydrazones, (thio)semicarbazones, and oximes of indenoindolones, and indenoindolols. These derivatives with suitable substitutions exhibited potent specific inhibition of human DNA TopoIIα while not showing inhibition of topoisomerase I and DNA intercalation, despite the fact that parent indenoindolones are known poor/moderate inhibitors of topoisomerase II. The potent topoisomerase II inhibitor indenoindolone derivatives exhibited good anticancer activities compared to etoposide and 5-fluorouracil, and relatively low toxicity to normal cells. These derivatizations of indenoindolones were found to result in enhancement of anticancer activities. PMID:23321564

  19. Iron and Cobalt Complexes of 2,6-Diacetylpyridine-bis(R-thiosemicarbazone) (R=H, phenyl) Showing Unprecedented Ligand Deviation from Planarity

    PubMed Central

    Panja, Anangamohan; Campana, Charles; Leavitt, Christopher; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Eichhorn, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The syntheses, characterization, and single-crystal X-ray crystal structures are reported for four complexes of iron and cobalt with the pentadentate ligands, 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis(thiosemicarbazone) (H2L1) and 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis-(phenylthiosemicarbazone) (H2L2), including a cobalt dimer displaying a deviation from planarity which is unprecedented for this class of ligands and allows the ligand to occupy five positions of a pseudo-octahedral coordination sphere. This dimer reacts with KCN to produce a mononuclear complex of relevance to the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. PMID:20161238

  20. Targeting the Metastasis Suppressor, N-Myc Downstream Regulated Gene-1, with Novel Di-2-Pyridylketone Thiosemicarbazones: Suppression of Tumor Cell Migration and Cell-Collagen Adhesion by Inhibiting Focal Adhesion Kinase/Paxillin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wangpu, Xiongzhi; Lu, Jiaoyang; Xi, Ruxing; Yue, Fei; Sahni, Sumit; Park, Kyung Chan; Menezes, Sharleen; Huang, Michael L H; Zheng, Minhua; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a complex process that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/paxillin pathway playing a major role in the formation of focal adhesions and cell motility. N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor in many solid tumor types, including prostate and colon cancer. Considering the antimetastatic effect of NDRG1 and the crucial involvement of the FAK/paxillin pathway in cellular migration and cell-matrix adhesion, we assessed the effects of NDRG1 on this important oncogenic pathway. In the present study, NDRG1 overexpression and silencing models of HT29 colon cancer and DU145 prostate cancer cells were used to examine the activation of FAK/paxillin signaling and the formation of focal adhesions. The expression of NDRG1 resulted in a marked and significant decrease in the activating phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin, whereas silencing of NDRG1 resulted in an opposite effect. The expression of NDRG1 also inhibited the formation of focal adhesions as well as cell migration and cell-collagen adhesion. Incubation of cells with novel thiosemicarbazones, namely di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, that upregulate NDRG1 also resulted in decreased phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin. The ability of these thiosemicarbazones to inhibit cell migration and metastasis could be mediated, at least in part, through the FAK/paxillin pathway. PMID:26895766

  1. The influence of operating conditions on the efficiency of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Svrcek, Jirí; Marhoul, Antonín; Kacer, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Pánek, Libor; Cervený, Libor

    2010-10-01

    Vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) nowadays finds more and more applications especially as a bio-decontamination agent for enclosed areas. Although this oxidizing agent logically offers a potential for the degradation of hazardous chemical contaminants, the information on the utilization within this area is very limited. The main objective of this study was to examine in detail the influence of basic operational (temperature, concentration of VPHP, relative humidity, condensation) and other conditions (e.g. amount of contaminant, the effect of UV radiation) on the efficiency of the VPHP process for the degradation of the selected model substance, i.e. 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde. For this purpose, a series of different VPHP "wet" decontamination cycles (with a visible condensation) were carried out and compared. The obtained results clearly proved that VPHP could be utilized for the degradation of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde, however it was necessary to regard this process as a multi-parametric, in which all operational conditions played significant roles, while the molecular distribution of H(2)O and H(2)O(2) at first constituted the key factor for a successful degradation of contaminants on the surface. In order to achieve the highest decomposition efficiency of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde by the wet VPHP process, it appeared to be necessary to decrease the initial relative humidity in the relevant enclosed area (ideally up to 5%) before the introduction of VPHP and carry out this decontamination procedure ideally at 25°C and maintain the VPHP concentration higher than 500 ppm. Furthermore, it was found that the addition of UV radiation had a positive role on VPHP efficiency (in the best case, the degradation rate increased up to 1.5 times compared to using the sole VPHP). The monitoring of the concentration of VPHP within an enclosed facility is a good tool for the monitoring of the degradation of chemical contaminants by this agent. PMID:20833407

  2. Redox activation of Fe(III)-thiosemicarbazones and Fe(III)-bleomycin by thioredoxin reductase: specificity of enzymatic redox centers and analysis of reactive species formation by ESR spin trapping

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Judith M.; Cheng, Qing; Antholine, William E.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Arnér, ArnerElias S.J.; Myers, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazones such as triapine (Tp) and Dp44mT are tridentate iron (Fe) chelators that have well-documented anti-neoplastic activity. While Fe-thiosemicarbazones can undergo redox-cycling to generate reactive species that may have important roles in their cytotoxicity, there is only limited insight into specific cellular agents that can rapidly reduce Fe(III)-thiosemicarbazones and thereby promote their redox activity. Here we report that thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) and glutathione reductase (GR) have this activity, and that there is considerable specificity to the interactions between specific redox centers in these enzymes and different Fe(III) complexes. Site-directed variants of TrxR1 demonstrate that the selenocysteine (Sec) of the enzyme is not required, whereas the C59 residue and the flavin have important roles. While TrxR1 and GR have analogous C59/flavin motifs, TrxR is considerably faster than GR. For both enzymes, Fe(III)(Tp)2 is reduced faster than Fe(III)(Dp44mT)2. This reduction promotes redox cycling and the generation of hydroxyl radical (HO•) in a peroxide-dependent manner, even with low μM levels of Fe(Tp)2. TrxR also reduces Fe(III)-bleomycin and this activity is Sec-dependent. TrxR cannot reduce Fe(III)-EDTA at significant rates. Our findings are the first to demonstrate pro-oxidant reductive activation of Fe(III)-based antitumor thiosemicarbazones by interactions with specific enzyme species. The marked elevation of TrxR in many tumors could contribute to the selective tumor toxicity of these drugs by enhancing the redox activation of Fe(III)-thiosemicarbazones and the generation of reactive oxygen species such as HO• PMID:23485585

  3. A dual radiolabelling approach for tracking metal complexes: investigating the speciation of copper bis(thiosemicarbazonates) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hueting, Rebekka; Kersemans, Veerle; Tredwell, Matthew; Cornelissen, Bart; Christlieb, Martin; Gee, Antony D; Passchier, Jan; Smart, Sean C; Gouverneur, Véronique; Muschel, Ruth J; Dilworth, Jonathan R

    2015-05-01

    Copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes such as [(64)Cu]Cu-ATSM continue to be investigated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumour hypoxia. However, the currently proposed mechanisms for the mode of action of these complexes are unable to account fully for their observed biological behaviour. In order to examine the roles of the copper metal and the ligand, we designed a pair of (123)I/(64)Cu-copper bis(thiosemicarbazonates), radiolabelled at either the metal or at the ligand. In vitro cellular retention studies of the orthogonal pair demonstrate for the first time that retention under hypoxia involves dissociation of the copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, consistent with the previously suggested mechanism of reductive trapping of copper. In contrast, in vivo biodistribution and dynamic PET/SPECT imaging of the orthogonally labelled complexes underline our previous findings for [(64)Cu]Cu-ATSM and [(64)Cu]Cu-acetate, providing further support for the important contribution of copper metabolism in the in vivo hypoxia selectivity of Cu-ATSM. This dual radiolabelling approach may find applications for determining the speciation of other metal complexes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25768310

  4. Cinnamaldehyde and cuminaldehyde thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes: a study to understand their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Bisceglie, Franco; Pinelli, Silvana; Alinovi, Rossella; Goldoni, Matteo; Mutti, Antonio; Camerini, Alessandro; Piola, Lorenzo; Tarasconi, Pieralberto; Pelosi, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of trans-cinnamaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (Htcin), cuminaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (Htcum) and their copper and nickel complexes. All the compounds, which on healthy cells (human fibroblasts) show a neglectable cytotoxicity, were screened in vitro in cell line U937 for their antileukemic activity. These compounds, in spite of their molecular similarity, present variegated behaviors. Htcin shows no inhibition activity in U935 cells, while both its metal complexes inhibit proliferation with IC50 at μM concentrations. The other ligand, Htcum, and its metal complexes, besides inhibiting proliferation, induce apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis highlights a G2/M checkpoint stop suggesting a possible direct action on DNA or on topoisomerase IIa. From CD and UV spectroscopy experiments, the DNA results to be not the main target of all these molecules, while both copper complexes are effective topoisomerase IIa inhibitors. All of these molecules activate caspase-9 and caspase-3, while caspase-8 activity is significantly induced by both cinnamaldehyde metal complexes. Tests on PgP and intracellular metal concentrations (determined by mean of atomic absorption spectrometry) show that the compounds tend to accumulate in the cytoplasm and that the cells do not manage to pump out copper and nickel ions. PMID:25108184

  5. Potent 5-nitrofuran derivatives inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi growth: Electrochemical, spectroscopic and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria Aravena, C.; Claudio Olea, A.; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Maya, Juan Diego; Rodríguez-Becerra, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and electron spin resonance techniques were used in the investigation of several potential antiprotozoal containing thiosemicarbazone and carbamate nitrofurans. In the electrochemical behaviour, a self-protonation process involving the nitro group was observed. The reactivity of the nitro anion radical for these derivatives with glutathione, a biological relevant thiol, was also studied in means of cyclic voltammetry. These studies demonstrated that glutathione could react with radical species from 5-nitrofuryl system. Furthermore, from the voltammetric results, some parameters of biological significance as E71 (indicative of the biological nitro anion radical formation), and K (thermodynamic indicator the of oxygen redox cycling) have been calculated. We also evaluated the stability of the nitro anion radical in terms of the dimerization constant ( kd). The nitrofuran-free radicals from cyclic voltammetry were characterized by electron spin resonance. A clear dependence between both the thiosemicarbazone or carbamate substructure and the length of the linker, furyl- or furylpropenyl-spacer, and the delocalization of the unpaired electron was observed. Through of biological assays we obtained important parameters that account for the selective anti-trypanosomal activity of these derivatives. The trypomastigote viability study showed that all derivatives are as active as in the epimastigote form of the parasite in a doses dependent manner.

  6. Nickel(II) Complex of Polyhydroxybenzaldehyde N4-Thiosemicarbazone Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Sheng Wei; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Phan, Alicia Yi Ling; Wong, Won Fen; Wang, Hao; Paterson, Ian C.; Ea, Chee Kwee; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Maah, Mohd Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Background The biological properties of thiosemicarbazone have been widely reported. The incorporation of some transition metals such as Fe, Ni and Cu to thiosemicarbazone complexes is known to enhance its biological effects. In this study, we incorporated nickel(II) ions into thiosemicarbazone with N4-substitution groups H3L (H; H3L1, CH3; H3L2, C6H5; H3L3 and C2H5; H3L4) and examined its potential anti-inflammatory activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Four ligands (1–4) and their respective nickel-containing complexes (5–8) were synthesized and characterized. The compounds synthesized were tested for their effects on NF-κB nuclear translocation, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and NF-κB transactivation activity. The active compound was further evaluated on its ability to suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in vivo. A potential binding target of the active compound was also predicted by molecular docking analysis. Conclusions/Significance Among all synthesized compounds tested, we found that complex [Ni(H2L1)(PPh3)]Cl (5) (complex 5), potently inhibited IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells as well as TNFα-stimulated HeLa S3 cells. In addition, complex 5 significantly down-regulated LPS- or TNFα-induced transcription of NF-κB target genes, including genes that encode the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IFNβ and IL6. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that complex 5 inhibited the transactivation activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of complex 5 was also supported by its suppressive effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema formation in wild type C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, molecular docking study showed that complex 5 potentially interact with the active site of IKKβ. Taken together, we suggest complex 5 as a novel NF-κB inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24977407

  7. Active-Site Engineering of Benzaldehyde Lyase Shows That a Point Mutation Can Confer Both New Reactivity and Susceptibility to Mechanism-Based Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gabriel S.; Kneen, Malea M.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar; McLeish, Michael J.

    2010-02-11

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) from Pseudomonas putida is a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of (R)-benzoin. Here we report that a point mutant, BAL A28S, not only catalyzes the decarboxylation of benzoylformate but, like benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC), is also inactivated by the benzoylformate analogues methyl benzoylphosphonate (MBP) and benzoylphosphonate (BP). The latter has no effect on wild-type BAL, and the inactivation of the A28S variant is shown to result from phosphorylation of the newly introduced serine residue. This lends support to the proposal that an appropriately placed nucleophile facilitates the expulsion of carbon dioxide from the active site in many ThDP-dependent decarboxylases.

  8. Promoting the Hydrosilylation of Benzaldehyde by Using a Dicationic Antimony-Based Lewis Acid: Evidence for the Double Electrophilic Activation of the Carbonyl Substrate.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Masato; Cho, Junsang; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-01

    The concomitant activation of carbonyl substrates by two Lewis acids has been investigated by using [1,2-(Ph2 MeSb)2 C6 H4 ](2+) ([1](2+) ), an antimony-based bidentate Lewis acid obtained by methylation of the corresponding distibine. Unlike the simple stibonium cation [Ph3 MeSb](+) , dication [1](2+) efficiently catalyzes the hydrosilylation of benzaldehyde under mild conditions. The catalytic activity of this dication is correlated to its ability to doubly activate the carbonyl functionality of the organic substrate. This view is supported by the isolation of [1-μ2 -DMF][OTf]2 , an adduct, in which the DMF oxygen atom bridges the two antimony centers. PMID:26934491

  9. The synthesis and investigation of impurities found in Clandestine Laboratories: Baeyer-Villiger Route Part I; Synthesis of P2P from benzaldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone.

    PubMed

    Doughty, David; Painter, Ben; Pigou, Paul E; Johnston, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of impurities detected in clandestinely manufactured Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS) has emerged as more desirable than simple "fingerprint" profiling. We have been investigating the impurities formed when phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) 5, a key ATS precursor, is synthesised in three steps; an aldol condensation of benzaldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); a Baeyer-Villiger reaction; and ester hydrolysis. We have identified and selectively synthesised several impurities that may be used as route specific markers for this series of synthetic steps. Specifically these impurities are 3-methyl-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one 3, 2-methyl-1,5-diphenylpenta-1,4-diene-3-one 9, 2-(methylamino)-3-methyl-4-phenyl-3-butene 16, 2-(Methylamino)-3-methyl-4-phenylbutane 17, and 1-(methylamino)-2-methyl-1,5-diphenylpenta-4-ene-3-one 22. PMID:27081790

  10. High efficient photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by solvothermal-synthesized ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhixin; Xu, Jingjing; Ren, Zhuyun; He, Yunhui; Xiao, Guangcan

    2013-09-15

    Hexagonal ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} samples have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. Their properties have been determined by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible-light diffuse reflectance spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectra. These results demonstrate that ethanol solvent has significant influence on the morphology, optical and electronic nature for such marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres. The visible light photocatalytic activities of the ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} have been evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The results show that 100% conversion along with >99% selectivity are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} prepared in ethanol solvent under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm) of 2 h, but only 58% conversion and 57% yield are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} prepared in aqueous solvent. A possible mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} is proposed and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The high visible photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under mild conditions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. • The solvents have a remarkably influence on the morphology and properties of samples. • It is the first time to apply ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. • ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} shows high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

  11. Overlapping substrate specificities of benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (the xylC gene product) and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (the xylG gene product) encoded by TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, J; Shaw, J P; Rekik, M; Harayama, S

    1995-01-01

    Two aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the degradation of toluene and xylenes, namely, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, are encoded by the xylC and xylG genes, respectively, on TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida. The nucleotide sequence of xylC was determined in this study. A protein exhibiting benzaldehyde dehydrogenase activity had been purified from cells of P. putida (pWW0) (J. P. Shaw and S. Harayama, Eur. J. Biochem. 191:705-714, 1990); however, the amino-terminal sequence of this protein does not correspond to that predicted from the xylC sequence but does correspond to that predicted from the xylG sequence. The protein purified in the earlier work was therefore 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (the xylG gene product). This conclusion was confirmed by the fact that this protein oxidized 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (kcat/Km = 1.6 x 10(6) s-1 M-1) more efficiently than benzaldehyde (kcat/Km = 3.2 x 10(4) s-1 M-1). The xylC product, the genuine benzaldehyde dehydrogenase, was purified from extracts of P. putida (pWW0-161 delta rylG) which does not synthesize 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The amino-terminal sequence of the purified protein corresponds to the amino-terminal sequence deduced from the xylC sequence. This enzyme efficiently oxidized benzaldehyde (kcat/Km = 1.7 x 10(7) s-1 M-1) and its analogs but did not oxidize 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde or its analogs. PMID:7868591

  12. Cu(II) Bis(thiosemicarbazone) Radiopharmaceutical Binding to Serum Albumin: Further Definition of Species-Dependence and Associated Substituent Effects

    PubMed Central

    Basken, Nathan E.; Green, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Cu-PTSM (pyruvaldehyde bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II)) and Cu-ATSM (diacetyl bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II)) radiopharmaceuticals exhibit strong, species-dependent binding to the IIA site of human serum albumin (HSA), while the related Cu-ETS (ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II)) radiopharmaceutical appears to only exhibit non-specific binding to human and animal serum albumins. Methods To further probe the structural basis for the species-dependence of this albumin binding interaction, protein binding of these three radiopharmaceuticals was examined in solutions of albumin and/or serum from a broader array of mammalian species (rat, sheep, donkey, rabbit, cow, pig, dog, baboon, mouse, cat, elephant). We also evaluated the albumin binding of several copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) chelates offering more diverse substitution of the ligand backbone. Results Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM exhibit a strong interaction with HSA that is not apparent with the albumins of other species, while the binding of Cu-ETS to albumin is much less species-dependent. The strong interaction of Cu-PTSM with HSA does not appear to simply correlate with variation, relative to the animal albumins, of a single amino acid lining HSA's IIA site. Those agents that selectively interact with HSA share the common feature of only methyl or hydrogen substitution at the carbon atoms of the diimine fragment of the ligand backbone. Conclusions The interspecies variations in albumin binding of Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM are not simply explained by unique amino acid substitutions in the IIA binding pocket of the serum albumins. However, the specific affinity for this region of HSA is disrupted when substituents bulkier than a methyl group appear on the imine carbons of the copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) chelate. PMID:19520290

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of formazan derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Gurusamy; Korim, Rejaul; Joshi, Nand Madhwa; Alam, Faruk; Hazarika, Rajib; Kumar, Deepak; Uriah, Tiewlasubon

    2010-01-01

    The formazan derivatives (FM1–FM5) were synthesized by the reaction of benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone with substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were then elucidated using UV, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. All the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity at 250 μg/ml, but FM4 and FM3 did not show any inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Vibriocholera, respectively. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data were statistically significant at P<0.001 level. But none of the compounds was effective against Japanese encephalitis virus. PMID:22247879

  14. Role of substitution at terminal nitrogen of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazones on the coordination behavior and structure and biological properties of their palladium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Eswaran; Senthil Raja, Duraisamy; Rath, Nigam P; Natarajan, Karuppannan

    2013-02-01

    A series of four new palladium(II) complexes of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazones with triphenylphosphine as coligand have been synthesized and characterized by the aid of various spectral techniques. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the unsubstituted thiosemicarbazone ligand acted as monobasic tridentate (ONS(-)) in the cationic [Pd(H-Qtsc-H)(PPh(3))]Cl complex, whereas the monosubstituted thiosemicarbazone ligands acted as monobasic bidentate (NS(-)) in their respective complexes, [PdCl(H-Qtsc-R)(PPh(3))] (R = Me (2), Et (3), Ph (4)). To ascertain the potentials of the above Pd(II) complexes toward biomolecular interactions, additional experiments involving interaction with calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin were carried out. Moreover, all the palladium(II) complexes have been screened for their radical scavenging activity toward DPPH, O(2)(-), OH, and NO radicals. The efficiency of the complexes in arresting the growth of human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cells (HEp-2), human liver carcinoma cells (Hep G2), and human skin cancer cells (A431) has also been studied along with the cell viability test against the noncancerous NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell lines under in vitro conditions. All the in vitro pharmacological evaluation results clearly revealed the relationship between the structure and the activity of the new Pd(II) complexes. PMID:23323516

  15. Selectively fluorinated cyclohexane building blocks: Derivatives of carbonylated all-cis-3-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane

    PubMed Central

    Ayoup, Mohammed Salah; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2015-01-01

    Summary Palladium catalysed carbonylation reactions using the meta- and para-iodo derivatives of all-cis-3-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane (4) are illustrated as the start point for a variety of functional group interconversions. The resultant benzaldehyde and benzoic acids offer novel building blocks for further derivatisation and facilitate the incorporation of the facially polarised all-cis-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane motif into more advanced molecular scaffolds. PMID:26877788

  16. Isolation of flavonoids from Aleurites moluccana using chitosan modified with benzaldehyde (CH-Bz) as chromatographic support.

    PubMed

    Girardi, L G J; Morsch, M; Cechinel-Filho, V; Meyre-Silva, C; Rodrigues, C A

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and use of a derivative of chitosan as a chromatographic sorbent. Chitosan modified with benzenic ring (CH-Bz) was used to separate two flavonoids, swertisin and 2"-O-rhamnosylswertisin, from ethyl acetate fraction of Aleurites moluccana. The results showed that CH-Bz can be used as a sorbent for the separation of flavonoid compounds. The studies showed that CH-Bz in column chromatography produces goods results, separation of the flavonoid compounds. PMID:14531457

  17. Anti-plasmodial activity of aroylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone iron chelators: effect on erythrocyte membrane integrity, parasite development and the intracellular labile iron pool.

    PubMed

    Walcourt, Asikiya; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Kwagyan, John; Adenuga, Babafemi B; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Lovejoy, David B; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2013-12-01

    Iron chelators inhibit the growth of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture and in animal and human studies. We previously reported the anti-plasmodial activity of the chelators, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4mT), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4pT). In fact, these ligands showed greater growth inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (7G8) strains of P. falciparum in culture compared to desferrioxamine (DFO). The present study examined the effects of 311, N4mT and N4pT on erythrocyte membrane integrity and asexual parasite development. While the characteristic biconcave disk shape of the erythrocytes was unaffected, the chelators caused very slight hemolysis at IC50 values that inhibited parasite growth. The chelators 311, N4mT and N4pT affected all stages of the intra-erythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of P. falciparum in culture. However, while these ligands primarily affected the ring-stage, DFO inhibited primarily trophozoite and schizont-stages. Ring, trophozoite and schizont-stages of the IDC were inhibited by significantly lower concentrations of 311, N4mT, and N4pT (IC50=4.45±1.70, 10.30±4.40, and 3.64±2.00μM, respectively) than DFO (IC50=23.43±3.40μM). Complexation of 311, N4mT and N4pT with iron reduced their anti-plasmodial activity. Estimation of the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) in erythrocytes showed that the chelation efficacy of 311, N4mT and N4pT corresponded to their anti-plasmodial activities, suggesting that the LIP may be a potential source of non-heme iron for parasite metabolism within the erythrocyte. This study has implications for malaria chemotherapy that specifically disrupts parasite iron utilization. PMID:24028863

  18. Anti-Plasmodial Activity of Aroylhydrazone and Thiosemicarbazone Iron Chelators: Effect on Erythrocyte Membrane Integrity, Parasite Development and the Intracellular Labile Iron Pool

    PubMed Central

    Walcourt, Asikiya; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Kwagyan, John; Adenuga, Babafemi B.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Lovejoy, David B.; Lane, Darius J. R.; Richardson, Des R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron chelators inhibit the growth of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture and in animal and human studies. We previously reported the anti-plasmodial activity of the chelators, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4mT), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4pT). In fact, these ligands showed greater growth inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (7G8) strains of P. falciparum in culture compared to desferrioxamine (DFO). The present study examined the effects of 311, N4mT and N4pT on erythrocyte membrane integrity and asexual parasite development. While the characteristic biconcave disk shape of the erythrocytes was unaffected, the chelators caused very slight hemolysis at IC50 values that inhibited parasite growth. The chelators 311, N4mT and N4pT affected all stages of the intra-erythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of P. falciparum in culture. However, while these ligands primarily affected the ring-stage, DFO inhibited primarily trophozoite and schizont-stages. Ring, trophozoite and schizont-stages of the IDC were inhibited by significantly lower concentrations of 311, N4mT, and N4pT (IC50 = 4.45 ± 1.70, 10.30 ± 4.40, and 3.64 ± 2.00 μM, respectively) than DFO (IC50 = 23.43 ± 3.40 μM). Complexation of 311, N4mT and N4pT with iron reduced their anti-plasmodial activity. Estimation of the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) in erythrocytes showed that the chelation efficacy of 311, N4mT and N4pT corresponded to their anti-plasmodial activity, suggesting that the LIP may be a potential source of non-heme iron for parasite metabolism within the erythrocyte. This study has implications for malaria chemotherapy that specifically disrupts parasite iron utilization. PMID:24028863

  19. Investigation of antitumor potential of Ni(II) complexes with tridentate PNO acylhydrazones of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and monodentate pseudohalides.

    PubMed

    Čobeljić, Božidar; Milenković, Milica; Pevec, Andrej; Turel, Iztok; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Sladić, Dušan; Radulović, Siniša; Jovanović, Katarina; Anđelković, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    Square-planar azido Ni(II) complex with condensation product of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and Girard's T reagent was synthesized and its crystal structure was determined. Cytotoxic activity of the azido complex and previously synthesized isothiocyanato, cyanato and chlorido Ni(II) complexes with this ligand was examined on six tumor cell lines (HeLa, A549, K562, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-361 and LS-174) and two normal cell line (MRC-5 and BEAS-2B). All the investigated nickel(II) complexes were cytotoxic against all tumor cell lines. The newly synthesized azido complex showed selectivity to HeLa and A549 tumor cell lines compared to the normal cells (for A549 IC50 was similar to that of cisplatin). Azido complex interferes with cell cycle phase distribution of A549 and HeLa cells and possesses nuclease activity towards supercoiled DNA. The observed selectivity of the azido complex for some tumor cell lines can be connected with its strong DNA damaging activity. PMID:26612231

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, computational and photophysical studies of new hydrazono-thiazole derivatives decorated with N-methyl tetrahydrocarbazole pendant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-one, obtained from 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) oxidation of tetrahydrocarbazole, on methylation with N, N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA) furnish N-methyl derivative. The thiosemicarbazone of N-methyl derivative on reaction with 2-bromopropionic acid, ethyl bromopyruvate and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) afford hydrazono-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives with tetrahydrocarbazole pendant. X-ray diffraction and DFT studies of (Z)-5-methyl-2-((E)-(9-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-ylidene)hydrazono)thiazolidin-4-one 5 have been reported. The reaction with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) and ethyl bromopyruvate take place without any catalyst and organic solvent. The photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by means of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  1. DNA binding, antioxidant, cytotoxicity (MTT, lactate dehydrogenase, NO), and cellular uptake studies of structurally different nickel(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes: synthesis, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, R; Kalaivani, P; Huang, R; Poornima, P; Vijaya Padma, V; Dallemer, F; Natarajan, K

    2013-02-01

    Three new nickel(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes have been synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectral, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. In complex 1, the ligand 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydethiosemicarbazone coordinated as a monobasic tridentate donor, whereas in complexes 2 and 3, the ligands salicylaldehyde-4(N)-ethylthiosemicarbazone and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-4(N)-ethylthiosemicarbazone coordinated as a dibasic tridentate donor. The DNA binding ability of the complexes in calf thymus DNA was explored by absorption and emission titration experiments. The antioxidant property of the new complexes was evaluated to test their free-radical scavenging ability. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed for the new complexes in A549 and HepG2 cell lines. The new compounds overcome cisplatin resistance in the A549 cell line and they were also active in the HepG2 cell line. The cellular uptake study showed the accumulation of the complexes in tumor cells depended on the nature of the ligand attached to the nickel ion. PMID:23274397

  2. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper, cobalt, nickel and iron in foodstuffs and vegetables with a new bis thiosemicarbazone ligand using chemometric approaches.

    PubMed

    Rohani Moghadam, Masoud; Poorakbarian Jahromi, Sayedeh Maria; Darehkordi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    A newly synthesized bis thiosemicarbazone ligand, (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-((4S,5R)-4,5,6-trihydroxyhexane-1,2-diylidene)bis(N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide), was used to make a complex with Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Fe(3+) for their simultaneous spectrophotometric determination using chemometric methods. By Job's method, the ratio of metal to ligand in Ni(2+) was found to be 1:2, whereas it was 1:4 for the others. The effect of pH on the sensitivity and selectivity of the formed complexes was studied according to the net analyte signal (NAS). Under optimum conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 0.10-3.83, 0.20-3.83, 0.23-5.23 and 0.32-8.12 mg L(-1) with the detection limits of 2, 3, 4 and 10 μg L(-1) for Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+) and Fe(3+) respectively. The OSC-PLS1 for Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), the PLS1 for Co(2+) and the PC-FFANN for Fe(3+) were selected as the best models. The selected models were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of elements in some foodstuffs and vegetables. PMID:26304369

  3. Crystal structures of copper(II) chloride, copper(II) bromide, and copper(II) nitrate complexes with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    SciTech Connect

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Jeanneau, E.; Bairac, N. N.; Bocelli, G.; Poirier, D.; Roy, J.; Gulea, A. P.

    2008-09-15

    The crystal structures of chloro-(2-formylpyridinethiosemicarbazono)copper dimethyl sulfoxide solvate (I), bromo-(2-formylpyridinethiosemicarbazono)copper (II), and (2-formylpyridinethiosemicarbazono)copper(II) nitrate dimethyl sulfoxide solvate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. In the crystals, complexes I and II form centrosymmetric dimers in which the thiosemicarbazone sulfur atom serves as a bridge and occupies the fifth coordination site of the copper atom of the neighboring complex related to the initial complex through the center of symmetry. In both cases, the coordination polyhedron of the complexing ion is a distorted tetragonal bipyramid. Complex III in the crystal structure forms polymer chains in which the copper atom of one complex forms the coordination bond with the thicarbamide nitrogen atom of the neighboring complex. In this structure, the coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid. It is established that complexes I-III at a concentration of 10{sup -5} mol/l selectively inhibit the growth of 60 to 90 percent of the cancer tumor cells of the human myeloid leukemia (HL-60).

  4. Three novel compounds of 5-trifluoromethoxy-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-thiosemicarbazone: Synthesis, crystal structures and molecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Filiz Betül; Özbey, Süheyla; Karalı, Nilgün

    2013-10-01

    5-Trifluoromethoxy-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-(N-ethyl/benzylthiosemicarbazone) (2a/2b) and 5-trifluoromethoxy-1-morpholinomethyl-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-(N-ethylthiosemicarbazone) (3a) were synthesized. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, spectral data and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The morpholin ring which adopts chair conformation and ethylamino group of 3a are disordered over two sets of sites with unequal occupancy. The indole heterocycle is nearly planar and the dihedral angle between the pyrrole and the adjacent phenyl ring is 2.09° (in 2a), 4.61° (in 2b) and 2.16° (in 3a). In all three crystal structures, a strong Nsbnd H···O hydrogen bond links the flat conjugated Hsbnd Nsbnd Ndbnd Csbnd Cdbnd O fragment into a six-membered ring. The molecules 2a, 2b and 3a have potential groups of proton donors (thiosemicarbazone group) available for hydrogen bonding. The structures 2b and 3a consist of isolated molecules, while that of 2a contains dimers formed by Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The molecules are linked into three dimensional framework structure by a combination of mainly Nsbnd H⋯N and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak Csbnd F⋯π and π⋯π interactions.

  5. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: Detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesh, M.; Kalangi, Suresh K.; Sivarama Krishna, L.; Reddy, A. Varada

    2014-01-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1 = 2.1228, g2 = 2.0706 and g3 = 2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM.

  6. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, M; Kalangi, Suresh K; Sivarama Krishna, L; Reddy, A Varada

    2014-01-24

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1=2.1228, g2=2.0706 and g3=2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM. PMID:24084484

  7. Activity of Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenases on Benzyl Alcohols and Benzaldehydes. Characterization of ADH1 from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Transition State Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Suresh; Park, Doo-Hong; Plapp, Bryce V.

    2009-01-01

    The substrate specificities of yeast alcohol dehydrogenases I and II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceADH1 and SceADH2) and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (ScbADH1) were studied. For this work, the gene for the S. carlsbergensis ADH1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed. The amino acid sequence of ScbADH1 differs at four positions as compared to SceADH1, including substitutions of two glutamine residues with glutamic acid residues, and has the same sequence as the commercial yeast enzyme, which apparently is prepared from S. carlsbergensis. The electrophoretic mobilities of ScbADH1, SceADH2 and commercial ADH are similar. The kinetics and specificities of ScbADH1 and SceADH1 acting on branched, long-chain and benzyl alcohols are very similar, but the catalytic efficiency of SceADH2 is about 10 to 100-fold higher on these substrates. A three dimensional structure of SceADH1 shows that the substrate binding pocket has Met-270, whereas SceADH2 has Leu-270, which allows larger substrates to bind. The reduction of a series of p-substituted benzaldehydes catalyzed by SceADH2 is significantly enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups, whereas the oxidation of p-substituted aromatic alcohols may be only slightly affected by the substituents. The substituent effects on catalysis generally reflect the effects on the equilibrium constant for the reaction, where electron-withdrawing substituents favor alcohol. The results are consistent with a transition state that is electronically similar to the alcohol, supporting previous results obtained with commercial yeast ADH. PMID:19022233

  8. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and its cytotoxicity by 2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzaldehyde of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn); a new functional attribute.

    PubMed

    Srikanta, Belagihalli M; Nayaka, Mysore A Harish; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2011-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori mediated gastric ulcer and cancers are common global problems since it was found to colonize in ∼50% of gastric ulcer/cancer patients. Decalepis hamiltonii, (Asclepiadaceae family) extracts have been depicted with medicinal properties supporting the traditional knowledge of health beneficial attributes of D. hamiltonii. Previously we have shown that both aqueous as well as methanol extracts of D. hamiltonii containing abundant phenolics with predominant levels (20-40% of total phenolics) of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (HMBA). Despite higher levels, HMBA contributed very little to the antioxidant activity (<10%) when compared to other phenolic compounds in the extract. In the current study we attempted to explore antimicrobial property, particularly anti-H. pylori activity, since traditional users document D. hamiltonii as a fighter of microbial infections. HMBA was isolated from the roots of D. hamiltonii by hydrodistillation and cold crystallization method; identified by HPLC and characterized using ESI-MS and confirmed by NMR studies as a compound of molecular mass 152 Da. Isolated HMBA was found to inhibit the growth of H. pylori, a potential ulcerogen in a dose dependent manner with MIC of ∼39 μg/mL as apposed to that of amoxicillin (MIC - 26 μg/mL) for which H. pylori is susceptible. Results were further substantiated by the lysis of H. pylori by electron microscopy and electrophoretic studies. Studies on the mechanism of action indicated the counteracting effect of vacuolating toxin (VacA) of H. pylori which otherwise would lead to host cell cytotoxicity. Further the increased binding ability of HMBA to DNA and protein offered an impact on DNA protectivity and bioavailability. Results for the first time provide a direct evidence for anti-microbial attribute of HMBA. Insignificant antioxidant attribute of HMBA also reveals the anti-H. pylori activity via mechanisms other than antioxidative routes. PMID:21185348

  9. Metal complexes of 3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-pyridin-2-ylprop-2-en-1-one thiosemicarbazone: cytotoxic activity and investigation on the mode of action of the gold(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Sâmia, Luciana B P; Parrilha, Gabrieli L; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Ramos, Jonas P; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Castelli, Silvia; Vutey, Venn; Desideri, Alessandro; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-06-01

    Complexes [Au(PyCT4BrPh)Cl]Cl (1), [Pt(PyCT4BrPh)Cl]0.5KCl (2), and [Pd(PyCT4BrPh)Cl]KCl (3) were obtained with 3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-pyridin-2-ylprop-2-en-1-one thiosemicarbazone (HPyCT4BrPh). Although complexes (2) and (3) did not exhibit potent cytotoxic activity, HPyCT4BrPh and its gold(III) complex (1) proved to be highly cytotoxic against HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) and THP-1 (human monocytic leukemia) cells, and against MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) solid tumor cells. Except for HL-60 cells, upon coordination to gold(III) a 2- to 3-fold increase in the cytotoxic effect was observed. An investigation on the possible biological targets of the gold(III) complex was carried out. Complex (1) but not the free thiosemicarbazone inhibits the enzymatic activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). The affinity of 1 for TrxR suggests metal binding to a selenol residue in the active site of the enzyme. While HPyCT4BrPh was inactive, 1 was able to inhibit topoisomerase IB (Topo IB) activity. Hence, inhibition of TrxR and Topo IB could contribute to the mechanism of cytotoxic action of complex (1). PMID:27091443

  10. The Anticancer Agent Di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-Dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) Overcomes Prosurvival Autophagy by Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Elaine; Richardson, Des R.; Jansson, Patric J.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy functions as a survival mechanism during cellular stress and contributes to resistance against anticancer agents. The selective antitumor and antimetastatic chelator di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) causes lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death. Considering the integral role of lysosomes in autophagy and cell death, it was important to assess the effect of Dp44mT on autophagy to further understand its mechanism of action. Notably, Dp44mT affected autophagy by two mechanisms. First, concurrent with its antiproliferative activity, Dp44mT increased the expression of the classical autophagic marker LC3-II as a result of induced autophagosome synthesis. Second, this effect was supplemented by a reduction in autophagosome degradation as shown by the accumulation of the autophagic substrate and receptor p62. Conversely, the classical iron chelator desferrioxamine induced autophagosome accumulation only by inhibiting autophagosome degradation. The formation of redox-active iron or copper Dp44mT complexes was critical for its dual effect on autophagy. The cytoprotective antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited Dp44mT-induced autophagosome synthesis and p62 accumulation. Importantly, Dp44mT inhibited autophagosome degradation via lysosomal disruption. This effect prevented the fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes to form autolysosomes, which is crucial for the completion of the autophagic process. The antiproliferative activity of Dp44mT was suppressed by Beclin1 and ATG5 silencing, indicating the role of persistent autophagosome synthesis in Dp44mT-induced cell death. These studies demonstrate that Dp44mT can overcome the prosurvival activity of autophagy in cancer cells by utilizing this process to potentiate cell death. PMID:25301941

  11. Exploring the Anti-Cancer Activity of Novel Thiosemicarbazones Generated through the Combination of Retro-Fragments: Dissection of Critical Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rasko, Nathalie; Potůčková, Eliška; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Musiol, Robert; Małecki, Jan G.; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Ratuszna, Alicja; Muchowicz, Angelika; Gołąb, Jakub; Šimůnek, Tomáš; Richardson, Des R.; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) are an interesting class of ligands that show a diverse range of biological activity, including anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated the potent in vivo anti-tumor activity of novel TSCs and their ability to overcome resistance to clinically used chemotherapeutics. In the current study, 35 novel TSCs of 6 different classes were designed using a combination of retro-fragments that appear in other TSCs. Additionally, di-substitution at the terminal N4 atom, which was previously identified to be critical for potent anti-cancer activity, was preserved through the incorporation of an N4-based piperazine or morpholine ring. The anti-proliferative activity of the novel TSCs were examined in a variety of cancer and normal cell-types. In particular, compounds 1d and 3c demonstrated the greatest promise as anti-cancer agents with potent and selective anti-proliferative activity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the chelators that utilized “soft” donor atoms, such as nitrogen and sulfur, resulted in potent anti-cancer activity. Indeed, the N,N,S donor atom set was crucial for the formation of redox active iron complexes that were able to mediate the oxidation of ascorbate. This further highlights the important role of reactive oxygen species generation in mediating potent anti-cancer activity. Significantly, this study identified the potent and selective anti-cancer activity of 1d and 3c that warrants further examination. PMID:25329549

  12. Development of highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil, industrial effluents and standard alloy samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Reddy, Koduru Janardhan; Thriveni, Thenepalli; Reddy, Ammireddy Varada

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II). PPT reacts with nickel(II) in the pH range 4.0-6.0 to form a reddish brown colored complex, which was well-extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-PPT complex was measured at different time intervals at 430nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 0.5-5.0microgmL(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species are 1.92 x 10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.003057microgcm(-2) respectively at 430nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.069microgmL(-1). To assess precision and accuracy of the developed method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations. The relative standard deviation of all measurements does not exceed 2.62%. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of nickel(II), when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil and industrial effluent samples. Various standard and certified reference materials (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have also been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained from an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). PMID:19013356

  13. Development of a highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nickel(II) from environmental matrices using N-ethyl-3-carbazolecarboxaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Ramachandraiah, C; Rajesh Kumar, J; Janardhan Reddy, K; Lakshmi Narayana, S; Varada Reddy, A

    2008-09-01

    Nickel(II) reacts with N-ethyl-3-carbazolecarboxaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (ECCT) and forms a yellow colored complex, which was extracted into n-butanol from sodium acetate and acetic acid buffer at pH 6.0. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-ECCT complex was measured at different intervals of time at 400 nm, to ascertain the time stability of the complex. The extraction of the complex into the solvent was instantaneous and stable for more than 72 h. The system obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 1.2-5.6 microg ml(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity and a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species were found to be 1.114 x 10(4)L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 5.29 x 10(-3)microg cm(-2) at 400 nm, respectively. Hence, a detailed study of the extraction of nickel(II) with ECCT has been undertaken with a view to developing a rapid and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nickel(II) when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions which are usually associated with nickel(II) in environmental matrices like soil and industrial effluents. Various standard alloy samples (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are comparable with those from atomic absorption spectrometry and were found to be in good agreement. PMID:17482341

  14. Crystal structure of 3-[({2-[bis-(2-hy-droxy-benz-yl)amino]-eth-yl}(2-hy-droxy-benz-yl)amino)-meth-yl]-2-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Alexandra S; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J

    2014-12-01

    The non-symmetric title mol-ecule, C32H34N2O5, is based on a tetra-substituted ethyl-enedi-amine backbone. The mol-ecular structure consists of three hy-droxy-benzyl groups and one 2-hy-droxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde group bonded to the N atoms of the di-amine unit. The ethyl-enedi-amine skeleton shows a regular extended conformation, while the spatial orientation of the phenol arms is governed by hydrogen bonds. In the 2-hy-droxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde group, an intra-molecular S(6) O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed between the alcohol and aldehyde functions, and the neighbouring phenol arm participates in an intra-molecular S(6) O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. The third phenol group is involved in a bifurcated intra-molecular hydrogen bond with graph-set notation S(6) for O-H⋯N and O-H⋯O intra-molecular hydrogen bonds between neighbouring amine and phenol arms, respectively. Finally, the fourth phenol group acts as an acceptor in a bifurcated intra-molecular hydrogen bond and also acts as donor in an inter-molecular hydrogen bond, which connects inversion-related mol-ecules into dimers with R 4 (4)(8) ring motifs. PMID:25552993

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antitumor activity of polymeric copper(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazones of 3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-4-carboxaldehyde and 5-oxo-3-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-4-carboxaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Leovac, Vukadin M; Bogdanović, Goran A; Jovanović, Ljiljana S; Joksović, Ljubinka; Marković, Violeta; Joksović, Milan D; Denčić, Sonja Misirlić; Isaković, Anđelka; Marković, Ivanka; Heinemann, Frank W; Trifunović, Srećko; Đalović, Ivica

    2011-11-01

    New polymeric copper(II) complexes with two tridentate ONS thiosemicarbazone ligands containing substituted pyrazolone moiety were synthesized and characterized by means of spectroscopic, electrochemical and crystallographic techniques. While both ligands exist as different tautomers in the solid state and DMSO-d(6) solution, Cu(II) ion coordinates the ligands from the same tautomeric form with square-pyramidal geometry around each Cu atom. In the crystal structures, the copper(II) complex cation forms polymeric chains {[Cu(L)Cl](+)}(n) with a bridging chlorine atom. One of the complexes was found to have a significantly higher cytotoxic potential in comparison with cisplatin in inhibition of several cell lines (HL60, REH, C6, L929 and B16). The results obtained on the basis of flow cytometry indicated that apoptosis could be possible mechanism of cell death. PMID:21955843

  16. LC-MS/MS identification of the principal in vitro and in vivo phase I metabolites of the novel thiosemicarbazone anti-cancer drug, Bp4eT.

    PubMed

    Stariat, Ján; Sesták, Vít; Vávrová, Kateřina; Nobilis, Milan; Kollárová, Zuzana; Klimeš, Jiří; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R; Kovaříková, Petra

    2012-04-01

    The iron chelator, 2-benzoylpyridine-4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Bp4eT), was identified as a lead compound of the 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone series, which were designed as potential anti-cancer agents. This ligand has been shown to possess potent anti-proliferative activity with a highly selective mechanism of action. However, further progress in the development of this compound requires data regarding its metabolism in mammals. The aim of this study was to identify the main in vitro and in vivo phase I metabolites of Bp4eT using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two metabolites were detected after incubation of this drug with rat and human liver microsomal fractions. Based on LC-MS(n) analysis, the metabolites were demonstrated to be 2-benzoylpyridine-4-ethyl-3-semicarbazone and N (3)-ethyl-N (1)-[phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methylene]formamidrazone, with both resulting from the oxidation of the thiocarbonyl group. The identity of these metabolites was further shown by LC-MS/MS analysis of these latter compounds which were prepared by oxidation of Bp4eT with hydrogen peroxide and their structures confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra. Both the semicarbazone and the amidrazone metabolites were detected in plasma, urine, and feces after i.v. administration of Bp4eT to rats. In addition, another metabolite that could correspond to hydroxylated amidrazone was found in vivo. Thus, oxidative pathways play a major role in the phase I metabolism of this promising anti-tumor agent. The outcomes of this study will be further utilized for: (1) the development and validation of the analytical method for the quantification of Bp4eT and its metabolites in biological materials; (2) to design pharmacokinetic experiments; and to (3) evaluate the potential contribution of the individual metabolites to the pharmacodynamics/toxico-dynamics of this novel anti-proliferative agent. PMID:22349326

  17. Derivative couplings between TDDFT excited states obtained by direct differentiation in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Qi; Fatehi, Shervin; Alguire, Ethan; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Shao, Yihan

    2014-07-14

    Working within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation, we calculate the derivative couplings between time-dependent density-functional theory excited states by assuming that the Kohn-Sham superposition of singly excited determinants represents a true electronic wavefunction. All Pulay terms are included in our derivative coupling expression. The reasonability of our approach can be established by noting that, for closely separated electronic states in the infinite basis limit, our final expression agrees exactly with the Chernyak-Mukamel expression (with transition densities from response theory). Finally, we also validate our approach empirically by analyzing the behavior of the derivative couplings around the T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} conical intersection of benzaldehyde.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, optical band gap, in vitro antimicrobial activity and DNA cleavage studies of some metal complexes of pyridyl thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Bedier, R. A.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of Cr(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes of Schiff-bases derived from the condensation of 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-thiosemicarbazide and pyruvic acid (H2PTP) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Schiff-base exhibit thiol-thione tautomerism wherein sulfur plays an important role in the coordination. The coordination possibility of the Schiff-bases towards metal ions have been proposed in the light of elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), magnetic and thermal studies. IR spectra show that H2PTP is coordinated to the metal ions in a mononegative tridentate manner except in Cr(III) complex in which the ligand exhibits mononegative bidentate manner. The parameters total energy, binding energy, isolated atomic energy, electronic energy, heat of formation, dipole moment, HOMO and LUMO were calculated for the ligand and its complexes. Furthermore, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Also, the optical band gap (Eg) of the metal complexes has been calculated. The optical transition energy (Eg) is direct and equals 3.20, 3.27 and 3.26 eV for Cr, Mn and Ni complexes, respectively. The synthesized ligand, in comparison to its metal complexes is screened for its antibacterial activity against the bacterial species, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Escherichia coli. The results show that the metal complexes be more potent in activity antibacterial than the parent Shciff base ligand towards one or more bacterial species. Finally, the biochemical studies showed that, Mn complex have powerful and complete degradation effect on DNA.

  19. Zeolites as catalysts in organic reactions: condensation of aldehydes with benzene derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Climent, M.J.; Corma, A.; Garcia, H.; Primo, J. )

    1991-07-01

    Reactions of four aldehydes with five aromatic compounds have been carried out on a series of USY zeolites with unit cell size in the 24.56 to 24.25-{angstrom} range. Conversion decreased in the order formaldehyde > benzaldehyde > acetaldehyde > propionaldehyde and also in the series anisole > toluene > benzene > chlorobenzene. For aliphatic aldehydes a mixture of ortho-ortho, ortho-para, and para-para diarylmethanes was obtained. USY zeolites show a higher para-directing selectivity than AlCl{sub 3}. Benzaldehyde reacted with benzene derivatives to afford mixtures of diaryl- and triarylmethanes. Formation of ditolyl- and dianisylmethanes in the corresponding reactions indicated that bulky triarylmethanes, once formed inside the crystalline framework, have strong diffusional limitations to get out of the zeolite cavities and can undergo subsequent protolytic cleavage. A decrease in the activity of the zeolite to catalyze hydride transfer reactions lead to a decrease on the diphenylmethane yield. Finally, diphenylmethane appears as a primary product indicating that a series of consecutive reactions such as the formation of diarylcarbinols followed by protonation, water elimination, and hydride abstraction are taking place inside the pores of the zeolite before the real primary product comes out from the zeolite.

  20. Synthesis and antibacterial properties of 4-bromobenzohydrazide derivatives and crystal structure of ( E)- N'-((1 H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-4-bromobenzohydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantrapromma, S.; Ruanwas, P.; Noonot, T.; Horkaew, J.; Boonnak, N.; Ghabbour, H. A.; Fun, H.-K.

    2015-12-01

    Six 4-bromobenzohydrazide derivatives ( 1-6) were synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-bromobenzohydrazide and benzaldehydes, and evaluated for antibacterial activity. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. In addition, the crystal structure of compound 6 was characterized by single crystal X-ray structure determination. In crystal packing, the molecules are linked by N-HO and N-HN hydrogen bonds into two-dimensional network parallel to the (001) plane. The crystal is further stabilized by weak C-HO and C-H? interactions.

  1. Thiosemicarbazones as Aedes aegypti larvicidal.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco P; Navarro, Daniela Maria do A F; da Silva, Aluizio G; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Pereira, Valéria R A; da Rocha, Lucas F; de Castro, Maria Carolina A B; de Oliveira, Beatriz C; Lan, Que; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-15

    A set of aryl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazones were synthetized, characterized and biologically evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti), the vector responsible for diseases like Dengue and Yellow Fever. (Q)SAR studies were useful for predicting the activities of the compounds not included to create the QSAR model as well as to predict the features of a new compound with improved activity. Docking studies corroborated experimental evidence of AeSCP-2 as a potential target able to explain the larvicidal properties of its compounds. The trend observed between the in silico Docking scores and the in vitro pLC50 (equals -log LC50, at molar concentration) data indicated that the highest larvicidal compounds, or the compounds with the highest values for pLC50, are usually those with the higher docking scores (i.e., greater in silico affinity for the AeSCP-2 target). Determination of cytotoxicity for these compounds in mammal cells demonstrated that the top larvicide compounds are non-toxic. PMID:26087027

  2. Di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-Dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) Overcomes Multidrug Resistance by a Novel Mechanism Involving the Hijacking of Lysosomal P-Glycoprotein (Pgp)*

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Patric J.; Yamagishi, Tetsuo; Arvind, Akanksha; Seebacher, Nicole; Gutierrez, Elaine; Stacy, Alexandra; Maleki, Sanaz; Sharp, Danae; Sahni, Sumit; Richardson, Des R.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. More than half of human cancers express multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which correlates with a poor prognosis. Intriguingly, through an unknown mechanism, some drugs have greater activity in drug-resistant tumor cells than their drug-sensitive counterparts. Herein, we investigate how the novel anti-tumor agent di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) overcomes MDR. Four different cell types were utilized to evaluate the effect of Pgp-potentiated lysosomal targeting of drugs to overcome MDR. To assess the mechanism of how Dp44mT overcomes drug resistance, cellular studies utilized Pgp inhibitors, Pgp silencing, lysosomotropic agents, proliferation assays, immunoblotting, a Pgp-ATPase activity assay, radiolabeled drug uptake/efflux, a rhodamine 123 retention assay, lysosomal membrane permeability assessment, and DCF (2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin) redox studies. Anti-tumor activity and selectivity of Dp44mT in Pgp-expressing, MDR cells versus drug-sensitive cells were studied using a BALB/c nu/nu xenograft mouse model. We demonstrate that Dp44mT is transported by the lysosomal Pgp drug pump, causing lysosomal targeting of Dp44mT and resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity in MDR cells. Lysosomal Pgp and pH were shown to be crucial for increasing Dp44mT-mediated lysosomal damage and subsequent cytotoxicity in drug-resistant cells, with Dp44mT being demonstrated to be a Pgp substrate. Indeed, Pgp-dependent lysosomal damage and cytotoxicity of Dp44mT were abrogated by Pgp inhibitors, Pgp silencing, or increasing lysosomal pH using lysosomotropic bases. In vivo, Dp44mT potently targeted chemotherapy-resistant human Pgp-expressing xenografted tumors relative to non-Pgp-expressing tumors in mice. This study highlights a novel Pgp hijacking strategy of the unique dipyridylthiosemicarbazone series of thiosemicarbazones that overcome MDR via utilization of lysosomal Pgp transport activity. PMID:25720491

  3. Dichloridobis[3-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-2,N,N-trimethyl-2,3-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazole-5-amine-κN 4]platinum(II)–4-chloro­benzaldehyde (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Kritchenkov, Andreii S.; Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Kalibabchuk, Valentina A.

    2013-01-01

    In the title 1:1 co-crystal, [PtCl2(C11H14ClN3O)2]·C7H5ClO, the coordination polyhedron of the PtII atom is slightly distorted square-planar with the chloride and 2,3-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazole ligands mutually trans, as the Pt atom lies on an inversion center. The 4-chloro­benzaldehyde mol­ecules are statistically disordered about an inversion centre with equal occupancies for the two positions. The PtII complex forms a three-dimensional structure through C—H⋯Cl and weaker C—H⋯O inter­actions with the 4-chloro­benzaldehyde mol­ecule. PMID:24109273

  4. Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and reduction of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Hirbod

    2016-03-01

    The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) performance was studied in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) to benzaldehyde (BzH) with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant under solvent-free conditions. The influences of reaction conditions like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of H2O2:BzOH, reaction temperature and times on the oxidation of BzOH by using CoFe2O4 NPs were investigated in details. Under optimum conditions, excellent result, >99% conversation of BzOH to BzH as the only product, was obtained. The nanocatalyst was also used for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR), Methylene blue (MB) in water at room temperature. The magnetic properties of the catalyst provided a convenient and easy route for the separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture by an external bar magnet. No obvious loss of activity was observed when the spent catalyst reused in three consecutive runs. PMID:26674244

  5. Synthesis, structure and antifungal activity of thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) and nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes: unsymmetrical coordination mode of nickel complex.

    PubMed

    Alomar, Kusaï; Landreau, Anne; Allain, Magali; Bouet, Gilles; Larcher, Gérald

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of nickel(II), copper(II) chlorides and cadmium(II) chloride and bromide with thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) (2,3BTSTCH2) leads to a series of new complexes: [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl, [Cu(2,3BTSTC)], [CdCl2(2,3BTSTCH2)] and [CdBr2(2,3BTSTCH2)]. The crystal structures of the ligand and of [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl complex have been determined. In this case, we remark an unusual non-symmetrical coordination mode for the two functional groups: one acting as a thione and the second as a deprotonated thiolate. All compounds have been tested for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus, the cadmium complexes exhibit the highest antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using two biological methods: human MRC5 cultured cells and brine shrimp Artemia salina bioassay. PMID:23792913

  6. Synthesis and application of chloromethylated polystyrene modified with 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oxime thiosemicarbazone (PPDOT) as a new sorbent for the on-line preconcentration and determination of copper in water, soil, and food samples by FAAS.

    PubMed

    Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali; Mokhlesian, Ali; Bahramian, Bahram

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, we report a simple and sensitive on-line solid phase extraction system for the preconcentration and determination of Cu(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This method is based upon the on-line retention of copper at pH 5.0 on a minicolumn packed with chloromethylated polystyrene modified by 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oxime thiosemicarbazone (PPDOT) as a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent. The retained Cu(II) ions were eluted with 1.0M HNO(3), and transported directly to FAAS for determination. Several chemical and flow variables were studied and optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of copper(II). At the optimized conditions, for preconcentration of 10.0 mL of a sample solution, a linear calibration graph was obtained over the concentration range of 3.00-120.0 μg L(-1) for Cu(II). The limit of detection (3σ), limit of quantification (10σ), and enrichment factor are 0.56 μg L(-1), 2.0 μg L(-1) and 41, respectively. The relative standard deviation (n = 6) at 20 μg L(-1) of Cu(II) is 2.0%. This method could be applied for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) in water, soil, and food samples with satisfactory results. PMID:21794982

  7. Fast and catalyst-free hydrazone ligation via ortho-halo-substituted benzaldehydes for protein C-terminal labeling at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Xu, Ling; Xia, Yuan; Guan, Chao-Jian; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao; Wang, Chen; Li, Yi-Ming

    2015-08-28

    Rapid and catalyst-free hydrazone ligation reaction between ortho-halobenzaldehyde derivatives and peptide/protein hydrazides was observed at neutral pH and room temperature. 2-Chlorobenzaldehyde exhibited the fastest reaction and highest conversion rates among the series of ortho-halobenzaldehydes. The resulting hydrazone-containing bioconjugation products were also found to be fairly stable under experimental conditions. The new ligation strategy was successfully used for protein C-terminal labeling and should provide a practical approach for the modification of proteins. PMID:26195073

  8. Aldol derivatives of Thioxoimidazolidinones as potential anti-prostate cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Khatik, Gopal L; Kaur, Jasmine; Kumar, Varun; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Venugopalan, P; Nair, Vipin A

    2011-08-01

    The paper discusses the synthesis and stereochemical aspects of the anti aldol products, 3-(substituted phenyl)-5-[(substituted phenyl) hydroxy methyl]-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-thioxoimidazolidines. The stereochemistry observed in the aldol reactions with benzaldehydes was explained by transition state model of the endocyclic (E)-enolate formed from the rigid 4-oxo-2-thioxoimidazolidine skeleton. Proton NMR and ROESY spectral analyses were carried out to identify the syn and anti conformations of the aldol diastereomers. Configurations of the enantiomers of the representative anti aldol product 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-[(4-chlorophenyl) hydroxy methyl]-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-thioxoimidazolidine was determined by single crystal XRD studies. The compounds were screened in vitro against prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and LNCaP and the most potent derivatives were identified. PMID:21600678

  9. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new hydrazide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kaplancikli, Zafer A; Turan-Zitouni, Gulhan; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Teulade, Jean-Claude

    2008-11-01

    The increasing clinical importance of drug-resistant mycobacterial pathogens, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has lent additional urgency to microbiological research and new antimycobacterial compound development. For this purpose, new hydrazide derivatives of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine were synthesized and evaluated for antituberculosis activity. The reaction of 2-[(2-carboxyimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-yl)sulfanyl]acetic acid hydrazide with various benzaldehydes gave N-(arylidene)-2-[(2-carboxyimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-yl)sulfanyl]acetic acid hydrazide derivatives. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by IR,(1)H-NMR, FAB-MS spectral data and elemental analysis. Antituberculosis activities of the synthesized compounds were determined by broth microdilution assay, the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay in BACTEC 12B medium. The results were screened in vitro, using the BACTEC 460 Radiometric System against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) at 6.25 microg/mL; the tested compounds showed significant inhibition. PMID:18720343

  10. Electronic and vibrational spectra of protonated benzaldehyde-water clusters, [BZ-(H{sub 2}O){sub n≤5}]H{sup +}: Evidence for ground-state proton transfer to solvent for n ≥ 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dopfer, Otto Patzer, Alexander; Chakraborty, Shamik; Alata, Ivan; Omidyan, Reza; Broquier, Michel

    2014-03-28

    Vibrational and electronic photodissociation spectra of mass-selected protonated benzaldehyde-(water){sub n} clusters, [BZ-(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]H{sup +} with n ≤ 5, are analyzed by quantum chemical calculations to determine the protonation site in the ground electronic state (S{sub 0}) and ππ{sup *} excited state (S{sub 1}) as a function of microhydration. IR spectra of [BZ-(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]H{sup +} with n ≤ 2 are consistent with BZH{sup +}-(H{sub 2}O){sub n} type structures, in which the excess proton is localized on benzaldehyde. IR spectra of clusters with n ≥ 3 are assigned to structures, in which the excess proton is located on the (H{sub 2}O){sub n} solvent moiety, BZ-(H{sub 2}O){sub n}H{sup +}. Quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP, MP2, and ri-CC2 levels support the conclusion of proton transfer from BZH{sup +} to the solvent moiety in the S{sub 0} state for hydration sizes larger than the critical value n{sub c} = 3. The vibronic spectrum of the S{sub 1} ← S{sub 0} transition (ππ{sup *}) of the n = 1 cluster is consistent with a cis-BZH{sup +}-H{sub 2}O structure in both electronic states. The large blueshift of the S{sub 1} origin by 2106 cm{sup −1} upon hydration with a single H{sub 2}O ligand indicates that the proton affinity of BZ is substantially increased upon S{sub 1} excitation, thus strongly destabilizing the hydrogen bond to the solvent. The adiabatic S{sub 1} excitation energy and vibronic structure calculated at the ri-CC2/aug-cc-pVDZ level agrees well with the measured spectrum, supporting the notion of a cis-BZH{sup +}-H{sub 2}O geometry. The doubly hydrated species, cis-BZH{sup +}-(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, does not absorb in the spectral range of 23 000–27 400 cm{sup −1}, because of the additional large blueshift of the ππ{sup *} transition upon attachment of the second H{sub 2}O molecule. Calculations predict roughly linear and large incremental blueshifts for the ππ{sup *} transition in [BZ-(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]H{sup +} as a function of n. In the size range n ≥ 3, the calculations predict a proton transfer from the (H{sub 2}O){sub n}H{sup +} solvent back to the BZ solute upon electronic ππ{sup *} excitation.

  11. Redox cycling of a copper complex with benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone contributes to its enhanced antitumor activity, but no change in the mechanism of action occurs after chelation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinli; Li, Cuiping; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhou, Pingxin; Yuan, Yanbin; Zhou, Sufeng; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-03-01

    Many anticancer drugs used in the clinical have potent metal chelating ability. The formed metal complex(es) may exhibit improved (or antagonistic) antitumor activity. However, the underlying mechanism has received limited attention. Therefore, investigation of the mechanism involved in the change upon chelation is required to extend our understanding of the effects of various drugs. In the present study, the proliferation inhibition effect of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (BNMPH) and its copper complex on tumor cell lines was investigated. The copper chelate exhibited almost a 10-fold increase in antitumor activity (with IC50 <5 µM). The results showed that both BNMPH and its copper complex induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caused upregulation of caspase 8 and Bax as well as the downregulation of Bcl-2, indicating that apoptosis was involved in the cytotoxic effects. DNA fragmentation noted in the comet assay further supported ROS involvement. The present study indicated that BNMPH and its copper complex effectively induced S phase arrest and the cell cycle arrest was associated with the downregulation of cyclin D1. The formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and an increase in cleaved LC3-II demonstrated that autophagy occurred in the HepG2 cells treated with the agents. Taken together, BNMPH and its copper complex exhibited proliferation inhibition via apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and autophagy, which was dependent on ROS. The enhanced antitumor activity of the copper complex was due to its redox-cycling ability, but the mechanism was not altered compared to BNMPH. Our findings may significantly contribute to the understanding of the anti-proliferative effect of BNMPH and its copper complex. PMID:26718494

  12. A novel azo-aldehyde and its Ni(II) chelate; synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and computational studies of 2-hydroxy-5-{(E)-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]diazenyl}benzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, Tuğba; Kose, Muhammet; Sayin, Koray; McKee, Vickie; Kurtoglu, Mukerrem

    2014-05-01

    A novel azo-salicylaldeyde, 2-hydroxy-5-{(E)-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]diazenyl} benzaldehyde and its Ni(II) chelate were obtained and characterized by analytical and spectral techniques. Molecular structure of the azo chromophore containing azo-aldehyde was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. X-ray data show that the compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic, Pbca space group with unit cell parameters a = 11.2706(9), b = 8.3993(7), c = 28.667(2) Å, V = 2713.7(4) Å3 and Z = 8. There is a strong phenol-aldehyde (OH⋯O) hydrogen bond forming a S(6) hydrogen bonding motif in the structure. There is also a weaker inter-molecular phenol-aldeyhde (OH⋯O) hydrogen bonding resulting in a dimeric structure and generating a D22(4) hydrogen bonding motif. Hydrogen bonded dimers are linked by π-π interactions within the structure. The azo-aldehyde ligand behaved as bidentate, coordinating through the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and or oxygen atom of phenolic hydroxyl group. Additionally, optimized structures of the three possible tautomers of the compound were obtained using B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G and 3-21G basis sets in the gas phase. B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level is found to be the best level for calculation. The electronic spectra of the compounds in the 200-800 nm range were obtained in three organic solvents.

  13. Biological evaluation and molecular docking of some chromenyl-derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Ionuţ, Ioana; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Oniga, Ilioara; Oniga, Ovidiu; Tiperciuc, Brînduşa; Tamaian, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Various thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) and their heterocyclic thiadiazolines (TDZ) possess important biological effects. In addition, chromenyl derivatives exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. Based on these findings and as a continuation of our research on nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds, we investigated a series of previously reported chromenyl-TSCs (1a-j) and chromenyl-TDZs (2a-j) for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against two bacterial and four fungal strains. MIC and MBC/MFC (µg/mL) values of these compounds were evaluated and compared to those of Spectinomycin, Moxifloxacin and Fluconazole, used as reference drugs. For a better understanding of the drug-receptor interactions, all the compounds were further subjected to molecular docking against four targets that were chosen based on the specific mechanism of action of the reference drugs used in the antimicrobial screening. All compounds tested showed equal or higher antibacterial/antifungal activities relative to the used reference drugs. In silico studies (molecular docking) revealed that all the investigated compounds showed good binding energies towards four receptor protein targets and supported their antimicrobial properties. PMID:27005495

  14. Derivative chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  15. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  16. Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some O-Propargylated-N-acetylpyrazole Derived from 1,3-Diarylpropenones

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Ashwani Kumar; Chopra, Bhawna; Dass, Rameshwar; Mittal, Sanjeev K.

    2016-01-01

    In search of novel effective potent therapeutic agents delivered by oral route for inflammation treatment, some novel O-propargylated-N-acetylpyrazole analogs (5a–j) were prepared by treating N-acetylpyrazole (4a–j) derived from 1,3-diarylpropenones (3a–j) with propargyl bromide. Claisen-Schmidt condensation of a series of substituted aryl ketones 1 and benzaldehydes 2 in glacial acetic acid afforded 1,3-diarylpropenones which on further treatment with hydrazine hydrate in acetic acid under reflux conditions afforded 1-acetyl-3,5-diaryl-4,5-dihydro(1H)pyrazoles (4a–j). The products were characterized by using spectroscopic techniques such as IR and NMR. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized compounds was determined using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in rats. PMID:26881075

  17. Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some O-Propargylated-N-acetylpyrazole Derived from 1,3-Diarylpropenones.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Ashwani Kumar; Chopra, Bhawna; Dass, Rameshwar; Mittal, Sanjeev K

    2016-01-01

    In search of novel effective potent therapeutic agents delivered by oral route for inflammation treatment, some novel O-propargylated-N-acetylpyrazole analogs (5a-j) were prepared by treating N-acetylpyrazole (4a-j) derived from 1,3-diarylpropenones (3a-j) with propargyl bromide. Claisen-Schmidt condensation of a series of substituted aryl ketones 1 and benzaldehydes 2 in glacial acetic acid afforded 1,3-diarylpropenones which on further treatment with hydrazine hydrate in acetic acid under reflux conditions afforded 1-acetyl-3,5-diaryl-4,5-dihydro(1H)pyrazoles (4a-j). The products were characterized by using spectroscopic techniques such as IR and NMR. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized compounds was determined using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in rats. PMID:26881075

  18. Lysosomal membrane stability plays a major role in the cytotoxic activity of the anti-proliferative agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Elaine M; Seebacher, Nicole A; Arzuman, Laila; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Vera; Merlot, Angelica M; Lok, Hiu; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Sahni, Sumit; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R

    2016-07-01

    The potent and selective anti-tumor agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), localizes in lysosomes and forms cytotoxic copper complexes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cell death. Herein, the role of lysosomal membrane stability in the anti-tumor activity of Dp44mT was investigated. Studies were performed using molecules that protect lysosomal membranes against Dp44mT-induced LMP, namely heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and cholesterol. Up-regulation or silencing of HSP70 expression did not affect Dp44mT-induced LMP in MCF7 cells. In contrast, cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes induced by the well characterized cholesterol transport inhibitor, 3-β-[2-(diethyl-amino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A), inhibited Dp44mT-induced LMP and markedly and significantly (p<0.001) reduced the ability of Dp44mT to inhibit cancer cell proliferation (i.e., increased the IC50) by 140-fold. On the other hand, cholesterol extraction using methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced Dp44mT-induced LMP and significantly (p<0.01) increased its anti-proliferative activity. The protective effect of U18666A in increasing lysosomal cholesterol and preventing the cytotoxic activity of Dp44mT was not due to induced autophagy. Instead, U18666A was found to decrease lysosomal turnover, resulting in autophagosome accumulation. Moreover, preincubation with U18666A did not prevent the ability of Dp44mT to induce autophagosome synthesis, indicating that autophagic initiation via Dp44mT occurs independently of LMP. These studies demonstrate the significance of lysosomal membrane stability in relation to the ability of Dp44mT to execute tumor cell death and overcome pro-survival autophagy. Hence, lysosomal-dependent cell death induced by Dp44mT serves as an important anti-tumor strategy. These results are important for comprehensively understanding the mechanism of action of Dp44mT. PMID:27102538

  19. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1001632–1001634. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5dt02537k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Israt S.; Arrowsmith, Rory L.; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W.; Dilworth, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. 68Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration. PMID:26583314

  20. Some polyhydroxy azo azomethine derivatives of salicylaldehyde: Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic, molecular structure and antimicrobial activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Albayrak, Çiğdem; Özkanca, Reşit; Aykan, Fatma Zehra; Lonecke, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Some new substituted polyhydroxy azo-azomethine compounds were prepared by reaction of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane with ( E)-2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl) benzaldehyde and its substituted derivatives. The structures of azo and azo-azomethine compounds were determined by IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques, and/or X-ray diffraction studies. According to IR spectra, all azo-azomethine compounds adopt keto form in solid state. UV-vis analysis has shown the presence of keto-enol tautomerism in solution for all azo-azomethine compounds, except that for nitro substituted derivative, enol form is dominantly favored in solution. At the same time, above mentioned derivative compounds were studied in vitro for their antimicrobial properties. Among the phenylazosalicylaldehyde series compound tested, 4-phenylazosalicylaldehyde, 4-(3-chlorophenylazo)salicylaldehyde, 4-(2-chlorophenylazo)salicylaldehyde, 4-(4-fluorophenylazo)salicylaldehyde, 4-(3-chlorophenylazo)salicylaldehyde and 4-(4-ethylphenylazo)salicylaldehyde showed a weak antimicrobial activity only against gram positive bacteria. On the contrary, phenylazosalicylaldehyde series compounds were reacted tris(hydroxmethyl)aminomethane, that exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, yeast and mould. Moreover, while the 2-{[1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propan-2-ylimino]methyl}phenol did not show an inhibition on tested microorganism, the addition of phenyldiazine groups to 2-{[1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propan-2-ylimino]methyl}phenol resulted in a strong increases in antimicrobial activity.

  1. A Vanillin Derivative Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Triggers Oxidative Stress in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Han-Ok; Cho, Yong-Joon; Kim, Jeongmi; Chun, Jongsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Younghoon; Jung, Won Hee

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a well-known food and cosmetic additive and has antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. It has also been suggested to have antifungal activity against major human pathogenic fungi, although it is not very effective. In this study, the antifungal activities of vanillin and 33 vanillin derivatives against the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the main pathogen of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients, were investigated. We found a structural correlation between the vanillin derivatives and antifungal activity, showing that the hydroxyl or alkoxy group is more advantageous than the halogenated or nitrated group in benzaldehyde. Among the vanillin derivatives with a hydroxyl or alkoxy group, o-vanillin and o-ethyl vanillin showed the highest antifungal activity against C. neoformans. o-Vanillin was further studied to understand the mechanism of antifungal action. We compared the transcriptome of C. neoformans cells untreated or treated with o-vanillin by using RNA sequencing and found that the compound caused mitochondrial dysfunction and triggered oxidative stress. These antifungal mechanisms of o-vanillin were experimentally confirmed by the significantly reduced growth of the mutants lacking the genes involved in mitochondrial functions and oxidative stress response. PMID:24586538

  2. Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of 1,2,4-triazole-containing ring system have been incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drug candidates including anti-inflammatory, central nervous system stimulants, antianxiety, and antimicrobial agents. To overcome the rapid development of drug resistance, new agents should preferably have chemical characteristics that clearly differ from those of existing agents. Thus led to the design and synthesize the new antimicrobial agents. A novel series of Schiff bases based on of 4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol scaffold was prepared by heating thiocarbohydrazide and substituted benzoic acid and subsequently, treating with substituted benzaldehydes. Seventeen derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of triazole showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum; and antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans fungi Aspergillus niger, nor against bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Strong antifungal effects were obtained for the synthesized compounds against M. gypseum and were superior or comparable to standard drug ketoconazole. Similarly, all of the synthesized compounds exhibit strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus and were superior or comparable to standard drug streptomycin. It was found that among the triazole derivatives so synthesized, six of them, showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole while one of them, showed antibacterial activity superior to streptomycin. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:26317080

  3. Spectroscopic studies and structure of 3-methoxy-2 -[(2,4,4,6,6-pentachloro-1,3,5,2{lambda}{sup 5},4{lambda}{sup 5},6{lambda}{sup 5}-triazatriphosphin-2-yl)oxy] benzaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Oezay, H.; Yildiz, M.; Uenver, H.; Durlu, T. N.

    2013-01-15

    The compound called 3-methoxy-2- [(2,4,4,6,6-pentachloro-1,3,5,2{lambda}{sup 5},4{lambda}{sup 5},6{lambda}{sup 5}-triazatriphosphin-2-yl)oxy] benzaldehyde has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde with hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene. It has been characterized by elemental analysis, MS, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 31}P NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic techniques. The structure of the title compound has been determind by X-ray analysis. Crystals are orthorhombic, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, Z = 4, a = 7.705(1), b = 12.624(1), c = 17.825(2) A, R{sub 1} = 0.0390 and wR{sub 2} = 0.1074 [I > 2{sigma}(I)], respectively.

  4. Improvement of in vivo anticancer and antiangiogenic potential of thalidomide derivatives.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Patrícia Marçal; da Costa, Marcilia Pinheiro; Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; Cavalcanti, Suellen Melo Tibúrcio; de Oliveira Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo; de Oliveira Filho, Gevânio Bezerra; de Araújo Viana, Daniel; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Claudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    The strategy of antiangiogenic drugs is based on inhibiting formation of new blood vessels as alternative to limit cancer progression. In this work, we investigated the antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of eight thalidomide derivatives. Most of the molecules was not cytotoxic but 2a, 2d and 3d revealed weak antiproliferative activity on HL-60, Sarcoma 180 (S180) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thalidomide, 2a and 2b were able to inhibit tumor growth (53.5%, 67.9% and 67.4%, respectively) in S180-bearing mice and presented moderate and reversible toxicity on liver, kidneys and spleens. Both analogs (2a and 2b) inhibited cell migration of endothelial (HUVEC) and melanoma cells (MDA/MB-435) at 50μg/mL. Immunohistochemistry labeling assays with CD-31 (PECAM-1) antibody showed microvascular density (MVD) was significantly reduced in thalidomide, 2a and 2b groups (30±4.9, 64.6±1.8 and 46.5±19.5%, respectively) (p<0.05). Neovascularization evaluated by Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay (CAM) with compounds 2a and 2b showed reduction of vessels' number (12. 9±2.3 and 14.8±3.3%), neovascularization area (13.1±1.7 and 14.3±1.7%) and total length of vessels (9.2±1.5 and 9.9±1.9%). On the other hand, thalidomide did not alter vascularization parameters. Consequently, addition of thiosemicarbazone pharmacophore group into the phthalimidic ring improved the in vivo antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of the analogs 2a and 2b. PMID:26134001

  5. Stereochemistry and spectroscopic analysis of bis-Betti base derivatives of 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mehdi; Shafiee, Mehdi; Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to study the stereochemistry, thermodynamic stability, and spectra of recently synthesized bis-Betti base derivatives of 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene obtained through multicomponent reactions of 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene with aminoisoxazole and benzaldehyde derivatives. The stereochemistry of the products was investigated by theoretically calculating the infrared (IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra of the diastereomers and comparing them to the corresponding experimental data. The thermochemical properties of the reactions, including the enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy, were also calculated. The diastereoselectivity of the reactions was estimated from the equilibrium distribution of diastereomers. According to the results, the synthesis of bis-Betti bases is exothermic and accompanied by a decrease in entropy. The energy difference between the diastereomers is quite small, but the Gibbs free energy change for the equilibrium syn [Formula: see text] anti favors the anti over syn configuration. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations. Graphical Abstract Calculated and experimental IR spectrum for bis-Betti base 2 (mixture of anti and syn configurations). PMID:26994020

  6. Identification and quantification of novel cranberry-derived plasma and urinary (poly)phenols.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Boeres, Albert; Massacessi, Luca; Istas, Geoffrey; Ventura, M Rita; Nunes Dos Santos, Cláudia; Heiss, Christian; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Cranberries are a rich source of (poly)phenols, in particular proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. However, little is known about their bioavailability in humans. We investigated the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols in plasma and urine of healthy young men after consumption of a cranberry juice (787 mg (poly)phenols). A total of 60 cranberry-derived phenolic metabolites were identified using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis with authentic standards. These included sulfates of pyrogallol, valerolactone, benzoic acids, phenylacetic acids, glucuronides of flavonols, as well as sulfates and glucuronides of cinnamic acids. The most abundant plasma metabolites were small phenolic compounds, in particular hippuric acid, catechol-O-sulfate, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, isoferulic acid, 4-methylcatechol-O-sulfate, α-hydroxyhippuric acid, ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate, benzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid 3-O-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-O-sulfate. Some benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and flavonol metabolites appeared in plasma early, at 1-2 h post-consumption. Others such as phenylacetic acids, benzaldehydes, pyrogallols, catechols, hippuric and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives appear in plasma later (Tmax 4-22 h). The 24 h urinary recovery with respect to the amount of (poly)phenols consumed was 6.2%. Our extensive description of the bioavailability of cranberry (poly)phenols lays important groundwork necessary to start understanding the fate of these compounds in humans. PMID:26836705

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro and In Vivo Screening of Unsymmetrical Borole Complexes of 2-Hydroxy-N-Phenylbenzamide and its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Taruna

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical aspects, synthesis and characterization of some boron complexes of 2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamide (HOPhBenz) and its semicarbazone (HOPhBenz.SCZH) and thiosemicarbazone (HOPhBenz.TSCZH) are described. These derivatives were prepared by the reactions of 2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane, and 2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane with 2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamide, 1-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-N-phenylamino]hydrazinecarboxamide (HOPhBenz.SCZH), and 1-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-N-phenylamino]hydrazinecarbothioamide(HOPhBenz.TSCZH) in a 1:1 molar ratio. In order to assess the increase of the inhibitor potency, (HOPhBenz), (HOPhBenz.SCZH), (HOPhBenz.TSCZH) and their boron complexes have been tested in vitro against a number of pathogenic fungi and bacteria at different concentrations and were found to possess remarkable fungicidal and bactericidal properties. The testicular sperm density, testicular sperm morphology, sperm motility, density of cauda epididymal spermatozoa and fertility in mating trials and biochemical parameters of reproductive organs are discussed. PMID:18475918

  8. X-ray and DFT calculated structures of 2-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethan-1-one N-phenylthiosemicarbazone and 2-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethan-1-one N-(4-chlorophenyl)thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Z. S.; Septioglu, E.; Calis, U.; Isik, S.

    2014-12-01

    Crystal and molecular structures of two new compounds 2-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethan-1-one N-phenylthiosemicarbazone, C22H19N5S, ( I) and 2-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethan-1-one N-(4-chlorophenyl)thiosemicarbazone, C22H18ClN5S, ( II) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Molecular geometries from X-ray experiment of I and II have been compared with those calculated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-31G( d, p) basis set. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/ c with Z = 4: a = 13.2880(5), 14.2648(3) Å, b = 9.4122(2), 9.3892(3) Å, c = 15.6341(6), 15.6268(4) Å, β = 101.779(3)°, 104.926(2)°, for I and II, respectively. An extensive two-dimensional network of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and π-ring interactions are responsible for crystal stabilization in both structures.

  9. ARIANE 5 light derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astorg, Jean-Marc

    1993-01-01

    The Ariane 5 light derivatives are studied in order to complete Ariane 5 launch services with regard to medium size Sun synchronous spacecrafts (S derivative) and small satellites (P derivative). The P derivative is a three stage launcher with two solid propellant motors and a bipropellant upper stage. It is capable of placing 1 ton in a 1000 km circular polar orbit or two 450 kg payloads in the same orbit. The light derivatives are mainly derived from the Ariane 5 solid propellant booster and upper stage. The payload volume is particulary large (2.8 m internal maximal diameter, 6 m height). The light derivatives will be launched from the Ariane spaceport in Guyana. They will use Ariane 5 facilities for payload preparation and launch operation with a specific building for launcher integration. The first flight of the P derivative is scheduled for 1998.

  10. Deriving Verbs in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, R. M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Phonological and semantic principles which underlie the derivation of verbs from nouns and adjectives in English are examined. There is intricate phonological conditioning for suffix "-ize" and for suffix "-(i)fy"; a third major process is zero derivation. These derivational processes cover more than a score of semantic relations (some with…

  11. Deriving Verbs in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, R. M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Phonological and semantic principles which underlie the derivation of verbs from nouns and adjectives in English are examined. There is intricate phonological conditioning for suffix "-ize" and for suffix "-(i)fy"; a third major process is zero derivation. These derivational processes cover more than a score of semantic relations (some with

  12. Coordination of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS: Crystal structure of cis-[Pd(HBTS)]Cl2 and 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)-thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Metal complexes of Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pd2+ or Pt2+ with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS; have been prepared and spectroscopically investigated. The empirical formulae of the complexes were suggested based on the elemental analysis. Single crystal of Pd(II) has been solved to be cis-form of square-planar geometry by the X-ray crystallography. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been recorded for HBTS, Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, in DMSO-d6, showing the mode of chelation. The ligand acts as a neutral or a binegative tetradentate (N2S2) or neutral bidentate on the basis of FT-IR. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra provide information about the geometry of the complexes which supported by calculating the ligand field parameters for the Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes. The Ni(II) complex has subnormal magnetic moment (0.71 BM) indicative of a mixed stereochemistry of square-planar and tetrahedral structure. [Cu(HBTS-2H)] measured 0.93 BM indicating high interaction between the copper centers. The ligand may be ordered at the top of the spectrochemical series which giving high ligand field splitting energy (10Dq = 17,900 cm-1 for Co2+ complex). The mass spectra of some complexes proved their stable chemical formulae while the TGA depicts the degradation steps and the final residue. In evaporating the mother liquor during the preparation of HBTS, new compound is obtained naming 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)thiourea and its crystal was solved.

  13. A new chitosan biopolymer derivative as metal-complexing agent: synthesis, characterization, and metal(II) ion adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Krishnapriya, K R; Kandaswamy, M

    2010-09-23

    In this study, a new chitosan biopolymer derivative (CTSL) has been synthesized by anchoring a new vanillin-based complexing agent or ligand, namely 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl] benzaldehyde, (L) with chitosan (CTS) by means of condensation. The new material was characterized by elemental (CHN), spectral (FTIR and solid state (13)C NMR), thermal (TG-DTA and DSC), structural (powder XRD), and morphological (SEM) analyses. The CTSL was employed to study the equilibrium adsorption of various metal ions, namely, Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), as functions of pH of the solutions. Its kinetics of adsorption was evaluated utilizing the pseudo first order and pseudo second order equation models and the equilibrium data were analyzed by Langmuir isotherm model. The CTSL shows good adsorption capacity for metal ions studied in the order Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cd(II)> or =Co> or =Mn(II)>Fe(II)>Pb(II) in all studied pH ranges due to the presence of many coordinating moieties present in it. PMID:20708730

  14. Endohedral Metallofullerene Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Harry C. (Inventor); Iezzi, Erick B. (Inventor); Duchamp, James (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives and their preparation are described. The trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives have the general formula A(sub 3-n)X(sub n)@C(sub m)(R) where n ranges from 0 to 3, A and X may be trivalent metals and may be either rare earth metal or group IIIB metals, m is between about 60 and about 200, and R is preferably an organic group. Derivatives where the R group forms cyclized derivatives with the fullerene cage are also described.

  15. Synthesis, photoisomerization properties and thermal bleaching kinetics of pyrazolones containing 3-cyanobenzal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Caiming; Abdurehman, Samat; Liu, Lang; Wu, Dongling; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhou, Rong

    2015-09-01

    Through the design of molecules and the modification of structures, ten novel pyrazolone derivatives containing 3-cyanobenzal have been synthesized. They are 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(3-cyanobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole thiosemicarbazone (1)/4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (2)/4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (3)/4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (4)/4-phenylsemicarbazone (5) and 1,3-diphenyl-4-(3-cyanobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole thiosemicarbazone (6)/4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (7)/4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (8)/4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (9)/4-phenylsemicarbazone (10), in which seven compounds (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 and 10) have photoisomerization behaviors. Their structures, photoisomerization properties, and first-order kinetics were investigated. The results show that the compounds 2, 3, 7 and 8 exhibit irreversible photoisomerization behaviors, the other three compounds have reversible photoisomerization behaviors under 365 nm light irradiation and heat. But only 1,3-diphenyl-4-(3-cyanobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole 4-phenylsemicarbazone (10) exhibits good photochromic properties and fatigue resistance. Moreover, effects of various temperatures on the thermal bleaching reaction for 10 and substituent groups on the photochromic phenomenon are discussed.

  16. Synthesis, photoisomerization properties and thermal bleaching kinetics of pyrazolones containing 3-cyanobenzal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Caiming; Abdurehman, Samat; Liu, Lang; Wu, Dongling; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhou, Rong

    2015-09-01

    Through the design of molecules and the modification of structures, ten novel pyrazolone derivatives containing 3-cyanobenzal have been synthesized. They are 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(3-cyanobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole thiosemicarbazone (1)/4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (2)/4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (3)/4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (4)/4-phenylsemicarbazone (5) and 1,3-diphenyl-4-(3-cyanobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole thiosemicarbazone (6)/4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (7)/4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (8)/4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (9)/4-phenylsemicarbazone (10), in which seven compounds (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 and 10) have photoisomerization behaviors. Their structures, photoisomerization properties, and first-order kinetics were investigated. The results show that the compounds 2, 3, 7 and 8 exhibit irreversible photoisomerization behaviors, the other three compounds have reversible photoisomerization behaviors under 365nm light irradiation and heat. But only 1,3-diphenyl-4-(3-cyanobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole 4-phenylsemicarbazone (10) exhibits good photochromic properties and fatigue resistance. Moreover, effects of various temperatures on the thermal bleaching reaction for 10 and substituent groups on the photochromic phenomenon are discussed. PMID:25909906

  17. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  18. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of some hetero aromatic benzofurans derived from naturally occurring visnagin.

    PubMed

    El-Nakkady, Sally S; Roaiah, Hanaa F; El-Serwy, Weam S; Soliman, Abdel Mohsen; El-Moez, Sherein I Abd; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

    2012-01-01

    Bromination of visnaginone (1) yielded the dibromo derivative (2), which upon methylation with methyl iodide gave 1-(2,7-dibromo-4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-yl) ethanone (3). Compound (3) reacted with dimethylformamide dimethylacetal to give (4). The reaction of (3) with aromatic aldehydes namely (vanillin, benzaldehyde and 3-anisaldehyde) in ammonium acetate, malononitrile and/or butyric cyanoanhydride gave the 2-amino substituted nicotinonitriles (5a-c) and the 2-hydroxyl substituted nicotinonitriles (7a-c), respectively, while in piperidine gave (E)-1-(2,7-dibromo-4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-yl)-3-(substituted)prop-2-en-l-one (11a-c). (5a) was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid on cold to give the nicotinic acid derivative (6a). When compound (3) reacted with hydrazines and aromatic amines, it gave the Schiff bases (8a,b) and (10a,b), respectively. (8b) reacted with thioglycolic acid to give the thiazolidin-4-one (9b). When (11a-c) reacted with thiourea, it gave the pyrimidine derivatives (12a-c). (11a,b) also reacted with butyric cyanoanhydride and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give (13a,b) and (15a,b), respectively. When the carboxylate (13a) was treated with 2,4-dinitroaniline, it gave the carboxamide (14a). Compounds (11b,c) reacted with hydrazine derivatives (hydrazine hydrate and phenylhydrazine) yielding the substituted pyrazole derivatives (16b,c) and (17b,c), respectively. All the structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses and spectral data. The newly synthesized benzofuran compounds showed a strong to moderate cytotoxicity against liver HEPG2 cancer cell line compared to 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin (the anticancer agents). Compounds (2, 6a, 13a, 14a, 16c and 17b) were the most active compounds in descending order. The synthesized compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Compound (10b) showed the highest activity against all the tested strains followed by 6, 10a, 5a, 8b and 7a in descending order. PMID:22876607

  19. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of some hetero aromatic benzofurans derived from naturally occurring visnagin.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    El-Nakkady SS; Roaiah HF; El-Serwy WS; Soliman AM; El-Moez SI; Abdel-Rahman AA

    2012-07-01

    Bromination of visnaginone (1) yielded the dibromo derivative (2), which upon methylation with methyl iodide gave 1-(2,7-dibromo-4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-yl) ethanone (3). Compound (3) reacted with dimethylformamide dimethylacetal to give (4). The reaction of (3) with aromatic aldehydes namely (vanillin, benzaldehyde and 3-anisaldehyde) in ammonium acetate, malononitrile and/or butyric cyanoanhydride gave the 2-amino substituted nicotinonitriles (5a-c) and the 2-hydroxyl substituted nicotinonitriles (7a-c), respectively, while in piperidine gave (E)-1-(2,7-dibromo-4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-yl)-3-(substituted)prop-2-en-l-one (11a-c). (5a) was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid on cold to give the nicotinic acid derivative (6a). When compound (3) reacted with hydrazines and aromatic amines, it gave the Schiff bases (8a,b) and (10a,b), respectively. (8b) reacted with thioglycolic acid to give the thiazolidin-4-one (9b). When (11a-c) reacted with thiourea, it gave the pyrimidine derivatives (12a-c). (11a,b) also reacted with butyric cyanoanhydride and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give (13a,b) and (15a,b), respectively. When the carboxylate (13a) was treated with 2,4-dinitroaniline, it gave the carboxamide (14a). Compounds (11b,c) reacted with hydrazine derivatives (hydrazine hydrate and phenylhydrazine) yielding the substituted pyrazole derivatives (16b,c) and (17b,c), respectively. All the structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses and spectral data. The newly synthesized benzofuran compounds showed a strong to moderate cytotoxicity against liver HEPG2 cancer cell line compared to 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin (the anticancer agents). Compounds (2, 6a, 13a, 14a, 16c and 17b) were the most active compounds in descending order. The synthesized compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Compound (10b) showed the highest activity against all the tested strains followed by 6, 10a, 5a, 8b and 7a in descending order.

  20. The azobenzene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Ionica; Radulescu, Cristiana; Poinescu, Aurora Anca; Anghelina, Florina Violeta; Bunghez, Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.

  1. Teaching Cournot without Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Presents a simple technique for teaching the Cournot model to first-year microeconomic students. Involves demonstrating, without the use of derivatives, that out of all rectangles with a common perimeter, the square has the greatest area. (RLH)

  2. 2,3-Dimeth­oxy­benzaldehyde azine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Qamar; Anis, Itrat; Raza Shah, M.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    There are one-and-a-half independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H20N2O4. One mol­ecule is centrosymmetric with the mid-point of the N—N bond located on a center of inversion. In the other, which lies on a general position, the benzene rings are aligned at 21.6 (1)°. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal strcture. PMID:21523179

  3. Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.

  4. Open-path Emission Factors Derived from DOAS and FTIR Measurements in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, E.; Grutter, M.; Galle, B.; Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Knighton, B.; Jobson, B. T.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Mobile sources are responsible for about 50% of VOC (volatile organic compounds) and about 70% of NOx emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). A novel approach has been developed to derive emission factors for mobile sources that are representative of the overall vehicle fleet, using collocated open-path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements. Measurements were recorded at two sites within the MCMA: (1) research-grade DOAS and FTIR systems were operated at the Mexican National Research and Training Center (CENICA) in Iztapalapa, (2) a research grade FTIR was operated at La Merced. In addition, point-sampling with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was performed on the same location and the calibration standards for the PTR-MS and the DOAS instruments were cross-calibrated. The DOAS measured speciated aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene (and mono-substituted alkylbenzenes), benzaldehyde, phenol, and p-cresol. The DOAS detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in the UV/vis spectral range between 250 to 310 nm suffers from the interference of molecular oxygen, and a novel approach is being presented that enables measurement of absolute concentrations of the above species. Further, HONO, NO2, SO2 and HCHO were measured at longer wavelengths. In combination with FTIR measurements of CO, CO2, NO, HCHO, ethylene, ethene, and total alkane, average emission factors for NOx, SO2 and numerous hydrocarbons were derived and scaled with fuel sales data to estimate total emissions of the vehicle fleet in the MCMA. The advantages and limitations of this low-cost emission inventory for mobile sources are decsribed.

  5. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... alternatives. \\5\\ 71 FR 5155 (February 2, 2012). C. 1998 IRPS This proposed rule is consistent with a 1998... promulgation of this proposed rule. \\7\\ 76 FR 37030 (June 24, 2011). First, the Board asked if it should... derivatives transactions independently. \\9\\ 77 FR 5416 (Feb. 3, 2012). Question One. The Board asked if...

  6. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  7. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  8. Ferroelectricity in corundum derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Meng; Vanderbilt, David

    2016-04-01

    The search for new ferroelectric (FE) materials holds promise for broadening our understanding of FE mechanisms and extending the range of application of FE materials. Here we investigate a class of A B O3 and A2B B'O6 materials that can be derived from the X2O3 corundum structure by mixing two or three ordered cations on the X site. Most such corundum derivatives have a polar structure, but it is unclear whether the polarization is reversible, which is a requirement for a FE material. In this paper, we propose a method to study the FE reversal path of materials in the corundum derivative family. We first categorize the corundum derivatives into four classes and show that only two of these allow for the possibility of FE reversal. We then calculate the energy profile and energy barrier of the FE reversal path using first-principles density functional methods with a structural constraint. Furthermore, we identify several empirical measures that can provide a rule of thumb for estimating the energy barriers. Finally, the conditions under which the magnetic ordering is compatible with ferroelectricity are determined. These results lead us to predict several potentially new FE materials.

  9. Synthesis and antiamoebic activity of new 1-N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-3,5-diphenyl-2-pyrazoline derivatives and their Pd(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Budakoti, Asha; Abid, Mohammad; Azam, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Some 1-N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-3,5-diphenyl-2-pyrazoline derivatives (L), 1-8 were synthesized by a base-catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt condensation of benzaldehyde with acetophenone followed by cyclization with various N-4 substituted thiosemicarbazides. The palladium(II) complexes [PdLCl2], 1a-8a of these ligands were obtained by reacting them with [Pd(DMSO)2Cl2]. All compounds have been characterized by means of elemental analyses, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic data, while the complexes have additionally been characterized by thermogravimetric patterns. The in vitro antiamoebic activity was evaluated against the HM1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica and the results were compared with the standard drug, metronidazole. The preliminary test results showed that the complexes had better antiamoebic activity than their respective ligands. Moreover, the complexes showed better inhibition of the test organism. The results suggest that the ligands 4, 7 and the complexes 2a-4a, 6a-8a were found with IC50 lower than that of the standard drug metronidazole and thus are better inhibitor of growth of E. histolytica. PMID:16300860

  10. Insulin-derived amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Singla, Gaurav; Singla, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the term for diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble polymeric protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare, yet significant complication of insulin therapy. Insulin-derived amyloidosis at injection site can cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin dose requirements because of the impairment in insulin absorption, which reverse on change of injection site and/or excision of the mass. This entity should be considered and assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, in patients with firm/hard local site reactions, which do not regress after cessation of insulin injection at the affected site. Search strategy: PubMed was searched with terms insulin amyloidosis. Full text of articles available in English was reviewed. Relevant cross references were also reviewed. Last search was made on October 15, 2014. PMID:25593849

  11. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect

    Henriquez, B.

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  12. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  13. [Azoles. 18. Sulfonylindazole derivatives].

    PubMed

    Dudzińska-Usarewicz, J; Wrzeciono, U; Frankiewicz, A; Linkowska, E; Köhler, T; Nuhn, P

    1988-09-01

    The nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen to synthesize the sulphonyl indazole derivatives 9-16 is described. The structures of the substitution products are discussed using H-NMR spectra. Chemical structural proof was given by steric hindrance observed in the process of chorination of 9-16. The compounds 3, 4, 7, 8, 14, and 16 are studied to find an inhibition on phospholipase-A2 and lipoxygenase-I. PMID:3149748

  14. Distinct mechanisms of cell-kill by triapine and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT due to a loss or gain of activity of their copper(II) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Kimiko; Lin, Z. Ping; Penketh, Philip G.; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Zhu, Rui; Baumann, Raymond P.; Zhu, Yong-Lian; Sartorelli, Alan C.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Ratner, Elena S.

    2014-01-01

    Triapine, currently being evaluated as an antitumor agent in phase II clinical trials, and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT share the α-pyridyl thiosemicarbazone backbone that functions as ligands for transition metal ions. Yet, Dp44mT is approximately 100-fold more potent than triapine in cytotoxicity assays. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their potency disparity and to determine their kinetics of cell-kill in culture to aid in the formulation of their clinical dosing schedules. The addition of Cu2+ inactivated triapine in a 1:1 stoichiometric fashion, while it potentiated the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT. Clonogenic assays after finite-time drug-exposure revealed that triapine produced cell-kill in two phases, one completed within 20 min that caused limited cell-kill, and the other occurring after 16 h of exposure that produced extensive cell-kill. The ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor triapine at 0.4 µM caused immediate complete arrest of DNA synthesis, whereas Dp44mT at this concentration did not appreciably inhibit DNA synthesis. The inhibition of DNA synthesis by triapine was reversible upon its removal from the medium. Cell death after 16 h exposure to triapine paralleled the appearance of phospho-(γ)H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks induced by collapse of DNA replication forks after prolonged replication arrest. In contrast to triapine, Dp44mT produced robust cell-kill within 1 h in a concentration-dependent manner. The short-term action of both agents was prevented by thiols, indicative of the involvement of reactive oxygen species. The time dependency in the production of cell-kill by triapine should be considered in treatment regimens. PMID:25130544

  15. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  16. In defense of derivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenases from Scheffersomyces stipitis involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Menggen; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Xianxian

    2013-09-01

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are generated from biomass pretreatment. Scheffersomyces stipitis is able to reduce furfural and HMF to less toxic furanmethanol and furan-2,5-dimethanol; however, the enzymes involved in the reductive reaction still remain unknown. In this study, transcription responses of two known and five putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from S. stipitis were analyzed under furfural and HMF stress conditions. All the seven alcohol dehydrogenase genes were also cloned and overexpressed for their activity analyses. Our results indicate that transcriptions of SsADH4 and SsADH6 were highly induced under furfural and HMF stress conditions, and the proteins encoded by them exhibited NADH- and/or NADPH-dependent activities for furfural and HMF reduction, respectively. For furfural reduction, NADH-dependent activity was also observed in SsAdh1p and NAD(P)H-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. For HMF reduction, NADPH-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. SsAdh4p displayed the highest NADPH-dependent specific activity and catalytic efficiency for reduction of both furfural and HMF among the seven alcohol dehydrogenases. Enzyme activities of all SsADH proteins were more stable under acidic condition. For most SsADH proteins, the optimum temperature for enzyme activities was 30 °C and more than 50 % enzyme activities remained at 60 °C. Reduction activities of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde were also observed in some SsADH proteins. Our results indicate that multiple alcohol dehydrogenases in S. stipitis are involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:23912116

  18. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives. PMID:7614221

  19. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  20. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  1. Radioiodinated estrogen derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mazaitis, J.K.; Gibson, R.E.; Komai, T.; Eckelman, W.C.; Francis, B.; Reba, R.C.

    1980-02-01

    Monoiodohexestrol exhibits 10 to 15% specific binding to the 8S estrogen receptor while the remainder binds to nonreceptor 4S proteins. Reduction of nonreceptor binding with either thyroxine or 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid was not quantitative. Thus no accurate determination of the concentration of receptor sites in the radioreceptor assay was possible by graphical analysis. Two additional estrogens-17..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)iodoethynylestradiol and 17..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)iodoethynyl-11..beta..-methoxy estradiol - were synthesized at high specific activity. Although the iodoethynyl derivatives were stable under synthetic conditions, deiodination in the presence of proteins is too fast to allow either in vivo or in vitro use. To make these compounds clinically useful, therefore, chemical modification to reduce nonreceptor binding and the rate of dehalogenation must be undertaken.

  2. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  3. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  4. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  5. Weyl quantization of fractional derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-10-15

    The quantum analogs of the derivatives with respect to coordinates q{sub k} and momenta p{sub k} are commutators with operators P{sub k} and Q{sub k}. We consider quantum analogs of fractional Riemann-Liouville and Liouville derivatives. To obtain the quantum analogs of fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives, which are defined on a finite interval of the real axis, we use a representation of these derivatives for analytic functions. To define a quantum analog of the fractional Liouville derivative, which is defined on the real axis, we can use the representation of the Weyl quantization by the Fourier transformation.

  6. Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konířová, R.; Ernestová, M.; Jedináková-Křížová, V.; Král, V.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive labelling of guanidine-bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy—texaphyrin with selected radionuclides (166Ho and 90Y) is described. A basic characterisation of studied porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour in a wide range of pH values and data on holmium and yttrium complexation with these compounds was probed using UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The labelling yield of these macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal: ligand ratio and time of incubation. Optimal reaction conditions for formation of porphyrin and texaphyrin radioactive complexes were determined by thin layer chromatography with the detection of β- activity. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was examined as well. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4 -) because radiopharmaceuticals labelled with isotopes 186Re and 188Re play an important role in therapy of numerous tumour diseases. The possibility of applying ReO4 - anion directly for labelling purposes, without the necessity of its reduction to lower oxidation state, was not proved.

  7. DRS: Derivational Reasoning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bhaskar

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability requirements for airborne systems requires fault-tolerant architectures to address failures in the presence of physical faults, and the elimination of design flaws during the specification and validation phase of the design cycle. Although much progress has been made in developing methods to address physical faults, design flaws remain a serious problem. Formal methods provides a mathematical basis for removing design flaws from digital systems. DRS (Derivational Reasoning System) is a formal design tool based on advanced research in mathematical modeling and formal synthesis. The system implements a basic design algebra for synthesizing digital circuit descriptions from high level functional specifications. DRS incorporates an executable specification language, a set of correctness preserving transformations, verification interface, and a logic synthesis interface, making it a powerful tool for realizing hardware from abstract specifications. DRS integrates recent advances in transformational reasoning, automated theorem proving and high-level CAD synthesis systems in order to provide enhanced reliability in designs with reduced time and cost.

  8. Vaccine-derived polioviruses.

    PubMed

    Burns, Cara C; Diop, Ousmane M; Sutter, Roland W; Kew, Olen M

    2014-11-01

    The attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has many properties favoring its use in polio eradication: ease of administration, efficient induction of intestinal immunity, induction of durable humoral immunity, and low cost. Despite these advantages, OPV has the disadvantage of genetic instability, resulting in rare and sporadic cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Whereas VAPP is an adverse event following exposure to OPV, VDPVs are polioviruses whose genetic properties indicate prolonged replication or transmission. Three categories of VDPVs are recognized: (1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks in settings of low OPV coverage, (2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and (3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be definitively assigned to either of the first 2 categories. Because most VDPVs are type 2, the World Health Organization's plans call for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV containing poliovirus types 1 and 3. PMID:25316847

  9. Synthesis of 2-carbethoxybenzofuran derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Prewysz-Kwinto, A.

    1987-12-01

    A mixture of 3-formyl and 3-acetoxymethyl derivatives is formed in the oxidation of 2-carbethoxy-3-methyl-7-ethylbenzofuran with selenium dioxide. Reduction with lithium aluminum hydride gives 2,3-dihydroxymethyl derivatives, which are converted to 2,3-diformyl derivatives by successive oxidation. A number of derivatives of 3-methyl-7-ethylbenzofurancarboxylic acid were obtained. The PMR spectra of solutions of the compounds in CDCl/sub 3/ were recorded with a Tesla B-487 spectrometer (80 Hz) with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) as the internal standard. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were obtained with a UR-10 spectrometer.

  10. Biomolecule derived nanostructured arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen

    During the last decade, intensive research have been reported on biomimetic approaches towards achieving mono-dispersed nanoparticles, and building self-assembled system out of those (organizing nanoparticles). However the development of this research avenue is being hindered by the limited knowledge and very few practical, efficient, cost-effective approaches for implementation of the bio-derived arrays into engineering practice. The objective of this work is to biomimeticaly form nanocomposite materials using a simple, rapid, inexpensive, scalable approach, which is general enough and not limited to colloidal particle self-assembly. Throughout the studies, we have developed a universally applicable process, which is to fabricate macro-biomolecular arrays on solid substrates based on the convective self-assembly of colloidal particles. We have demonstrated that protein (ferritin) and virus (phage) arrays were directly deposited onto solid substrates such as glass, silicon wafer, and gold substrate in closed or near closed-packed order. The arrays were further incorporated into a more robust silica matrix, in such that strengthens the thermal stability and provides porous accessibility. After treatment in controlled pyrolysis, the organic protein shell was removed, left mono-dispersed iron-oxide nanoparticles intact on the substrate or in the silica matrix. Both iron-oxide nanoparticles arrays with or without silica matrix have been further characterized to possess superferromagnetic properties at low temperature (15 K), same as that in bulk material. Initial work on protein patterning, through combining either lithography based top-down or bottom-up techniques with our novel deposition approach, was presented as well. Thin film deposition of mesoporous materials using convective self-assembly is another main part in this work. Both silica and carbon mesoporous thin films were successfully formed using the convective self-assembly horizontal-coating approach. We have shown that ultra thin mesoporous film (less than 100 nm) could be obtained through increasing the coating speed with the solution concentration remained same. Combining with lithographically patterned surface, the mesoporous thin films will be well suited for applications for bio-sensing, separations and etc. Studies were also carried out on the transport of fluid and electric current in fluidic channels with size in nanometer range; particular attention was paid on the effect of the electrolyte valence. At these dimensions new physical phenomena begin to occur because the electric double layers formed at the channel walls become comparable to the channel width and the overall wall surface to channel volume ratio increases. Numerical analysis predicts that the electrokinetic transport phenomena differ from multivalent ions to monovalent ions in the nanochannel when double layer overlap is large. This dependence affects the transport of current, fluid and dissolved analytes in a fluidic channel. The valence of the dissolved counterions determines the electric current and fluid flow in a nanochannel by shaping the electrostatic potential distribution. Our calculation shows that in absence of strong adsorption at the wall, divalent counterions lead to greater current and fluid flow than monovalent electrolyte for the same overall ionic strength. The results also indicate that control over the transport processes in fluidic nanochannels can be accomplished through properly selecting and combining electrolytes.

  11. Learning Discrete Mathematics with DERIVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagelgans, Nancy L.

    This study describes a discrete mathematics course for second year college students majoring in computer science or mathematics. Students worked in cooperative learning groups on challenging projects using the computer algebra programming language DERIVE. Results indicate that DERIVE allowed students to verify their conjectures, students generally…

  12. Thiamine phosphorylated derivatives and bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schoffeniels, E

    1983-09-01

    Kinetic as well as thermodynamic considerations favour the idea that the change in sodium conductance explaining the action potential, must result from a bimolecular reaction system. The fact that thiamine phosphorylated derivatives are associated with the specific protein forming the sodium channel could well mean that these thiamine derivatives and more specifically thiamine triphosphate are directly involved in the conductance change. PMID:6198993

  13. MCR Synthesis of Praziquantel Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Dömling, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction followed by the Pictet-Spengler reaction in a two-step, one-pot procedure. 30 Novel PZQ derivatives are described based on the Ugi 4-component reaction and an X-ray structure of a novel derivative revealing different conformation compared with PZQ is discussed. Several analogues comparable in activity to the drug PZQ have been identified based on an in vitro Schistosoma mansoni worm viability assay. PMID:22151001

  14. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

  15. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

  16. Synthesis of some 1,8-dioxoacridine carboxylic acid derivatives and the determination of their ionization constants in ethanol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygılı, Rukiye; Ulus, Ramazan; Yeşildağ, İbrahim; Kübra İnal, E.; Kaya, Muharrem; Murat Kalfa, O.; Zeybek, Bülent

    2015-03-01

    Four novel compounds of 1,8-dioxoacridine carboxylic acid derivatives (4-(3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-9-phenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid, 4-(9-(4-cyanophenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid, 4-(9-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid, 4-(9-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid) were prepared by the reaction of the 4-substitute benzaldehyde (hydrogen, hydroxyl, cyano, and 2,4-dichloro), 4-aminobenzoic acid, and 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione in the presence of p-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid. They were characterized by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS spectroscopic techniques. The stoichiometric ionization constants of these compounds were determined in ethanol-water mixtures of 50%, 60% and 70% ethanol (v/v) by potentiometric titration method and the ionization constants were calculated with three different ways. The effects of solvent composition and substituent groups on ionization constants of 1,8-dioxoacridine carboxylic acids were also discussed.

  17. Bioactive steroid derivatives and butyrolactone derivatives from a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Wang, Kai-Ling; Liu, Min; She, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-09-01

    Six steroid derivatives, 1-6, and five butyrolactone derivatives, 7-11, were isolated from the fermentation broth of a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data. Compound 1 is a new, highly conjugated steroid. The NMR and MS data of 7 and 8 are reported for the first time, as their structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. Compounds 1, 4, 5, and 8-11 inhibited the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 0.63 to 18.4 μg ml(-1) . Butyrolactone derivatives 7 and 8 showed pronounced antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus with the same MIC values as the positive control ciprofloxacin (MIC 1.56 μM for all three compounds). PMID:26363883

  18. [Antiprotozoal effects of benzodiazepine derivatives].

    PubMed

    Hegenscheid, B; Presber, H W

    1990-11-01

    It is known that some derivatives of the benzodiazepine group act not only as antipsychotic drugs but also have inhibitory effects on the growth of protozoa. The influence of imipramine and its derivatives clomipramine and desipramine on the multiplication of Crithidia luciliae, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis was investigated using in vitro cultivation of the parasites and compared with the effects of chlorpromazine and metronidazole. All trypanosomatides used were inhibited by imipramine and its derivatives with clomipramine having the strongest influence on the growth of parasites (ID50 12.5-35 micrograms/ml). The Trichomonas vaginalis strain used was susceptible to metronidazole but it was nearly resistant to the tricyclic compounds tested (ID50 greater than 100 micrograms/ml). PMID:2085212

  19. Drugs derived from phage display

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Andrew E; Sexton, Daniel J; Ladner, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Phage display, one of today’s fundamental drug discovery technologies, allows identification of a broad range of biological drugs, including peptides, antibodies and other proteins, with the ability to tailor critical characteristics such as potency, specificity and cross-species binding. Further, unlike in vivo technologies, generating phage display-derived antibodies is not restricted by immunological tolerance. Although more than 20 phage display-derived antibody and peptides are currently in late-stage clinical trials or approved, there is little literature addressing the specific challenges and successes in the clinical development of phage-derived drugs. This review uses case studies, from candidate identification through clinical development, to illustrate the utility of phage display as a drug discovery tool, and offers a perspective for future developments of phage display technology. PMID:24262785

  20. Antiviral activity of indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Michele; Balbi, Alessandro; Mazzei, Mauro; La Colla, Paolo; Ibba, Cristina; Loddo, Roberta

    2009-08-01

    Unsymmetrical methylene derivatives 5 were prepared following a known method, by reaction of the Mannich bases of 2-naphthols 4 with indoles. All synthesized compounds were tested against a wide panel of viruses, since previous work showed that Mannich bases on 7-hydroxycoumarin 1 and unsymmetrical methylene derivatives 2 were endowed with some antiviral activities. The symmetrical Mannich bases 4 were completely inactive, whereas the unsymmetrical methylene derivatives 5, although possessing a certain degree of toxicity, showed a significant activity against RSV. Some of compounds 5 showed a moderate antiviral activity against HIV-1, BVDV, YFV and CVB-2. The lack of activity of Mannich bases 4 demonstrates the crucial importance for antiviral activity of coumarin moiety present in Mannich bases 1. PMID:19445965

  1. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  2. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  3. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 12th grade 70 students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  4. 12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352... Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract... common types of financial derivatives are futures, forward commitments, options, and swaps. A...

  5. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  6. Synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Zemlyanoi, V.N.; Aleksandrov, A.M.; Kukhar', V.P.

    1986-05-20

    The authors describe the synthesis and properties of 2-phosphadamantane derivatives. For the synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives they decided to use the methodology of the synthesis of 2-thiaadamantane. The IR spectra were determined on CHCl/sub 3/ solutions with a Specord 711R spectrometer, the PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-467 (60 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (200 MHz) spectrometers, external standard hexamethyldisiloxane, the /sup 31/P NMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487 C (30 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (81 MHz) spectrometers, external standard 85% phosphoric acid, and the mass spectra were determined on an MS-1302 spectrometer.

  7. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

  8. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Myles A.; Morris, Robert S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  9. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  10. Derivations of Some Trigonometric Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Steven H.

    1976-01-01

    The method involving properties of complex numbers and polar coordinates is used in deriving the formulas for the sine of the sum of two angles, the tangent of the difference of two angles, and the sine of the double angle. (DT)

  11. Shuttle derived manned transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Shuttle derivatives have been under study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for a number of years. With Space Station Freedom and the Lunar/Mars Initiative established as national objectives, the demand for access to earth orbit is accelerating. These objectives have resulted in efforts to address additional launch requirements that must be met as the turn of the century approaches. Among the top level requirements are increased safety, higher reliability, lower cost, and the need for heavy lift launch capability. To satisfy these requirements, some of the largest technology demands will be placed upon the propulsion systems. Shuttle derived manned concepts are presented and the associated propulsion issues which arise from the top level requirements are discussed. These concepts are presented in terms of an overall architecture which can be achieved with modest up-front development.

  12. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xian; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  13. Position Estimation Using Image Derivative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortari, Daniele; deDilectis, Francesco; Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an image processing algorithm to process Moon and/or Earth images. The theory presented is based on the fact that Moon hard edge points are characterized by the highest values of the image derivative. Outliers are eliminated by two sequential filters. Moon center and radius are then estimated by nonlinear least-squares using circular sigmoid functions. The proposed image processing has been applied and validated using real and synthetic Moon images.

  14. Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.

  15. 12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of directors' responsibilities with respect to financial... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352... Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial...

  16. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or...

  17. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

  18. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

  19. 12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or...

  20. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or...

  1. 12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

  2. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or more..., forward commitments, options, and swaps. A mortgage derivative security, such as a collateralized...

  3. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  4. Derivation of Jurin's law revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel; Tirado Miranda, María

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also stabilizes. Both descriptions evidently coincide although they are based on different physical quantities. Most undergraduate textbooks do not mention why these two routes draw two identical results; besides, the proofs become conceptually incorrect. We review the underlying ideas in Jurin's law and the two possible derivations.

  5. Phenolic Derivatives from Hypericum japonicum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoyong; Zhou, Min; Ye, Qi; Mi, Jun; Fang, Dongmei; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2015-12-01

    Three new acylphloroglucinol glycosides, hypericumols A - C, together with fifteen known phenolic derivatives, were isolated from the total phenolic extract of Hypericum japonicum. Hypericumols A, B, and C were characterized as 4,6-dimethyl-2-methylpropanoylphloroglucinol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 4-methyl-2-methylpropanoylphloroglucinol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (2'S)-4,6-dimethyl-2-methylbutyrylphloroglucinol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical degradation reaction. PMID:26882677

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Electron localization in polyaniline derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.H.; Javadi, H.H.S. ); Ray, A.; MacDiarmid, A.G. ); Epstein, A.J. Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH )

    1990-09-15

    Electron localization in the methyl-ring-substituted derivative of polyaniline (PAN), poly({ital o}-toluidine) (POT), has been investigated by transport and magnetic measurements. The HCl salt of POT shows greater electron localization than that of PAN due to decreased interchain diffusion rate caused by increased interchain separation and decreased interchain coherence. Each of these is attributed to the addition of one CH{sub 3} to each C{sub 5} ring. The general implications for control of dimensionality and conductivity are discussed.

  8. Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Kolionis, Georgios; Tsokaros, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.

  9. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  10. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  11. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  12. [Pharmacokinetic properties of platinium derivatives].

    PubMed

    Boisdron-Celle, M; Lebouil, A; Allain, P; Gamelin, E

    2001-08-01

    The three platinum derivatives currently available share many pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) properties but present also some distinct characteristics, due to their structural differences. They result in different systemic PK-PD and metabolic behaviour and toxicity profile. Oxaliplatin is quickly transformed into dach-platinum, the active metabolite, by loosing oxalate chain. Eighty to eighty-eight per cent of platinum are bound to proteins, as for cisplatin, whereas carboplatin is less reactive. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin active metabolites, i.e. monoaquo platin and dach-platin quickly react with small proteins with sulfhydryl groups, such as glutathione, cysteine and methionine, and then with high molecular weight proteins, such as albumin and gammaglobulins through covalent link. Thus, their terminal half lives are long, about ten days, but no platinum accumulation has been reported in plasma with oxaliplatin, whereas after cisplatin administration, both total and ultrafiltrable platinum progressively accumulate in plasma. This difference may play a role in the lack of oxaliplatin nephrotoxicity and its more delayed and reversible neurotoxicity. On the other hand, carboplatin is more stable, less bound to proteins and is largely excreted inchanged in urine. This can explain that it passes more easily through the blood brain barrier. Erythrocytes represent an important deep compartment, especially for oxaliplatin, a little bit less for cisplatin. Oxaliplatin is trapped in erythrocytes through a covalent binding to globin. There, its half life is identical to that of erythrocytes. According to certain authors, this trapping would be involved in the incidence of anemia. On the contrary, carboplatin is quickly extruded from erythrocytes. The three derivatives kinetics in plasma present a wide interindividual variability, resulting in differences in term of toxicity and efficacy. For the three of them, plasma clearance is correlated to creatinine clearance, but only carboplatin dosage can be individually adjusted, based on creatinine clearance measurement, thanks to its simple renal excretion, due to exclusive glomerular filtration, and after Calvert's, Egorin's and Chatelut's population kinetics studies. Cisplatin renal excretion is more complex, combining reabsorption and secretion processes. Therefore, individual dosage adjustment needs platinum concentration measurement in plasma, but there is no general agreement on the platinum species to measure, ultrafiltrable or bound. Oxaliplatin is too recent in clinical practice and still lacks of PK-PD data. These characteristics can help us for a better knowledge of the three platinum derivatives clinical properties, both in term of kinetics, behaviour and toxicity. PMID:11567909

  13. Paleovirology and virally derived immunity.

    PubMed

    Aswad, Amr; Katzourakis, Aris

    2012-11-01

    Paleovirology, the study of viruses on evolutionary timescales, can exploit information from endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from viruses to hosts. The availability of genomic data has increased opportunities to study EVEs, and bioinformatics techniques have been crucial in cataloguing EVE diversity and taxonomic coverage. Recent advances show that some EVEs have been co-opted as cellular genes, often as inhibitors of viral infection. These genes are an intriguing strategy in virus-host evolutionary battles in that genetic material is transferred from virus to host, and then used by the host against the virus. In this review, we consider the genes and processes involved in EVE-derived immunity (EDI), assess factors leading to its emergence, and outline how future work will benefit from incorporating evolutionary approaches. PMID:22901901

  14. Derivatives of Black Knight Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N.; Wright, D.

    This paper traces the line of descent from Black Knight to Black Arrow, and at the same time looks at various proposed projects, both civil and military, which were to be Black Knight derivatives, but which for one reason or another never saw the light of day. Research in this area is rather akin to anthropological work, tracing fossils from Homo erectus (Black Knight) to Homo sapiens (Black Arrow), knowing that a lot of the fossils found will not be on the direct line of descent, but represent branches that became extinct. This article attempts to cover designs, which, although they never made it to hardware, are none the less interesting technically, or shine light on the evolution of design philosophy.

  15. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  16. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.

  17. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic...

  19. Complex order fractional derivatives in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanacković, Teodor M.; Konjik, Sanja; Pilipović, Stevan; Zorica, Dušan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce complex order fractional derivatives in models that describe viscoelastic materials. This cannot be carried out unrestrictedly, and therefore we derive, for the first time, real valued compatibility constraints, as well as physical constraints that lead to acceptable models. As a result, we introduce a new form of complex order fractional derivative. Also, we consider a fractional differential equation with complex derivatives, and study its solvability. Results obtained for stress relaxation and creep are illustrated by several numerical examples.

  20. hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Sui, Lina; Liu, Guang-Hui; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Successful derivation of pancreatic progenitors from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro and further differentiation towards functional β cells in vivo may create the possibility of using hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors (PPs), instead of derived β cells, as an alternative transplantable source in β cell replacement therapy. Here we discuss present approaches, as well as future alternatives, in the fields of basic and clinic research on β cell differentiation, derivation and transplantation. PMID:23381137

  1. Stability derivatives of cones at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murry; Wehrend, William R

    1956-01-01

    The aerodynamic stability derivatives due to pitching velocity and vertical acceleration are derived for circular cones traveling at supersonic speeds. Both first-order and a combination of first and second order potential solutions are obtained, and in calculations for the forces, no approximations are made to the tangency condition or the isentropic pressure relation. In addition, expressions for the forces, moments, and stability derivatives of arbitrary bodies of revolution are derived from Newtonian impact theory.

  2. 12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... involving a financial derivative, you should do so to reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of... on implementing a sound risk management program. (e) What records must I keep on financial derivative... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section...

  3. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    PubMed

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644

  4. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively... § 2001.20 and § 2001.21, except as provided in this section. Information for these markings shall...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively... § 2001.20 and § 2001.21, except as provided in this section. Information for these markings shall...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658... Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

  12. Improved Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2007-01-01

    In this note, a modified Second Derivative Test is introduced for the relative extrema of a single variable function. This improved test overcomes the difficulty of the second derivative vanishing at the critical point, while in contrast the traditional test fails for this case. A proof for this improved Second Derivative Test is presented,…

  13. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Elissawy, Ahmed M.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S.; Singab, AbdelNasser B.; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644

  14. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  15. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  1. Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.

  2. Massive Higher Derivative Gravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullu, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis massive higher derivative gravity theories are analyzed in some detail. One-particle scattering amplitude between two covariantly conserved sources mediated by a graviton exchange is found at tree-level in D dimensional (Anti)-de Sitter and flat spacetimes for the most general quadratic curvature theory augmented with the Pauli-Fierz mass term. From the amplitude expression, the Newtonian potential energies are calculated for various cases. Also, from this amplitude and the propagator structure, a three dimensional unitary theory is identified. In the second part of the thesis, the found three dimensional unitary theory is studied in more detail from a canonical point of view. The general higher order action is written in terms of gauge-invariant functions both in flat and de Sitter backgrounds. The analysis is extended by adding static sources, spinning masses and the gravitational Chern-Simons term separately to the theory in the case of flat spacetime. For all cases the microscopic spectrum and the masses are found. In the discussion of curved spacetime, the masses are found in the relativistic and non-relativistic limits. In the Appendix, some useful calculations that are frequently used in the bulk of the thesis are given.

  3. Animal-derived pharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Redwan, el-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Livestock animals have made a significant contribution to human health and well-being throughout humankind's history. A significant contribution of farm animals to human health are the longstanding use of bovine and porcine for production of insulin (for treatment of diabetes), gelatin (for pharmaceutical and other purposes), as well as horse and sheep antibody against natural venoms, toxins, drugs and microbial peptides. Gelatin being the biggest animal protein consumed in human health, follows with antibodies fragments. The chronic problem of animal-derived therapeutics, especially those of high molecular weight, is the immunogenicity induction in addition to their biosafety. However, the invertebrates and lower vertebrates donate the human being a several crucial emergency saving life small-peptides or their analogs such as Refludan, Prialt, Exendin. Not only, but the farm animals are enormously using as models for novel surgical strategies, testing of biodegradable implants and sources of tissue replacements, such as skin and heart valves. Recently, they are being harnessing as bioreactor for production of biopharmaceutical related products through gene farming with efficiency far greater than any conventional microbial or cell-culture production systems. Only 16 transgenic cows would be covering the worldwide needs from human growth hormone. The transgenic, especially animal, technology would be solving a several biopharmaceutical products disadvantages, such as cost, biosafety, immunogenicity and the availability dimensions. PMID:19591041

  4. Eburnamine derivatives and the brain.

    PubMed

    Vas, Adám; Gulyás, Balázs

    2005-11-01

    The Apocynaceae plant family contains a great number of so called eburnamine-vincamine alkaloids. Quite a few of these alkaloids exert varied pharmacological activities on the cell multiplication, cardiovascular system, and brain functions. Many derivatives were also synthesized to find pharmacologically active compounds better characterized and safer to be administered than the natural plant alkaloids themselves. We concentrate on the eburnamine structures with cerebral activities in this review. Vincamine, vinburnine, vindeburnol, apovincaminate, and vinpocetine (cis-ethyl-apovincaminate) all share modulatory effects on brain circulation and neuronal homeostasis, bear antihypoxic and neuroprotective potencies to various degrees. The most eminent compound of this class of alkaloids is vinpocetine. Since its introduction to the market as a neuroprotective agent many non clinical and clinical studies proved vinpocetine's effects on calmodulin dependent phosphodiesterase E1, on sodium, calcium channels, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, and glutamate receptors as well as its clinical usefulness in the treatment of post-ischaemic stroke disease states and various disorders of cerebrovascular origin. Lately, positron emission tomography studies proved that vinpocetine has a rapid uptake in the primate and human brain with a heterogeneous distribution pattern (preference areas: thalamus, basal ganglia, and visual cortex) both after intravenous and oral administration. Vinpocetine exerts beneficial effects in cerebral glucose metabolism and regional cerebral blood flow in chronic post-stroke patients. PMID:16158388

  5. Space-Derived Sewer Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The QuadraScan Longterm Flow Monitoring System is a second generation sewer monitor developed by American Digital Systems, Inc.'s founder Peter Petroff. Petroff, a former spacecraft instrumentation designer at Marshall Space Flight Center, used expertise based on principles acquired in Apollo and other NASA programs. QuadraScan borrows even more heavily from space technology, for example in its data acquisition and memory system derived from NASA satellites. "One-time" measurements are often plagued with substantial errors due to the flow of groundwater absorbed into the system. These system sizing errors stem from a basic informational deficiency: accurate, reliable data on how much water flows through a sewer system over a long period of time is very difficult to obtain. City officials are turning to "permanent," or long-term sewer monitoring systems. QuadraScan offers many advantages to city officials such as the early warning capability to effectively plan for city growth in order to avoid the crippling economic impact of bans on new sewer connections in effect in many cities today.

  6. Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hope, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

  7. STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.

  8. Clinical status of benzoporphyrin derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Julia G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Strong, H. Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cutaneous malignancies (basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous metastases) and psoriasis. Results to date suggest that this photosensitizer has potential in both of these areas. Recently, a clinical trial with BPD was initiated for the treatment of age related macular degeneration, a neovascular condition in the eye which leads to blindness. BPD is a lipophilic photosensitizer which is rapidly taken up by activated cells and the vascular endothelium of neovasculature. The PDT effects seen with BPD appear to be a combination of vascular occlusion and direct killing of target cells. Since many diseases involve either activated cells and/or neovasculature, PDT with photosensitizer with characteristics like those of BPD, has applications far wider than oncology. A new area of interest involving photosensitizers is that of immune modulation. A number of photosensitizers have been shown to effect immune modulation in animal models of immune dysfunction including autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), cutaneous hypersensitivity and allografts. BPD and PHOTOFRINR have both been shown to be effective in ameliorating arthritic symptoms in a number of animal models. The mechanisms by which immune modulation is affected in these studies still remains to be resolved.

  9. Synthesis, X-ray, DFT and photophysical properties of some new ferrocenyl hydrazono thiazolidin-4-ones and their derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclocondensation of thiosemicarbazone of 2-acetylferrocene with α-haloacids and α-haloketones afford new ferrocenyl hydrazono thiazolidin-4-ones and ferrocenyl hydrazono thiazoles respectively. Ferrocenyl hydrazono thiazolidin-4-one is easily converted into enamino ketone with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA). The compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means and the structure of the new ferrocenyl hydrazono thiazolidin-4-one (3a) was determined by means of X-ray crystallography. The photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by means of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out with Gaussian 09W using B3LYP density functional method and 6-31G (d) basis set. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) have been calculated and correlated with experimental results. Antimicrobial activity studies of some new compounds have been reported.

  10. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else drawing the boundary on a reference image. Hence, a farmer can start to engage in precision farming shortly after gaining access to the Web site, without the need for incurring the high costs of conventional precision-agriculture data-collection practices that include collecting soil samples, mapping electrical conductivity of soil, and compiling multiyear crop-yield data. Given the boundary of a field, a SAMZ server computes the zones within the field in a three-stage process. In the first stage, a vector-valued image of the field is constructed by assembling, from the archives, the equivalent of a stack of the available images of the field (see figure). In the second stage, the vector-valued image is analyzed by use of a wavelet transform that detects spatial variations considered significant for precision farming while suppressing small-scale heterogeneities that are regarded as insignificant. In the third stage, a segmentation algorithm assembles the zones from smaller regions that have been identified in the wavelet analysis.

  11. Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem.

    PubMed

    King, Leslie A; Ujváry, István; Brandt, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a 'derivative' is used widely in chemistry, where its precise meaning depends on the circumstances. However, numerous examples of derivative also occur in domestic drugs legislation, some of which stem from the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. There is a commonly held view that only 'first-order' derivatives should be considered: substances that can be created from a parent structure in a single chemical reaction. In other words, 'derivatives of derivatives' are excluded. However, some substances related to ecgonine (e.g. 2-carbomethoxytropinone) are clearly convertible to cocaine, even though this may require more than one reaction step. It follows that 2-carbomethoxytropinone is a controlled drug, a situation that most chemists would regard as perverse. A more extreme example of the complexity of 'derivative' is shown by the conversion of thebaine to buprenorphine. Even though this requires six or more stages, the US Drug Enforcement Administration successfully argued in a 1986 case that for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act, the number of steps required was irrelevant; buprenorphine was a derivative of thebaine. Because the term derivative is rarely defined in statutes, the legal status of some substances, such as 2-bromo-LSD, is uncertain. Although a number of definitions of derivative can be found in the chemical literature, no single definition is adequate to describe all situations where it occurs in legislation. Unless qualified, it is suggested that the term derivative should be avoided in any future legislation. PMID:23949903

  12. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate. PMID:21603195

  13. Missile motion sensitivity to dynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langham, T. F.

    1980-09-01

    A dynamic derivative sensitivity study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of dynamic derivatives in missile motion simulation studies. Generalized bank-to-turn and yaw-to-turn missile configurations were used with a six degree of freedom linearized stability program. The effects of various dynamic derivatives on missile stability were investigated in both level and turning flight for several Mach numbers and altitude conditions.

  14. Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2011-07-01

    We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.

  15. ACE inhibitory peptides derived from aquatic protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Lv, Shun; Zhang, Xiaorong; Lu, Jianfeng; Ye, Yingwang; Jiang, Shaotong

    2013-05-01

    Among bioactive peptides derived from aquatic protein, those with ACE inhibitory activity are receiving special attention. This paper presented an overview of ACE inhibitory peptides derived from aquatic proteins, and the peptide sources were listed. The structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action of ACE inhibitory peptides were also discussed. Finally, the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitory peptides derived from marine protein, including short-term and long-term influence, were also discussed. PMID:23721314

  16. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease. PMID:26077627

  17. Synthesis of polyfluorene derivatives through polymer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Yu, Wang-Lin; Lai, Yee-Hing; Huang, Wei

    2003-01-01

    A polyfluorene derivative with ester functional groups was synthesized with a high molecular weight and good solubility in common organic solvents through the Suzuki reaction. Efficient blue light emission and good electrochemical properties were demonstrated for this polymer with a decomposition temperature of 331 °C and a glass transition temperature of 111 °C. Due to the ester functional groups, the polymer could be further modified through polymer reactions. Hydrolysis of the polymer afforded a water-soluble carbonate functional polyfluorene derivative. While it underwent a reduction, a new polyfluorene derivative with hydroxy functional groups was obtained. Thermal and optical properties of the derivatives were also studied.

  18. 12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION State Savings Associations-Operations § 390.352 Financial derivatives. (a) What is...

  19. Derive Workshop Matrix Algebra and Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley Kulich, Lisa; Victor, Barbara

    This document presents the course content for a workshop that integrates the use of the computer algebra system Derive with topics in matrix and linear algebra. The first section is a guide to using Derive that provides information on how to write algebraic expressions, make graphs, save files, edit, define functions, differentiate expressions,…

  20. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  1. Understanding the Derivative through the Calculus Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael; Byerley, Cameron; Thompson, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Typical treatments of the derivative do not clearly convey the idea that the derivative function represents the original function's rate of change. Revealing the relationship between a function and its rate-of-change function for static values of "x" does not facilitate productive ways of thinking about generating the rate-of-change function or…

  2. Few Fractional Order Derivatives and Their Computations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatta, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an introductory development of fractional order derivatives and their computations. Historical development of fractional calculus is discussed. This paper presents how to obtain computational results of fractional order derivatives for some elementary functions. Computational results are illustrated in tabular and graphical…

  3. [Metabolism of designer drugs. The fentanyl derivatives].

    PubMed

    Melent'ev, A B; Kataev, S S

    2015-01-01

    This literature review is focused on the studies of metabolism of designer drugs, with special reference to fentanyl derivatives. Certain physicochemical characteristics of the main metabolites most frequently encountered in the illegal trade of the fentanyl group analgesics have been calculated. The proposed recommendations include the methods for the identification of certain fentanyl derivatives during analysis of biological media. PMID:26710514

  4. Analysis of Blackbody Radiation with Derivative Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusek, J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment which uses derivative spectroscopy to investigate the validity of the Planck function appearing in the blackbody radiation law. These measurements allow a critical examination of this function and also serve as an introduction to derivative spectroscopy techniques. (Author/HM)

  5. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PUBLIC INFORMATION Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526 and directives of the Information...

  6. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  7. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  8. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  9. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  10. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  11. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is...

  12. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  13. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  14. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  15. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  16. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  17. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  18. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  19. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  20. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  1. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  2. Integrating weather derivatives for managing risks

    SciTech Connect

    Bilski, B.

    1999-11-01

    As deregulation and customer choice loom on the horizon, many energy utilities and other energy suppliers are scrambling to find new services that add value for consumers. Many are also seeking opportunities for increasing efficiency to ensure that costs remain competitive. Integrating weather derivatives with marketing programs and financial management can produce attractive new services and increase efficiency. Weather derivatives can be used to create innovative consumer services, such as a guaranteed annual energy bill which is unaffected by weather and energy price changes. They can also be used to protect the earnings of energy suppliers from one of their most significant financial risks, unpredictable weather. There are three basic types of weather derivatives available today. Option or insurance based derivatives (options), swaps or hedge based derivatives (swaps) and packages where other services are combined with one or both of the above.

  3. 4-Eth­oxy-3-meth­oxy­benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Leka, Zorica; Novaković, Sladjana B.; Bogdanović, Goran A.; Muškinja, Jovana; Vukićević, Rastko D.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H12O3, all non-H atoms are approximately coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.046 Å. In the crystal, very weak C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into sheets parallel to (101). PMID:24454190

  4. 4-(Diphenyl­amino)­benzaldehyde 4-phenyl­thio­semicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Meroño, Rafael; Menéndez-Taboada, Laura; García-Granda, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C26H22N4S, is composed of three main parts, viz. a triphenyl­amine group is connected to a phenyl ring by a thio­semicarbazone moiety. The C= N double bond has an E conformation. The crystal packing is dominated by strong hydrogen bonds through the thio­semicarbazone moiety, with pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds linking the mol­ecules to form inversion dimers with an R 2 2(8) ring motif. An intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond is also present, generating an S(5) ring motif. Although the structure contains four phenyl rings, π–π stacking inter­actions are not formed between them, probably due to the conformation adopted by the triphenyl­amine group. However, a weak π–π stacking inter­action is observed between the phenyl ring and the delocalized thio­semicarbazone moiety. PMID:22904859

  5. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  6. Stability-Derivative Determination from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holowicz, Chester H.; Holleman, Euclid C.

    1958-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the various factors affecting the determination of stability and control derivatives from flight data is presented based on the experience of the NASA High-Speed Flight Station. Factors relating to test techniques, determination of mass characteristics, instrumentation, and methods of analysis are discussed. For most longitudinal-stability-derivative analyses simple equations utilizing period and damping have been found to be as satisfactory as more comprehensive methods. The graphical time-vector method has been the basis of lateral-derivative analysis, although simple approximate methods can be useful If applied with caution. Control effectiveness has been generally obtained by relating the peak acceleration to the rapid control input, and consideration must be given to aerodynamic contributions if reasonable accuracy is to be realized.. Because of the many factors involved In the determination of stability derivatives, It is believed that the primary stability and control derivatives are probably accurate to within 10 to 25 percent, depending upon the specific derivative. Static-stability derivatives at low angle of attack show the greatest accuracy.

  7. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

  8. Theory of Financial Risk and Derivative Pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    2004-02-01

    Summarizing market data developments, some inspired by statistical physics, this book explains how to better predict the actual behavior of financial markets with respect to asset allocation, derivative pricing and hedging, and risk control. Risk control and derivative pricing are major concerns to financial institutions. The need for adequate statistical tools to measure and anticipate amplitude of potential moves of financial markets is clearly expressed, in particular for derivative markets. Classical theories, however, are based on assumptions leading to systematic (sometimes dramatic) underestimation of risks. First edition Hb (2000): 0-521-78232-5

  9. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  10. An invariant derivation of flame stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. H.; Law, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    The flame stretch factor is derived using an invariant formulation in a consistent manner. The derived generalized expression has two terms and completely describes the flame area evolution with its movement. One term represents the stretch due to the nonuniform tangential velocity field and the other represents the effect of the curvature of the propagating flame. The effect of curvature for stationary flames is implicitly included in the former term through variations of the tangential velocity. The flame sheet assumption, and thereby the stretch factor, are uniquely defined. Another expression is derived under the assumption that the tangential velocity of the flame equals the tangential component of the fluid velocity.

  11. Synthesis of Hemigossypol and its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Vander Jagt, David L.; Royer, Robert E.; Deck, Lorraine M.

    2012-01-01

    Hemigossypol (3), a sesquiterpene natural product, was previously isolated from Gossypium barbadense and was shown to display improved anti-fungal activity compared to gossypol (1), the disesquiterpene dimer of hemigossypol (3). Gossypol exhibits multiple biological activities. In order to study whether hemigossypol and it derivatives retain the various bioactivities of gossypol, we developed a short and convenient synthetic scheme to synthesize hemigossypol. This is the first de novo synthesis of this natural product. In addition derivatives of hemigossypol with various 2,5-alkyl substituents were synthesized. Modification of the synthetic scheme also afforded the natural product hemigossylic lactone (4) and its 2,5-substituted derivatives. PMID:22837586

  12. Spectral assignments and structural studies of a warfarin derivative stereoselectively formed by tandem cyclization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham Pillai, M.; Rajeswari, K.; Vidhyasagar, T.

    2015-11-01

    The structural elucidation of a Mannich condensation product of rac-Warfarin with benzaldehyde and methyl amine was carried out using IR, Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY, DEPT-135, HMBC, NOESY spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Formation of a new pyran ring via a tandem cyclization in the presence of methyl amine was observed. The optimized geometry and HOMO-LUMO energy gap along with other important physical parameters were found by Gaussian 09 program using HF 6-31G (d, p) and B3YLP/DFT 6-31G (d, p) level of theory. The preferred conformation of the piperidine ring in solution state was found to be chair from the NMR spectra. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and optimized geometry (by theoretical study) also confirms the chair conformation in the solid state.

  13. Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.

  14. Stereochemistry of a Rhododaurichromanic Acid Derivative.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Mándi, Attila; Anetai, Masaki; Monde, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    A rhododaurichromanic acid A derivative was synthesized from the naturally occurring daurichromenic acid in enantiomeric pure form. Its absolute configuration was elucidated by applying VCD, ECD and DFT calculations. PMID:27032199

  15. Concise Derivation of the Rotational Partition Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynne, F.; Andersen, Knud

    1979-01-01

    Derived is the classical partition function for the rotation of a rigid asymmetric molecule, by a transformation of variables in the phase integral circumventing the cumbersome manipulation of the canonical prescription. (Author/GA)

  16. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  17. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  18. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between 150-375.degree. C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  19. Frequency analysis of photoplethysmogram and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Fletcher, Richard R; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale

    2015-12-01

    There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG). We investigate the PPG signal and its derivatives for heat stress assessment using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The preliminary results of this study indicate that applying the first and second derivatives to PPG waveforms is useful for determining heat stress level using 20-s recordings. Interestingly, Welch's and Yule-Walker's methods in agreement that the second derivative is an improved detector for heat stress. In fact, both spectral estimation methods showed a clear separation in the frequency domain between measurements before and after simulated heat-stress induction when the second derivative is applied. Moreover, the results demonstrate superior performance of the Welch's method over the Yule-Walker's method in separating before and after the three simulated heat-stress inductions. PMID:26498064

  20. Derivatives of the Stochastic Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Steinsaltz, David; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol

    2011-01-01

    We consider stochastic matrix models for population driven by random environments which form a Markov chain. The top Lyapunov exponent a, which describes the long-term growth rate, depends smoothly on the demographic parameters (represented as matrix entries) and on the parameters that define the stochastic matrix of the driving Markov chain. The derivatives of a — the “stochastic elasticities” — with respect to changes in the demographic parameters were derived by Tuljapurkar (1990). These results are here extended to a formula for the derivatives with respect to changes in the Markov chain driving the environments. We supplement these formulas with rigorous bounds on computational estimation errors, and with rigorous derivations of both the new and the old formulas. PMID:21463645

  1. Perspectives on biologically active camptothecin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Qian; Li, Wen-Qun; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Qian, Keduo; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chen, An-Liang; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Nan, Xiang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    Camptothecins (CPTs) are cytotoxic natural alkaloids that specifically target DNA topoisomerase I. Research on CPTs has undergone a significant evolution from the initial discovery of CPT in the late 1960s through the study of synthetic small-molecule derivatives to investigation of macromolecular constructs and formulations. Over the past years, intensive medicinal chemistry efforts have generated numerous CPT derivatives. Three derivatives, topotecan, irinotecan, and belotecan, are currently prescribed as anticancer drugs, and several related compounds are now in clinical trials. Interest in other biological effects, besides anticancer activity, of CPTs is also growing exponentially, as indicated by the large number of publications on the subject during the last decades. Therefore, the main focus of the present review is to provide an ample but condensed overview on various biological activities of CPT derivatives, in addition to continued up-to-date coverage of anticancer effects. PMID:25808858

  2. Phytol-Derived Novel Isoprenoid Immunostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Roshni Roy; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the adjuvanticity of novel diterpenoids (synthetic phytol derivatives) compared to some commercially available adjuvants. The efficacy of the phytol-derived immunostimulants was evaluated in terms of their ability to activate innate immunity, amplify various antigen-specific immune responses, and engender immunological memory with no discernible adverse effects in both competent and immune-deficient mice. The profile that emerges out of these studies reveals that the phytol derivatives are excellent immunostimulants, superior to a number of commercial adjuvants in terms of long-term memory induction and activation of both innate and acquired immunity. Additionally, the phytol-derived compounds have no cumulative inflammatory or toxic effects even in immuno-compromised mice. PMID:22566931

  3. Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.

  4. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  5. Cytotoxic bioactivity of some phenylpropanoic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Reta, Guillermo F; Tonn, Carlos E; Ríos-Luci, Carla; León, Leticia G; Pérez-Roth, Eduardo; Padrón, José M; Donadel, Osvaldo J

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we synthesized a series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives based on modifications at four selected points of the molecular scaffold. The in vitro antiproliferative activities of the compounds were examined in representative human solid tumor cell lines. A SAR was established pointing out the relevance of the substituents. The best activity profiles were obtained for the derivatives bearing more lipophilic esters (GI50 3.1-21 microM). PMID:23157005

  6. Antihypertensive peptides derived from food proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides originated from food materials and enzymatic hydrolysate of different kinds of proteins. Focus was put on the peptides derived from milk casein by the action of the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria. Some of the peptides exhibit significant antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Some new topics relating to these antihypertensive peptides are introduced. The possible significance of bioactive peptides derived from food in vivo is also discussed. PMID:9216248

  7. Computer derivation of some dolphin echolocation signals.

    PubMed

    Altes, R A

    1971-09-01

    Recent advances in radar theory have given rise to a straightforward method of sonar signal design. The method involves computer maximization of a signal-to-interference ratio. The procedure has been used to derive sonar signals that can accurately measure target velocity. When two dolphins were placed in a situation conducive to the utilization of such signals, their waveforms were similar to those that had been theoretically derived. PMID:17751313

  8. Sedentary ghost poles in higher derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D. A.

    1988-02-01

    Following Antoniadis and Tomboulis [1] we consider the gauge behaviour of the massive spin-2 ghost pole that appears in the propagator of higher derivative gravity theories. In contradistinction to [1] we observe that the pair of complex conjugate poles that appear in the resummed propagator are gauge independent. They are sedentary, that is, under a change in the gauge parameter they do not move. We derive this result using the ubiquitous Nielsen identities [11].

  9. Derived transformation of children's pregambling game playing.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R

    2010-11-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in gambling behavior. The present study therefore sought to demonstrate the ways new stimuli could come to have functions relevant to gambling without those functions being trained directly. Following a successful derived-equivalence-relations test, a simulated board game established high- and low-roll functions for two concurrently presented dice labelled with members of the derived relations. During the test for derived transformation, children were reexposed to the board game with dice labelled with indirectly related stimuli. All participants except 1 who passed the equivalence relations test selected the die that was indirectly related to the trained high-roll die more often than the die that was indirectly related to low-roll die, despite the absence of differential outcomes. All participants except 3 also gave the derived high-roll die higher liking ratings than the derived low-roll die. The implications of the findings for behavior-analytic research on gambling and the development of verbally-based interventions for disordered gambling are discussed. PMID:21541176

  10. Derived Transformation of Children's Pregambling Game Playing

    PubMed Central

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in gambling behavior. The present study therefore sought to demonstrate the ways new stimuli could come to have functions relevant to gambling without those functions being trained directly. Following a successful derived-equivalence-relations test, a simulated board game established high- and low-roll functions for two concurrently presented dice labelled with members of the derived relations. During the test for derived transformation, children were reexposed to the board game with dice labelled with indirectly related stimuli. All participants except 1 who passed the equivalence relations test selected the die that was indirectly related to the trained high-roll die more often than the die that was indirectly related to low-roll die, despite the absence of differential outcomes. All participants except 3 also gave the derived high-roll die higher liking ratings than the derived low-roll die. The implications of the findings for behavior-analytic research on gambling and the development of verbally-based interventions for disordered gambling are discussed. PMID:21541176

  11. Filtering using variable order vertical derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, G. R. J.; Cowan, D. R.

    2004-06-01

    Vertical derivatives of aeromagnetic and gravity datasets are routinely used as an aid to the interpretation process because they enhance detail and sharpen geophysical anomalies. Since they are a form of high-pass filter they also have the undesirable property of enhancing noise. Traditionally, the second order vertical derivative of a dataset would be calculated, and if this proved too noisy then the first-order derivative map would be used. Recently, much interest has been shown in the use of derivatives of fractional order to achieve a derivative map that contains the correct balance between the enhancement of signal and noise. If the data set being processed has a frequency content which does not vary spatially by a great amount this process can be effective. However, if this is not the situation then the result is a map where some portions are too noisy for convenient interpretation, whereas other portions are too smooth and show little detail. The use of derivatives whose order varies across the dataset in a manner based on the local standard deviation of the data proved effective in resolving this problem. The method is demonstrated on aeromagnetic data from Botswana and on elevation data from South Africa.

  12. Analytic computation of energy derivatives - Relationships among partial derivatives of a variationally determined function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. F.; Komornicki, A.

    1986-01-01

    Formulas are presented relating Taylor series expansion coefficients of three functions of several variables, the energy of the trial wave function (W), the energy computed using the optimized variational wave function (E), and the response function (lambda), under certain conditions. Partial derivatives of lambda are obtained through solution of a recursive system of linear equations, and solution through order n yields derivatives of E through order 2n + 1, extending Puley's application of Wigner's 2n + 1 rule to partial derivatives in couple perturbation theory. An examination of numerical accuracy shows that the usual two-term second derivative formula is less stable than an alternative four-term formula, and that previous claims that energy derivatives are stationary properties of the wave function are fallacious. The results have application to quantum theoretical methods for the computation of derivative properties such as infrared frequencies and intensities.

  13. New steroid derivative with hypoglycemic activity

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

    2014-01-01

    Data indicates that some steroid derivatives may induce changes on glucose levels; nevertheless, data are very confusing. Therefore, more pharmacological data are needed to characterize the activity induced by the steroid derivatives on glucose levels. The aim of this study was to synthesize a new steroid derivative for evaluate its hypoglycemic activity. The effects of steroid derivative on glucose concentration were evaluated in a diabetic animal model using glibenclamide and metformin as controls. In addition, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate was bound to Tc-99m using radioimmunoassay methods, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the steroid derivative over time. The results showed that the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate induces changes on the glucose levels in similar form than glibenclamide. Other data showed that the biodistribution of Tc-99m-steroid derivativein brain was higher in comparison with spleen, stomach, intestine liver and kidney. In conclusion, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate exerts hypoglycemic activity and this phenomenon could depend of its physicochemical properties which could be related to the degree of lipophilicity of the steroidderivative. PMID:25550906

  14. New steroid derivative with hypoglycemic activity.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

    2014-01-01

    Data indicates that some steroid derivatives may induce changes on glucose levels; nevertheless, data are very confusing. Therefore, more pharmacological data are needed to characterize the activity induced by the steroid derivatives on glucose levels. The aim of this study was to synthesize a new steroid derivative for evaluate its hypoglycemic activity. The effects of steroid derivative on glucose concentration were evaluated in a diabetic animal model using glibenclamide and metformin as controls. In addition, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate was bound to Tc-99m using radioimmunoassay methods, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the steroid derivative over time. The results showed that the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate induces changes on the glucose levels in similar form than glibenclamide. Other data showed that the biodistribution of Tc-99m-steroid derivativein brain was higher in comparison with spleen, stomach, intestine liver and kidney. In conclusion, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate exerts hypoglycemic activity and this phenomenon could depend of its physicochemical properties which could be related to the degree of lipophilicity of the steroidderivative. PMID:25550906

  15. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  16. Numerical derivative techniques for trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallman, Wayne P.

    1990-01-01

    The adoption of robust numerical optimization techniques in trajectory simulation programs has resulted in powerful design and analysis tools. These trajectory simulation/optimization programs are widely used, and a representative list includes the GTS system, the POST program, and newer collocation methods such as OTIS and FONPAC. All of these programs rely on optimization algorithms which require objective function and constraint gradient data during the iteration process. However, most trajectory optimization problems lack simple analytical expressions for these derivatives. In the general case a function evaluation involves integrating aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces over multiple trajectory phases with complex control models. With the newer collocation methods, the integration is replaced by defect constraints and cubic approximations for the state. While analytic gradient expressions can sometimes be derived for trajectory optimization problems, the derivation is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes. Fortunately, an alternate method exists for the gradient evaluation, namely finite difference approximations. In this paper some finite difference gradient techniques developed for use with the GTS system are presented. These techniques include methods for computing first and second partial derivatives of single and multiple sets of functions. A key feature of these methods is an error control mechanism which automatically adjusts the perturbation size to obtain accurate derivative values.

  17. Structure Activity Relationship of Brevenal Hydrazide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Allan; McCall, Jennifer R.; Jacocks, Henry M.; Thompson, Alysha; Baden, Daniel; Abraham, William M.; Bourdelais, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Brevenal is a ladder frame polyether produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism is also responsible for the production of the neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. Ingestion or inhalation of the brevetoxins leads to adverse effects such as gastrointestinal maladies and bronchoconstriction. Brevenal shows antagonistic behavior to the brevetoxins and shows beneficial attributes when administered alone. For example, in an asthmatic sheep model, brevenal has been shown to increase tracheal mucosal velocity, an attribute which has led to its development as a potential treatment for Cystic Fibrosis. The mechanism of action of brevenal is poorly understood and the exact binding site has not been elucidated. In an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action of brevenal and potentially develop a second generation drug candidate, a series of brevenal derivatives were prepared through modification of the aldehyde moiety. These derivatives include aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrazide derivatives. The brevenal derivatives were tested using in vitro synaptosome binding assays to determine the ability of the compounds to displace brevetoxin and brevenal from their native receptors. A sheep inhalation model was used to determine if instillation of the brevenal derivatives resulted in bronchoconstriction. Only small modifications were tolerated, with larger moieties leading to loss of affinity for the brevenal receptor and bronchoconstriction in the sheep model. PMID:24686558

  18. Microscopically derived free energy of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooiman, M.; Hütter, M.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of large amounts of dislocations is the governing mechanism in metal plasticity. The free energy of a continuous dislocation density profile plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics of dislocations, as free energy derivatives act as the driving forces of dislocation dynamics. In this contribution, an explicit expression for the free energy of straight and parallel dislocations with different Burgers vectors is derived. The free energy is determined using systematic coarse-graining techniques from statistical mechanics. The starting point of the derivation is the grand-canonical partition function derived in an earlier work, in which we accounted for the finite system size, discrete glide planes and multiple slip systems. In this paper, the explicit free energy functional of the dislocation density is calculated and has, to the best of our knowledge, not been derived before in the present form. The free energy consists of a mean-field elastic contribution and a local defect energy, that can be split into a statistical and a many-body contribution. These depend on the density of positive and negative dislocations on each slip system separately, instead of GND-based quantities only. Consequently, a crystal plasticity model based on the here obtained free energy, should account for both statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations.

  19. Dipole-Moment Derivatives of Nitrous Oxide.

    PubMed

    Lobodenko, E. I.; Perevalov, V. I.; Lyulin, O. M.; Teffo, J.-L.

    2001-02-01

    The equations relating the q(2)J-type parameters of the matrix elements of the effective dipole-moment operator with the force field constants and the dipole-moment derivatives have been established by means of contact transformations in the case of nitrous oxide molecule. The effective dipole-moment operator corresponds to the reduced effective Hamiltonian derived by J.-L. Teffo, V. I. Perevalov, and O. M. Lyulin (J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 390-403 (1994)) for the global treatment of the vibrational-rotational energy levels of this molecule. Using these equations, the first and second derivatives of the dipole-moment function of the nitrous oxide molecule have been determined from the published values (O. M. Lyulin, V. I. Perevalov, and J.-L. Teffo, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 174, 566-580 (1995)) of the matrix element parameters of the effective dipole-moment operator. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11162210

  20. Dipole-Moment Derivatives of Nitrous Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobodenko, E. I.; Perevalov, V. I.; Lyulin, O. M.; Teffo, J.-L.

    2001-02-01

    The equations relating the q2J-type parameters of the matrix elements of the effective dipole-moment operator with the force field constants and the dipole-moment derivatives have been established by means of contact transformations in the case of nitrous oxide molecule. The effective dipole-moment operator corresponds to the reduced effective Hamiltonian derived by J.-L. Teffo, V. I. Perevalov, and O. M. Lyulin (J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 390-403 (1994)) for the global treatment of the vibrational-rotational energy levels of this molecule. Using these equations, the first and second derivatives of the dipole-moment function of the nitrous oxide molecule have been determined from the published values (O. M. Lyulin, V. I. Perevalov, and J.-L. Teffo, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 174, 566-580 (1995)) of the matrix element parameters of the effective dipole-moment operator.

  1. Analytics of Quinine and its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kluska, Mariusz; Marciniuk-Kluska, Anna; Prukała, Dorota; Prukała, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a synthesis and analysis of the most important information on quinine and its derivatives, which are still very important in the treatment of malaria. The analysis of stereoisomers of quinine and its derivatives was conducted using two techniques, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Particularly noteworthy is the technique used for the determination of isotachophoresis, referred to as one of the so-called green chemistry techniques. Particular attention was paid to properties and the use of quinine and its derivatives in the treatment of malaria. The analytical part will supplement knowledge about quinidine, quinine, and cinchonidine, and will contribute to the growth of research on the so-much-needed drugs against malaria. PMID:25831406

  2. Delayed feedback of sampled higher derivatives.

    PubMed

    Insperger, Tamas; Stepan, Gabor; Turi, Janos

    2010-01-28

    Systems where the present rate of change of the state depends on the past values of the higher rates of change of the state are described by so-called advanced functional differential equations (AFDEs). In an AFDE, the highest derivative of the state-space coordinate appears with delayed argument only. The corresponding linearized equations are always unstable with infinitely many unstable poles, and are rarely related to practical applications due to their inherently implicit nature. In this paper, one of the simplest AFDEs, a linear scalar first-order system, is considered with the delayed feedback of the second derivative of the state in the presence of sampling in the feedback loop (i.e. in the case of digital control). It is shown that sampling of the feedback may stabilize the originally infinitely unstable system for certain parameter combinations. The result explains the stable behaviour of certain dynamical systems with feedback delay in the highest derivative. PMID:20008412

  3. Dielectric transition of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Zhou, Lei; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao

    2014-09-01

    The dielectric behavior of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers formed at different carbonization temperatures was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data are presented in the form of Cole-Cole plots and four equivalent electrical circuits are derived. It is found that by increasing carbonization temperature from 500 to 800 °C, a strong capacitive element in the parallel equivalent circuit is transformed into an inductive element, while the contact resistance and parallel resistance are significantly decreased. Along with the morphological and chemical structural evolution, respectively witnessed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the dielectric transition deduced from the transformation of electrical circuits can be correlated to the proposed microstructural changes of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers and the interaction/interference among them.

  4. Inequalities for angular derivatives and boundary interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, Vladimir; Elin, Mark; Shoikhet, David

    2013-03-01

    The classical Julia-Wolff-Carathéodory theorem asserts that the angular derivative of a holomorphic self-mapping of the open unit disk (Schur function) at its boundary fixed point is a positive number. Cowen and Pommerenke (J Lond Math Soc 26:271-289, 1982) proved that if a Schur function has several boundary regular fixed (or mutual contact) points, then the angular derivatives at these points are subject to certain inequalities. We develop a unified approach to establish relations between angular derivatives of Schur functions with a prescribed (possibly, infinite) collection of either mutual contact points or boundary fixed points. This approach yields diverse inequalities improving both classical and more recent results. We apply them to study the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem with boundary data. Our methods lead to fairly explicit formulas describing the set of solutions.

  5. Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lee M.; Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2015-02-07

    The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.

  6. Immunosuppressive decalin derivatives from red yeast rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Lu, Jing-Guang; Li, Ting; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Han, Quan-Bin; Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2012-04-27

    Five new decalin derivatives (1-5), together with two known compounds (6 and 7), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of red yeast rice. Their structures were elucidated by means of NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. Monascusic lactone A (1) is the first reported naturally occurring decalin derivative possessing a spiro lactone at the C-1 position. The immunosuppressive effects of all these isolates (1-7) on human T cell proliferation were investigated, and all, especially monascusic acids B (2), C (3), D (4), and A (6) and heptaketide (7), suppressed human T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner from 10 to 100 μM. This is the first report on the immunosuppressive activity of decalin derivatives. PMID:22394155

  7. Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.

    PubMed

    Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development. PMID:19226745

  8. Derivation of wildlife values for mercury.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J; Bradbury, S; Swartout, J

    1999-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to estimate surface water concentrations of toxicants ("wildlife values") that will protect the viability of wildlife populations associated with aquatic resources. This procedure was designed primarily to protect piscivorous birds and mammals from compounds that bioaccumulate in fish and was used in the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLI) to calculate wildlife values (WV) for mercury, DDT/DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Published in 1995, and expressed as total mercury in unfiltered water, the final wildlife value (WVf) for mercury derived in the GLI was 1300 pg Hg/L. This value was selected as the wildlife criterion (WC) for mercury in the Great Lakes basin. A second WVf for mercury was derived in 1997 as part of a Congressionally mandated report on airborne mercury emissions. These calculations were based upon mercury speciation data that were largely unavailable when the GLI was developed. Important features of the WVf in the Report to Congress include its calculation on a dissolved methylmercury basis and a reliance on field data to estimate fish bioaccumulation factors. Calculated as methylmercury in filtered water, the WVf derived in the report is 50 pg Hg/L (equivalent to 54 pg MeHg/L). A comparison of WV in the GLI and the Report to Congress requires that average values be specified for mercury speciation in natural systems. Based on this information, the WVf given in the report corresponds to a value of 910 pg Hg/L, as total mercury in unfiltered water, or about 70% of the WVf derived in the GLI. In this article we describe the algorithm used to derive WV in the GLI and the Report to Congress and review its application to mercury. Scientific uncertainties in deriving WV, particularly as they apply to mercury, are critically examined. PMID:10596301

  9. Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Terpenes from marine-derived fungi show a pronounced degree of structural diversity, and due to their interesting biological and pharmacological properties many of them have aroused interest from synthetic chemists and the pharmaceutical industry alike. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the structural diversity of terpenes from marine-derived fungi, highlighting individual examples of chemical structures and placing them in a context of other terpenes of fungal origin. Wherever possible, information regarding the biological activity is presented. PMID:20948911

  10. Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-08-15

    The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.

  11. Photoluminescence in anthracene and it's derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Arpita; Mirgane, Nitin A.; Moharil, S. V.; Muley, Aarti Iyer

    2016-05-01

    The anthracene and it's derivative 9-chloro acridine and Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate have prepared in Poly vinyl alcohol(PVOH). Their photoluminescence properties have studied. The pure anthracene has an emission at 424 and 443nm. The intense peak is observed at 465nm and shoulder at 407nm. The derivatives of anthracene Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate shows an emission around 440nm for the excitation at 393nm and 9-chloro acridine shows emission around 360nm for the excitation at 290nm. The major problem of this organic material is the stability. The composites prepared in the medium of PVOH are more stable.

  12. Derivation of Ashtekar variables from tetrad gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneaux, M.; Nelson, J. E.; Schomblond, C.

    1989-01-01

    The new gravitational variables introduced recently by Ashtekar are derived from the standard tetrad gravity formalism with full local Lorentz invariance. This is done by a succession of canonical transformations, which involve as a first step the transition from arbitrary tetrads to three-dimensional triads and pure gauge boost variables. It is then shown that the weighted contravariant triads and mixed components of the extrinsic curvature are also canonically conjugate. Finally, the new variables are explicitly derived and proved to be canonical because of a remarkable identity obeyed by the spatial spin connection in three dimensions.

  13. Structural studies of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Shana M.; Rodrigues, Manoel T.; Bastos, Rodrigo M.; Ferrari, Jailton; de Oliveira, Cecília M. A.; Kato, Lucília; Napolitano, Hamilton B.; Vencato, Ivo; Lariucci, Carlito

    2005-10-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, benzoyl isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, maleic anhydride and methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded a series of new antipyrine derivatives. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 29737, and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentration determined. Modest activity was found only to the maleamic acid obtained from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine and maleic anhydride. 1H NMR investigation of this maleamic acid showed that it is slowly converted to the corresponding toxic maleimide. The structures of three derivatives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  14. Synthesis of Amaryllidaceae Constituents and Unnatural Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ghavre, Mukund; Froese, Jordan; Pour, Milan; Hudlicky, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    This update covers the syntheses of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids since the publication of the last major review in 2008. A short summary of past syntheses and their step count is provided for the major constituents; pancratistatin, 7-deoxypancratistatin, narciclasine, lycoricidine, lycorine, and for other natural constituents, as well as for unnatural derivatives. Discussion of biological activities is provided for unnatural derivatives. Future prospects and further developments in this area are covered at the end of the review. The literature is covered to the end of August 2015. PMID:26969844

  15. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  16. The derivative of a continued fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers second order continued fractions associated with (I) the Psi function {psi}(z), (II) the continued fraction component in ln {Gamma}(z) due to Stieltjes. The second order sequences k*{sub s}/k{sub s} provide approximants, some of which are remarkably close. In addition a series form for the convergent {chi}{sub s}={omega}{sub s} associated with a continued fraction provides an expression for the derivatives of a continued fraction. The implementation uses a Maple code for derivatives.

  17. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  18. New coumarin derivatives as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Alici, Bülent; Cakir, Umit; Cetinkaya, Engin; Demir, Dudu; Ergün, Adem; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, a series of 4-chloromethyl-7-hydroxy-coumarin derivatives containing imidazolium, benzimidazolium, bisbenzimidazolium and quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized, characterized and the inhibition effects of the derivatives on human carbonic anhydrases (hCA I and hCA II) were investigated as in vitro. Structures of these coumarins were confirmed by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS analyses. Structure activity relationship study showed that 3d (IC50: 79 μM for hCA I and 88 μM for hCA II) performed higher inhibitory activity than others. PMID:23656671

  19. Special Relativity Derived from Spacetime Magma

    PubMed Central

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components and Euclidean which is consistent with an “inversion symmetry” constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of “inverse norms” which play major roles with respect to various unital -algebras more generally. PMID:24959889

  20. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    PubMed

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally. PMID:24959889

  1. Antiretroviral (HIV-1) activity of azulene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peet, Julia; Selyutina, Anastasia; Bredihhin, Aleksei

    2016-04-15

    The antiretroviral activity of azulene derivatives was detected for the first time. A series of eighteen diversely substituted azulenes was synthesized and tested in vitro using HIV-1 based virus-like particles (VLPs) and infectious HIV-1 virus in U2OS and TZM-bl cell lines. Among the compounds tested, the 2-hydroxyazulenes demonstrated the most significant activity by inhibiting HIV-1 replication with IC50 of 2-10 and 8-20μM for the VLPs and the infectious virus, respectively. These results indicate that azulene derivatives may be potentially useful candidates for the development of antiretroviral agents. PMID:26964674

  2. Hydrogermylation of itaconic and sorbic derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gar, T.K.; Viktorov, N.A.; Nosova, V.M.; Kisin, A.V.; Ivashchenko, D.A.; Popkov, M.K.; Mironov, V.F.

    1987-10-10

    We have investigated the reactions of trichlorogermane with itaconic acid and its derivatives and also with derivatives of sorbic acid. It was shown that the acid chlorides and the anhydride of itaconic acid readily undergo addition with the trichlorogermane ether complex. The structures of the compounds obtained were determined by means of /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy with the use of model compounds: 3-butenoyl chloride, methyl 3-butenoate, crotonoyl chloride, methyl crotonate, and products of the addition of trichlorogermane ether complex to the latter.

  3. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  4. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  5. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... from cleaned, frozen, salted, or dried fourth stomachs (abomasa) of calves, kids, or lambs. Bovine...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c)...

  7. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  8. Comparative experimental pharmacokinetics of benzimidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, S A; Gulyaeva, I L

    2008-12-01

    Comparative study of experimental kinetics of distribution of benzimidazole derivatives (bemithyl, etomerzole, and thietazole) in organs and tissues was carried out after single and course treatment. The drugs intensely passed into organs and tissues from the blood after treatment by all protocols. Specific features of drug distribution were detected; for example, splenic tissue selectively accumulated thietazole during course treatment. PMID:19513374

  9. Lithocholic acid and derivatives: Antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Patrícia G G; Lemos, Telma L G; Almeida, Macia C S; de Souza, Juliana M O; Bizerra, Ayla M C; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; da Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop bioactive lithocholic acid derivatives, we prepared fifteen semi-synthetic compounds through modification at C-3 and/or C-24. The reactions showed yields ranging from 37% to 100%. The structures of all compounds obtained were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The activity of lithocholic acid and derivatives was evaluated against the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The derivative 3α-formyloxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (LA-06) showed the best activity, with MIC values of 0.0790 mM against E. coli (Ec 27) and B. cereus in both cases, and 0.0395 mM against S. aureus (ATCC 12692). Lithocholic acid and the derivatives with MIC⩽1.2 mM were evaluated on the susceptibility of some bacterial pathogens to the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, amikacin and gentamicin was evaluated. There are no previously reported studies about these compounds as modifiers of the action of antibiotics or any other drugs. PMID:26216208

  10. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  11. Two-point derivative dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Erasmo; Sesma, Javier

    2013-03-01

    A new derivation is given for the representation, under certain conditions, of the integral dispersion relations of scattering theory through local forms. The resulting expressions have been obtained through an independent procedure to construct the real part and consist of new mathematical structures of double infinite summations of derivatives. In this new form the derivatives are calculated at the generic value of the energy E and separately at the reference point E = m that is the lower limit of the integration. This new form may be more interesting in certain circumstances and directly shows the origin of the difficulties in convergence that were present in the old truncated forms called standard-derivative dispersion relations (DDR). For all cases in which the reductions of the double to single sums were obtained in our previous work, leading to explicit demonstration of convergence, these new expressions are seen to be identical to the previous ones. We present, as a glossary, the most simplified explicit results for the DDR's in the cases of imaginary amplitudes of forms (E/m)λ[ln (E/m)]n that cover the cases of practical interest in particle physics phenomenology at high energies. We explicitly study the expressions for the cases with λ negative odd integers, that require identification of cancelation of singularities, and provide the corresponding final results.

  12. Ethos Derived from Karaoke Performance in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ringo

    Karaoke (singing along to music videos) has swept Taiwan with such force that many people go to singing schools to improve their singing. Three cases in this paper demonstrate how the ethos, or credibility, of the singer is a combination of initial and derived ethos. Who the singer is tends to determine how much attention he or she receives…

  13. Constraining higher derivative supergravity with scattering amplitudes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-08-31

    We study supersymmetry constraints on higher derivative deformations of type IIB supergravity by consideration of superamplitudes. Thus, combining constraints of on-shell supervertices and basic results from string perturbation theory, we give a simple argument for the non-renormalization theorem of Green and Sethi, and some of its generalizations.

  14. Cometary masses derived from nongravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, A.; Fernández, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    We derive masses and densities for a number of short period comets with known sizes, including 1P/Halley, 2P/Encke, 6P/d'Arrest, 9P/Tempel 1, 10P/Tempel 2, 19P/Borrelly, 22P/Kopff, 45P/Honda-Mkros-Pajdusáková, 46P/Wirtanen, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and 81P/Wild 2. The method follows the one developed by Rickman et al. (1987) based on the asymmetry of the gas production curve, and the delay or advance in the time of the perihelion passage with respect to the one derived for a purely gravitational orbit. This delay or advance in the time of the perihelion passage is related to a change in the orbital period, which is due to the forces arising from the anisotropic outflow of gas, causing a jet acceleration on the nucleus. The gas production curve is derived from an empirical correlation with the visual light curve. Therefore, from the observed light curve and change in the orbital period, we can derive the perturbing force components and hence the mass. The computed densities are in all cases very low (less than about 0.8/cm^3) in agreement with previous results and models of the cometary nucleus depicting it as a very porous object.

  15. 78 FR 76787 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 15, 17, 19, 32, 37, 38, 140 and 150 RIN 3038-AD99 Position Limits for Derivatives Correction In proposed rule document 2013-27200 appearing on pages 75679 through 75842 in the issue of Thursday, December 12, 2013, Table 10...

  16. Singlet exciton fission in a hexacene derivative.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Bruzek, Matthew J; Thompson, Nicholas J; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Anthony, John E; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-03-13

    Hexacene, an acene with six benzene rings, is notable for its exceptionally small triplet energy, around one third of the singlet energy. Herein, singlet fission, i.e., conversion of a singlet exciton into two triplets, is demonstrated in a thin film of hexacene derivative, employing both transient absorption spectroscopy and magnetic field effects on photocurrent. PMID:23293054

  17. Radioimmunoassay of tuberculoprotein derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, E; Wu, N

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was developed for constituent of the purified-protein derivative obtained from cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Crossreacting immunoreactive material was detected in cultures of other mycobacterial species, but no immunoreactivity was present in cultures of various fungal and bacterial species. The development of specific radioimmunoassays for tuberculoproteins offers a new research and diagnostic approach. Images PMID:6933481

  18. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  19. New norbornyl derivatives as woody fragrant materials.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Agnès; Duñach, Elisabet; Clinet, Jean-Claude; Plessis, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The optimization of a Diels-Alder reaction to prepare a novel ketone bearing a 2,3-dimethylnorbornyl group is presented together with the structure elucidation of the isomers. Employing this new ketone as starting material, derivatives with new woody odor notes as well as attempts to obtain ambery-musky odorants are reported. PMID:18618398

  20. Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearle, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is

  1. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  2. Lie Algebras of Derivations and Resolvent Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Grundling, Hendrik

    2013-06-01

    This paper analyzes the action δ of a Lie algebra X by derivations on a C*-algebra {{A}} . This action satisfies an "almost inner" property which ensures affiliation of the generators of the derivations δ with {{A}} , and is expressed in terms of corresponding pseudo-resolvents. In particular, for an abelian Lie algebra X acting on a primitive C*-algebra {{A}} , it is shown that there is a central extension of X which determines algebraic relations of the underlying pseudo-resolvents. If the Lie action δ is ergodic, i. e. the only elements of {{A}} on which all the derivations in δ X vanish are multiples of the identity, then this extension is given by a (non-degenerate) symplectic form σ on X. Moreover, the algebra generated by the pseudo-resolvents coincides with the resolvent algebra based on the symplectic space ( X, σ). Thus the resolvent algebra of the canonical commutation relations, which was recently introduced in physically motivated analyses of quantum systems, appears also naturally in the representation theory of Lie algebras of derivations acting on C*-algebras.

  3. Alternative Derivations for the Poisson Integral Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J. T.; Wu, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    Poisson integral formula is revisited. The kernel in the Poisson integral formula can be derived in a series form through the direct BEM free of the concept of image point by using the null-field integral equation in conjunction with the degenerate kernels. The degenerate kernels for the closed-form Green's function and the series form of Poisson…

  4. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  5. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

  6. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, James Eugene; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Whetten, Ernest Blayne

    1998-01-01

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

  7. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  8. Ecosystem Services Derived from Headwater Catchments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data from the USEPA’s wadeable streams assessment (WSA), US Forest Service’s forest inventory and analysis (FIA), and select USFS experimental forests (EF) to investigate potential ecosystems services derived from headwater catchments. C, N, and P inputs to these catchmen...

  9. Pharmacological characterization of tachykinin tetrabranched derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ruzza, Chiara; Rizzi, Anna; Malfacini, Davide; Cerlesi, Maria Camilla; Ferrari, Federica; Marzola, Erika; Ambrosio, Caterina; Gro, Cristina; Severo, Salvadori; Costa, Tommaso; Calo, Girolamo; Guerrini, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Peptide welding technology (PWT) is a novel chemical strategy that allows the synthesis of multibranched peptides with high yield, purity and reproducibility. Using this technique, we have synthesized and pharmacologically characterized the tetrabranched derivatives of the tachykinins, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and B (NKB). Experimental Approach The following in vitro assays were used: calcium mobilization in cells expressing human recombinant NK receptors, BRET studies of G-protein – NK1 receptor interaction, guinea pig ileum and rat urinary bladder bioassays. Nociceptive behavioural response experiments were performed in mice following intrathecal injection of PWT2-SP. Key Results In calcium mobilization studies, PWT tachykinin derivatives behaved as full agonists at NK receptors with a selectivity profile similar to that of the natural peptides. NK receptor antagonists display similar potency values when tested against PWT2 derivatives and natural peptides. In BRET and bioassay experiments PWT2-SP mimicked the effects of SP with similar potency, maximal effects and sensitivity to aprepitant. After intrathecal administration in mice, PWT2-SP mimicked the nociceptive effects of SP, but with higher potency and a longer-lasting action. Aprepitant counteracted the effects of PWT2-SP in vivo. Conclusions and Implications The present study has shown that the PWT technology can be successfully applied to the peptide sequence of tachykinins to generate tetrabranched derivatives characterized with a pharmacological profile similar to the native peptides. In vivo, PWT2-SP displayed higher potency and a marked prolongation of action, compared with SP. PMID:24758475

  10. An accelerated subspace iteration for eigenvector derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Tienko

    1991-01-01

    An accelerated subspace iteration method for calculating eigenvector derivatives has been developed. Factors affecting the effectiveness and the reliability of the subspace iteration are identified, and effective strategies concerning these factors are presented. The method has been implemented, and the results of a demonstration problem are presented.

  11. Synthesis of hydroxy derivatives of limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardashov, O. V.; Volcho, K. P.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

    2014-04-01

    Synthetic routes to mono-, di- and trihydroxy derivatives of limonene are presented. Emphasis is given to the problems of regio- and stereoselectivity of transformations. Data on the isolation from natural sources and on the biological activities of the title compounds are given. The bibliography includes 107 references.

  12. Dynamic derivative UV spectroscopy for combustion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassenscheid, Karsten; Klocke, Ulrich; Marb, C.; Riedel, H.; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Tacke, Maurus

    1999-01-01

    Derivative UV-absorption spectroscopy is a powerful spectroscopic technique for multicomponent gas analysis, particularly in combustion and process controlling applications. It offers enhanced selectivity and sensitivity compared to conventional techniques. We here report on a test of a special system with optical derivative generation in a waste incineration plant. Gas analysis is performed by transmission spectroscopy. A deuterium lamp is used as UV- source. Spectroscopic filtering is provided by a special grating monochromator. The grating is mounted on a galvanometer scanner, thus allowing a computer controlled wavelength scan and modulation. Signal analysis is performed with lock-in amplifier. The is from of detection for derivative spectra with a movable optical component is the origin of the term DYnamic Derivative Spectroscopy (DDS). The performance of this spectroscopic technique was demonstrated in a measurement campaign at a municipal solid waste incineration plant. The sensitivity for relevant gases is blow ppm level with an optical cell length of 10cm. The basics of the DDS and its performance will be explained, and data on NO, SO2 and NO2 will be reported.

  13. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...

  14. Ecosystem Services Derived from Headwater Catchments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data from the USEPAs wadeable streams assessment (WSA), US Forest Services forest inventory and analysis (FIA), and select USFS experimental forests (EF) to investigate potential ecosystems services derived from headwater catchments. C, N, and P inputs to these catchmen...

  15. Approximate methods for derivation of covariance data

    SciTech Connect

    Tagesen, S.; Larson, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    Several approaches for the derivation of covariance information for evaluated nuclear data files (EFF2 and ENDF/B-VI) have been developed and used at IRK and ORNL respectively. Considerations, governing the choice of a distinct method depending on the quantity and quality of available data are presented, advantages/disadvantages are discussed and examples of results are given.

  16. Robust Derivation of Risk Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.

  17. Deriving a Pedagogy of Educational Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    This sixth and last paper in the series describes four elements believed to be crucial to a high quality pedagogy for educational foundations. These four elements are derived from a close reading of the previous papers. The work of Osguthorpe, Sanger, Haniford, and Mucher, four of the authors in this series, is cited as both a source for these…

  18. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H; Nakagawa, S

    1987-03-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml. PMID:3555334

  19. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H; Nakagawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml. Images PMID:3555334

  20. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose, amino-benzyl cellulose and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose were carried out. Cellulose derivatives were synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide homogeneous solution. Nitrobenzylation was effec...