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Sample records for benzothiazolate ligand evidence

  1. New platinum(II) complexes with benzo-thia-zole ligands.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Negrón, José A; Cádiz, Mayra E; Moore, Curtis E; Rheingold, Arnold L; Meléndez, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Four new platinum(II) complexes, namely tetra-ethyl-ammonium tri-bromido-(2-methyl-1,3-benzo-thia-zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C8H7NS)] (1), tetra-ethyl-ammonium tri-bromido-(6-meth-oxy-2-methyl-1,3-benzo-thia-zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C9H9NOS)] (2), tetra-ethyl-ammonium tri-bromido-(2,5,6-trimethyl-1,3-benzo-thia-zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C10H11NS)] (3), and tetra-ethyl-ammonium tri-bromido-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1,3-benzo-thia-zole-κN)platinate(II), [NEt4][PtBr3(C8H6N2O2S)] (4), have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. These species are precursors of compounds with potential application in cancer chemotherapy. All four platinum(II) complexes adopt the expected square-planar coordination geometry, and the benzo-thia-zole ligand is engaged in bonding to the metal atom through the imine N atom (Pt-N). The Pt-N bond lengths are normal: 2.035 (5), 2.025 (4), 2.027 (5) and 2.041 (4) Å for complexes 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The benzo-thia-zole ligands are positioned out of the square plane, with dihedral angles ranging from 76.4 (4) to 88.1 (4)°. The NEt4 cation in 3 is disordered with 0.57/0.43 occupancies. PMID:27006819

  2. Cu(II) and Cu(I) coordination complexes involving two tetrathiafulvalene-1,3-benzothiazole hybrid ligands and their radical cation salts.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Sayo; Tsujimoto, Keijiro; Hayashi, Sadayoshi; Pointillart, Fabrice; Ouahab, Lahcène; Fujiwara, Hideki

    2013-06-01

    Preparations, crystal structure analyses, and magnetic property investigations on a new Cu(II)(hfac)2 complex coordinated with two TTF-CH═CH-BTA ligands, where hfac is hexafluoroacetylacetonate, TTF is tetrathiafulvalene, and BTA is 1,3-benzothiazole, are reported together with those of its dicationic AsF6(-) salt, [Cu(hfac)2(TTF-CH═CH-BTA)2](AsF6)2, in which each TTF part is in a radical cation state. In these Cu(II)(hfac)2 complexes, two ligands are bonded to the central Cu atom of the Cu(hfac)2 part through the nitrogen atom of the 1,3-benzothiazole ring and occupy the two apical positions of the Cu(hfac)2 complex with an elongated octahedral geometry. These two ligands are located parallelly in a transverse head-to-tail manner, and the Cu(hfac)2 moiety is closely sandwiched by these two ligands. In the AsF6(-) salt of the Cu(hfac)2 complex, each TTF dimer is separated by the AsF6(-) anions and has no overlap with each other within the one-dimensional arrays, resulting in an insulating behavior. Both Cu(hfac)2 complexes showed the simple Curie-like temperature dependence of paramagnetic susceptibilities (χM), indicating that no interaction exists between the paramagnetic Cu(II) d spins. Furthermore, crystal structure analysis and magnetic/conducting properties of a radical cation ReO4(-) salt of the Cu(I) complex with two TTF-CH═CH-BTA ligands, [Cu(TTF-CH═CH-BTA)2](ReO4)2, are also described. Two nitrogen atoms of the ligands are connected to the central Cu(I) in a linear dicoordination with a Cu-N bond length of 1.879(9) Å. Two TTF parts of the neighboring complexes form a dimerized structure, and such a TTF dimer forms a one-dimensional uniform array along the a direction with a short S-S contact of 3.88 Å. Magnetic property measurement suggested the existence of a strongly antiferromagnetic one-dimensional uniform chain of S = 1/2 spins that originate from the radical cation states of the TTF dimers. Due to the construction of the one

  3. Structural evidence for asymmetric ligand binding to transthyretin.

    PubMed

    Cianci, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Zonta, Francesco; Florio, Paola; Berni, Rodolfo; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Human transthyretin (TTR) represents a notable example of an amyloidogenic protein, and several compounds that are able to stabilize its native state have been proposed as effective drugs in the therapy of TTR amyloidosis. The two thyroxine (T4) binding sites present in the TTR tetramer display negative binding cooperativity. Here, structures of TTR in complex with three natural polyphenols (pterostilbene, quercetin and apigenin) have been determined, in which this asymmetry manifests itself as the presence of a main binding site with clear ligand occupancy and related electron density and a second minor site with a much lower ligand occupancy. The results of an analysis of the structural differences between the two binding sites are consistent with such a binding asymmetry. The different ability of TTR ligands to saturate the two T4 binding sites of the tetrameric protein can be ascribed to the different affinity of ligands for the weaker binding site. In comparison, the high-affinity ligand tafamidis, co-crystallized under the same experimental conditions, was able to fully saturate the two T4 binding sites. This asymmetry is characterized by the presence of small but significant differences in the conformation of the cavity of the two binding sites. Molecular-dynamics simulations suggest the presence of even larger differences in solution. Competition binding assays carried out in solution revealed the presence of a preferential binding site in TTR for the polyphenols pterostilbene and quercetin that was different from the preferential binding site for T4. The TTR binding asymmetry could possibly be exploited for the therapy of TTR amyloidosis by using a cocktail of two drugs, each of which exhibits preferential binding for a distinct binding site, thus favouring saturation of the tetrameric protein and consequently its stabilization. PMID:26249340

  4. Platinum chloride complexes containing 6-[9,9-di(2-ethylhexyl)-7-R-9H-fluoren-2-yl]-2,2'-bipyridine ligand (R = NO2, CHO, benzothiazol-2-yl, n-Bu, carbazol-9-yl, NPh2): tunable photophysics and reverse saturable absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjing; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Ugrinov, Angel; Kilina, Svetlana; Sun, Wenfang

    2013-07-01

    Six new platinum(II) chloride complexes 1-6 containing a 6-[9,9-di(2-ethylhexyl)-7-R-9H-fluoren-2-yl]-2,2'-bipyridine (R = NO2, CHO, benzothiazol-2-yl (BTZ), n-Bu, carbazol-9-yl (CBZ), NPh2) ligand were synthesized and characterized. The influence of the electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituent at the 7-position of the fluorenyl component on the photophysics of these complexes was systematically investigated by spectroscopic methods and simulated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Electron-withdrawing or -donating substituents exert distinct effects on the photophysics of the complexes. All complexes feature a low-energy, broad (1)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer)/(1)ILCT (intraligand charge transfer)/(1)π,π* absorption band (tail) above ca. 430 nm and a major absorption band(s) between 320 and 430 nm, which admix (1)MLCT, (1)π,π*, (1)ILCT, and/or (1)LLCT (ligand-to-ligand charge transfer) characters. The contributions of different configurations to the major absorption band(s) vary depending on the nature of the substituent. Strong electron-donating or -withdrawing substituents (NPh2 and NO2) and the aromatic substituent BTZ cause a pronounced red-shift of the absorption spectra of 1, 3, and 6. All complexes are emissive at room temperature and at 77 K. The emitting excited state is dominated by (3)π,π* character in 1-3, with some contributions from (3)MLCT in 1 and 2, while the emission is predominantly from the (3)MLCT state for 4 and 5 but with some (3)π,π* character. For 6, the emitting state is (3)ILCT in nature. With the increased electron-donating ability of the substituent, the (3)π,π* character diminishes while charge transfer character increases. All complexes exhibit broad and strong triplet excited-state absorption (TA) from the near-UV to the near-IR spectral region. The TA band maxima are red-shifted for complexes 1-3 (which possess the electron-withdrawing substituents) compared to those of 4-6 (which

  5. Synthesis and X-ray diffraction study of palladium(II) 1,3-diphenyl-5-(benzothiazol-2-yl)formazanate

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidman, A. V. Pervova, I. G.; Rezinskikh, Z. G.; Lipunov, I. N.; Slepukhin, P. A.

    2010-05-15

    The behavior of 1,3-diphenyl-5-(benzothiazol-2-yl)formazan as a bidentate ligand in the synthesis of the mononuclear palladium complex was investigated using slow diffusion. According to the X-ray diffraction study, the PdN4 coordination unit has a distorted square structure. The ligands form two six-membered chelate rings formed through the N1 and N4 atoms of the formazan fragment.

  6. The thermodynamic properties of benzothiazole and benzoxazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Knipmeyer, S. E.; Nguyen, A.

    1991-08-01

    This research program, funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Advanced Extraction and Process Technology, provides accurate experimental thermochemical and thermophysical properties for key organic diheteroatom-containing compounds present in heavy petroleum feedstocks, and applies the experimental information to thermodynamic analyses of key hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodeoxygenation reaction networks. Thermodynamic analyses, based on accurate information, provide insights for the design of cost-effective methods of heteroatom removal. The results reported here, and in a companion report to be completed, will point the way to the development of new methods of heteroatom removal from heavy petroleum. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for benzothiazole and benzoxazole. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclinded-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c). Critical property estimates are made for both compounds. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 280 K and near 650 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathways for the removal of the heteratoms by hydrogenolysis. The results obtained in this research are compared with values present in the literature. The failure of a previous adiabatic heat capacity study to see the phase transition in benzothiazole is noted. Literature vibrational frequency assignments were used to calculate ideal gas entropies in the temperature range reported here for both compounds. Resulting large deviations show the need for a revision of those assignments.

  7. The thermodynamic properties of benzothiazole and benzoxazole

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.

    1991-08-01

    This research program, funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Advanced Extraction and Process Technology, provides accurate experimental thermochemical and thermophysical properties for key'' organic diheteroatom-containing compounds present in heavy petroleum feedstocks, and applies the experimental information to thermodynamic analyses of key hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodeoxygenation reaction networks. Thermodynamic analyses, based on accurate information, provide insights for the design of cost-effective methods of heteroatom removal. The results reported here, and in a companion report to be completed, will point the way to the development of new methods of heteroatom removal from heavy petroleum. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for benzothiazole and benzoxazole. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclinded-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c). Critical property estimates are made for both compounds. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 280 K and near 650 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathways for the removal of the heteratoms by hydrogenolysis. The results obtained in this research are compared with values present in the literature. The failure of a previous adiabatic heat capacity study to see the phase transition in benzothiazole is noted. Literature vibrational frequency assignments were used to calculate ideal gas entropies in the temperature range reported here for both compounds. Resulting large deviations show the need for a revision of those assignments. 68 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized polypropylene/halloysite nanotubes composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingxian; Guo, Baochun; Lei, Yanda; Du, Mingliang; Jia, Demin

    2009-02-01

    Clay-philic benzothiazole sulfide, capable of donating electrons, is grafted onto polypropylene (PP) backbones when N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), a commonly used accelerator in the tire industry, is included in the processing of PP/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites. CBS decomposes at elevated temperature and yields benzothiazole sulfide radicals, which react with the PP polymeric free radicals generated during the processing of the composites. On the other hand, the benzothiazole group of CBS is reactive to HNTs via electron transferring. The compatibilization between HNTs and PP is thus realized via interfacial grafting and electron transferring mechanism. The interfacial interactions in the compatibilized systems were fully characterized. Compared with the control sample, the dispersion of HNTs and the interfacial bonding are enhanced substantially in the compatibilized composites. The significantly improved mechanical properties and thermal properties of benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized PP/HNTs composites are correlated to the enhanced interfacial property. The present work demonstrates a novel interfacial design via interfacial grafting/electron transferring for the compatibilization of PP/clay composites.

  9. Initial Transformations in the Biodegradation of Benzothiazoles by Rhodococcus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    De Wever, Helene; Vereecken, Karen; Stolz, Andreas; Verachtert, Hubert

    1998-01-01

    Benzothiazole-2-sulfonate (BTSO3) is one of the side products occurring in 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) production wastewater. We are the first to isolate an axenic culture capable of BTSO3 degradation. The isolate was identified as a Rhodococcus erythropolis strain and also degraded 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (OBT) and benzothiazole (BT), but not MBT, which was found to inhibit the biodegradation of OBT, BT, and BTSO3. In anaerobic resting cell assays, BTSO3 was transformed into OBT in stoichiometric amounts. Under aerobic conditions, OBT was observed as an intermediate in BT breakdown and an unknown compound transiently accumulated in several assays. This product was identified as a dihydroxybenzothiazole. Benzothiazole degradation pathways seem to converge into OBT, which is then transformed further into the dihydroxy derivative. PMID:9726870

  10. Occurrence and removal efficiencies of benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles in a wastewater treatment plant in Greece.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Ajibola, Akinranti; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2013-05-01

    Despite the widespread use of benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles and the occurrence of these compounds in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), no earlier study has comprehensively examined their fate in WWTPs. In this study, an integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(+)MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of four benzotriazoles and four benzothiazoles in dissolved and particulate phases of wastewater (raw and treated), and in dewatered sewage sludge. The target benzotriazoles (BTRs) were 1H-benzotriazole, 1-hydroxy-benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, and xylyltriazole (or 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole), and the target benzothiazoles (BTHs) were benzothiazole, 2-hydroxy-benzothiazole, 2-methylthio-benzothiazole, and 2-amino-benzothiazole. The limits of detection ranged from 0.08 (2-methylthio-benzothiazole) to 17 ng/L (benzothiazole) for dissolved phase samples, and from 0.04 (2-methylthio-benzothiazole) to 13 ng/g dry weight (dw) (benzothiazole) for particular matter and sludge samples. The method was applied in the analysis of wastewater and sludge samples from the WWTP in Athens, Greece. All target chemicals were detected in wastewater samples, and in some cases the concentrations were significant, on the order of a few μg/L. In sludge samples, benzothiazole and tolyltriazole were present at the highest concentrations (174 and 116 ng/g dw, respectively). For benzotriazole and tolyltriazole, the removal efficiency was below 68%, and for benzothiazoles, the removal efficiency was greater than 64% in the activated sludge treatment process. Both BTRs and BTHs showed low solid-liquid distribution coefficients. PMID:23500410

  11. Synthesis and 11C-Radiolabelling of 2-Carboranyl Benzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Gona, Kiran B; Thota, Jaya Lakshmi V N P; Baz, Zuriñe; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Llop, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes, commonly known as carboranes, possess unique physico-chemical properties and can be used as hydrophobic moieties during the design of new drugs or radiotracers. In this work, we report the synthesis of two analogues of 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzothiazole (a compound that was found to elicit pronounced inhibitory effects against certain breast cancer cell lines in vitro) in which the phenyl ring has been substituted by a m-carborane cage. Two different synthetic strategies have been used. For the preparation of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)-benzo-thiazole, the benzothiazole group was first introduced on one of the cluster carbon atoms of m-carborane and the amine group was further attached in three steps. For the synthesis of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, iodination was performed before introducing the benzothiazole group, and the amino group was subsequently introduced in six steps. Both compounds were radiolabelled with carbon-11 using [11C]CH3OTf as the labelling agent. Radiolabelling yields and radiochemical purities achieved should enable subsequent in vitro and in vivo investigations. PMID:25915463

  12. Benzothiazole Sulfinate: a Water-Soluble and Slow-Releasing Sulfur Dioxide Donor.

    PubMed

    Day, Jacob J; Yang, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei; Pacheco, Armando; Xian, Ming

    2016-06-17

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has long been considered a toxic environmental pollutant and byproduct of industrial processing. Recently it has become evident that SO2 may also have regulatory functions in mammalian pulmonary systems. However, the study of these effects has proven to be challenging due to the difficulty in administering SO2 in a reliable manner. In this work, we report the discovery of a new pH-dependent and water-soluble SO2 donor, benzothiazole sulfinate (BTS). We have found BTS to have slow and sustained SO2 release at physiological pH. Additionally, we have explored its vasorelaxation properties as compared to the authentic SO2 gas solutions. The slow release of BTS should make it a useful tool for the study of endogenously generated SO2. PMID:27031093

  13. Evidence for local relaxin ligand-receptor expression and function in arteries.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jacqueline; Parry, Laura J; Matthews, Julianna E; Kerchner, Laurie J; Indovina, Kimberly; Hanley-Yanez, Karen; Doty, Ketah D; Debrah, Dan O; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Conrad, Kirk P

    2006-11-01

    Relaxin is a 6 kDa protein hormone produced by the corpus luteum and secreted into the blood during pregnancy in rodents and humans. Growing evidence indicates that circulating relaxin causes vasodilatation and increases in arterial compliance, which may be among its most important actions during pregnancy. Here we investigated whether there is local expression and function of relaxin and relaxin receptor in arteries of nonpregnant females and males. Relaxin-1 and its major receptor, Lgr7, mRNA are expressed in thoracic aortas, small renal and mesenteric arteries from mice and rats of both sexes, as well as in small renal arteries from female tammar wallabies (an Australian marsupial). Using available antibodies for rat and mouse Lgr7 receptor and rat relaxin, we also identified protein expression in arteries. Small renal arteries isolated from relaxin-1 gene-deficient mice demonstrate enhanced myogenic reactivity and decreased passive compliance relative to wild-type (WT) and heterozygous mice. Taken together, these findings reveal an arterial-derived, relaxin ligand-receptor system that acts locally to regulate arterial function. PMID:17077312

  14. Antimicrobial Applications of Transition Metal Complexes of Benzothiazole Based Terpolymer: Synthesis, Characterization, and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Strains

    PubMed Central

    Riswan Ahamed, Mohamed A.; Azarudeen, Raja S.; Kani, N. Mujafar

    2014-01-01

    Terpolymer of 2-amino-6-nitro-benzothiazole-ethylenediamine-formaldehyde (BEF) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and various spectral techniques like FTIR, UV-Visible, and 1H and 13C-NMR. The terpolymer metal complexes were prepared with Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ metal ions using BEF terpolymer as a ligand. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and IR, UV-Visible, ESR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectral studies. Gel permeation chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight of the ligand. The surface features and crystalline behavior of the ligand and its complexes were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction methods. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to analyze the thermal stability of the ligand and its metal complexes. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy (Ea) and order of reaction (n) and thermodynamic parameters, namely, ΔS, ΔF, S*, and Z, were calculated using Freeman-Carroll (FC), Sharp-Wentworth (SW), and Phadnis-Deshpande (PD) methods. Thermal degradation model of the terpolymer and its metal complexes was also proposed using PD method. Biological activities of the ligand and its complexes were tested against Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium species, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mucor species fungi. PMID:25298760

  15. Evidence of Conformational Selection Driving the Formation of Ligand Binding Sites in Protein-Protein Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Bohnuud, Tanggis; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    Many protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are compelling targets for drug discovery, and in a number of cases can be disrupted by small molecules. The main goal of this study is to examine the mechanism of binding site formation in the interface region of proteins that are PPI targets by comparing ligand-free and ligand-bound structures. To avoid any potential bias, we focus on ensembles of ligand-free protein conformations obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and deposited in the Protein Data Bank, rather than on ensembles specifically generated for this study. The measures used for structure comparison are based on detecting binding hot spots, i.e., protein regions that are major contributors to the binding free energy. The main tool of the analysis is computational solvent mapping, which explores the surface of proteins by docking a large number of small “probe” molecules. Although we consider conformational ensembles obtained by NMR techniques, the analysis is independent of the method used for generating the structures. Finding the energetically most important regions, mapping can identify binding site residues using ligand-free models based on NMR data. In addition, the method selects conformations that are similar to some peptide-bound or ligand-bound structure in terms of the properties of the binding site. This agrees with the conformational selection model of molecular recognition, which assumes such pre-existing conformations. The analysis also shows the maximum level of similarity between unbound and bound states that is achieved without any influence from a ligand. Further shift toward the bound structure assumes protein-peptide or protein-ligand interactions, either selecting higher energy conformations that are not part of the NMR ensemble, or leading to induced fit. Thus, forming the sites in protein-protein interfaces that bind peptides and can be targeted by small ligands always includes conformational selection, although

  16. In vivo and in vitro effects of benzothiazole on sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus).

    PubMed

    Evans, J J; Shoemaker, C A; Klesius, P H

    2000-01-01

    Benzothiazole, a common chemical associated with tire manufacturing and industrial wastewater, is a principal component of both fresh water and estuarine tire leachate, a neurotoxicant to larval sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in in vivo estuarine studies. The neurotoxic potential of benzothiazole was investigated following in vivo and in vitro exposure of sheepshead minnows to 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg/l benzothiazole. Following benzothiazole exposure, fish were evaluated for survival, growth and histological alterations. Fish mortality occurred after 5 days of exposure to 60 mg/l (LC50 = 41.9). Significant decreases in larval growth were noted at all concentrations. Histologically, gills had cellular alterations but the central nervous system lacked the severe cellular damage seen in previous tire leachate exposure studies. Benzothiazole cytotoxicity to primary cultures of brain cells from sheepshead minnow and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and two epithelial cell lines was evaluated using a tetrazolium salt assay (MTT) at 1 and 4 days. In vitro results indicate primary cultures of brain cells are less sensitive to benzothiazole than epithelial cell lines. Significant cytotoxicity to the epithelial cell lines was noted at 30 and 60 mg/l concentrations. Histologically and cytotoxicologically, the present study indicates that benzothiazole is a gill toxicant and not a neurotoxicant. PMID:11460700

  17. A Comprehensive Review on Recent advances in Synthesis & Pharmacotherapeutic potential of Benzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Seth, Sonakshi

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. Benzothiazole is a class of heterocyclic compounds having 2 hetero atoms namely, sulphur and nitrogen. The analogues of benzothiazoles and its derivatives have a significant role in research area especially in synthetic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry because of their biological and pharmacological activity. These compounds have special significance in the field of Medicinal chemistry due to their remarkable pharmacological potentialities. Benzothiazole is an organosulfur heterocyclic compound, weakly basic in nature. They are widely found in bioorganic and medicinal chemistry with wide application in drug discovery. Benzothiazoles are fused membered rings, which contain the heterocycles bearing thiazole as central moiety. A large number of therapeutic agents are synthesized with the help of benzothiazoles nucleus. In addition, benzothiazoles act as core nucleus in various drugs due to their various activities e.g. pramipexole, probenazole, lubeluzole, zopolrestat, ethoxazolamide and bentaluron etc. and their derivatives have attracted a great deal of interest due to their wide range of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antitubercular, anti-HIV, cardiovascular, local anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and anti-diabetic. The therapeutic properties of the heterocycles have encouraged the medicinal chemist to synthesize a large number of novel chemotherapeutic agents. This review is mainly an attempt to present the research work reported in the recent scientific literature focusing on different biological activities of benzothiazoles compounds. PMID:26017385

  18. A fluorescent benzothiazole probe with efficient two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Lorenzo; Moreno, Iván; Camacho, José; Salazar, Mary Carmen; Hernández, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we report the two-photon absorption of 2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-1,3-benzothiazole-6-carbonitrile (DBC) in DMSO solution pumping at 779 nm with a 10 ns pulse laser-Nd:YAG system. The obtained two-photon absorption cross-section in DBC (407 ± 18 GM) is considerably high. Because DBC is a novel compound and have high values of fluorescence quantum yield, this result is expected to have an impact in biomolecules detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Similar structures have previously been reported to show remarkable antitumour effects.

  19. Evidence for chemoreceptors with bimodular ligand-binding regions harboring two signal-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Molina, Estela; Reyes-Darias, José-Antonio; Lacal, Jesús; Ramos, Juan L.; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gavira, Jose A.; Krell, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Chemoreceptor-based signaling is a central mechanism in bacterial signal transduction. Receptors are classified according to the size of their ligand-binding region. The well-studied cluster I proteins have a 100- to 150-residue ligand-binding region that contains a single site for chemoattractant recognition. Cluster II receptors, which contain a 220- to 300-residue ligand-binding region and which are almost as abundant as cluster I receptors, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report high-resolution structures of the ligand-binding region of the cluster II McpS chemotaxis receptor (McpS-LBR) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in complex with different chemoattractants. The structure of McpS-LBR represents a small-molecule binding domain composed of two modules, each able to bind different signal molecules. Malate and succinate were found to bind to the membrane-proximal module, whereas acetate binds to the membrane-distal module. A structural alignment of the two modules revealed that the ligand-binding sites could be superimposed and that amino acids involved in ligand recognition are conserved in both binding sites. Ligand binding to both modules was shown to trigger chemotactic responses. Further analysis showed that McpS-like receptors were found in different classes of proteobacteria, indicating that this mode of response to different carbon sources may be universally distributed. The physiological relevance of the McpS architecture may lie in its capacity to respond with high sensitivity to the preferred carbon sources malate and succinate and, at the same time, mediate lower sensitivity responses to the less preferred but very abundant carbon source acetate. PMID:23112148

  20. Application of the SOS/umu test and high-content in vitro micronucleus test to determine genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of nine benzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yan; Weiwei, Jiang; Na, Li; Mei, Ma; Kaifeng, Rao; Zijian, Wang

    2014-12-01

    Benzothiazole and benzothiazole derivatives (BTs) have been detected in various environmental matrices as well as in human beings, but little is currently available regarding their toxicities. In our study, genotoxicities of nine BTs (benzothiazole [BT], 2-chlorobenzothiazole [CBT], 2-bromobenzothiazole [BrBT], 2-fluorobenzothiazole [FBT], 2-methylbenzothiazole [MeBT], 2-mercaptobenzothiazole [MBT], 2-aminobenzothiazole [ABT], 2-hydroxy-benzothiazole [OHBT] and 2-methythiobenzothiazole [MTBT]) are comprehensively evaluated by the SOS/umu test using the bacterial Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 for DNA-damaging effect and the high content in vitro micronucleus test using two human carcinoma cells (MGC-803 and A549) for chromosome-damaging effect. The cytotoxicity of BTs on both bacteria and two human cells was also evaluated. Except for the cytotoxic effect of MBT on MGC-803 and A549, the other tested BTs showed more than 50% cytotoxicity at their highest concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, and their LC50s ranged from 19 (MBT in bacteria) to 270 mg l(-1) (CBT in A549). Activation and inactivation were observed for specific BTs after metabolism. On the other hand, no evidence of genotoxicity was obtained for BT, FBT and MBT, and DNA damage was induced by ABT, OHBT, BrBT and MTBT in MGC-803, by MeBT in A549 and by CBT in both cells. Through quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis, two structure alerts for chemical genotoxicity, including heterocyclic amine and hacceptor-path3-hacceptor are present in ABT and OHBT respectively; however, the underlying mechanisms still need further evaluation. PMID:24478133

  1. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  2. Transition Metal-Free Amidoalkylation of Benzothiazoles and Amidoalkylarylation of Activated Alkenes with N,N-Dialkylamides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Jing; Huang, Jinbo; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    A general and practical amidoalkylation reaction, using N,N-dialkylamides in the presence of potassium persulfate as the sole reagent, has been developed. 2-Amidoalkylated benzothiazole- and 3-amidoalkyl-substituted indolinone derivatives were obtained by using benzothiazoles and N-aryl-N-methyl-methacrylamides as substrates, respectively. The transformation proceeded smoothly through amidoalkyl radical intermediates that were trapped by benzothiazoles or activated alkenes. PMID:26974600

  3. Evidence for Ligand-Independent Activation of Hippocampal Estrogen Receptor-α by IGF-1 in Hippocampus of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Elin M; Daniel, Jill M

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of ovarian estrogens, increased levels of estrogen receptor (ER)α in the hippocampus are associated with improvements in cognition. In vitro evidence indicates that under conditions of low estrogen, growth factors, including Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), can activate ERα and regulate ERα-mediated transcription through mechanisms that likely involve modification of phosphorylation sites on the receptor. The goal of the current work was to investigate a role for IGF-1 in ligand-independent activation of ERα in the hippocampus of female rats. Ovariectomized rats received a single intracerebroventricular infusion of IGF-1 and hippocampi were collected 1 or 24 hours later. After 1 h, IGF-1 increased hippocampal levels of phosphorylated ERα at serine 118 (S118) as revealed by Western blotting. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that at 1 hour after infusion, IGF-1 increased association between ERα and steroid receptor coactivator 1, a histone acetyltransferase that increases transcriptional activity of phosphorylated ERα. IGF-1 infusion increased levels of the ERα-regulated proteins ERα, choline acetyltransferase, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus 24 hours after infusion. Results indicate that IGF-1 activates ERα in ligand-independent manner in the hippocampus via phosphorylation at S118 resulting in increased association of ERα with steroid receptor coactivator 1 and elevation of ER-regulated proteins. To our knowledge, these data are the first in vivo evidence of ligand-independent actions of ERα and provide a mechanism by which ERα can impact memory in the absence of ovarian estrogens. PMID:27254005

  4. Chemiluminescence evidence supporting the selective role of ligands in the permanganate oxidation of micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Mark S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Parry, Samuel; Linton, Stuart M; Thornton, Megan T; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2013-10-10

    The selective increase in the oxidation rate of certain organic compounds with permanganate in the presence of environmental "ligands" and reduced species has been ascribed to the different reactivity of the target compounds toward Mn(III), which bears striking similarities to recent independent investigations into the use of permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent. In spite of the importance of Mn(III) in the light-producing pathway, the dependence of the oxidation mechanism for any given compound on this intermediate could not be determined solely through the emission intensity. However, target compounds susceptible to single-electron oxidation by Mn(III) (such as bisphenol A and triclosan) can be easily distinguished by the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensity when a permanganate reagent containing high, stable concentrations of Mn(III) is used. The differences are accentuated under the low pH conditions that favor the chemiluminescence emission due to the greater reactivity of Mn(III) and the greater influence of complexing agents. This study supports the previously postulated selective role of ligands and reducing agents in permanganate oxidations and demonstrates a new approach to explore the chemistry of environmental manganese redox processes. PMID:24050380

  5. An Estrogen Receptor-α Knock-In Mutation Provides Evidence of Ligand-Independent Signaling and Allows Modulation of Ligand-Induced Pathways in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W.; Burdette, Joanna E.; Woloszyn, Karolina; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Hamilton, Katherine; Sugg, Sonia L.; Temple, Karla A.; Wondisford, Fredric E.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen-nonresponsive estrogen receptor-α (ERα) knock-in (ENERKI) mice were generated to distinguish between ligand-induced and ligand-independent ER-α actions in vivo. These mice have a mutation [glycine 525 to leucine (G525L)] in the ligand-binding domain of ERα, which significantly reduces ERα interaction with and response to endogenous estrogens, whereas not affecting growth factor activation of ligand-independent pathways. ENERKI mice had hypoplastic uterine tissues and rudimentary mammary gland ductal trees. Females were infertile due to anovulation, and their ovaries contained hemorrhagic cystic follicles because of chronically elevated levels of LH. The ENERKI phenotype confirmed that ligand-induced activation of ERα is crucial in the female reproductive tract and mammary gland development. Growth factor treatments induced uterine epithelial proliferation in ovariectomized ENERKI females, directly demonstrating that ERα ligand-independent pathways were active. In addition, the synthetic ERα selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) were still able to activate ligand-induced G525L ERα pathways in vitro. PPT treatments initiated at puberty stimulated ENERKI uterine development, whereas neonatal treatments were needed to restore mammary gland ductal elongation, indicating that neonatal ligand-induced ERα activation may prime mammary ducts to become more responsive to estrogens in adult tissues. This is a useful model for in vivo evaluation of ligand-induced ERα pathways and temporal patterns of response. DES did not stimulate an ENERKI uterotrophic response. Because ERβ may modulate ERα activation and have an antiproliferative function in the uterus, we hypothesize that ENERKI animals were particularly sensitive to DES-induced inhibition of ERα due to up-regulated uterine ERβ levels. PMID:18339713

  6. Inhibition of TNF-{alpha}-mediated inflammatory responses by a benzodioxolylacetylamino-linked benzothiazole analog in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Rae; Jin, Guo Hua; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jin-Woo; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeon, Raok; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We synthesized SPA0537, a benzothiazole analog. {yields} SPA0537 is a potent NF-{kappa}B inhibitor. {yields} SPA0537 suppresses the production of proinflammatory mediators in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes. {yields} SPA0537 is effective at suppressing osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: The pathologic processes of rheumatoid arthritis are mediated by a number of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases, the expressions of which are controlled by NF-{kappa}B. This study was performed to explore the effects of a benzothiazole analog, SPA0537, on the control of the NF-{kappa}B activation pathway. We also investigated whether SPA0537 had any anti-inflammatory effects in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). SPA0537 inhibited the nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B subunits, which correlated with the inhibitory effects on IKK phosphorylation and I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated rheumatoid FLS. These events further suppressed chemokine production, matrix metalloproteinase secretion, and TNF-{alpha}-induced cell proliferation. In addition, SPA0537 inhibited the osteoclast differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) and receptor activator of the NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in bone marrow macrophages. These findings suggest that SPA0537 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatoid FLS through the inhibition of the NF-{kappa}B pathway. Therefore, it may have therapeutic value for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Effects of the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole on the nutritional physiology and enzyme activities of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunhe; Xu, Chunmei; Wang, Qiuhong; Wei, Yan; Liu, Feng; Xu, Shuangyu; Zhang, Zhengqun; Mu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the major pest that damages Chinese chive production. As a volatile compound derived from microbial secondary metabolites, benzothiazole has been determined to possess fumigant activity against B. odoriphaga. However, the mechanism of action of benzothiazole is not well understood. In the present study, fourth-instar larvae of B. odoriphaga were exposed to LC10 and LC30 of benzothiazole. Sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC30) of benzothiazole significantly reduced the food consumption of the larvae on the second day after treatment (2 DAT). However, there were no significant changes in pupal weight among the different treatments. We also measured the protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and trehalose contents and the digestive enzyme activities of the larvae, and the results suggest that benzothiazole reduced the nutrient accumulation and decreased the digestive enzyme activities of B. odoriphaga. In addition, the activity of glutathione S-transferase was significantly decreased at 6h after treatment with benzothiazole, whereas general esterase activities were significantly increased at 6 and 24h after treatment. The results of this study indicate that benzothiazole interferes in the normal food consumption and digestion process by decreasing the activities of digestive enzymes. These results provide valuable information for understanding the toxicity of benzothiazole and for exploring volatile compound for the control of this pest. PMID:27017881

  8. Benzothiazole derivatives bearing amide moiety: potential cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing agents against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenakshi; Modi, Arusha; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Singh, Sushil K

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. In recent years, benzothiazole analogues have attracted considerable attention in anticancer research. Therefore, in this study, the earlier reported amide series of benzothiazole derivatives were investigated for their antiproliferative activity. The activity of amide derivatives was evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometric analysis, apoptosis assay, and DNA fragmentation on two human cervical cancer cell lines: SiHa and C33-A. The data reported from this investigation indicated that benzothiazole derivatives show pronounced cytotoxicity in the HPV16-positive SiHa cells compared with HPV-negative C-33A cells. The in-vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds on the HEK-293 noncancer cell line was evaluated to establish selectivity. Cells treated with benzothiazole derivatives showed prominent morphological features as evidenced by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, apoptotic nuclei, and DNA fragmentation. The benzothiazole derivatives show accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle in SiHa and C33-A, respectively. In addition, these derivatives exert their beneficial effect by inducing apoptosis, in the chemoprevention of cervical cancer cells, and were further ascertained using a DNA fragmentation assay. The compounds studied showed potent cytotoxic and apoptotic properties against SiHa and C33-A cancer cell lines and thus represent an excellent starting point for further optimization of therapeutically effective anticancer drugs. PMID:26945135

  9. Triphenylethylene antiestrogen-binding sites in cockerel liver nuclei: evidence for an endogenous ligand.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P R; Butts, C; Lazier, C B

    1984-07-01

    Salt extracts of purified nuclei from cockerel liver contain a limited number of sites that bind triphenylethylene nonsteroidal antiestrogens with high affinity and specificity. The assay of the [3H]tamoxifen (3H-labeled 1-[4-(2-dimethylaminoethyoxy)phenyl] 1,2-diphenylbut-1-(Z)ene)-binding sites is optimally achieved by preincubation of the salt extracts with charcoal-dextran suspension; a 4- to 8-fold increase in activity over that obtained with nontreated extracts is found. This suggests that the binding sites are occupied in vivo by an unknown endogenous ligand. The equilibrium dissociation constant for [3H]tamoxifen binding is 4.76 +/- 1.8 nM, and the binding site concentration is 1.7 +/- 0.7 fmol/microgram DNA. The concentration of high affinity estrogen-binding sites in the same extracts is almost 30-fold less (0.06 +/- 0.01 fmol/micrograms DNA). The relative binding affinities of various antiestrogens for the nuclear antiestrogen-binding sites (with tamoxifen arbitrarily set at 100%) are as follows: nafoxidine (1-[2-(p-[3,4-dihydro-6-methoxy-2-phenyl-1-naphthyl]phenoxy)ethyl] pyrrolidine hydrochloride); 126%) greater than tamoxifen (100%) greater than N-des-methyltamoxifen (16%) greater than CI-628 (alpha-[p-[2-(1-pyrrolidine)ethyoxy]phenyl] 4-methoxy-alpha'-nitrostilbene; 14%) greater than 4-hydroxytamoxifen (7%). Estrogens (17 beta-estradiol, estriol, estrone, and diethylstilbestrol) and several other steroids (cholesterol, dihydrotestosterone, pregnenolone, progesterone, and hydrocortisone) show little or no affinity for binding to the nuclear sites (relative binding affinity, less than 0.5%). However, ether extracts of cockerel serum or liver nuclei contain a substance(s) that competitively inhibits [3H]tamoxifen binding to the nuclear antiestrogen-binding sites. The ether-soluble material does not compete for [3H]estradiol binding to the salt-soluble nuclear estrogen receptor. These studies suggest that cockerel serum and liver nuclei contain a natural

  10. Chrysin-benzothiazole conjugates as antioxidant and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Bhupendra M; Patel, Rahul V; Keum, Young-Soo; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-12-01

    7-(4-Bromobutoxy)-5-hydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one, obtained from chrysin with 1,4-dibromobutane, was combined with a wide range of 6-substituted 2-aminobenzthiazoles, which had been prepared from the corresponding anilines with potassium thiocyanate. Free radical scavenging efficacies of newer analogues were measured using DPPH and ABTS assays, in addition to the assessment of their anticancer activity against cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and CaSki) and ovarian cancer cell line (SK-OV-3) implementing the SRB assay. Cytotoxicity of titled compounds was checked using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) non-cancer cell line. Overall, 6a-r indicated remarkable antioxidant power as DPPH and ABTS(+) scavengers; particularly the presence of halogen(s) (6g, 6h, 6j-6l) was favourable with IC50 values comparable to the control ascorbic acid. Unsubstituted benzothiazole ring favored the activity of resultant compounds (6a and 6r) against HeLa cell line, whereas presence of chlorine (6g) or a di-fluoro group (6k) was a key to exert strong action against CaSki. Moreover, a mono-fluoro (6j) and a ketonic functionality (6o) were beneficial to display anticipated anticancer effects against ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3. The structural assignments of the new products were done on the basis of IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. PMID:26514745

  11. Functional evidence for multiple receptor activation by kappa-ligands in the inhibition of spinal nociceptive reflexes in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, J. F.; Headley, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    1. The evidence for kappa-receptor heterogeneity is equivocal. We have now investigated this question by comparing the effects of five putatively selective kappa-agonists. The parameters examined were: the relative potencies in depressing hindlimb flexor muscle reflexes to noxious pinch stimuli in both spinalized and sham-spinalized rats; the reversibility of these effects by naloxone; and the effects on blood pressure. 2. Two types of drug effect was discriminated. One drug group, represented by U-50,488, U-69,593 and PD-117,302, had a potency ratio between sham and spinalized rats approximately 10 fold lower than the other group, which comprised GR103545 and CI-977. 3. Under sham-spinalized conditions, CI-977 and GR103545 at high doses caused only sub-maximal reductions of spinal reflexes. U-50,488 was still active when superimposed on these high doses of GR103545. 4. Naloxone reversed all effects, but different doses were required between compounds, with GR103545 taking some 20 times higher doses of naloxone to cause reversal than did U-50,488. 5. The effects on mean arterial pressure were opposite between groups. 6. The results imply that more than one type of naloxone-sensitive non-mu opioid receptor must be involved in mediating these complex actions of ligands that have been claimed to be selective for kappa-receptors. PMID:8220893

  12. Antimalarial Activity of Small-Molecule Benzothiazole Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim A; Saha, Shubhra J; De, Rudranil; Mazumder, Somnath; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd S; Nag, Shiladitya; Adhikari, Susanta; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-07-01

    We synthesized a new series of conjugated hydrazones that were found to be active against malaria parasite in vitro, as well as in vivo in a murine model. These hydrazones concentration-dependently chelated free iron and offered antimalarial activity. Upon screening of the synthesized hydrazones, compound 5f was found to be the most active iron chelator, as well as antiplasmodial. Compound 5f also interacted with free heme (KD [equilibrium dissociation constant] = 1.17 ± 0.8 μM), an iron-containing tetrapyrrole released after hemoglobin digestion by the parasite, and inhibited heme polymerization by parasite lysate. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that a nitrogen- and sulfur-substituted five-membered aromatic ring present within the benzothiazole hydrazones might be responsible for their antimalarial activity. The dose-dependent antimalarial and heme polymerization inhibitory activities of the lead compound 5f were further validated by following [(3)H]hypoxanthine incorporation and hemozoin formation in parasite, respectively. It is worth mentioning that compound 5f exhibited antiplasmodial activity in vitro against a chloroquine/pyrimethamine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1). We also evaluated in vivo antimalarial activity of compound 5f in a murine model where a lethal multiple-drug-resistant strain of Plasmodium yoelii was used to infect Swiss albino mice. Compound 5f significantly suppressed the growth of parasite, and the infected mice experienced longer life spans upon treatment with this compound. During in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays, compound 5f showed minimal alteration in biochemical and hematological parameters compared to control. In conclusion, we identified a new class of hydrazone with therapeutic potential against malaria. PMID:27139466

  13. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo determination of thyroid hormone modulating activity of benzothiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    As in vitro assays are increasingly used to screen chemicals for their potential to produce endocrine disrupting adverse effects, it is important to understand their predictive capacity. The potential for a set of six benzothiazoles to affect endpoints related to thyroid hormone ...

  14. Comparative aquatic toxicity evaluation of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole and selected degradation products using Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, S T; Drake, K D; Watson, C F; Foster, G D; Maier, K J

    2005-04-01

    2-(Thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole (TCMTB) is a biocide used in the leather, pulp and paper, and water-treatment industries. TCMTB may enter aquatic ecosystems during its manufacture and use. TCMTB is environmentally unstable; therefore, it is important to evaluate the toxicity of the more persistent degradation products. This study compared the toxicity of TCMTB with its degradation products 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (MTBT), benzothiazole (BT), and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (HOBT). Toxicity was determined using Ceriodaphnia dubia 48-hour acute and 7-day chronic test protocols. TCMTB was the most toxic compound evaluated in both the acute and chronic tests with EC50s of 15.3 and 9.64 microg/L, respectively. 2-MBT, the first degradation product, was the second most toxic compound with acute and chronic EC50s of 4.19 and 1.25 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of MTBT and HOBT were similar with acute EC50s of 12.7 and 15.1 mg/L and chronic EC50s of 6.36 and 8.31 mg/L, respectively. The least toxic compound was BT with acute and chronic EC50s of 24.6 and 54.9 mg/L, respectively. TCMTB was orders of magnitude more toxic than its degradation products. Toxicity data on these benzothiazole degradation products is important because of concerns regarding their release, degradation, persistence, and non-target organism effects in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:15750776

  15. In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Determination of Thyroid Hormone Modulating Activity of Benzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Michael W; Kosian, Patricia A; Haselman, Jonathan T; Korte, Joseph J; Challis, Katie; Macherla, Chitralekha; Nevalainen, Erica; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2015-08-01

    As in vitro assays are increasingly used to screen chemicals for their potential to produce endocrine disrupting adverse effects, it is important to understand their predictive capacity. The potential for a set of 6 benzothiazoles to affect endpoints related to thyroid hormone synthesis inhibition were assessed using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. Inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) derived from pig thyroid glands was determined for benzothiazole (BTZ), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), 5-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (CMBT), 2-aminobenzothiazole (ABT), 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (HBT), and 2-methylthiobenzothiazole (MTBT). Their rank order potency for TPO inhibition was MBT=CMBT>ABT>BTZ, whereas HBT and MTBT exhibited no inhibitory activity. The benzothiazoles were tested further in a Xenopus laevis thyroid gland explant culture assay in which inhibition of thyroxine (T4) release was the measured endpoint. In this assay all 6 benzothiazoles inhibited T4 release. The activity of the benzothiazoles for disrupting thyroid hormone activity was verified in vivo using X. laevis tadpoles in a 7-day assay. The 2 most potent chemicals for TPO inhibition, MBT and CMBT, produced responses in vivo indicative of T4 synthesis inhibition including induction of sodium iodide symporter mRNA and decreases in glandular and circulating thyroid hormones. The capability to measure thyroid hormone levels in the glands and blood by ultrahigh performance LC-MS/MS methods optimized for small tissue samples was critical for effects interpretation. These results indicate that inhibition of TPO activity in vitro was a good indicator of a chemical's potential for thyroid hormone disruption in vivo and may be useful for prioritizing chemicals for further investigation. PMID:25953703

  16. One-Pot Synthesis of Benzothiazole-Tethered Chromanones/Coumarins via Claisen Rearrangement Using the Solid State Melt Reaction.

    PubMed

    Bakthadoss, Manickam; Selvakumar, Raman

    2016-04-15

    A novel protocol has been successfully established for the efficient synthesis of benzothiazole-tethered chromanone/coumarin scaffolds via Claisen rearrangement using a solid state melt reaction in a one-pot manner. Benzothiazole formation and Claisen rearrangement involve the cleavage of S-S and C-O bonds and formation of C-S, C═N, and C-C bonds in a single operation without using a catalyst or solvent. PMID:26991666

  17. Synthesis, conjugation and relaxation studies of gadolinium(III)-4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenylamine as a potential brain specific MR contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Saini, Nisha; Varshney, Raunak; Tiwari, Anjani K; Kaul, Ankur; Allard, Michele; Ishar, M P S; Mishra, Anil K

    2013-04-14

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used in clinical research to map the structural and functional organization of the brain. We have designed and synthesized a Gd-based specific MR contrast agent that binds to regions in the brain. The presented compound {4-[(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenylcarbamoyl)-methyl]-7,10-bis-carboxymethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl} acetic acid (DO3A-BT) was synthesized by conjugating the chloroacetylated product of 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenylamine with a trisubstituted cyclen. The lanthanide complex (Ln-DO3A-BT) was evaluated in vitro for both MR (Gd-DO3A-BT) and optical (Eu-DO3A-BT) imaging applications. The complex Gd-DO3A-BT displays a relaxivity of r1 = 4.18 mM(-1) s(-1) at 4.7 T which is 1.2 times greater than Dotarem and significantly higher than the brain specific MR contrast agent Luxol Fast Blue (LFB). The protonation constant of the ligand (pKa1 = 9.91, pKa2 = 8.22, pKa3 = 5.01) and the stability constant of the complex formed between Gd(III), Eu(III) and Ca(II) and ligand DO3A-BT (log βGdL = 18.4, log βEuL = 18.3, log βZn2L = 7.1, log βCa2L = 6.3) were recorded by potentiometric titration. The constants reflect the high stability of the ligand with lanthanides compared with endogenous metal ions. The transmetalation stability of Gd-DO3A-BT toward Zn proved to be excellent with a rate constant of 3.07 × 10(-5) s(-1) which is in line with other tetraazatetraacetic acid (DOTA)-monoamide complexes. The hydration number (q) was found to be 0.92, and is calculated from the difference in the luminescence lifetime of Eu-DO3A-BT in H2O and D2O solutions to determine the coordination state of this complex. The in vivo biodistribution of (99m)Tc-DO3A-BT in BALB/c mice showed a brain uptake of 1.2% ID g(-1) at 2 min post injection when injected with mannitol which disrupts the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) due to osmotic shock. In vitro binding on the brain homogenate revealed a high uptake by the neuronal/glial cells for in vivo

  18. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzothiazole Derivatives as Selective PI3Kβ Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuang; Cao, Ruiyuan; Liu, Xialing; Luo, Xiang; Zhong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    A novel series of PI3Kβ (Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases beta subunit) inhibitors with the structure of benzothiazole scaffold have been designed and synthesized. All the compounds have been evaluated for inhibitory activities against PI3Kα, β, γ, δ and mTOR (Mammalian target of rapamycin). Two superior compounds have been further evaluated for the IC50 values against PI3Ks/mTOR. The most promising compound 11 displays excellent anti-proliferative activity and selectivity in multiple cancer cell lines, especially in the prostate cancer cell line. Docking studies indicate the morpholine group in 2-position of benzothiazole is necessary for the potent antitumor activity, which confirms our design is reasonable. PMID:27384552

  19. Structural and spectral comparisons between isomeric benzisothiazole and benzothiazole based aromatic heterocyclic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Ge; Wang, Yue-Hua; Tao, Tao; Qian, Hui-Fen; Huang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A pair of isomeric heterocyclic compounds, namely 3-amino-5-nitro-[2,1]-benzisothiazole and 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole, are used as the diazonium components to couple with two N-substituted 4-aminobenzene derivatives. As a result, two pairs of isomeric aromatic heterocyclic azo dyes have been produced and they are structurally and spectrally characterized and compared including single-crystal structures, electronic spectra, solvatochromism and reversible acid-base discoloration, thermal stability and theoretically calculations. It is concluded that both benzisothiazole and benzothiazole based dyes show planar molecular structures and offset π-π stacking interactions, solvatochromism and reversible acid-base discoloration. Furthermore, benzisothiazole based aromatic heterocyclic dyes exhibit higher thermal stability, larger solvatochromic effects and maximum absorption wavelengths than corresponding benzothiazole based ones, which can be explained successfully by the differences of their calculated isomerization energy, dipole moment and molecular band gaps.

  20. Nanovector formation by functionalization of TRAIL ligand on single-walled carbon nanotube: Experimental and theoretical evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Al Batoul; Picaud, Fabien; Duverger, Eric; Devaux, Xavier; Delabrousse, Eric; Gharbi, Tijani; Micheau, Olivier; Herlem, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis and the characterization of a novel nanovector based on oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) functionalized with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) via noncovalent 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydrosuccinimid ester (PSE) is described. Experimental noncovalent functionalized SWCNT by PSE are compared to full DFT theoretical predictions. For this, several experimental techniques are gathered to prove the well functionalization of oxidized SWCNT by π-π stacking such as micro Raman and XPS spectroscopy analysis coupled to full-DFT calculations. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) underline the presence of TRAIL ligands on the nanovector.

  1. Chemical modification of A1 adenosine receptors in rat brain membranes. Evidence for histidine in different domains of the ligand binding site.

    PubMed

    Klotz, K N; Lohse, M J; Schwabe, U

    1988-11-25

    Chemical modification of amino acid residues was used to probe the ligand recognition site of A1 adenosine receptors from rat brain membranes. The effect of treatment with group-specific reagents on agonist and antagonist radioligand binding was investigated. The histidine-specific reagent diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP) induced a loss of binding of the agonist R-N6-[3H] phenylisopropyladenosine ([3H]PIA), which could be prevented in part by agonists, but not by antagonists. DEP treatment induced also a loss of binding of the antagonist [3H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([3H]DPCPX). Antagonists protected A1 receptors from this inactivation while agonists did not. This result provided evidence for the existence of at least 2 different histidine residues involved in ligand binding. Consistent with a modification of the binding site, DEP did not alter the affinity of [3H]DPCPX, but reduced receptor number. From the selective protection of [3H] PIA and [3H]DPCPX binding from inactivation, it is concluded that agonists and antagonists occupy different domains at the binding site. Sulfhydryl modifying reagents did not influence antagonist binding, but inhibited agonist binding. This effect is explained by modification of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein. Pyridoxal 5-phosphate inactivated both [3H]PIA and [3H]DPCPX binding, but the receptors could not be protected from inactivation by ligands. Therefore, no amino group seems to be located at the ligand binding site. In addition, it was shown that no further amino acids with polar side chains are present. The absence of hydrophilic amino acids from the recognition site of the receptor apart from histidine suggests an explanation for the lack of hydrophilic ligands with high affinity for A1 receptors. PMID:3182861

  2. Oxidation of Refractory Benzothiazoles with PMS/CuFe2O4: Kinetics and Transformation Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yin; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-06-01

    Benzothiazole (BTH) and its derivatives 2-(methylthio)bezothiazole (MTBT), 2-benzothiazolsulfonate (BTSA), and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (OHBT) are refractory pollutants ubiquitously existing in urban runoff at relatively high concentrations. Here, we report their oxidation by CuFe2O4-activated peroxomonosulfate (PMS/CuFe2O4), focusing on kinetics and transformation intermediates. These benzothiazoles can be efficiently degraded by this oxidation process, which is confirmed to generate mainly sulfate radicals (with negligible hydroxyl-radical formation) under slightly acidic to neutral pH conditions. The molar exposure ratio of sulfate radical to residual PMS (i.e., Rct) for this process is a constant that is related to the reaction condition and can be easily determined. The reaction rate constants of these benzothiazoles toward sulfate radical are (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10(9), (1.4 ± 0.3) × 10(9), (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10(9), and (4.7 ± 0.5) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), respectively (pH 7 and 20 °C). On the basis of Rct and these rate constants, their degradation in the presence of organic matter can be well-predicted. A number of transformation products were detected and tentatively identified using triple-quadruple/linear ion trap MS/MS and high-resolution MS. It appears that sulfate radicals attack BTH, MTBT, and BTSA on their benzo ring via electron transfer, generating multiple hydroxylated intermediates that are reactive toward common oxidants. For OHBT oxidation, the thiazole ring is preferentially broken down. Due to competitions of the transformation intermediates, a minimum PMS/pollutant molar ratio of 10-20 is required for effective degradation. The flexible PMS/CuFe2O4 could be a useful process to remove the benzothiazoles from low dissolved organic carbon waters like urban runoff or polluted groundwater. PMID:27144396

  3. Preparation, thermo-optic property and simulation of optical switch based on azo benzothiazole polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhijuan; Qiu, Fengxian; Wang, Qing; Cao, Guorong; Guan, Yijun; Zhuang, Lin; Xu, Xiaolong; Wang, Jie; Chen, Qian; Yang, Dongya

    2013-04-01

    An azo chromophore molecule 4-[(benzothiazole-2-yl)diazenyl]phenyl-1,3-diamine (BTPD) was prepared with 2-amino benzothiazole and m-phenylenediamine by diazo-coupling reaction. Then, the chromophore molecule BTPD was polymerized with NJ-210 and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) to obtain novel azo benzothiazole polymer (BTPU). The structures of BTPD and BTPU were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared, UV-visible spectroscopy, DSC and TGA. The physical properties of the obtained BTPU were investigated. The refractive index ( n) of BTPU was demonstrated at different temperature and wavelength (532, 650 and 850 nm) using attenuated total reflection technique. The transmission loss and dispersion characteristic of BTPU film were investigated using the CCD digital imaging devices and Sellmeyer equation. A Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) polymeric thermo-optic switches based on the thermo-optic effect of prepared BTPU were proposed and the performance of switches was simulated. The results indicated that the power consumption of the Y-branch thermo-optic switch could be only 0.6 mW. The Y-branch and MZI switching rising and falling times obtained were 8.0 and 1.8 ms.

  4. Benzothiazole Amphiphiles Ameliorate Amyloid β-Related Cell Toxicity and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Jessica L; Chung, Tim S; Liu, Haiyan; Prangkio, Panchika; Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2016-06-15

    Oxidative stress from the increase of reactive oxygen species in cells is a common part of the normal aging process and is accelerated in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we report the evaluation of three benzothiazole amphiphiles (BAMs) that exhibit improved biocompatibility without loss of biological activity against amyloid-β induced cell damage compared to a previously reported hexa(ethylene glycol) derivative of benzothiazole aniline (BTA-EG6). The reduced toxicity of these BAM agents compared to BTA-EG6 corresponded with their reduced propensity to induce membrane lysis. In addition, all of the new BAMs were capable of protecting differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from toxicity and concomitant oxidative stress induced by AD-related aggregated Aβ (1-42) peptides. Binding and microscopy studies support that these BAM agents target Aβ and inhibit the interactions of catalase with Aβ in cells, which, in turn, can account for an observed inhibition of Aβ-induced increases in hydrogen peroxide in cells treated with these compounds. These results support that this family of benzothiazole amphiphiles may have therapeutic potential for treating cellular damage associated with AD and other Aβ-related neurologic diseases. PMID:27055069

  5. Kinetic evidence for the existence of a rate-limiting step in the reaction of ferric hemoproteins with anionic ligands.

    PubMed

    Coletta, M; Angeletti, M; De Sanctis, G; Cerroni, L; Giardina, B; Amiconi, G; Ascenzi, P

    1996-01-15

    The kinetics of azide and fluroide binding to various monomeric and tetrameric ferric hemoproteins (sperm whale Mb, isolated alpha and beta chains of human Hb reacted with p-chloromercuribenzoate, dromeday, ox and human Hb) has been investigated (at pH 6.5 and 20 degrees C over a large range (20 microM to 2 M) of ligand concentration. It has been observed that the pseuo-first-order rate constant for azide binding to the hemoproteins investigated does not increase linearly with ligand concentration, but tends to level off toward an asymptomatic concentration-independent value typical for each hemoprotein. This behavior, which has been detected only by an investigation covering an unusually large range of ligand concentrations appears to be independent of the ionic strength, and it underlies the existence of a rate-limiting step in the dynamic pathway of azide binding to ferric hemoproteins, which is detectable whenever the observed pseudo- first-order rate constant becomes faster than a given value characteristic of the specific hemoprotein. Such a behavior is not observed in the case of fluroide binding probably because the pesudo- first-order rate constant for this ligand is much slower and never attains a value faster than that of the rate-limiting step. In general terms, this feature should involve a conformational equilibrium between at least two forms (possibly related to the interaction of H2O with distal histidine and its exchange with the bulk solvent) which modulates the access of the anionic ligand into the heme pocket and its reaction with the ferric iron. PMID:8631366

  6. Manganese(III) Acetate-Promoted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Benzothiazole/Thiazole Derivatives with Organophosphorus Compounds under Ball-Milling Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Wang, Jun-Jie; Wang, Guan-Wu

    2016-07-01

    The first solvent-free manganese(III) acetate-promoted reaction of benzothiazole/thiazole derivatives with organophosphorus compounds including phosphine oxides, phosphinate ester, and phosphonate diester has been efficiently developed under ball-milling conditions, providing a highly efficient and green protocol to structurally diverse C2-phosphonylated benzothiazole/thiazole derivatives with remarkable functional group tolerance and excellent yields. PMID:27248000

  7. Tautomeric conversion, vibrational spectra, and density functional studies on peripheral sulfur derivatives of benzothiazole and benzothiazoline isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altun, Ahmet; Kuliyev, Eziz; Aghatabay, Naz M.

    2016-01-01

    The room temperature structural (tautomerism, dimerization, conformational preference, geometry parameters) and vibrational spectral (IR and Raman) analyses have been performed on benzothiazoline (benzothiazoline-2-thione, 3-methyl-benzothiazoline-2-thione) and benzothiazole [2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 2-methylthiobenzothiazole, and bis(benzothiazole-2-ylthio)ethane] derivatives at the B3LYP/6-311++G∗∗ level of theory. Although the keto to enol transition barriers are too high over the most stable benzothiazoline isomers, vibrational spectral analyses reveal some major bands of benzothiazole isomers in the present room temperature experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman specta. Therefore, benzothiazole isomers exist at rare amounts in the powdered samples that are mainly composed of benzothiazoline isomers. The benzothiazole isomers have two stable conformations due to the orientation of their SH and SCH3 moieties. The energetic and vibrational spectral analyses suggest that the benzothiazoline-2-thione molecules can be stabilized further through the NH⋯S intermolecular hydrogen bonds in solid phase. All observed fundamental vibrational bands of the molecules have been assigned based on the calculated mode frequencies and IR/Raman intensities. The mode assignments have been expressed in terms of internal coordinates and their percent potential energy distributions. The effects of substitution at the nitrogen and peripheral sulfur atoms have been analyzed for the geometries and vibrational bands of the molecules.

  8. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibits angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pei-Lin; Easton, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its related ligands TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) play roles in the regulation of vascular responses, but their effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. Therefore, we have examined the effects of these ligands on angiogenesis modeled with primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To examine angiogenesis in the context of the central nervous system, we have also modeled cerebral angiogenesis with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Parameters studied were bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell number (MTT) assay (to assess endothelial proliferation), scratch assay (migration) and networks on Matrigel (tube formation). In our hands, neither TRAIL nor FasL (1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) had an effect on parameters of angiogenesis in the HUVEC model. In hCMEC/D3 cells by contrast, TRAIL inhibited all parameters (10-100 ng/ml, 24 h). This was due to apoptosis, since its action was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVADfmk (5 x 10{sup -5} mol/l) and TRAIL increased caspase-3 activity 1 h after application. However FasL (100 ng/ml) increased BrdU uptake without other effects. We conclude that TRAIL has different effects on in vitro angiogenesis depending on which model is used, but that FasL is generally ineffective when applied in vitro. The data suggest that TRAIL primarily influences angiogenesis by the induction of vascular endothelial apoptosis, leading to vessel regression.

  9. Determination of total sulfur compounds and benzothiazole in asphalt fume samples by gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Jaycox, L B; Olsen, L D

    2000-09-01

    As part of a collaborative project between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate asphalt pavers' exposures to asphalt fume and their potential health effects, a method was developed for the determination of total sulfur compounds and benzothiazole in asphalt fume samples. Asphalt fume samples were collected from asphalt mixtures with and without the addition of ground-up rubber tires. The asphalt fume samples were collected with sampling trains that consisted of a Teflon membrane filter and an XAD-2 adsorbent tube. Filter and sampling tube media were extracted with hexane and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector. Separation was achieved with a 100 percent dimethyl polysiloxane fused silica column. Typical calibration curves had linear correlation coefficients of 0.99 or better with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5 percent. Benzothiazole desorption efficiency (DE) determined using spiked sampling tubes ranged from 96.5 percent at 5.0 micrograms to 89.4 percent at 40 micrograms with RSD values from 0.9 to 4.0 percent. Benzothiazole storage recovery determined using sampling tubes spiked at 20 micrograms and refrigerated for 30 days at 4 degrees C was 89.8 percent when corrected for the DE with an RSD of 1.1 percent. The limit of detection for the method determined using spiked sampling tubes was 0.30 microgram. Quantitation for total sulfur compounds and benzothiazole was against benzothiazole standards in hexane. Because of detector selectivity, sample preparation consisted of a simple hexane extraction even when samples had a high background due to hydrocarbon overload. Detector sensitivity provided quantitation in the sub-microgram region. Because of the sample preparation step and because benzothiazole was determined during the same analysis run, this method is straightforward and analytically efficient. The method has been used to

  10. Transmembrane-truncated alphavbeta3 integrin retains high affinity for ligand binding: evidence for an 'inside-out' suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, R J; Diefenbach, B; Brown, A; Cullen, E; Jonczyk, A; Güssow, D; Luckenbach, G A; Goodman, S L

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of alphavbeta3 integrin affinity regulation have important biological implications in tumour development, wound repair and angiogenesis. We expressed, purified and characterized recombinant forms of human alphavbeta3 (r-alphavbeta3) and compared the activation state of these with alphavbeta3 in its cellular environment. The ligand specificity and selectivity of recombinant full-length and double transmembrane truncations of r-alphavbeta3 cloned in BacPAK6 vectors and expressed in Sf9 and High Five insect cells were compared with those of native placental alphavbeta3 and the receptor in situ on the cell surface. r-alphavbeta3 integrins were purified by affinity chromatography from detergent extracts of cells (full-length), and from the culture medium of cells expressing double-truncated r-alphavbeta3. r-alphavbeta3 had the same epitopes, ligand-binding specificities, bivalent cation requirements and susceptibility to RGD-containing peptides as native alphavbeta3. On M21-L4 melanoma cells, alphavbeta3 mediated binding to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen unless activated with Mn2+. Non-activated alphaIIbbeta3 integrin as control in M21-L-IIb cells had the opposite profile, mediating binding to fibrinogen, but not to vitronectin unless activated with Mn2+. Thus these receptors had moderate to low ligand affinity. In marked contrast, purified alphavbeta3 receptors, with or without transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, were constitutively of high affinity and able to bind strongly to vitronectin, fibronectin and fibrinogen under physiological conditions. Our data suggest that, in contrast with the positive regulation of alphaIIbbeta3 in situ, intracellular controls lower the affinity of alphavbeta3, and the cytoplasmic domains may act as a target for negative regulators of alphavbeta3 activity. PMID:9480902

  11. Occurrence, phase distribution, and mass loadings of benzothiazoles in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Lu, Feng-Hui; Luo, Xian-lin; Tian, Hui-Yu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2008-03-15

    A set of six benzothiazoles was determined in riverine runoff samples of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) collected monthly from March 2005 to February 2006. The concentrations of total benzothiazoles ranged from 220 to 611 ng/L, with benzothiazole (BT) being the most prominent (82%), followed by 2-methylthiobenzothiazole (MBT),thianaphthene (TN), and triphenylene (TP). The annual fluxes ofTN, BT, MBT, dibenzothiophene (DBT), 2-(4-morpholinyl)benzothiazole (24MoBT), and TP from the PRD to the coastal ocean were 1.94, 65.1, 10.1,0.63, 0.18, and 0.89 tons/yr, summing to yield an annual flux of 79 tons/yr for total benzothiazoles. In the PRD, approximately 1.1 x 10(5) tons of rubber are estimated to be released into the environment each year. This corresponds to the annual fluxes of 13 tons/yr for BT and 0.4 tons/yr for 24MoBT from tire particles. The annual fluxes of BT from scrap tires from Japan, Korea, Brazil, the European Union, the United States, and China were 99, 21, 36, 270, 328, and 120 tons/yr, respectively. The fluxes of 24MoBT from the same countries were 3.0, 0.5, 1.1, 8.4, 10.3, and 3.8 tons/ yr, respectively. These results indicated that tire-wear particles and scrap tires are the dominant sources of benzothiazoles in the environment. By comparison, Asia may be the major contributor to the global input of benzothiazoles from auto tires in the coming years. Overall, the six benzothiazoles under investigation appeared to be suitable tracers of pollutant inputs to surface runoff within the PRD aquatic system. In addition, 24MoBT seemed more appropriate than BT to trace tire rubber residues and therefore can be a good indicator of economic development and urbanization in a specific region. PMID:18409609

  12. In vivo evidence for an instructive role of fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) ligand in hematopoietic development.

    PubMed

    Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Swee, Lee Kim; Nusser, Anja; Nuber, Natko; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Capoferri, Giuseppina; Rolink, Hannie; Ceredig, Rhodri; Rolink, Antonius

    2014-04-01

    Cytokines are essential regulators of hematopoiesis, acting in an instructive or permissive way. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) is an important cytokine for the development of several hematopoietic populations. Its receptor (FLT3) is expressed on both myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and deletion of either the receptor or its ligand leads to defective developmental potential of hematopoietic progenitors. In vivo administration of FLT3L promotes expansion of progenitors with combined myeloid and lymphoid potential. To investigate further the role of this cytokine in hematopoietic development, we generated transgenic mice expressing high levels of human FLT3L. These transgenic mice displayed a dramatic expansion of dendritic and myeloid cells, leading to splenomegaly and blood leukocytosis. Bone marrow myeloid and lymphoid progenitors were significantly increased in numbers but retained their developmental potential. Furthermore, the transgenic mice developed anemia together with a reduction in platelet numbers. FLT3L was shown to rapidly reduce the earliest erythroid progenitors when injected into wild-type mice, indicating a direct negative role of the cytokine on erythropoiesis. We conclude that FLT3L acts on multipotent progenitors in an instructive way, inducing their development into myeloid/lymphoid lineages while suppressing their megakaryocyte/erythrocyte potential. PMID:24463214

  13. In vivo evidence for an instructive role of fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) ligand in hematopoietic development

    PubMed Central

    Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Swee, Lee Kim; Nusser, Anja; Nuber, Natko; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Capoferri, Giuseppina; Rolink, Hannie; Ceredig, Rhodri; Rolink, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are essential regulators of hematopoiesis, acting in an instructive or permissive way. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) is an important cytokine for the development of several hematopoietic populations. Its receptor (FLT3) is expressed on both myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and deletion of either the receptor or its ligand leads to defective developmental potential of hematopoietic progenitors. In vivo administration of FLT3L promotes expansion of progenitors with combined myeloid and lymphoid potential. To investigate further the role of this cytokine in hematopoietic development, we generated transgenic mice expressing high levels of human FLT3L. These transgenic mice displayed a dramatic expansion of dendritic and myeloid cells, leading to splenomegaly and blood leukocytosis. Bone marrow myeloid and lymphoid progenitors were significantly increased in numbers but retained their developmental potential. Furthermore, the transgenic mice developed anemia together with a reduction in platelet numbers. FLT3L was shown to rapidly reduce the earliest erythroid progenitors when injected into wild-type mice, indicating a direct negative role of the cytokine on erythropoiesis. We conclude that FLT3L acts on multipotent progenitors in an instructive way, inducing their development into myeloid/lymphoid lineages while suppressing their megakaryocyte/erythrocyte potential. PMID:24463214

  14. Synthesis, physical properties and simulation of thermo-optic switch based on azo benzothiazole heterocyclic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Fengxian; Chen, Caihong; Zhou, Qiaolan; Cao, Zhijuan; Cao, Guorong; Guan, Yijun; Yang, Dongya

    2014-05-01

    A chromophore molecule 4-[(benzothiazole-2-yl)diazenyl]phenyl-1,3-diamine (BTPD) was prepared with 2-amino benzothiazole and m-phenylenediamine by diazo-coupling reaction. Then, the BTPD was polymerized with polyether polyol (NJ-220) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) to obtain novel azo benzothiazole polyurethane-urea (BTPUU). The chemical structures of BTPD and BTPUU were characterized by FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The thermal and mechanical properties of BTPUU film were investigated. The refractive index and transmission loss of BTPUU film were measured at different temperatures and different laser wavelengths (532 nm, 650 nm and 850 nm) by an attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique and CCD digital imaging devices. The thermo-optic coefficients of BTPUU are -4.7086 × 10-4 °C-1 (532 nm), -6.5257 × 10-4 °C-1 (650 nm) and -5.1029 × 10-4 °C-1 (850 nm), respectively. A Y-branch switch and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) thermo-optic switches based on thermo-optic effect were proposed and the performances of the switches were simulated, respectively. The results show that the power consumption of the Y-branch thermo-optic switch is only 3.28 mW. The response times of Y-branch and MZI switches are 8.0 ms and 2.0 ms, respectively. The results indicate that the prepared BTPUU has high potential for the applications of the Y-branch digital optical switch (DOS), MZI thermo-optic switch, directional coupler (DC) switch and optical modulators.

  15. Enantioselective Alkynylation of 2-Trifluoroacetyl Imidazoles Catalyzed by Bis-Cyclometalated Rhodium(III) Complexes Containing Pinene-Derived Ligands.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Harms, Klaus; Zhang, Lilu; Meggers, Eric

    2016-08-16

    Chiral rhodium(III) complexes containing two cyclometalating 2-phenyl-5,6-(S,S)-pinenopyridine ligands and two additional acetonitriles are introduced as excellent catalysts for the highly enantioselective alkynylation of 2-trifluoroacetyl imidazoles. Whereas the ligand-based chirality permits the straightforward synthesis of the complexes in a diastereomerically and enantiomerically pure fashion, the metal-centered chirality is responsible for the asymmetric induction over the course of the catalysis. For comparison, the analogous iridium congeners provide only low enantioselectivity, and previously reported benzoxazole- and benzothiazole-based catalysts do not show any catalytic activity for this reaction under standard reaction conditions. PMID:27312941

  16. Synthesis and herbicidal evaluation of novel benzothiazole derivatives as potential inhibitors of D1 protease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tonghui; Sun, Jie; An, Lin; Zhang, Lixian; Han, Cuiping

    2016-04-01

    D1 protease is a C-terminal processing protease that has been predicted to be an ideal herbicidal target. Three novel series of benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their herbicidal activities against Brassica napus (rape) and Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass). The preliminary bioassay indicated that most of the synthesized compounds possess promising D1 protease inhibitory activities and considerable herbicidal activities. Molecular docking was performed to position representative compounds into the active site of D1 protease to determine a probable binding model. PMID:26905829

  17. X-ray diffraction investigation of 1-phenyl-3-isopropyl-5-(benzothiazol-2-yl)formazan

    SciTech Connect

    Slepukhin, P. A. Pervova, I. G.; Rezinskikh, Z. G.; Lipunova, G. N.; Gorbatenko, Yu. A.; Lipunov, I. N.

    2008-01-15

    The crystal structure of 1-phenyl-3-isopropyl-5-(benzothiazol-2-yl)formazan is investigated using X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the form of two crystallographically independent molecules (A and B) in identical conformations that are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds N-H-N (N-N, 2.892 and 2.939 A) link molecules into AB dimers. Both molecules have a flattened structure, except for the isopropyl fragment. The bonds in the formazan chains are delocalized. Molecules A and B have close geometric characteristics.

  18. Oxygen infrared spectra of oxyhemoglobins and oxymyoglobins. Evidence of two major liganded O/sub 2/ structures

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.T.; Tucker, M.P.; Houtchens, R.A.; Caughey, W.S.

    1987-07-28

    The dioxygen stretch bands in infrared spectra for solutions of oxy species of human hemoglobin A and its separated subunits, human mutant hemoglobin Zurich (..beta..63His to Arg), rabbit hemoglobin, lamprey, hemoglobin, sperm whale myoglobin, bovine myoglobin, and a sea worm chlorocruorin are examined. Each protein exhibits multiple isotope-sensitive bands between 1160 and 1060 cm/sup -1/ for the liganded /sup 16/O/sub 2/, /sup 17/O/sub 2/, and /sup 18/O/sub 2/. The O-O stretch bands for each of the mammalian myoglobins and hemoglobins are similar, with frequencies that differ between proteins by only 3-5 cm/sup -1/. The spectra for the lamprey and sea worm hemoglobins exhibit greater diversity. For all proteins an O-O stretch band expected to occur near 1125 cm/sup -1/ for /sup 16/O/sub 2/ and /sup 17/O/sub 2/, but not /sup 18/O/sub 2/, appears split by approx.25 cm/sup -1/ due to an unidentified perturbation. The spectrum for each dioxygen isotope, if unperturbed, would contain two strong bands for the mammalian myoglobins (1150 and 1120 cm/sup -1/) and hemoglobins (1155 and 1125 cm/sup -1/). Two strong bands separated by approx.30 cm/sup -1/ for each oxy heme protein subunit indicate that two major protein conformations (structure) that differ substantially in O/sub 2/ bonding are present. The two dioxygen structures can result from a combination of dynamic distal and proximal effects upon the O/sub 2/ ligand bound in a bent-end-on stereochemistry.

  19. Direct evidence of energy transfer from a singlet ligand level to lanthanide ions in their diketonate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, L. Yu.; Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2015-07-01

    We have compared the fluorescence intensity of 2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetonate (NTA) in nanoparticles from Gd(NTA)3phen complexes with the fluorescence intensities of this compound in nanoparticles from similar complexes of Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and Tm, which absorb in the NTA fluorescence range. We have proven that there is energy transfer from the S 1 level of NTA ligands to Ln(III) ions, which occurs with rates k tr ˜ 1011-1012 s-1. We have also studied the competition between two processes: energy transfer from Ln(NTA)3phen to Ln(III) ions and energy transfer to Nile blue molecules incorporated into nanoparticles from complexes of these ions. It has been shown that, in nanoparticles from complexes of Nd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Tm(III) ions, which are incapable of sensitizing the fluorescence of Nile blue, the values of k tr2 for the energy transfer from NTA to Ln(III) ions, which were obtained from the data on the change in the intensity of the sensitized fluorescence of Nile blue, completely coincide with the values of k tr1 determined from the fluorescence quenching of NTA in these nanoparticles. We have found that, in nanoparticles from Pr, Sm, Eu, Er, and Ho complexes, the efficiency of the sensitized fluorescence of Nile blue is higher than that predicted from the fluorescence quenching of NTA by these ions in their complexes, which indicates that all these ions participate as mediators in the energy transfer from ligands to the dye.

  20. Pharmacophore generation of 2-substituted benzothiazoles as AdeABC efflux pump inhibitors in A. baumannii.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, S; Altinkanat-Gelmez, G; Bolelli, K; Guneser-Merdan, D; Over-Hasdemir, M U; Yildiz, I; Aki-Yalcin, E; Yalcin, I

    2014-01-01

    RND family efflux pumps are important for multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. To date no efflux pump inhibitors for clinical use have been found, so developing the specific inhibitors of this pump system will be beneficial for the treatment of infections caused by these multidrug-resistant pathogens. A set of BSN-coded 2-substituted benzothiazoles were tested alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin (CIP) against the RND family efflux pump AdeABC overexpressor Acinetobacter baumannii SbMox-2 strain. The results indicated that the BSN compounds did not have antimicrobial activity when tested alone. However, if they were applied in combination with CIP, it was observed that the antibiotic had antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogen, possessing a minimum inhibitory concentration value that could be utilized in clinical treatment. A 3D-common features pharmacophore model was applied by using the HipHop method and the generated pharmacophore hypothesis revealed that the hydrogen bond acceptor property of nitrogen in the thiazole ring and the oxygen of the amide substituted at the second position of the benzothiazole ring system were significant for binding to the target protein. Moreover, three hydrophobic aromatic features were found to be essential for inhibitory activity. PMID:24905472

  1. Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles--a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny

    2015-04-01

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from "organic cotton" equipped with the "Nordic Ecolabel" ("Svanenmärkt"). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater. PMID:25342452

  2. The GABAA receptor complex in hepatic encephalopathy. Autoradiographic evidence for the presence of elevated levels of a benzodiazepine receptor ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Gammal, S.H.; Jones, E.A.; Skolnick, P. )

    1990-02-01

    Autoradiographic analysis was used to examine radioligand binding to benzodiazepine (BZ) and GABAA receptors in the brains of rabbits with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Thin sections of whole brain from normal rabbits and rabbits with HE were mounted on slides and subdivided into two groups. One group was washed before incubation with radioligand, while the second group was not prewashed. (3H)Flunitrazepam binding to BZ receptors was decreased by 22% to 42% (p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, superior and inferior colliculi, and cerebellum of unwashed sections from rabbits with HE compared to all other groups. The binding of (3H)Ro 15-1788 to unwashed sections from rabbits with HE was reduced by a similar degree (18% to 37%, p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, superior colliculus, and cerebellar cortex. Incubation of sections with the GABA-mimetic muscimol and NaCl produced an additional decrease in (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the cortex and hippocampus (25% to 31%, p less than 0.05) in unwashed HE rabbit brain, but increased radioligand binding (27% to 71%, p less than 0.05) to several regions in control rabbits. No changes in radioligand binding to either GABAA or peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed between HE and control rabbit sections. These findings are consistent with previous electrophysiologic and neurochemical observations indicating no significant changes in either the function or density of GABAA or BZ receptors in this model of HE. Further, they indicate that a reversible BZ receptor ligand with agonist properties is present in the brain in HE. This substance may contribute to the enhancement of GABAergic tone observed in this syndrome.

  3. Evidence for ligand hydrolysis and Fe(III) reduction in the dissolution of goethite by desferrioxamine-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanova, Anna A.; Persson, Per; Loring, John S.

    2010-12-01

    Desferrioxamine-B (DFOB) is a bacterial trihydroxamate siderophore and probably the most studied to date. However, the manner in which DFOB adsorbs at mineral surfaces and promotes dissolution is still under discussion. Here we investigated the adsorption and dissolution reactions in the goethite-DFOB system using both in situ infrared spectroscopic and quantitative analytical methods. Experiments were carried out at a total DFOB concentration of 1 μmol/m 2, at pH 6, and in the absence of visible light. Our infrared spectroscopic results indicated that the adsorption of DFOB was nearly complete after a 4-h reaction time. In an attempt to determine the coordination mode at the goethite surface, we compared the spectrum of adsorbed DFOB after a 4-h reaction time to the spectra of model aqueous species. However, this approach proved too simplistic in the case of such a complex ligand as DFOB, and we suggest that a more detailed investigation (IR in D 2O, EXAFS of adsorbed model complexes) is needed to elucidate the structure of the adsorbed siderophore. Between a 4-h and 4-day reaction time, we observed the growth of carboxylate stretching bands at 1548 and 1404 cm -1, which are indicators of DFOB hydrolysis. Acetate, a product of DFOB hydrolysis at its terminal hydroxamate group, was quantified by ion chromatography. Its rate of formation was linear and nearly the same as the rate of Fe(III) dissolution. The larger hydrolysis product, a hydroxylamine fragment, was not detected by LC-MS. However, a signal due to the oxidized form of this fragment, a nitroso compound, was found to increase linearly with time, which is an indirect indication for Fe(III) reduction. Based on these findings, we propose that DFOB undergoes metal-enhanced hydrolysis at the mineral surface followed by the reduction of surface Fe(III). While Fe(II) was not detected in solution, this is likely because it remains adsorbed at the goethite surface or becomes buried in the goethite crystal by

  4. The beneficial pleiotropic effects of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) within the vasculature: A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Forde, Hannah; Harper, Emma; Davenport, Colin; Rochfort, Keith D; Wallace, Robert; Murphy, Ronan P; Smith, Diarmuid; Cummins, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine superfamily. TRAIL is expressed by numerous cell types including vascular cells, immune cells and adipocytes. Although originally thought to induce apoptosis in malignant or transformed cells only, it is now known that TRAIL can bind up to 5 distinct receptors to activate complex signalling pathways, and is capable of exerting pleiotropic effects in non-transformed cells. In this respect, a number of clinical and animal studies point to the potential vasoprotective influence of TRAIL, with TRAIL deficiency being linked to accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. Moreover, exogenous TRAIL administration has been shown to exhibit anti-atherosclerotic activity in-vivo. In-vitro studies on TRAIL in this context have yielded conflicting results however, with evidence of both pro-atherogenic and vasoprotective effects ascribed to TRAIL. Notwithstanding these various studies, mechanistic information on the precise nature of TRAIL-mediated injury/protection within the vasculature, as well as the identity of the downstream molecular/cellular targets of TRAIL, is still quite limited. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of TRAIL regulation, signalling mechanisms, and its apparent involvement in CVD pathogenesis as a prelude to examining the existing evidence for TRAIL-mediated vasoprotection. To this end, extensive in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies will be reviewed and critical findings highlighted. PMID:26878368

  5. Synthesis and anticandidal evaluation of new benzothiazole derivatives with hydrazone moiety.

    PubMed

    Yurttaş, Leyla; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım; Göger, Gamze; Demirci, Fatih

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we have performed the synthesis of new N'-(arylidene)-4-[(benzothiazol-2-yl)thio]butanoylhydrazide derivatives (3a-s) bearing azole moiety and hydrazone group in a lipophilic structural framework. The target compounds were prepared by a three step synthetic procedure starting from 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. The structures of the target compounds were elucidated by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectra and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the obtained compounds has been determined against a number of clinic and fluconazole-resistant Candida strains by using microdilution method. Compounds (3a-3s) exhibited anticandidal activity in different ratios varying between the range of MIC: 50 and 200 µg/mL. PMID:26247354

  6. Hybrid benzothiazole analogs as antiurease agent: Synthesis and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Imran, Syahrul; Wadood, Abdul; Rahim, Fazal; Khan, Khalid Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Benzothiazole analogs (1-20) have been synthesized, characterized by EI-MS and (1)H NMR, and evaluated for urease inhibition activity. All compounds showed excellent urease inhibitory potential varying from 1.4±0.10 to 34.43±2.10μM when compared with standard thiourea (IC50 19.46±1.20μM). Among the series seventeen (17) analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, and 18 showed outstanding urease inhibitory potential. Analogs 15 and 19 also showed good urease inhibition activity. When we compare the activity of N-phenylthiourea 20 with all substituted phenyl derivatives (1-18) we found that compound 15 showed less activity than compound 20 having 3-methoxy substituent. The binding interactions of these active analogs were confirmed through molecular docking. PMID:27038849

  7. Ultrafast Spectroscopy Evidence for Picosecond Ligand Exchange at the Binding Site of a Heme Protein: Heme-Based Sensor YddV.

    PubMed

    Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Stranava, Martin; Lobato, Laura; Martinkova, Marketa; Shimizu, Toru; Liebl, Ursula; Vos, Marten H

    2016-01-01

    An important question for the functioning of heme proteins is whether different ligands present within the protein moiety can readily exchange with heme-bound ligands. Studying the dynamics of the heme domain of the Escherichia coli sensor protein YddV upon dissociation of NO from the ferric heme by ultrafast spectroscopy, we demonstrate that when the hydrophobic leucine residue in the distal heme pocket is mutated to glycine, in a substantial fraction of the protein water replaces NO as an internal ligand in as fast as ∼4 ps. This process, which is near-barrierless and occurs orders of magnitude faster than the corresponding process in myoglobin, corresponds to a ligand swap of NO with a water molecule present in the heme pocket, as corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings provide important new insight into ligand exchange in heme proteins that functionally interact with different external ligands. PMID:26651267

  8. Highly potent, non-basic 5-HT6 ligands. Site mutagenesis evidence for a second binding mode at 5-HT6 for antagonism.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ralph N; Stabler, Russel S; Repke, David B; Kress, James M; Walker, Keith A; Martin, Renee S; Brothers, Julie M; Ilnicka, Mariola; Lee, Simon W; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2010-06-01

    A series of 5-HT(6) ligands derived from (R)-1-(amino)methyl-6-(phenyl)sulfonyltetralin was prepared that yielded several non-basic analogs having sub-nanomolar affinity. Ligand structure-activity relationships, receptor point mutation studies, and molecular modeling of these novel ligands all combined to reveal a new alternative binding mode to 5-HT(6) for antagonism. PMID:20434910

  9. Evidence of Kinetic Control of Ligand Binding and Staged Product Release in MurA (enolpyruvyl UDP-GlcNAc synthase)-catalyzed Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.; Zhang, F; Chindemi, P; Junop, M; Berti, P

    2009-01-01

    MurA (enolpyruvyl UDP-GlcNAc synthase) catalyzes the first committed step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. In this study, MurA-catalyzed breakdown of its tetrahedral intermediate (THI), with a k{sub cat}/K{sub M} of 520 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, was far slower than the normal reaction, and 3 x 10{sup 5}-fold slower than the homologous enzyme, AroA, reacting with its THI. This provided kinetic evidence of slow binding and a conformationally constrained active site. The MurA cocrystal structure with UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc), a potent inhibitor, and phosphite revealed a new 'staged' MurA conformation in which the Arg397 side chain tracked phosphite out of the catalytic site. The closed-to-staged transition involved breaking eight MurA {center_dot} ligand ion pairs, and three intraprotein hydrogen bonds helping hold the active site loop closed. These were replaced with only two MurA {center_dot} UDP-MurNAc ion pairs, two with phosphite, and seven new intraprotein ion pairs or hydrogen bonds. Cys115 appears to have an important role in forming the staged conformation. The staged conformation appears to be one step in a complex choreography of release of the product from MurA.

  10. Synthesis, in vitro protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibition, and herbicidal activity of N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)hexahydro-1H-isoindole-1,3-diones and N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)hexahydro-1H-isoindol-1-ones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong-You; Jiang, Li-Li; Zuo, Yang; Wang, Zhi-Fang; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2014-10-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) is one of the most significant targets for a large family of herbicides. As part of our continuous efforts to search for novel protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides, N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)tetrahydroisoindole-1,3-dione was selected as a lead compound for structural optimization, leading to the syntheses of a series of novel N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)hexahydro-1H-isoindole-1,3-diones (1a-o) and N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)hexahydro-1H-isoindol-1-ones (2a-i). These newly prepared compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, (1) H NMR, and ESI-MS, and the structures of 1h and 2h were further confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. The bioassays indicated that some compounds displayed comparable or higher protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibition activities in comparison with the commercial control. Very promising, compound 2a, ethyl 2-((6-fluoro-5-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-oxo-1H-isoindol-2(3H)-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-sulfanyl)acetate, was recognized as the most potent candidate with K(i) value of 0.0091 μm. Further greenhouse screening results demonstrated that some compounds exhibited good herbicidal activity against Chenopodium album at the dosage of 150 g/ha. PMID:24803371

  11. One-Pot Synthesis and Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activities of Functionalized S-Alkyl/Aryl Benzothiazole-2-carbothioate Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ajaz A; Shadab, M; Khan, Suman; Ali, Nahid; Khan, Abu T

    2016-04-15

    The synthesis of hitherto unreported S-alkyl/aryl benzothiazole-2-carbothioate is reported from thiols, oxalyl chloride, and 2-aminothiophenols using 10 mol % n-tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) as catalyst in acetonitrile through multicomponent reaction (MCR) strategy. The present protocol favored formation of benzothiazoles and thioesters via simultaneous formation of C-N and C-S bonds in good yields with a wide range of substrates. A few of the synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Further, these compounds displayed no toxicity toward macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and are therefore nontoxic and effective antileishmanial leads. In silico docking studies were performed to understand the possible binding site interaction with trypanothione reductase (TryR). PMID:26999637

  12. An organic-ligand-free thermochromic luminescent cuprous iodide trinuclear cluster: evidence for cluster centered emission and configuration distortion with temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Li; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2015-05-11

    An organic-ligand-free cuprous iodide trinuclear cluster with significant temperature-dependent structural distortion has been synthesized and characterized, which shows thermochromic luminescence originating from a single cluster-centered triplet due to the absence of an organic ligand. This compound also shows interesting reversible temperature dependent phase transition from chiral to centrosymmetric space groups. PMID:25865286

  13. A comparative study between para-aminophenyl and ortho-aminophenyl benzothiazoles using NMR and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Pierens, G K; Venkatachalam, T K; Reutens, D

    2014-08-01

    Ortho-substituted and para-substituted aminophenyl benzothiazoles were synthesised and characterised using NMR spectroscopy. A comparison of the proton chemical shift values reveals significant differences in the observed chemical shift values for the NH protons indicating the presence of a hydrogen bond in all ortho-substituted compounds as compared to the para compounds. The presence of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the ortho amino substituted aminophenyl benzothiazole forces the molecule to be planar which may be an additional advantage in developing these compounds as Alzheimer's imaging agent because the binding to amyloid fibrils prefers planar compounds. The splitting pattern of the methylene proton next to the amino group also showed significant coupling to the amino proton consistent with the notion of the existence of slow exchange and hydrogen bond in the ortho-substituted compounds. This is further verified by density functional theory calculations which yielded a near planar low energy conformer for all the o-aminophenyl benzothiazoles and displayed a hydrogen bond from the amine proton to the nitrogen of the thiazole ring. A detailed analysis of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR chemical shifts and density functional theory calculated structures of the compounds are described. PMID:24890025

  14. Changes to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor extracellular loops differentially affect GnRH analog binding and activation: evidence for distinct ligand-stabilized receptor conformations.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, Kevin D G; Pawson, Adam J; Millar, Robert P

    2008-06-01

    GnRH and its structural variants bind to GnRH receptors from different species with different affinities and specificities. By investigating chimeric receptors that combine regions of mammalian and nonmammalian GnRH receptors, a greater understanding of how different domains influence ligand binding and receptor activation can be achieved. Using human-catfish and human-chicken chimeric receptors, we demonstrate the importance of extracellular loop conformation for ligand binding and agonist potency, providing further evidence for GnRH and GnRH II stabilization of distinct active receptor conformations. We demonstrate examples of GnRH receptor gain-of-function mutations that apparently improve agonist potency independently of affinity, implicating a role for extracellular loops in stabilizing the inactive receptor conformation. We also show that entire extracellular loop substitution can overcome the detrimental effects of localized mutations, thereby demonstrating the importance of considering the conformation of entire domains when drawing conclusions from point-mutation studies. Finally, we present evidence implicating the configuration of extracellular loops 2 and 3 in combination differentiating GnRH analog binding modes. Because there are two endogenous forms of GnRH ligand but only one functional form of full-length GnRH receptor in humans, understanding how GnRH and GnRH II can elicit distinct functional effects through the same receptor is likely to provide important insights into how these ligands can have differential effects in both physiological and pathological situations. PMID:18356273

  15. Synthesis of new spiroindolinones incorporating a benzothiazole moiety as antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Karali, Nilgün; Güzel, Ozlen; Ozsoy, Nurten; Ozbey, Süheyla; Salman, Aydin

    2010-03-01

    3H-Spiro[1,3-benzothiazole-2,3'-indol]-2'(1'H)-ones 3a-c and 4a-e were synthesized from treating the 5-substituted 1H-indole-2,3-diones with 2-aminothiophenol in ethanol. The structures were confirmed by elemental analyses, spectrometry (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HSQC-2D and LCMS-APCI) and single crystal X-ray analysis. The new compounds were screened for their antioxidant activities such as the Fe(3+)/ascorbate system induced inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LP) in liposomes, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), scavenging effect on diphenylpicryl hydrazine (DPPH*), and reducing power. These compounds showed potent scavenging activities against DPPH* and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS*(+)) radicals, reducing powers, and strong inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation. Compound 4a incorporating methyl both at R(1) and R(2) was found to be the most potent antioxidant described in this study. Compounds 3b and 4b were selected as representative compounds by the National Cancer Institute for screening against anticancer activity and these compounds were found to be cytotoxic against CNS cancer cell line SNB-75 in the primary screen. PMID:20045221

  16. A Tetra(Ethylene Glycol) Derivative of Benzothiazole Aniline Enhances Ras-Mediated Spinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Megill, Andrea; Lee, Taehee; DiBattista, Amanda Marie; Song, Jung Min; Spitzer, Matthew H.; Rubinshtein, Mark; Habib, Lila K.; Capule, Christina C.; Mayer, Michael; Turner, R. Scott; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Yang, Jerry; Pak, Daniel T. S.; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The tetra(ethylene glycol) derivative of benzothiazole aniline, BTA-EG4, is a novel amyloid-binding small molecule that can penetrate the blood–brain barrier and protect cells from Aβ-induced toxicity. However, the effects of Aβ-targeting molecules on other cellular processes, including those that modulate synaptic plasticity, remain unknown. We report here that BTA-EG4 decreases Aβ levels, alters cell surface expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and improves memory in wild-type mice. Interestingly, the BTA-EG4-mediated behavioral improvement is not correlated with LTP, but with increased spinogenesis. The higher dendritic spine density reflects an increase in the number of functional synapses as determined by increased miniature EPSC (mEPSC) frequency without changes in presynaptic parameters or postsynaptic mEPSC amplitude. Additionally, BTA-EG4 requires APP to regulate dendritic spine density through a Ras signaling-dependent mechanism. Thus, BTA-EG4 may provide broad therapeutic benefits for improving neuronal and cognitive function, and may have implications in neurodegenerative disease therapy. PMID:23719799

  17. Benzothiazoles in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yanjian; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-07-01

    Benzothiazole and its derivatives (collectively referred to BTHs) are used widely in many consumer (e.g., textiles) and industrial (e.g., rubber) products. Very little is known about the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air and the inhalation exposure of humans to these substances. In this study, 81 indoor air samples collected from various locations in Albany, New York, USA, in 2014 were analyzed for BTHs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BTHs were found in all indoor air samples, and the overall concentrations in bulk air (vapor plus particulate phases) were in the range of 4.36-2229 ng/m(3) (geometric mean: 32.7 ng/m(3)). The highest concentrations (geometric mean: 148 ng/m(3)) were found in automobiles, followed by homes (49.5)>automobile garages (46.0)>public places, e.g., shopping malls (24.2)>barbershops (18.9) >offices (18.8)>laboratories (15.1). The estimated geometric mean daily intake (EDI) of BTHs for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults through indoor air inhalation from homes was 27.7, 26.3, 17.9, 10.5, and 7.77 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The estimated contribution of indoor air to total BTHs intake was approximately 10%. This is the first study on the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air. PMID:26954474

  18. DFT simulation, quantum chemical electronic structure, spectroscopic and structure-activity investigations of 2-benzothiazole acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Thillai Govindaraja, S; Jose, Sujin P; Mohan, S

    2014-07-15

    The Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra of 2-benzothiazole acetonitrile (BTAN) have been recorded in the range 4000-450 and 4000-100 cm(-1) respectively. The conformational analysis of the compound has been carried out to obtain the stable geometry of the compound. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound are carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum chemical studies. The experimental vibrational frequencies are compared with the wavenumbers derived theoretically by B3LYP gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31G(**), high level 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the normal modes obtained from the B3LYP methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The (1)H (400 MHz; CDCl3) and (13)C (100 MHz;CDCl3) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are also recorded. The electronic properties, the energies of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are measured by DFT approach. The kinetic stability of the molecule has been determined from the frontier molecular orbital energy gap. The charges of the atoms and the structure-chemical reactivity relations of the compound are determined by its chemical potential, global hardness, global softness, electronegativity, electrophilicity and local reactivity descriptors by conceptual DFT methods. The non-linear optical properties of the compound have been discussed by measuring the polarisability and hyperpolarisability tensors. PMID:24662754

  19. 2-(4-Amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole is a ligand and shows species-specific partial agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzi, Rana; Bradshaw, Tracey D.; Rowlands, J. Craig; Stevens, Malcolm F.G.; Bell, David R.

    2009-05-15

    2-(4-Amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203) and related compounds are a series of anti-cancer candidate pharmaceuticals, that have been shown to activate the AhR. We show that these compounds are high-affinity ligands for the rat AhR, but a quantitative assay for their ability to induce CYP1A1 RNA in H4IIEC3 cells, a measure of activation of the AhR, showed a poor relationship between affinity for the AhR and ability to induce CYP1A1 RNA. 5F 203, an agonist with low potency, was able to antagonise the induction of CYP1A1 RNA by TCDD, while IH 445, a potent agonist, did not antagonise the induction of CYP1A1 RNA by TCDD, and Schild analysis confirmed 5F 203 to be a potent antagonist of the induction of CYP1A1 RNA by TCDD in H4IIEC3 cells. In contrast, several benzothiazoles show potent induction of CYP1A1 RNA in human MCF-7 cells, and 5F 203 is unable to detectably antagonise the induction of CYP1A1 RNA in MCF-7 cells, showing a species difference in antagonism. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity of benzothiazoles showed that the ability to agonise the AhR correlated with growth inhibition both in H4IIEC3 cells for a variety of benzothiazoles, and between H4IIEC3 and MCF-7 cells for 5F 203, suggesting an important role of agonism of the AhR in the anti-proliferative activity of benzothiazoles.

  20. FeF(3) catalyzed cascade C-C and C-N bond formation: synthesis of differentially substituted triheterocyclic benzothiazole functionalities under solvent-free condition.

    PubMed

    Atar, Amol B; Jeong, Yeon Tae

    2014-05-01

    A series of diverse polyfunctionalized triheterocyclic benzothiazoles were easily prepared in excellent yields via the Biginelli reaction of 2-aminobenzothiazole with substituted benzaldehydes and α-methylene ketones using FeF(3) as an expeditious catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The protocol provides a practical and straightforward approach toward highly functionalized triheterocyclic benzothiazole derivatives in excellent yields. The reaction was conveniently promoted by FeF(3) and the catalyst could be recovered easily after the reaction and reused without any loss of its catalytic activity. The advantageous features of this methodology are high atom economy, operational simplicity, shorter reaction time, convergence, and facile automation. PMID:24504377

  1. Synthesis and an angiolytic role of novel piperazine-benzothiazole analogues on neovascularization, a chief tumoral parameter in neoplastic development.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghorbani, Mohammed; Pavankumar, G S; Naveen, P; Thirusangu, Prabhu; Prabhakar, B T; Khanum, Shaukath Ara

    2016-04-01

    A novel series of benzoic acid N'-[2-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-acetyl]-hydrazides 6a-j were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, elemental and mass spectral analyses. The in-vitro cytotoxicity and cell viability assay of the synthesized compounds 6a-j were evaluated against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells. Our results showed that compound 6c with a bromo group on phenyl ring has showed promising antiproliferative efficacy. Further investigation of compound 6c on in-vivo treatment model depicts the increased tumor suppression through inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:26918263

  2. The influence of the various central metals on photophysical and photochemical properties of benzothiazole-substituted phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nas, Asiye; Dilber, Gülsev; Durmuş, Mahmut; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-01-01

    The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, fluorescence quenching studies by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ)) and photochemical (singlet oxygen quantum yields and photodegradation studies under light irradiation) properties of tetra-benzothiazole substituted metal-free (H2Pc, 1), lead (II) (PbPc, 2) and zinc(II) (ZnPc, 3) phthalocyanine compounds were investigated in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. All of these compounds did not show any aggregation and they produced good singlet oxygen (especially ZnPc). The influence of the various central metal ions (zinc, lead or without metal) on the photophysical and photochemical parameters was also investigated and compared.

  3. The influence of the various central metals on photophysical and photochemical properties of benzothiazole-substituted phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Nas, Asiye; Dilber, Gülsev; Durmuş, Mahmut; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-01-25

    The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, fluorescence quenching studies by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ)) and photochemical (singlet oxygen quantum yields and photodegradation studies under light irradiation) properties of tetra-benzothiazole substituted metal-free (H2Pc, 1), lead (II) (PbPc, 2) and zinc(II) (ZnPc, 3) phthalocyanine compounds were investigated in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. All of these compounds did not show any aggregation and they produced good singlet oxygen (especially ZnPc). The influence of the various central metal ions (zinc, lead or without metal) on the photophysical and photochemical parameters was also investigated and compared. PMID:25062049

  4. Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Zinc Acetylacetonate and Benzothiazole in Epoxy Coating on the Corrosion of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoozadeh, S. M.; Mahdavian, M.

    2015-06-01

    The corrosion inhibition effect of zinc acetylacetonate (ZAA) and benzothiazole (BTH) mixture was evaluated for mild steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. To this end, ZAA:BTH mixtures ranged from 6:1 to 1:6 mol ratios were examined by weight loss and open circuit potential to obtain optimal mole ratio. The optimal mixture of ZAA:BTH at 1:5 mol ratio showed a significant corrosion inhibition efficiency proved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization studies. The addition of the optimal mixture of ZAA:BTH to epoxy coating showed a considerable increase of corrosion protection evaluated by salt spray exposure.

  5. Reaction of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate and other bidentate ligands with Zn, Co and Cu bovine carbonic anhydrases. Inhibition of the enzyme activity and evidence for stable ternary enzyme-metal-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, L; Desideri, A; Rigo, A; Viglino, P; Rotilio, G

    1983-08-16

    The reactions with N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) of zinc, cobalt and copper carbonic anhydrase from bovine erythrocytes were investigated. The native zinc enzyme was inhibited by DDC, but no removal of zinc could be detected even at a very high [ligand]/[protein] ratio. At identical pH values a larger inhibitory effect was found for the cobalt enzyme. The metal was removed by DDC from the protein at pH less than 7.0. No cobalt removal occurred at pH 10, where a stable ternary complex with the enzyme-bound Co(II) was detected. Its optical and EPR spectra are indicative of five-coordinate Co(II). The reaction of the Cu(II) enzyme with stoichiometric chelating agent was marked by the appearance of an electronic transition at 390 nm (epsilon = 4300 M-1 X cm-1). Metal removal from the copper enzyme readily occurred as the ligand was in excess over the metal, with parallel appearance of a band at 440 nm, which was attributed to the free Cu(II)-DDC complex. Also, in the case of the copper enzyme an alkaline pH was found to stabilize the ternary adduct with the diagnostic 390 nm band. EPR spectra showed that the ternary adduct is a mixture of two species, both characterized by the presence in the EPR spectrum of a superhyperfine structure from two protein nitrogens and by a low g parallel value, indicative of coordination to sulfur ligands. It is suggested that the two species contain the metal as penta- and hexacoordinated, respectively. Measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time, T1, of the water protons suggested that water coordination is retained in the latter case. Hexacoordination with retention of water is also proposed for the Cu(II) derivatives with the bidentate oxalate and bicarbonate anions, unlike the corresponding Co(II) derivatives, which are pentacoordinated. Different coordination of Co(II) and Cu(II) adducts may be relevant to the difference of activity of the two substituted enzymes. PMID:6309239

  6. Investigation of the electronic ground states for a reduced pyridine(diimine) uranium series: evidence for a ligand tetraanion stabilized by a uranium dimer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nickolas H; Odoh, Samuel O; Williams, Ursula J; Lewis, Andrew J; Wagner, Gregory L; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Kozimor, Stosh A; Gagliardi, Laura; Schelter, Eric J; Bart, Suzanne C

    2015-04-15

    The electronic structures of a series of highly reduced uranium complexes bearing the redox-active pyridine(diimine) ligand, (Mes)PDI(Me) ((Mes)PDI(Me) = 2,6-(2,4,6-Me3-C6H2-N═CMe)2C5H3N) have been investigated. The complexes, ((Mes)PDI(Me))UI3(THF) (1), ((Mes)PDI(Me))UI2(THF)2 (2), [((Mes)PDI(Me))UI]2 (3), and [((Mes)PDI(Me))U(THF)]2 (4), were examined using electronic and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, magnetometry, and computational analyses. Taken together, these studies suggest that all members of the series contain uranium(IV) centers with 5f (2) configurations and reduced ligand frameworks, specifically [(Mes)PDI(Me)](•/-), [(Mes)PDI(Me)](2-), [(Mes)PDI(Me)](3-) and [(Mes)PDI(Me)](4-), respectively. In the cases of 2, 3, and 4 no unpaired spin density was found on the ligands, indicating a singlet diradical ligand in monomeric 2 and ligand electron spin-pairing through dimerization in 3 and 4. Interaction energies, representing enthalpies of dimerization, of -116.0 and -144.4 kcal mol(-1) were calculated using DFT for the monomers of 3 and 4, respectively, showing there is a large stabilization gained by dimerization through uranium-arene bonds. Highlighted in these studies is compound 4, bearing a previously unobserved pyridine(diimine) tetraanion, that was uniquely stabilized by backbonding between uranium cations and the η(5)-pyridyl ring. PMID:25830409

  7. Identification of selected microorganisms from activated sludge capable of benzothiazole and benzotriazole transformation.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Felis, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Benzothiazole (BT) and benzotriazole (BTA) are present in the environment - especially in urban and industrial areas, usually as anthropogenic micropollutants. BT and BTA have been found in the municipal and industrial wastewater, rivers, soil, groundwater, sediments and sludge. The origins of those substances' presence in the environment are various industry branches (food, chemical, metallurgical, electrical), households and surface runoff from industrial areas. Increasingly strict regulations on water quality and the fact that the discussed compounds are poorly biodegradable, make them a serious problem in the environment. Considering this, it is important to look for environmentally friendly and socially acceptable ways to remove BT and BTA. The aim of this study was to identify microorganisms capable of BT and BTA transformation or/and degradation in aquatic environment. Selected microorganisms were isolated from activated sludge. The identification of microorganisms capable of BT and BTA removal was possible using molecular biology techniques (PCR, DNA sequencing). Among isolated microorganisms of activated sludge are bacteria potentially capable of BT and BTA biotransformation and/or removal. The most common bacteria capable of BT and BTA transformation were Rhodococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp. They can grow in a medium with BT and BTA as the only carbon source. Microorganisms previously adapted to the presence of the studied substances at a concentration of 10 mg/l, showed a greater rate of growth of colonies on media than microorganisms unconditioned to the presence of such compounds. Results of the biodegradation test suggest that BT was degraded to a greater extent than BTA, 98-100% and 11-19%, respectively. PMID:26641641

  8. Benzotriazole, benzothiazole, and benzophenone compounds in indoor dust from the United States and East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-05-01

    Organic corrosion inhibitors (OCIs), including ultraviolet light filters, are widely used in plastics, rubbers, colorants, and coatings to increase the performance of products. Derivatives of benzotriazole (BTR), benzothiazole (BTH), and benzophenone (BP) are high-production volume OCIs that have been detected in the environment and human tissues. However, knowledge of their occurrence in indoor environments, as well as human exposure to them, is still lacking. In this study, BTR, BTH, BP and their 12 derivatives were determined in indoor dust for the first time. All three groups of OCIs were found in all 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S. and three East Asian countries (China, Japan, and Korea). The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of six BTRs (GM CΣBTRs) ranged from 20 to 90 ng/g among the four countries studied, with a maximum CΣBTRs of ∼2000 ng/g found in a dust sample from China. Tolyltriazole was the major derivative of BTR measured in dust. GM CΣBTHs in indoor dust from the four countries ranged from 600 to 2000 ng/g. 2-OH-BTH was the predominant BTH in dust from the U.S., Japan, and Korea. GM CΣBPs in dust ranged from 80 to 600 ng/g, with 2-OH-4-MeO-BP and 2,4-2OH-BP, contributing to the majority of ∑BP concentrations. Based on the concentrations of three types of OCIs in indoor dust, human exposure through dust ingestion was calculated. Daily intake of OCIs through dust ingestion was higher for people in the U.S., Japan, and Korea than in China; the residents in urban China are exposed to higher levels of OCIs via dust ingestion than are those in rural China. PMID:23544437

  9. Benzothiazole Amphiphiles Promote the Formation of Dendritic Spines in Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Jessica L; Dozier, Lara; Chung, Tim S; Patrick, Gentry N; Yang, Jerry

    2016-06-01

    The majority of excitatory synapses in the brain exist on dendritic spines. Accordingly, the regulation of dendritic spine density in the hippocampus is thought to play a central role in learning and memory. The development of novel methods to control spine density could, therefore, have important implications for treatment of a host of neurodegenerative and developmental cognitive disorders. Herein, we report the design and evaluation of a new class of benzothiazole amphiphiles that exhibit a dose-dependent response leading to an increase in dendritic spine density in primary hippocampal neurons. Cell exposure studies reveal that the increase in spine density can persist for days in the presence of these compounds, but returns to normal spine density levels within 24 h when the compounds are removed, demonstrating the capability to reversibly control spinogenic activity. Time-lapse imaging of dissociated hippocampal neuronal cultures shows that these compounds promote a net increase in spine density through the formation of new spines. Biochemical studies support that promotion of spine formation by these compounds is accompanied by Ras activation. These spinogenic molecules were also capable of inhibiting a suspected mechanism for dendritic spine loss induced by Alzheimer-related aggregated amyloid-β peptides in primary neurons. Evaluation of this new group of spinogenic agents reveals that they also exhibit relatively low toxicity at concentrations displaying activity. Collectively, these results suggest that small molecules that promote spine formation could be potentially useful for ameliorating cognitive deficiencies associated with spine loss in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and may also find use as general cognitive enhancers. PMID:27022020

  10. Identification of Benzothiazole Derivatives and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists Present in Tire Extracts

    PubMed Central

    He, Guochun; Zhao, Bin; Denison, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Leachate from rubber tire material contains a complex mixture of chemicals previously shown to produce toxic and biological effects in aquatic organisms. While the ability of these leachates to induce Ah receptor (AhR)-dependent cytochrome P4501A1 expression in fish indicated the presence of AhR active chemicals, the responsible chemical(s) and their direct interaction with the AhR signaling pathway were not examined. Using a combination of AhR-based bioassays, we have demonstrated the ability of tire extract to stimulate both AhR DNA binding and AhR-dependent gene expression and confirmed that the responsible chemical(s) was metabolically labile. The application of CALUX (Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression) cell bioassay-driven toxicant identification evaluation not only revealed that tire extract contained a variety of known AhR-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but also identified 2-methylthiobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as AhR agonists. Analysis of a structurally diverse series of benzothiazoles identified many that could directly stimulate AhR DNA binding and transiently activate the AhR signaling pathway and identified benzothiazoles as a new class of AhR agonists. In addition to these compounds, the relatively high AhR agonist activity of a large number of fractions strongly suggests that tire extract contains a large number of physiochemically diverse AhR agonists whose identities and toxicological/biological significances are unknown. PMID:21590714

  11. Quantitative investigations of cation complexation of photochromic 8-benzothiazole-substituted benzopyran: towards metal-ion sensors.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Marianna I; Coudret, Christophe; Pimienta, Véronique; Micheau, Jean Claude; Delbaere, Stéphanie; Vermeersch, Gaston; Metelitsa, Anatoly V; Voloshin, Nikolai; Minkin, Vladimir I

    2010-02-01

    The photochromic, thermochromic and metallochromic behaviour of a series of three spiro[indoline-8-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-benzopyrans] has been investigated. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of their thermal equilibrium between the ring-closed (spiro) and ring-opened (merocyanine) isomeric forms have been determined using UV-Vis absorption and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. By adding Co(ii) and Ni(ii) ions in acetonitrile solution, 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 metal : merocyanine complexes are formed simultaneously. Using appropriate numerical methods, the kinetic analysis of the complexation allowed us to determine accurately key thermodynamic and spectroscopic parameters of the metal complexes. Results showed that the complexation strength is very sensitive to the size of the indoline nitrogen substituent. Complexation can be reversed by shining white light on the coloured complexes which regenerates the inactive spiropyran form, and releases the metallic ion; hence, these systems display fully reversible negative photochromism. The Zn(ii) complexes exhibit intense fluorescence in the 600-800 nm wavelength range. All these behaviours make these spiropyrans bearing benzothiazole heterocycles promising building blocks for the future construction of photodynamic chemosensors for transition metal ions. PMID:20126795

  12. Identification of benzothiazole derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists present in tire extracts.

    PubMed

    He, Guochun; Zhao, Bin; Denison, Michael S

    2011-08-01

    Leachate from rubber tire material contains a complex mixture of chemicals previously shown to produce toxic and biological effects in aquatic organisms. The ability of these leachates to induce Ah receptor (AhR)-dependent cytochrome P4501A1 expression in fish indicated the presence of AhR active chemicals, but the responsible chemicals and their direct interaction with the AhR signaling pathway were not examined. Using a combination of AhR-based bioassays, we have demonstrated the ability of tire extract to stimulate both AhR DNA binding and AhR-dependent gene expression and confirmed that the responsible chemicals were metabolically labile. The application of CALUX (chemical-activated luciferase gene expression) cell bioassay-driven toxicant identification evaluation not only revealed that tire extract contained a variety of known AhR-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but also identified 2-methylthiobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as AhR agonists. Analysis of a structurally diverse series of benzothiazoles identified many that could directly stimulate AhR DNA binding and transiently activate the AhR signaling pathway and identified benzothiazoles as a new class of AhR agonists. In addition to these compounds, the relatively high AhR agonist activity of a large number of fractions strongly suggests that tire extract contains a large number of physiochemically diverse AhR agonists whose identities and toxicological/biological significances are unknown. PMID:21590714

  13. Determination of urinary 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT), the main metabolite of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole (TCMTB) in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Manninen, A; Auriola, S; Vartiainen, M; Liesivuori, J; Turunen, T; Pasanen, M

    1996-01-01

    A method for biological monitoring of urinary 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole (TCMTB), a wood preservative and an industrial chemical, was developed. Three different doses of TCMTB in olive oil were given to male rats by gavage for 3 weeks. Urine was collected daily and the metabolites were analysed as thioethers by derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl-bromide by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The parent chemical was not detected in urine samples, but two metabolites of TCMTB were identified. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT) was the main metabolite, and its excretion varied according to the dose. The second metabolite was 2-(mercaptomethylthio)benzothiazole. The amount of 2-MBT excreted in rat urine was 66 +/- 12% (SD), 51 +/- 20% and 44 +/- 9% for TCMTB doses of 15, 75 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. Two doses, 75 and 150 mg/kg, caused diuresis in rats during the 1 week of dosing. During the 3-week TCMTB treatment, rat liver microsomal CYP enzyme profile was not significantly changed. Urine samples of sawmill workers exposed to TCMTB were collected after their work shifts for exposure assessment. TCMTB could not be detected in the urine samples of exposed workers. Most concentrations of 2-MBT were below the limit of the detection, 0.12 mumol/l, the concentrations were 0.12-0.15 mumol/l only in few cases. The determination of 2-MBT in urine, when a sample is taken immediately after a work shift, is a suitable indicator of workers' exposure to TCMTB. PMID:8831908

  14. Evidence for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-independent transactivation by the vitamin D receptor: uncoupling the receptor and ligand in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Tara I; Eckert, Richard L; MacDonald, Paul N

    2007-04-13

    The vitamin D endocrine system plays critical although poorly understood roles in skin. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knock-out (VDRKO) mice have defects in hair follicle cycling and keratinocyte proliferation leading to epidermal thickening, dermal cyst formation, and alopecia. Surprisingly, skin defects are not apparent in mice lacking 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase, the enzyme required for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) hormone biosynthesis. These disparate phenotypes indicate that VDR effects in skin are independent of the 1,25(OH)2D3 ligand. However, cellular or molecular data supporting this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we show transcriptional activation of the vitamin D-responsive 24-hydroxylase promoter by VDR in primary keratinocytes that is independent of the 1,25(OH)2D3 ligand. This activity required functional vitamin D-responsive promoter elements as well as an intact VDR DNA binding domain and thus could not be distinguished from 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent VDR transactivation. The 1,25(OH)2D3-independent activation of VDR was also observed in keratinocytes from 1alpha-hydroxylase knock-out mice, indicating that it is not due to endogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 production. Mammalian two-hybrid studies showed strong, 1,25(OH)2D3-independent interaction between VDR and retinoid X receptors in primary keratinocytes, indicating that enhanced heterodimerization of these receptors was involved. Indeed, this 1,25(OH)2D3-independent VDR-RXR heterodimerization was sufficient to drive transactivation by VDR(L233S), an inactive ligand binding mutant of VDR that was previously shown to rescue the skin phenotype of VDR null mice. Cumulatively, these studies support the concept that transactivation by VDR in keratinocytes may be uncoupled from the 1,25(OH)2D3 ligand. PMID:17310066

  15. Spectroscopic evidence on improvement in complex formation of O2N2 aza-crown macrocyclic ligands with Cu(II) acetate upon incorporation with [60]Fullerene.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Bahram; Gholamnezhad, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the spectroscopic investigations on the complexation of Cu(II) with two macrocyclic ligands bonded to [60]Fullerene (L1 and L2) measured in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent. On the basis of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy applying Jobs method of continuous variation, typical 1:1 stoichiometries were established for the complexes of Cu(II) with L1, and L2. DFT calculations suggested that superior HOMO distributions spread over the nitrogen-donor (as well as somehow oxygen- donor in L2) groups of L1 and L2 macrocycles were the key factor for the observed Kb value enhancement. Thermodynamic stabilities for these complexes have also been determined employing Benesi-Hildebrand equation and the results were compared in terms of their calculated binding constants (Kb). These measurements showed that L1 and L2 bound to these cations stronger than their parent free macrocyclic ligands 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, Kb values found for L2 complexes revealed that it could coordinate Cu(II) cation better than L1. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ∆H, and -ΔS) derived from Van't Hoff equation showed that L1 and L2 coordination of Cu(II) cation were occurred due to both enthalpic and entropic factors while the coordination of Cu(II) with their parent macrocyclic ligands 1 and 2 only enjoyed from only enthalpic advantages. PMID:27380303

  16. Spectroscopic evidence on improvement in complex formation of O2N2 aza-crown macrocyclic ligands with Cu(II) acetate upon incorporation with [60]Fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Bahram; Gholamnezhad, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the spectroscopic investigations on the complexation of Cu(II) with two macrocyclic ligands bonded to [60]Fullerene (L1 and L2) measured in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent. On the basis of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy applying Jobs method of continuous variation, typical 1:1 stoichiometries were established for the complexes of Cu(II) with L1, and L2. DFT calculations suggested that superior HOMO distributions spread over the nitrogen-donor (as well as somehow oxygen- donor in L2) groups of L1 and L2 macrocycles were the key factor for the observed Kb value enhancement. Thermodynamic stabilities for these complexes have also been determined employing Benesi-Hildebrand equation and the results were compared in terms of their calculated binding constants (Kb). These measurements showed that L1 and L2 bound to these cations stronger than their parent free macrocyclic ligands 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, Kb values found for L2 complexes revealed that it could coordinate Cu(II) cation better than L1. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ∆ H, and - ΔS) derived from Van't Hoff equation showed that L1 and L2 coordination of Cu(II) cation were occurred due to both enthalpic and entropic factors while the coordination of Cu(II) with their parent macrocyclic ligands 1 and 2 only enjoyed from only enthalpic advantages.

  17. Functional Pairing of Class B1 Ligand-GPCR in Cephalochordate Provides Evidence of the Origin of PTH and PACAP/Glucagon Receptor Family.

    PubMed

    On, Jason S W; Duan, Cumming; Chow, Billy K C; Lee, Leo T O

    2015-08-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of the secretin family of peptides and receptors. However, identification of homologous ligand-receptor pairs in invertebrates and vertebrates is difficult because of the low levels of sequence identity between orthologs of distant species. In this study, five receptors structurally related to the vertebrate class B1 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family were characterized from amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Phylogenetic analysis showed that they clustered with vertebrate parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon receptors. These PTHR-like receptors shared synteny with several PTH and PACAP/glucagon receptors identified in spotted gar, Xenopus, and human, indicating that amphioxus preserves the ancestral chordate genomic organization of these receptor subfamilies. According to recent data by Mirabeau and Joly, amphioxus also expresses putative peptide ligands including homologs of PTH (bfPTH1 and 2) and PACAP/GLUC-like peptides (bfPACAP/GLUCs) that may interact with these receptors. Functional analyses showed that bfPTH1 and bfPTH2 activated one of the amphioxus receptors (bf98C) whereas bfPACAP/GLUCs strongly interacted with bf95. In summary, our data confirm the presence of PTH and PACAP/GLUC ligand-receptor pairs in amphioxus, demonstrating that functional homologs of vertebrate PTH and PACAP/glucagon GPCR subfamilies arose before the cephalochordate divergence from the ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates. PMID:25841489

  18. Tyrosine-Coordinated P-Cluster in G. diazotrophicus Nitrogenase: Evidence for the Importance of O-Based Ligands in Conformationally Gated Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Owens, Cedric P; Katz, Faith E H; Carter, Cole H; Oswald, Victoria F; Tezcan, F Akif

    2016-08-17

    The P-cluster is a unique iron-sulfur center that likely functions as a dynamic electron (e(-)) relay site between the Fe-protein and the catalytic FeMo-cofactor in nitrogenase. The P-cluster has been shown to undergo large conformational changes upon 2-e(-) oxidation which entail the coordination of two of the Fe centers to a Ser side chain and a backbone amide N, respectively. Yet, how and if this 2-e(-) oxidized state (P(OX)) is involved in catalysis by nitrogenase is not well established. Here, we present the crystal structures of reduced and oxidized MoFe-protein (MoFeP) from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Gd), which natively possesses an Ala residue in the position of the Ser ligand to the P-cluster. While reduced Gd-MoFeP is structurally identical to previously characterized counterparts around the FeMo-cofactor, oxidized Gd-MoFeP features an unusual Tyr coordination to its P-cluster along with ligation by a backbone amide nitrogen. EPR analysis of the oxidized Gd-MoFeP P-cluster confirmed that it is a 2-e(-) oxidized, integer-spin species. Importantly, we have found that the sequence positions corresponding to the Ser and Tyr ligands are almost completely covariant among Group I nitrogenases. These findings strongly support the possibility that the P(OX) state is functionally relevant in nitrogenase catalysis and that a hard, O-based anionic ligand serves to stabilize this state in a switchable fashion. PMID:27487256

  19. Influence of bulky N-substituents on the formation of lanthanide triple helical complexes with a ligand derived from bis(benzimidazole)pyridine: structural and thermodynamic evidence.

    PubMed

    Muller, G; Bünzli, J C; Schenk, K J; Piguet, C; Hopfgartner, G

    2001-06-01

    The planar aromatic tridentate ligand 2,6-bis(1-S-neopentylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine (L(11)) reacts with Ln(III) (Ln = La-Lu) in acetonitrile to give the successive complexes [Ln(L(11))(n)](3+) (n = 1-3). However, stability constants determined by spectrophotometry and NMR titrations show that formation of the tris complexes is not favored, log K(3) being around 1 for La(III) and Eu(III), while no such species could be evidenced for the smaller Lu(III) ion. The X-ray structures of L(11) (monoclinic, P2(1), a = 13.4850(12) A, b = 12.0243(11) A, c = 16.4239(14) A, beta = 103.747(7) degrees ), [La(ClO(4))(2)(L(11))(2)](3)[La(ClO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(L(11))(2)](ClO(4))(4).15MeCN (1a, monoclinic, P2(1), a = 21.765(4) A, b = 30.769(6) A, c = 21.541(5) A, beta = 116.01(3) degrees ), and [Eu(L(11))(3)](ClO(4))(3).4.28MeCN (5a, monoclinic, P1, a = 14.166(3) A, b = 19.212(4) A, c = 21.099(4) A, alpha = 108.91(3) degrees, beta = 98.22(3) degrees, gamma = 108.40(3) degrees ) have been solved. In 1a, two different types of complex cations are evidenced, both containing 10-coordinate La(III) ions. In the first type, both perchlorate anions are bidentate, while in the second type, one perchlorate is monodentate, the 10th coordination position being occupied by a water molecule. In 5a the three ligands are not equivalent. Ligands A and B are wrapped in a helical way and are mirror images of each other, while ligand C lies almost perpendicular to the two other ones. This stems from the steric hindrance generated by the bulky neopentyl groups with the consecutive loss of any stabilizing interstrand pi-stacking interactions. This explains the low stability of the tris complexes and the difficulty of isolating them and points to the importance of the steric factors in the design of self-assembled triple helical lanthanide-containing functional edifices [Ln(L(i))(3)](3+). PMID:11375674

  20. Electronic Structure of Manganese Complexes of the Redox-Non-innocent Tetrazene Ligand and Evidence for the Metal-Azide/Imido Cycloaddition Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Vaddypally, Shivaiah; McKendry, Ian G; Tomlinson, Warren; Hooper, Joseph P; Zdilla, Michael J

    2016-07-18

    The first synthetic manganese tetrazene complexes are described as a redox pair comprising anionic [Mn(N4 Ad2 )2 ](-) (1) and neutral Mn(N4 Ad2 )2 (2) complexes (N4 Ad2 =[Ad-N-N=N-N-Ad](2-) ). Compound 1 is obtained in two forms as lithium salts, one as a cationic Li2 Mn cluster, and one as a Mn-Li 1D ionic polymer. Compound 1 is electronically described as a Mn(III) center with two [N4 Ad2 ](2-) ligands. The one-electron oxidized 2 is crystalized in two morphologies, one as pure 2 and one as an acetonitrile adduct. Despite similar composition, the behavior of 2 differs in the two morphologies. Compound 2-MeCN is relatively air and temperature stable. Crystalline 2, on the other hand, exhibits a compositional, dynamic disorder wherein the tetrazene metallacycle ring-opens into a metal imide/azide complex detectable by X-ray crystallography and FTIR spectroscopy. Electronic structure of 2 was examined by EPR and XPS spectroscopies and DFT calculations, which indicate 2 is best described as a Mn(III) ion with an anion radical delocalized across the two ligands through spin-polarization effects. PMID:27339316

  1. Fluorescence study of ligand binding to potato tuber pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase: evidence for competitive binding between fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Podestá, Florencio E; Plaxton, William C

    2003-06-01

    The intrinsic fluorescence of potato tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) was used as an indicator of conformational changes due to ligand binding. Binding of the substrates and the allosteric activator fructose-2,6-bisphosphate was quantitatively compared to their respective kinetic effects on enzymatic activity. PFP exhibited a relatively high affinity for its isolated substrates, relative to the enzyme's respective K(m) (substrate) values. There are two distinct types of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate interaction with PFP, corresponding to catalytic and activatory binding. Activatory fructose-1,6-bisphosphate binding shares several characteristics with fructose-2,6-bisphosphate binding, indicating that both ligands compete for the same allosteric activator site. Activation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate or fructose-2,6-bisphosphate was exerted primarily on the forward (glycolytic) reaction by greatly increasing the enzyme's affinity for fructose-6-phosphate. Binding of substrates and effectors to PFP and PFP kinetic properties were markedly influenced by assay pH. Results indicate an increased glycolytic role for PFP during cytosolic acidification that accompanies anoxia stress. PMID:12745260

  2. Biodegradation of benzotriazoles and hydroxy-benzothiazole in wastewater by activated sludge and moving bed biofilm reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Mazioti, Aikaterini A; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Pantazi, Ypapanti; Andersen, Henrik R

    2015-09-01

    Two laboratory scale fully aerated continuous flow wastewater treatment systems were used to compare the removal of five benzotriazoles and one benzothiazole by suspended and attached growth biomass. The activated sludge system was operated under low organic loading conditions. The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system consisted of two serially connected reactors filled with K3-biocarriers. It was either operated under low or high organic loading conditions. Target compounds were removed partially and with different rates in tested systems. For MBBR, increased loading resulted in significantly lower biodegradation for 4 out of 6 examined compounds. Calculation of specific removal rates (normalized to biomass) revealed that attached biomass had higher biodegradation potential for target compounds comparing to suspended biomass. Clear differences in the biodegradation ability of attached biomass grown in different bioreactors of MBBR systems were also observed. Batch experiments showed that micropollutants biodegradation by both types of biomass is co-metabolic. PMID:26093257

  3. Design and Synthesis of Novel Schiff Base-Benzothiazole Hybrids as Potential Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Thakur, Bhushan; Ray, Pritha; Singh, Sushil K

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel Schiff bases -benzothiazole hybrids was designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity by MTT assay and western blot method. Antiproliferative screening indicated that compound containing dihydroxy substituents had potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value 34µg/ml against SKOV3, A2780-S and A2780-CR cell lines. It showed more potent cytotoxicity in combination with cisplatin and paclitaxel than alone in the selected cell lines (SKOV3, A2780 and A2780-CR models). The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds on IOSE 364 cell line was evaluated to establish the selectivity. Molecular docking study exhibited good binding against epidermal growth factor receptor, which was further ascertained by immunoblot assay using specific antibody against phosphorylated EGFR, and thus unravelling the targeted anticancer mechanism. PMID:26443027

  4. Fast low-pressurized microwave-assisted extraction of benzotriazole, benzothiazole and benezenesulfonamide compounds from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Maraschi, Federica; Porta, Alessio; Profumo, Antonella

    2016-01-15

    Benzotriazoles (BTRs), benzothiazoles (BTs) and benzenesulfonamides (BSAs), compounds largely used in industrial and household applications, are ubiquitous emerging contaminants. In this work a novel, straightforward procedure for the simultaneous determination of two BTRs (1H-benzotriazole, 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole), three BTs (benzothiazole, 2-hydroxybenzothiazole, 2-methylthiobenzothiazole) and two BSAs (benzenesulfonamide, toluenesulfonamide) in soil has been developed. The target analytes were extracted from soil by a single low-pressurized microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) cycle (120°C, 10min) and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. For all the seven analytes, quantitative extraction yields (72-119%, n=4) were observed from recovery tests on soil samples (1g) spiked with 5, 10 and 50mg kg(-1), using 4mL water-methanol (85:15) as extracting solution. For the lower concentrations levels (100, 250 and 500μg kg(-1)), the analytes were extracted from soil samples (2-3g) using 6mL methanol, and the extract was pre-concentrated by evaporation before analysis; recoveries in the range 70-117% were obtained (n=4). Suitable intra-day and inter-day precision were observed, with values of relative standard deviation generally below 6% and 11% (n=4), respectively. Linearity was evaluated in the concentration range 0.5-10mg L(-1) by matrix-matched standards, obtaining r(2)>0.9996. The experimental method quantification limit (MQL) was 100μg kg(-1). The entire procedure has been successfully applied to the analysis of real impacted soil samples. PMID:26592614

  5. Canonical and non-canonical Notch ligands

    PubMed Central

    D’SOUZA, BRENDAN; MELOTY-KAPELLA, LAURENCE; WEINMASTER, GERRY

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling induced by canonical Notch ligands is critical for normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis through the regulation of a variety of cell fate decisions and cellular processes. Activation of Notch signaling is normally tightly controlled by direct interactions with ligand-expressing cells and dysregulated Notch signaling is associated with developmental abnormalities and cancer. While canonical Notch ligands are responsible for the majority of Notch signaling, a diverse group of structurally unrelated non-canonical ligands has also been identified that activate Notch and likely contribute to the pleiotropic effects of Notch signaling. Soluble forms of both canonical and non-canonical ligands have been isolated, some of which block Notch signaling and could serve as natural inhibitors of this pathway. Ligand activity can also be indirectly regulated by other signaling pathways at the level of ligand expression, serving to spatio-temporally compartmentalize Notch signaling activity and integrate Notch signaling into a molecular network that orchestrates developmental events. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual role of Notch ligands as activators and inhibitors of Notch signaling. Additionally, evidence that Notch ligands function independent of Notch are presented. We also discuss how ligand post-translational modification, endocytosis, proteolysis and spatio-temporal expression regulate their signaling activity. PMID:20816393

  6. Perfluorinated Taddol Phosphoramidite as an L,Z-Ligand on Rh(I) and Co(-I): Evidence for Bidentate Coordination via Metal-C6F5 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Derek M.; Rappé, Anthony K.

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated Taddol-based phosphoramidite, CKphos, is a highly selective ligand for formation of the vinylogous amide cycloadduct in the Rh(I) catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition of alkenyl isocyanates and alkynes. CKphos overrides substrate bias of product selectivity in the cycloaddition, providing indolizinones in excellent product and enantioselectivities. Excellent selectivities are attributed to a shortened Rh-P bond and coordination of one C6F5 to rhodium via a Z-type interaction, making the phosphoramidite a bidentate L,Z-ligand on rhodium. Evidence for the shortened Rh-P and C6F5 coordination is provided by X-ray, NMR and DFT computation analyses. Additionally, an anionic cobalt complex with CKphos was synthesized and two Co-C6F5 interactions are seen. Rh(C2H4)Cl•CKphos catalyst in the [2+2+2] cycloaddition of alkenyl isocyanates and alkynes represents a rare example of metal-C6F5 Z-type interaction affecting selectivity in transition metal catalysis. PMID:23671790

  7. A p-Hydroxyphenacyl-Benzothiazole-Chlorambucil Conjugate as a Real-Time-Monitoring Drug-Delivery System Assisted by Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barman, Shrabani; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav K; Biswas, Sandipan; Nandi, Surajit; Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Dey, Satyahari; Anoop, Anakuthil; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2016-03-18

    Among the well-known phototriggers, the p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) group has consistently enabled the very fast, efficient, and high-conversion release of active molecules. Despite this unique behavior, the pHP group has been ignored as a delivery agent, particularly in the area of theranostics, because of two major limitations: Its excitation wavelength is below 400 nm, and it is nonfluorescent. We have overcome these limitations by incorporating a 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT) appendage capable of rapid excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The ESIPT effect also provided two unique advantages: It assisted the deprotonation of the pHP group for faster release, and it was accompanied by a distinct fluorescence color change upon photorelease. In vitro studies showed that the p-hydroxyphenacyl-benzothiazole-chlorambucil conjugate presents excellent properties, such as real-time monitoring, photoregulated drug delivery, and biocompatibility. PMID:26919455

  8. Anchoring of Cu(II) onto surface of porous metal-organic framework through post-synthesis modification for the synthesis of benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Reihaneh; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Zadehahmadi, Farnaz

    2016-03-01

    Efficient synthesis of various benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles under mild conditions catalyzed by Cu(II) anchored onto UiO-66-NH2 metal organic framework is reported. In this manner, first, the aminated UiO-66 was modified with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and then the prepared Schiff base was reacted with CuCl2. The prepared catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The UiO-66-NH2-TC-Cu was applied as a highly efficient catalyst for synthesis of benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives by the reaction of aldehydes with 1,2-diaminobenzene or 2-aminothiophenol. The Cu(II)-containing MOF was reused several times without any appreciable loss of its efficiency.

  9. Synthesis and anti-oomycete activity of novel quinazolin- and benzothiazol-6-yloxyacetamides: Potent aza-analogs and five-ring analogs of quinoline fungicides.

    PubMed

    Beaudegnies, Renaud; Quaranta, Laura; Murphy Kessabi, Fiona; Lamberth, Clemens; Knauf-Beiter, Gertrud; Fraser, Torquil

    2016-02-01

    Novel quinazolin- and benzothiazol-6-yloxyacetamides show excellent in vivo activity against the three economically most important Oomycete pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Plasmopara viticola and Pythium ultimum. They are polar analogs of known quinolin-6-yloxyacetamides, which are not active against the soil-borne damping-off disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The Bogert quinazoline synthesis, an almost forgotten heterocyclization technique, proved to be highly useful for the concise construction of required quinazolin-6-ol building blocks. PMID:26346670

  10. Evaluating the toxic potential of benzothiazoles with the rainbow trout cell lines, RTgill-W1 and RTL-W1.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanxing; Sherry, James P; Bols, Niels C

    2016-07-01

    Benzothiazole (BTHs) are environmental contaminants of emerging concern for which little toxicological information is available. Therefore the toxic potential of twelve BTHs was evaluated with two rainbow trout epithelial cell lines, RTgill-W1 and RTL-W1. The BTHs were benzothiazole (BTH), 3,3'-diethylthia dicarbocyanine iodide (DTDC), C.I. sulphur orange 1 (SO), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2MBTH), zinc 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (ZnMBTH), sodium 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (NaMBTH), 2-hydroxy-benzothiazole (OHBTH), 2- aminobenzothiazole (2ABTH), C.I. vat yellow 2 (VY), N,N-dicyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolsulfene amide (NNA), 2,2'-dithiobis (benzothiazole) (DBTH) and 2-(p-aminophenyl)-6-methylbenzothiazole-7-sulfonic acid (MBTHS). All BTHs, except for NNA, DBTH, and MBTHS, caused both cytotoxicity and a transitory elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Yet, neither N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) nor IM-54 inhibited cytotoxicity, suggesting that ROS imbalance did not contribute to cell death. Cell death was not blocked by Necrostatin-1 nor accompanied by DNA laddering, suggesting that neither necroptosis nor apoptosis took place. The comet assay revealed DNA strand breaks after exposures to 2ABTH and OHBTH for 1 day and to BTH for 12 days. In RTL-W1, cytochrome P4501A was induced noticeably by 2ABTH, OHBTH, and MBTHS and weakly by NaMBTH, ZnMBTH, SO, VY, and NNA, suggesting that these BTHs have the potential to alter xenobiotic metabolism and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In summary, several toxic actions were initiated in vitro by some but not all BTHs, warranting further study of these BTHs in vivo. PMID:27131451

  11. Functional Pairing of Class B1 Ligand-GPCR in Cephalochordate Provides Evidence of the Origin of PTH and PACAP/Glucagon Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    On, Jason S.W.; Duan, Cumming; Chow, Billy K.C.; Lee, Leo T.O.

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of the secretin family of peptides and receptors. However, identification of homologous ligand–receptor pairs in invertebrates and vertebrates is difficult because of the low levels of sequence identity between orthologs of distant species. In this study, five receptors structurally related to the vertebrate class B1 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family were characterized from amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Phylogenetic analysis showed that they clustered with vertebrate parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon receptors. These PTHR-like receptors shared synteny with several PTH and PACAP/glucagon receptors identified in spotted gar, Xenopus, and human, indicating that amphioxus preserves the ancestral chordate genomic organization of these receptor subfamilies. According to recent data by Mirabeau and Joly, amphioxus also expresses putative peptide ligands including homologs of PTH (bfPTH1 and 2) and PACAP/GLUC-like peptides (bfPACAP/GLUCs) that may interact with these receptors. Functional analyses showed that bfPTH1 and bfPTH2 activated one of the amphioxus receptors (bf98C) whereas bfPACAP/GLUCs strongly interacted with bf95. In summary, our data confirm the presence of PTH and PACAP/GLUC ligand–receptor pairs in amphioxus, demonstrating that functional homologs of vertebrate PTH and PACAP/glucagon GPCR subfamilies arose before the cephalochordate divergence from the ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates. PMID:25841489

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of benzothiazoles and tetrahydrobenzothiazoles bearing urea or thiourea moieties as vasorelaxants and inhibitors of the insulin releasing process.

    PubMed

    Harrouche, Kamel; Renard, Jean-Francois; Bouider, Nafila; de Tullio, Pascal; Goffin, Eric; Lebrun, Philippe; Faury, Gilles; Pirotte, Bernard; Khelili, Smail

    2016-06-10

    A series of 1,3-benzothiazoles (series I) and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazoles (series II) bearing an urea or a thiourea moiety at the 2-position were synthesized and tested as myorelaxants and inhibitors of insulin secretion. Several compounds (i.e. 13u and 13v) from series I showed a marked myorelaxant activity. Benzothiazoles bearing a strong electron withdrawing group (NO2, CN) at the 6-position and an alkyl group linked to the urea or the thiourea function at the 2-position were found to be the most potent compounds. The weak vasorelaxant activity of series II compounds evidenced the necessity of the presence of a complete aromatic heterocyclic system. The myorelaxant activity of some active compounds was reduced when measured on aorta rings precontracted by 80 mM KCl or by 30 mM KCl in the presence of 10 μM glibenclamide, suggesting the involvement of KATP channels in the vasorelaxant effect. Some compounds of series I tested on rat pancreatic islets provoked a marked inhibition of insulin secretion, among which 13a exhibited a clear tissue selectivity for pancreatic β-cells. PMID:27031211

  13. Crystal structure of the salt bis-(tri-ethano-lamine-κ(4) N,O,O',O'')cadmium bis[2-(2-oxo-2,3-di-hydro-1,3-benzo-thia-zol-3-yl)acetate].

    PubMed

    Ashurov, Jamshid Mengnorovich

    2016-04-01

    The reaction of 2-(2-oxo-2,3-di-hydro-1,3-benzo-thia-zol-3-yl)acetic acid (NBTA) and tri-ethano-lamine (TEA) with Cd(CH3OO)2 resulted in the formation of the title salt, [Cd(C6H15NO3)2](C9H6NO3S)2. In its crystal structure, the complex cation [Cd(TEA)2](2+) and two independent NBTA(-) units with essentially similar geometries and conformations are present. In the complex cation, each TEA mol-ecule behaves as an N,O,O',O''-tetra-dentate ligand, giving rise to an eight-coordinate Cd(II) ion with a bicapped trigonal-prismatic configuration. All ethanol groups of each TEA mol-ecule form three five-membered chelate rings around the Cd(II) ion. The Cd-O and Cd-N distances are in the ranges 2.392 (2)-2.478 (2) and 2.465 (2)-2.475 (3) Å, respectively. O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the TEA hy-droxy groups and carboxyl-ate O atoms connect cationic and anionic moieties into chains parallel to [110]. Each NBTA(-) anion is additionally linked to a symmetry-related anion through π-π stacking inter-actions between the benzene and thia-zoline rings [minimum centroid-to-centroid separation = 3.604 (2) Å]. Together with additional C-H⋯O inter-actions, these establish a double-layer polymeric network parallel to (001). PMID:27375881

  14. Site-directed tryptophan fluorescence reveals the solution structure of tear lipocalin: evidence for features that confer promiscuity in ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Gasymov, O K; Abduragimov, A R; Yusifov, T N; Glasgow, B J

    2001-12-11

    The solution structure of human TL was deduced from the position of the emission peaks after site-directed tryptophan fluorescence (SDTF). The fluorescent amino acid tryptophan was sequentially substituted for each native amino acid in the sequence. Characteristic periodicities for eight beta-strands that comprise the beta-barrel and three alpha-helices were identified. The putative beta-strand I was relatively exposed to solvent, suggesting it does not participate in the formation of the beta-barrel. The beta-strands A and F contain beta-bulges. The average lambda(max) of emission maxima reveals that strand D is at the edge of the barrel and beta-strand H interacts with the main alpha-helical domain. On the basis of the SDTF data, a 3D homology model was constructed for TL and compared to the known crystallographic structures of RBP and beta-lactoglobulin. The small size and splayed open configuration of the E-F hairpin facilitate access of ligands into the cavity mouth of TL as compared to that of RBP with a long overhanging loop that restricts access. In the model of TL, four alanine residues are positioned in the binding site as compared to bulkier residues in the corresponding positions of beta-lactoglobulin. Substitution of A51, A66, A86 to Trp results in a 3-4-fold decrease in binding affinity. The data suggest that the smaller side chains of Ala provide more capacity in the cavity of TL than the bulkier side chains (I56, I71, V92) in the cavity of beta-lactoglobulin. The structural features provide an explanation for the promiscuous binding characteristics exhibited by TL. SDTF provides a general approach for determining the solution structure of many proteins and enhances homology modeling in the absence of high sequence identity. PMID:11732894

  15. The Semiquinone-Iron Complex of Photosystem II: Structural Insights from ESR and Theoretical Simulation; Evidence that the Native Ligand to the Non-Heme Iron Is Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nicholas; Jin, Lu; Jaszewski, Adrian; Smith, Paul J.; Krausz, Elmars; Rutherford, A. William; Pace, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The semiquinone-iron complex of photosystem II was studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Two forms of the signal were investigated: 1), the native g ∼ 1.9 form; and 2), the g ∼ 1.84 form, which is well known in purple bacterial reaction centers and occurs in photosystem II when treated with formate. The g ∼ 1.9 form shows low- and high-field edges at g ∼ 3.5 and g < 0.8, respectively, and resembles the g ∼ 1.84 form in terms of shape and width. Both types of ESR signal were simulated using the theoretical approach used previously for the BRC complex, a spin Hamiltonian formalism in which the semiquinone radical magnetically interacts (J ∼ 1 cm−1) with the nearby high-spin Fe2+. The two forms of ESR signal differ mainly by an axis rotation of the exchange coupling tensor (J) relative to the zero-field tensor (D) and a small increase in the zero-field parameter D (∼6 cm−1). Density functional theory calculations were conducted on model semiquinone-iron systems to identify the physical nature of these changes. The replacement of formate (or glutamate in the bacterial reaction centers) by bicarbonate did not result in changes in the coupling environment. However, when carbonate (CO32−) was used instead of bicarbonate, the exchange and zero-field tensors did show changes that matched those obtained from the spectral simulations. This indicates that 1), the doubly charged carbonate ion is responsible for the g ∼ 1.9 form of the semiquinone-iron signal; and 2), carbonate, rather than bicarbonate, is the ligand to the iron. PMID:19804734

  16. In vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and molecular modeling study of chiral benzothiazole Schiff-base-valine Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to evaluate their enantiomeric biological disposition for molecular target DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Rahman; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-10-01

    Bicyclic heterocyclic compounds viz. benzothiazoles are key components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and participate directly in the encoding of genetic information. Benzothiazoles, therefore, represent a potent and selective class of antitumor compounds. The design and synthesis of chiral antitumor chemotherapeutic agents of Cu(II) and Zn(II), L- and -D benzothiazole Schiff base-valine complexes 1a &b and 2a &b, respectively were carried out and thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Interaction of 1a and b and 2a and b with CT DNA by employing UV-vis, florescence, circular dichroic methods and cleavage studies of 1a with pBR322 plasmid, molecular docking were done in order to demonstrate their enantiomeric disposition toward the molecular drug target DNA. Interestingly, these studies unambiguously demonstrated the greater potency of L-enantiomer in comparison to D-enantiomer.

  17. The low temperature radiolysis of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 complexes with alkaline earth metal nitrates: An evidence for energy transfer to the macrocyclic ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakurdaeva, O. A.; Nesterov, S. V.; Shmakova, N. A.; Sokolova, N. A.; Feldman, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    Formation of paramagnetic intermediates in macrocyclic complexes of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) with alkaline earth metal nitrates under X-rays irradiation was studied by EPR spectroscopy. NO32- dianions appear to be predominant intermediate species in the samples irradiated at 77 K at low doses (up to 40 kGy). This result was interpreted as an evidence for energy transfer within the complex from crown ether to nitrate anion. Increase in the absorbed dose from 40 kGy to 284 kGy results in built-up of a new EPR signal assigned to macrocyclic -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals produced from crown ether moieties. Thermal annealing of the irradiated macrocyclic complexes at 273 К led to fast decay of NO32- . This process was accompanied by a formation of -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals in secondary reactions. The nature of the metal cations coordinated in the macrocycle cavity had no appreciable effect on the composition of radical products and their post-radiation transformations.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy-N-acylhydrazone moiety as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junjie; Zhang, Guangyan; Han, Xiaoqi; Bao, Guanglong; Wang, Lihui; Zhai, Xin; Gong, Ping

    2014-12-01

    A novel series of benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy-N-acylhydrazone moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their procaspase-3 kinase activation activities and antiproliferative activities against five cancer cell lines (NCI-H226, SK-N-SH, HT29, MKN-45, and MDA-MB-231). Most target compounds showed moderate to excellent cytotoxic activity against all five tested cancer lines. The most promising compound 18e (procaspase-3 EC50  = 0.31 µM) with IC50 values ranging from 0.24 to 0.92µM against all tested cell lines was 4.24-12.2 times more active than PAC-1 (procaspase-3 EC50  = 0.41 µM). Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that the phenyl group on the 2-hydroxyphenyl ring (moiety A) was critical for pharmacological activity in vitro. In addition, introduction of a benzyloxyl group on moiety A and a mono-electron-withdrawing group at the 4-position of the benzyloxyl group were more favorable for antitumor activity. Moreover, reduction of the electron density in the phenyl ring of the benzyloxy group led to a dramatic decrease in the procaspase-3 kinase activation activity. PMID:25230149

  19. Study of the retention of benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles and benzenesulfonamides in mixed-mode solid-phase extraction in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Fontanals, Núria

    2016-04-29

    In the present study, the capabilities of strong cation-exchange and strong anion-exchange sorbents for solid-phase extraction (SPE) have been evaluated for the selective retention of benzotriazoles (BTRs), benzothiazoles (BTs) and benzenesulfonamides (BSAs), which are a group of neutral analytes with interesting properties such as high polarity and the capability of delocalizing electron density. The retention of these analytes has been compared in both sorbents for the first time, using a SPE procedure specially designed to promote ionic retention of the analytes with the objective of including a washing step with an organic solvent to eliminate interferences retained by hydrophobic interactions. As a result, ionic interactions between the analytes and both sorbents were observed, which allowed the successful introduction of a washing step using methanol in the SPE procedure even when most of the analytes were in their neutral state under SPE conditions. Consequently, a method was developed and further validated for each sorbent using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Apart from the development of an improved method, special attention was paid to the discussion of the interactions present between the sorbents and each group of analytes to explain how these analytes in their neutral state might develop ionic interactions with the sorbents. At the end, the use of these sorbents helped to simplify previous developed methods where hydrophobic/hydrophilic sorbents were used, obtaining enhanced results when evaluated in river water and effluent and influent wastewaters. PMID:27040512

  20. Indirect extraction-spectrophotometric determination of 2-(thiocyanomethylthiol)benzothiazole in chrome tanning liquors after its breakdown to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa Reyes, Laura; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Kazimierz

    2002-03-01

    The simple extraction-spectrophotometric procedure is proposed in this work for the determination of 2-(thiocyanomethylthiol)benzothiazole (TCMTB) in chrome tanning liquors after its breakdown to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). The sample (50mul) was 4-fold diluted with deionized water and the conversion of TCMTB to MBT was obtained with cysteine (400 mul, 0.1 moll(-1)) in alkaline conditions (pH 10). After acidification to pH 2.5 (100 mul phosphoric acid, 2 moll(-1)), the extraction was carried out with 800 mul of ethyl acetate, containing 0.2% of beta-mercaptoethanol and absorbance was measured at 324 nm with the cut-off filter 295 nm. To avoid possible errors due to MBT presence in the sample, this same sample was taken for blank, but the reagents were added in form of one acid solution (omitting the conversion step). The calibration range was 10-120 mugml(-1) of TCMTB with the regression coefficient 0.9999, the quantitation limit was 2.80 mugml(-1) and the within day precision was 3.34 and 0.20%, respectively, for 10 and for 100 mugml(-1) of TCMTB. The results obtained in the analysis of the three industrial liquor samples by the proposed procedure were in a good agreement with the results obtained using liquid chromatography method. PMID:18968524

  1. Metal-ligand cooperation.

    PubMed

    Khusnutdinova, Julia R; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) has become an important concept in catalysis by transition metal complexes both in synthetic and biological systems. MLC implies that both the metal and the ligand are directly involved in bond activation processes, by contrast to "classical" transition metal catalysis where the ligand (e.g. phosphine) acts as a spectator, while all key transformations occur at the metal center. In this Review, we will discuss examples of MLC in which 1) both the metal and the ligand are chemically modified during bond activation and 2) bond activation results in immediate changes in the 1st coordination sphere involving the cooperating ligand, even if the reactive center at the ligand is not directly bound to the metal (e.g. via tautomerization). The role of MLC in enabling effective catalysis as well as in catalyst deactivation reactions will be discussed. PMID:26436516

  2. Detection and Quantification of Benzothiazoles in Exhaled Breath and Exhaled Breath Condensate by Real-Time Secondary Electrospray Ionization-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Diego; Bregy, Lukas; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Gaisl, Thomas; Kohler, Malcolm; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-10-20

    2-Subtituted benzothiazoles are widely used industrial chemicals whose occurrence in environmental samples has been shown to be ubiquitous. However, knowledge about human exposure to these compounds and their excretion route is still scarce. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the detection of benzothiazole derivatives in exhaled breath. Real-time analysis of breath was carried out by means of secondary electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This coupling allowed not only the detection of these compounds in breath with a sensitivity in the pptv range but also their robust identification by comparing tandem high-resolution mass spectra from breath and standards. For further confirmation, benzothiazoles were also determined in exhaled breath condensate samples by means of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography. This approach strengthened the identification as a result of excellent matches in retention times and also allowed quantification. An estimated total daily exhalation of ca. 20 μg day(-1) was calculated for the six benzothiazole derivatives found in breath. PMID:26390299

  3. Binuclear complexes of technetium. Evidence for bis(terdentate)bidentate coordination by the bridging ligand 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine to technetium(V)

    SciTech Connect

    Du Preez, J.G.H.; Gerber, T.I.A.; Gibson, M.L.; Geyser, R. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used the potentially bis(terdentate) nitrogen aromatic heterocyclic ligand 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (tppz) to prepare mono- and bimetallic technetium(V) complexes bound to tppz. The stimulus for the development of the coordination chemistry of the man-made element technetium is provided by the use of complexes of this element as anatomical imaging agents in nuclear medicine. Although the chemistry of technetium(V) with nitrogen donor ligands is well understood, no complexes have been prepared using potentially terdentate neutral nitrogen donor ligands of this metal in the +5 oxidation state.

  4. Determination of polar 1H-benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles in water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography LTQ FT Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leerdam, Jan A.; Hogenboom, Ariadne C.; van der Kooi, Margaretha M. E.; de Voogt, Pim

    2009-05-01

    A sensitive, reliable and robust method for the trace determination of six polar 1H-benzotriazoles and four benzothiazoles in drinking and surface water was developed. These compounds were extracted from water by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Mass Spectrometry using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap hybrid instrument at high resolution of 30,000 FWHM in the full-scan acquisition mode. At least one product ion was simultaneously detected in the linear ion trap at low mass resolution and was used for confirmation of compound identity. The compounds studied are soluble in water, resistant to biodegradation, only partially removed in wastewater treatment and they may pass the water treatment processes in the production of drinking water. The analytes and four internal standards were preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction at low pH. Positive electrospray ionization resulted in protonated molecular ions for all the 1H-benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles. The mass accuracy was between -5 ppm at m/z 120 and -0.1 ppm at m/z 182 and did not change for more than 2 ppm over a sample sequence of 8 days of analysis time. The optimized method allowed quantifying six benzotriazoles and four benzothiazoles in samples of drinking and surface water down to method detection limits of 0.01 [mu]g/L. The recoveries ranged between 45 and 125% in ultrapure, drinking and surface water at a spiking level of 0.2 [mu]g/L; the repeatability was between 2 and 13%. All analytes showed a linear response between 0.01 and 1.0 [mu]g/L. No significant matrix effect was observed in drinking and surface water, except for the compounds 2-aminobenzothiazole (signal enhancement about 50%) and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (signal suppression about 25%). In Dutch drinking water samples, the compounds 1H-benzotriazole, 4- and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole, 5-chloro-1H-benzothiazole and benzothiazole were detected. The concentration levels ranged from

  5. Ligand modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.P.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used in the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. Organic ligands with metal ion specificity are critical components in the development of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes that are highly selective for targeted radionuclides. The traditional approach to the development of such ligands involves lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing, which in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, results in wasted research effort. The author`s approach breaks down and simplifies this costly process with the aid of computer-based molecular modeling techniques. Commercial software for organic molecular modeling is being configured to examine the interactions between organic ligands and metal ions, yielding an inexpensive, commercially or readily available computational tool that can be used to predict the structures and energies of ligand-metal complexes. Users will be able to correlate the large body of existing experimental data on structure, solution binding affinity, and metal ion selectivity to develop structural design criteria. These criteria will provide a basis for selecting ligands that can be implemented in separations technologies through collaboration with other DOE national laboratories and private industry. The initial focus will be to select ether-based ligands that can be applied to the recovery and concentration of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions including cesium, strontium, and radium.

  6. Ligand modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used tin applications for the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams.

  7. Evidence for intramolecular aromatic-ring stacking in the physiological pH range of the monodeprotonated xanthine residue in mixed-ligand complexes containing xanthosinate 5'-monophosphate (XMP).

    PubMed

    Sigel, Helmut; Operschall, Bert P; Massoud, Salah S; Song, Bin; Griesser, Rolf

    2006-12-14

    The stability constants of the mixed-ligand complexes formed between Cu(Arm)2+ [Arm = 2,2'-bipyridine (Bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen)], and the di- or trianion of xanthosine 5'-monophosphoric acid [= XMP(2-) or (XMP - H)(3-)] were determined by potentiometric pH titration in aqueous solution (25 degrees C; I = 0.1 M, NaNO3). Those for the monoanion, i.e., the Cu(Arm)(H;XMP)+ complexes, could only be estimated; for these species it is concluded that the metal ion is overwhelmingly bound at N7 and the proton resides at the phosphate group. Similarly, in the Cu(Arm)(XMP)+/- [= Cu(Arm)(X - H.MP.H)+/-] complexes Cu(Arm)2+ is also at N7 but the xanthine residue has lost a proton whereas the phosphate group still carries one, i.e., stacking plays, if at all, only a very minor role, yet, the N7-bound Cu(Arm)2+ appears to form an outer-sphere macrochelate with P(O)2(OH)-, its formation degree being about 60%. All this is different in the Cu(Arm)(XMP - H)- complexes, which are formed by the (XMP - H)(3-) species, that occur at the physiological pH of 7.5 and for which previously evidence has been provided that in a tautomeric equilibrium the xanthine moiety loses a proton either from (N1)H or (N3)H. In Cu(Arm)(XMP - H)- the phosphate group is the primary binding site for Cu(Arm)2+ and the observed increased complex stability is mainly due to intramolecular stack (st) formation between the aromatic-ring systems of Phen or Bpy and the monodeprotonated xanthine residue of (XMP - H)(3-); e.g., the stacked Cu(Phen)(XMP - H) isomer occurs with approximately 76%. Regarding biological systems the most important result is that at physiological pH the xanthine moiety has lost a proton from the (N1)H/(N3)H sites forming (XMP - H)(3-) and that its anionic xanthinate residue is able to undergo aromatic-ring stacking. PMID:17117222

  8. Including Ligand Induced Protein Flexibility into Protein Tunnel Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Laura J.; Lill, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    In proteins with buried active sites, understanding how ligands migrate through the tunnels that connect the exterior of the protein to the active site can shed light on substrate specificity and enzyme function. A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of protein flexibility in the binding site upon ligand binding; however, the influence of protein flexibility throughout the body of the protein during ligand entry and egress is much less characterized. We have developed a novel tunnel prediction and evaluation method named IterTunnel, which includes the influence of ligand-induced protein flexibility, guarantees ligand egress, and provides detailed free energy information as the ligand proceeds along the egress route. IterTunnel combines geometric tunnel prediction with steered MD in an iterative process to identify tunnels that open as a result of ligand migration and calculates the potential of mean force (PMF) of ligand egress through a given tunnel. Applying this new method to cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6), we demonstrate the influence of protein flexibility on the shape and accessibility of tunnels. More importantly, we demonstrate that the ligand itself, while traversing through a tunnel, can reshape tunnels due to its interaction with the protein. This process results in the exposure of new tunnels and the closure of pre-existing tunnels as the ligand migrates from the active site. PMID:25043499

  9. Discovery of potent and selective benzothiazole hydrazone inhibitors of Bcl-XL.

    PubMed

    Sleebs, Brad E; Kersten, Wilhemus J A; Kulasegaram, Sanji; Nikolakopoulos, George; Hatzis, Effie; Moss, Rebecca M; Parisot, John P; Yang, Hong; Czabotar, Peter E; Fairlie, W Douglas; Lee, Erinna F; Adams, Jerry M; Chen, Lin; van Delft, Mark F; Lowes, Kym N; Wei, Andrew; Huang, David C S; Colman, Peter M; Street, Ian P; Baell, Jonathan B; Watson, Keith; Lessene, Guillaume

    2013-07-11

    Developing potent molecules that inhibit Bcl-2 family mediated apoptosis affords opportunities to treat cancers via reactivation of the cell death machinery. We describe the hit-to-lead development of selective Bcl-XL inhibitors originating from a high-throughput screening campaign. Small structural changes to the hit compound increased binding affinity more than 300-fold (to IC50 < 20 nM). This molecular series exhibits drug-like characteristics, low molecular weights (Mw < 450), and unprecedented selectivity for Bcl-XL. Surface plasmon resonance experiments afford strong evidence of binding affinity within the hydrophobic groove of Bcl-XL. Biological experiments using engineered Mcl-1 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs, reliant only on Bcl-XL for survival) and Bax/Bak deficient MEFs (insensitive to selective activation of Bcl-2-driven apoptosis) support a mechanism-based induction of apoptosis. This manuscript describes the first series of selective small-molecule inhibitors of Bcl-XL and provides promising leads for the development of efficacious therapeutics against solid tumors and chemoresistant cancer cell lines. PMID:23767404

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole, pyrazole and benzylidene derivatives of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pramod K; Sahu, Praveen K; Gupta, S K; Thavaselvam, D; Agarwal, D D

    2012-08-01

    A novel, one-pot, simple, efficient procedure for 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole (4a-h), pyrazole (6a-d) and benzylidene (7a-d) derivatives of curcumin under solvent and solvent free conditions in microwave with good yield is have been synthesized. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Providencia rettgeri and antifungal activity against fungi viz Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus flavus. Detailed mechanistic study shows reaction proceeds through Knoevenagel type intermediate 3a which has been suggested as key intermediate for reaction (Fig. 3). PMID:22683240

  11. Synthesis of some novel phosphorylated and thiophosphorylated benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles and their evaluation for larvicidal potential to Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Sathe, Manisha; Tikar, Sachin N; Yadav, Ruchi; Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Ashok; Kaushik, M P

    2014-07-01

    Series of benzimidazole and benzothiazole linked phosphoramidates and phosphoramidothioates (5a-j) and benzimidazole linked phenylphosphoramidates and phenylphosphoramidothioates (10a-e) were synthesized. The title compounds were preliminary screened for mosquito larvicidal properties against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentration from 40 to 5 mg/L. Among the screened compounds three compounds revealed potential larvicidal effects with 100% mortality in the order of 10e>5j>5e. Compound 10e was found to be the most toxic compound to Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 of 10e against Ae. albopictus was found to be 6.42 and 5.25 mg/L at 24 and 48 h, respectively, whereas it was 7.01 and 3.88 mg/L, respectively in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Temephos was used as positive control. PMID:24857290

  12. A combined theoretical and experimental investigation on the solvatochromism of ESIPT3-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-carbaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satam, Manjaree A.; Telore, Rahul D.; Tathe, Abhinav B.; Gupta, Vinod D.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Excited state intramolecular proton transfer inspired 3-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-carbaldehyde, showing solid state fluorescence has been synthesized. Existence of excited state intramolecular proton transfer process between carbonyl group and phenolic sbnd OH group has been theoretically predicted using computational method. Density functional theory and time dependent density functional theory computations have been used to investigate structural parameters and understand the photophysical properties of the synthesized carbaldehyde. The photophysical properties of carbaldehyde were evaluated using UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and are found to be very sensitive to the microenvironment such as solvent polarity and pH. The experimental absorption-emission a results are correlated with the computed values. The increase in the dipole moment of A2-Keto* than A2-Enol* suggested the presence of keto form in the excited state and which is responsible for the single fluorescence emission with a large Stokes shift in all solvents.

  13. Spectroscopic study of 2-[2-(4-cyclaminophenyl)ethen-1-yl] benzothiazoles and their N-allylbenzothiazolium bromides. Solvent and substituent effects on their ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gáplovský, Anton; Donovalová, Jana; Magdolen, Peter; Toma, Štefan; Zahradník, Pavol

    2002-01-01

    UV-vis and fluorescence spectra of 2-[2-(4-cyclaminophenyl)ethen-1-yl] benzothiazoles 1 and their N-allylbenzothiazolium bromides 2 have been measured and interpreted. The substitution and solvent effects on electronic structure and spectra have been investigated. The benzothiazolium salts substituted with saturated cyclamines show strong push-pull character and can be used as potential NLO materials. Formation of aggregated structures was observed at higher concentrations of the benzothiazolium bromides.

  14. Expanding the family of bis-cyclometalated chiral-at-metal rhodium(iii) catalysts with a benzothiazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiajia; Shen, Xiaodong; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2016-05-28

    Synthetic access to previously elusive single enantiomers of an octahedral chiral-at-metal rhodium(iii) complex containing two cyclometalated 2-phenylbenzothiazoles and two acetonitrile ligands is reported. The complex is a superior chiral Lewis acid catalyst compared to its benzoxazole congener which can be rationalized with a higher steric congestion around the coordination sites. PMID:27143346

  15. LigandRNA: computational predictor of RNA–ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Anna; Milanowska, Kaja; Łach, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules have recently become attractive as potential drug targets due to the increased awareness of their importance in key biological processes. The increase of the number of experimentally determined RNA 3D structures enabled structure-based searches for small molecules that can specifically bind to defined sites in RNA molecules, thereby blocking or otherwise modulating their function. However, as of yet, computational methods for structure-based docking of small molecule ligands to RNA molecules are not as well established as analogous methods for protein-ligand docking. This motivated us to create LigandRNA, a scoring function for the prediction of RNA–small molecule interactions. Our method employs a grid-based algorithm and a knowledge-based potential derived from ligand-binding sites in the experimentally solved RNA–ligand complexes. As an input, LigandRNA takes an RNA receptor file and a file with ligand poses. As an output, it returns a ranking of the poses according to their score. The predictive power of LigandRNA favorably compares to five other publicly available methods. We found that the combination of LigandRNA and Dock6 into a “meta-predictor” leads to further improvement in the identification of near-native ligand poses. The LigandRNA program is available free of charge as a web server at http://ligandrna.genesilico.pl. PMID:24145824

  16. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B.

    2008-12-23

    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  17. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR.

  18. Characterization of seven novel mutations of the c-erbA beta gene in unrelated kindreds with generalized thyroid hormone resistance. Evidence for two "hot spot" regions of the ligand binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Parrilla, R; Mixson, A J; McPherson, J A; McClaskey, J H; Weintraub, B D

    1991-01-01

    Genetic analysis in our laboratory of families with generalized thyroid hormone resistance (GTHR) has demonstrated tight linkage with a locus, c-erbA beta, encoding a nuclear T3 receptor. Three point mutations and two deletions in this locus have previously been reported in affected individuals in unrelated families as potential molecular bases for this disorder. In the present study, we have used direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified exons of the c-erbA beta gene to rapidly identify novel point mutations from seven previously uncharacterized kindreds with GTHR. Six single base substitutions and one single base insertion were identified and found to be clustered in two regions of exons 9 and 10 in the ligand binding domain of the receptor: in the distal ligand-binding subdomain L2 and across the juncture of the taui and dimerization subdomains. Reduction of T3-binding affinity in each of four mutations tested as well as segregation of all mutations to clinically affected individuals strongly supports the hypothesis that these changes are the cause of GTHR in these kindreds. In view of the diversity of clinical phenotypes manifested, the distinct topographic clustering of the mutations provides an invaluable genetic tool for the molecular dissection of thyroid receptor function. Images PMID:1661299

  19. The immunomodulation potential of the synthetic derivatives of benzothiazoles: Implications in immune system disorders through in vitro and in silico studies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Mesaik, Mohammad A; Abdalla, Omer M; Rahim, Fazal; Soomro, Samreen; Halim, Sobia A; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ambreen, Nida; Khalid, Ahmad Shukralla; Taha, Muhammad; Perveen, Shahnaz; Alam, Muhammad Tanveer; Hameed, Abdul; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Ullah, Hayat; Rehman, Zia Ur; Siddiqui, Rafat Ali; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Benzothiazole and its natural or synthetic derivatives have been used as precursors for several pharmacological agents for neuroprotective, anti-bacterial, and anti-allergic activities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of benzothiazole analogs (compounds 1-26) for their immunomodulatory activities. Eight compounds (2, 4, 5, 8-10, 12, and 18) showed potent inhibitory activity on PHA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with IC50 ranging from 3.7 to 11.9 μM compared to that of the standard drug, prednisolone <1.5 μM. Some compounds (2, 4, 8, and 18) were also found to have potent inhibitory activities on the production of IL-2 on PHA/PMA-stimulated PBMCs with IC50 values ranging between <4.0 and 12.8 μM. The binding interaction of these compounds was performed through silico molecular docking. Compounds 2, 8, 9, and 10 significantly suppressed oxidative burst ROS production in phagocytes with IC50 values between <4.0 and 15.2 μM. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrites in murine macrophages cell line J774 were found to be inhibited by compounds 4, 8, 9, and 18 at a concentration of 25 μg/mL by 56%, 91%, 58%, and 78%, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 5, 8, 12, and 18 showed significant (P<0.05) suppressive activity on Th-2 cytokine, interleukin 4 (IL-4) with an IC50 range of <4.0 to 40.3 μM. Interestingly compound 4 has shown a selective inhibitory activity on IL-2 and T cell proliferation (naïve T cell proliferation stage) rather than on IL-4 cytokine, while compound 12 displayed an interference with T-cell proliferation and IL-4 generation. Moreover compound 8 and 18 exert non-selective inhibition on both IL-2 and IL-4 cytokines, indicating a better interference with stage leading to humoral immune response and hence possible application in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26637945

  20. Development of a solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles in wastewater and recycled water.

    PubMed

    Loi, Clara H; Busetti, Francesco; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A

    2013-07-19

    Two methods employing solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were developed for the analysis of benzotriazoles (BTs) and benzothiazoles (BThs), compounds which are commonly found in a large variety of commercial and household products. The first method was able to detect 7 BTs and 7 BThs, the largest suite of BTs and BThs analysed in a single method to-date, but could not distinguish between the isomers, 4-methylbenzotriazole (4-MeBT) and 5-methylbenzotriazole (5-MeBT). Therefore, a second method was developed to achieve the chromatographic separation of 4-MeBT and 5-MeBT. The methods were validated for ultrapure water and secondary wastewater, and method limits of detection (MLD) for BTs and BThs (for the primary method) ranged from 0.1 to 58ngL(-1) for ultrapure water, and 2 to 322ngL(-1) for secondary wastewater. For the secondary method, MLDs for 4- and 5-MeBT ranged from 8 to 12ngL(-1) for ultrapure water, and 388 to 406ngL(-1) for secondary wastewater. Analysis of secondary wastewater and reverse osmosis (RO) treated water from an advanced water recycling plant in Australia is presented, and represents the first reported data from the analysis of BTs and BThs in recycled water. Some of these compounds were found to persist through wastewater treatment and incompletely removed by RO treatment. Benzotriazole (BT), 4-MeBT, 5-MeBT and 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole were detected in secondary wastewater, however the latter compound was not quantifiable. Concentrations of BT and tolyltriazoles (TTs, i.e. sum of 4- and 5-MeBT, detected with the primary method) in secondary wastewater were 3.3 (±0.02) and 2.8 (±0.04)μgL(-1), respectively. These same compounds were also detected in the post-RO water samples at concentrations of 974 (±28)ngL(-1) for BT and 416(±34)ngL(-1) for TTs. 2-Hydroxybenzothiazole was also detected in the post-RO water samples, however it was not quantifiable. Removal efficiencies for RO treatment were

  1. Degradation rates of benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles under UV-C irradiation and the advanced oxidation process UV/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Bahnmüller, Sabrina; Loi, Clara H; Linge, Kathryn L; Gunten, Urs von; Canonica, Silvio

    2015-05-01

    Benzotriazoles (BTs) and benzothiazoles (BTHs) are extensively used chemicals found in a wide range of household and industrial products. They are chemically stable and are therefore ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. The present study focuses on the potential of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, alone or in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to remove BTs and BTHs from contaminated waters. Six compounds, three out of each chemical class, were investigated using a low-pressure mercury lamp (main emission at 254 nm) as the radiation source. Initially, the direct phototransformation kinetics and quantum yield in dilute aqueous solution was studied over the pH range of 4-12. All BTs and BTHs, except for benzothiazole, exhibited pH-dependent direct phototransformation rate constants and quantum yields in accordance to their acid-base speciation (7.1 < pKa < 8.9). The direct phototransformation quantum yields (9.0 × 10(-4)-3.0 × 10(-2) mol einstein(-1)), as well as the photon fluence-based rate constants (1.2-48 m(2) einstein(-1)) were quite low. This suggests that UV irradiation alone is not an efficient method to remove BTs and BTHs from impacted waters. The second-order rate constants for the reaction of selected BTs and BTHs with the hydroxyl radical were also determined, and found to fall in the range of 5.1-10.8 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), which is typical for aromatic contaminants. Finally, the removal of BTs and BTHs was measured in wastewater and river water during application of UV irradiation or the advanced oxidation process UV/H2O2. The latter process provided an efficient removal, mostly due to the effect of the hydroxyl radical, that was comparable to other aromatic aquatic contaminants, in terms of energy requirement or treatment costs. PMID:25725202

  2. Design and syntheses of novel N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione and N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)isoindoline-1,3-dione as potent protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Li; Zuo, Yang; Wang, Zhi-Fang; Tan, Yin; Wu, Qiong-You; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2011-06-01

    Discovery of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO, EC 1.3.3.4) inhibitors has been one of the hottest research areas in the field of herbicide development for many years. As a continuation of our research work on the development of new PPO-inhibiting herbicides, a series of novel N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diones (1a-p) and N-(benzothiazol-5-yl)isoindoline-1,3-diones (2a-h) were designed and synthesized according to the ring-closing strategy of two ortho-substituents. The bioassay results indicated that some newly synthesized compounds exhibited higher PPO inhibition activity than the control of sulfentrazone. Compound 1a, S-(5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-isoindol-2(3H)-yl)-6-fluorobenzothiazol-2-yl) O-methyl carbonothioate, was identified as the most potent inhibitor with k(i) value of 0.08 μM, about 9 times higher than that of sulfentrazone (k(i) = 0.72 μM). Further green house assay showed that compound 1b, methyl 2-((5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-isoindol-2(3H)-yl)-6-fluorobenzothiazol-2-yl)thio)acetate, exhibited herbicidal activity comparable to that of sulfentrazone even at a concentration of 37.5 g ai/ha. In addition, among six tested crops, wheat exhibited high tolerance to compound 1b even at a dosage of 300 g ai/ha. These results indicated that compound 1b might have the potential to be developed as a new herbicide for weed control of wheat field. PMID:21517076

  3. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and preliminary mechanism study of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing indole-based moiety as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junjie; Bao, Guanglong; Wang, Limei; Li, Wanting; Xu, Boxuan; Du, Baoquan; Lv, Jie; Zhai, Xin; Gong, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Through a structure-based molecular hybridization approach, a series of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing indole-based moiety were designed, synthesized and screened for in vitro antitumor activity against four cancer cell lines (HT29, H460, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Most of them showed moderate to excellent activity against all the tested cell lines. Among them, compounds 20a-w with substituted benzyl-1H-indole moiety showed better selectivity against HT29 cancer cell line than other compounds. Compound 20d exhibited excellent antitumor activity with IC50 values of 0.024, 0.29, 0.84 and 0.88 μM against HT29, H460, A549 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Further mechanism studies indicated that the marked pharmacological activity of compound 20d might be ascribed to activation of procaspase-3 (apoptosis-inducing) and cell cycle arrest, which had emerged as a lead for further structural modifications. Furthermore, 3D-QSAR model (training set: q(2) = 0.850, r(2) = 0.987, test set: r(2) = 0.811) was built to provide a comprehensive guide for further structural modification and optimization. PMID:25874341

  4. Contribution of primary and secondary treatment on the removal of benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceuticals and perfluorinated compounds in a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Arvaniti, Olga S; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Samaras, Vasilios G; Ajibola, Akinranti; Mamais, Daniel; Lekkas, Themistokles D

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence and fate of 36 emerging contaminants, belonging to five different classes, (benzotriazoles, BTRs; benzothiazoles, BTHs; perfluorinated compounds, PFCs; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs and endocrine disruptors, EDCs) were investigated in raw, treated wastewater (both particulate and dissolved phases), and in sludge from a sewage treatment plant (STP) in Athens, Greece. The average concentrations of BTRs, BTHs, NSAIDs and EDCs in raw wastewater ranged between 11 ng L(-1) and 7.27 μg L(-1), while PFCs did not exceed 100 ng L(-1). In dewatered sludge, the average concentrations ranged between 0.8 ng g(-1) dw (perfluorohexanoic acid, PFHxA) and 3895 ng g(-1) dw (nonylphenol, NP). The distribution of emerging contaminants between particulate and dissolved phase was different among the compounds. BTRs and BTHs showed lower solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) than all other compounds. For 9 over the 27 compounds detected in influents, the removal efficiency was higher than 70%, while the others either were removed to a lesser extent or detected at higher concentrations in effluents. Based on this, advanced treatment processes should be applied in the future for achieving adequate emerging contaminants removal in STPs. Regarding removal mechanisms, almost 60% of BTRs and 30 to 75% of BTHs were removed in bioreactors, while the contribution of primary and secondary clarifiers was of minor importance. Sorption to primary sludge was a significant mechanism affecting EDCs fate in STP. PMID:23891999

  5. 2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-benzothiazole suppresses tumor progression and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by inducing ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Hiromi; Goto, Natsuka; Tsuchiya, Mai; Iida, Keisuke; Nakajima, Yuka; Hirata, Naoya; Kanda, Yasunari; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and has poor survival and high recurrence rates for aggressive metastatic disease. Notably, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive cancer and there is no preferred agent for TNBC therapy. In this study, we show that a novel agent, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-benzothiazole (YL-109), has ability to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YL-109 repressed the sphere-forming ability and the expression of stem cell markers in MDA-MB-231 mammosphere cultures. YL-109 increased the expression of carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), which suppresses tumorigenic and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by inhibiting the oncogenic pathway. YL-109 induced CHIP transcription because of the recruitment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to upstream of CHIP gene in MDA-MB-231 cells. Consistently, the antitumor effects of YL-109 were depressed by CHIP or AhR knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that a novel agent YL-109 inhibits cell growth and metastatic potential by inducing CHIP expression through AhR signaling and reduces cancer stem cell properties in MDA-MB-231 cells. It suggests that YL-109 is a potential candidate for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25403352

  6. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy N-carbamoylhydrazone moiety as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junjie; Chen, Dong; Lu, Kuan; Wang, Lihui; Han, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Yanfang; Gong, Ping

    2014-10-30

    A series of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy N-carbamoylhydrazone moiety were designed and synthesized and their cytotoxic activities against five cancer cell lines (NCI-H226, SK-N-SH, HT29, MKN45, and MDA-MB-231) were screened in vitro. Most of them showed moderate to excellent activity against all the tested cell lines. Among them, compounds 15g (procaspase-3 EC50 = 1.42 μM) and 16b (procaspase-3 EC50 = 0.25 μM) exhibited excellent antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.14 μM to 0.98 μM against all cancer cell lines, which were 1.8-8.7 times more active than the first procaspase activating compound (PAC-1) (procaspase-3 EC50 = 4.08 μM). The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses indicated that the introduction of a lipophilic group (a benzyloxy or heteroaryloxy group) at the 4-position of the 2-hydroxy phenyl ring was beneficial to antitumor activity, and the presence of substituents containing nitrogen that are positively charged at physiological pH could also improve antitumor activity. It was also confirmed that the steric effect of the 4-position substituent of the benzyloxy group had a significant influence on cytotoxic activity. PMID:25171780

  7. Identification of new aminoacid amides containing the imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazol-2-ylphenyl moiety as inhibitors of tumorigenesis by oncogenic Met signaling.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Alessandro; Colombo, Francesco; Kover, Andrea; Issaly, Nathalie; Tintori, Cristina; Angeli, Lucilla; Leroux, Vincent; Letard, Sébastien; Amat, Mercedes; Asses, Yasmine; Maigret, Bernard; Dubreuil, Patrice; Botta, Maurizio; Dono, Rosanna; Bosch, Joan; Piccolo, Oreste; Passarella, Daniele; Maina, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    The Met receptor tyrosine kinase is a promising target in anticancer therapies for its role during tumor evolution and resistance to treatment. It is characterized by an unusual structural plasticity as its active site accepts different inhibitor binding modes. Such feature can be exploited to identify distinct agents targeting tumor dependence and/or resistance by oncogenic Met. Here we report the identification of bioactive agents, featuring a new 4-(imidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazol-2-yl)phenyl moiety, targeting cancer cells dependent on oncogenic Met. One of these compounds (7c; Triflorcas) impairs survival, anchorage-independent growth, and in vivo tumorigenesis, without showing side effects. Our medicinal chemistry strategy was based on an in-house Met-focused library of aminoacid-amide derivatives enriched through structure-based computer modeling, taking into account the Met multiple-binding-mode feature. Altogether, our findings show how a rational structure-based drug design approach coupled to cell-based drug evaluation strategies can be applied in medicinal chemistry to identify new agents targeting a given oncogenic-dependency setting. PMID:22138308

  8. Design and synthesis of cis-restricted benzimidazole and benzothiazole mimics of combretastatin A-4 as antimitotic agents with apoptosis inducing ability.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Md; Shaik, Thokhir B; Malik, M Shaheer; Syed, Riyaz; Mallipeddi, Prema L; Vardhan, M V P S Vishnu; Kamal, Ahmed

    2016-09-15

    A series of colchicine site binding tubulin inhibitors were designed and synthesized by the modification of the combretastatin A-4 (CA4) pharmacophore. The ring B was replaced by the pharmacologically relevant benzimidazole or benzothiazole scaffolds, and the cis-configuration of the olefinic bond was restricted by the incorporation of a pyridine ring which is envisaged by the structural resemblance to a tubulin inhibitor like E7010. These compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on selected cancer cell lines and an insight in the structure activity relationship was developed. The most potent compounds (6c and 6l) demonstrated an antiproliferative effect comparable and superior to that of CA4 (GI50 up to 40nM). Mitotic cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase revealed the disruption of microtubule dynamics that was confirmed by tubulin polymerization assays and immunocytochemistry studies at the cellular level. The molecular docking studies suggested that the binding of these mimics at the colchicine site of the tubulin is similar to that of combretastatin A-4. PMID:27515320

  9. Synthesis, DNA/HSA Interaction Spectroscopic Studies and In Vitro Cytotoxicity of a New Mixed Ligand Cu(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Gan, Qian; Fu, Xiabing; Chen, Weijiang; Xiong, Yahong; Fu, Yinlian; Chen, Shi; Le, Xueyi

    2016-05-01

    A new mixed ligand copper(II)-dipeptide complex with 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzothiazole (pbt), [Cu(Gly-L-leu)(pbt)(H2O)]·ClO4 (Gly-L-leu = Glycyl-L-leucine anion) was synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical means. The DNA binding and cleavage properties of the complex investigated by viscosity, agarose gel electrophoresis and multi-spectroscopic techniques (UV, circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence) showed that the complex was bound to CT-DNA through intercalation mode with moderate binding constant (K b = 3.132 × 10(4) M(-1)), and cleaved pBR322 DNA efficiently (~ 5 μM) in the presence of Vc, probably via an oxidative mechanism induced by •OH. Additionally, the interaction of the complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was explored by UV-visible, CD, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. The complex exhibits desired affinity to HSA through hydrophobic interaction. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the complex against three human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and A549) was evaluated by MTT assay, which showed that the complex had effective cytotoxicity and higher inhibition toward A549 cell lines with IC50 of 38.0 ± 3.2 μM. PMID:26961845

  10. Galanin Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Webling, Kristin E. B.; Runesson, Johan; Bartfai, Tamas; Langel, Ülo

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago. Today, the galanin family consists of galanin, galanin-like peptide (GALP), galanin-message associated peptide (GMAP), and alarin and this family has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of biological and pathological functions. The effect is mediated through three GPCR subtypes, GalR1-3. The limited number of specific ligands to the galanin receptor subtypes has hindered the understanding of the individual effects of each receptor subtype. This review aims to summarize the current data of the importance of the galanin receptor subtypes and receptor subtype specific agonists and antagonists and their involvement in different biological and pathological functions. PMID:23233848

  11. A highly selective fluorescent 'turn-on' chemosensor for Zn(2+) based on a benzothiazole conjugate: their applicability in live cell imaging and use of the resultant complex as a secondary sensor of CN(-).

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Nilesh; Tayade, Kundan; Sahoo, Suban K; Bondhopadhyay, Banashree; Basu, Anupam; Singh, Jasminder; Singh, Narinder; Gite, Vikas; Kuwar, Anil

    2015-02-01

    A benzothiazole derivative linked "off-on" multi-responsive and selective chemosensor has been synthesized and evaluated for cation recognition properties. The receptor shows a high sensitivity and selectivity for Zn(2+) through a 'turn-on' fluorescence response over the other tested cations with a detection limit as low as 0.67 μM. The receptor was successfully applied for the detection of Zn(2+) in live HeLa cells. Then, the Zn(2+) complex of receptor was also used for cyanide detection and recognition. PMID:25482915

  12. Al(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodupe, M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structure and determine the binding energies of Al(+) to a series of ligands. For Al(+)-CN, the bonding was found to have a large covalent component. For the remaining ligands, the bonding is shown to be electrostatic in origin. The results obtained for Al(+) are compared with those previously reported for Mg(+).

  13. Bifunctional DTPA-type ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gansow, O.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    1990-03-26

    The subject matter of the invention relates to bifunctional cyclohexyl DTPA ligands and methods of using these compounds. Specifically, such ligands are useful for radiolabeling proteins with radioactive metals, and can consequently be utilized with respect to radioimmunoimaging and/or radioimmunotherapy.

  14. The maximal affinity of ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, I. D.; Chen, K.; Sharp, K. A.; Kollman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    We explore the question of what are the best ligands for macromolecular targets. A survey of experimental data on a large number of the strongest-binding ligands indicates that the free energy of binding increases with the number of nonhydrogen atoms with an initial slope of ≈−1.5 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.18 J) per atom. For ligands that contain more than 15 nonhydrogen atoms, the free energy of binding increases very little with relative molecular mass. This nonlinearity is largely ascribed to nonthermodynamic factors. An analysis of the dominant interactions suggests that van der Waals interactions and hydrophobic effects provide a reasonable basis for understanding binding affinities across the entire set of ligands. Interesting outliers that bind unusually strongly on a per atom basis include metal ions, covalently attached ligands, and a few well known complexes such as biotin–avidin. PMID:10468550

  15. Targeting Selectins and Their Ligands in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Natoni, Alessandro; Macauley, Matthew S.; O’Dwyer, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer cells with increased evidence pointing to a role in tumor progression. In particular, aberrant sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids has been linked to increased immune cell evasion, drug evasion, drug resistance, tumor invasiveness, and vascular dissemination, leading to metastases. Hypersialylation of cancer cells is largely the result of overexpression of sialyltransferases (STs). Differentially, humans express twenty different STs in a tissue-specific manner, each of which catalyzes the attachment of sialic acids via different glycosidic linkages (α2-3, α2-6, or α2-8) to the underlying glycan chain. One important mechanism whereby overexpression of STs contributes to an enhanced metastatic phenotype is via the generation of selectin ligands. Selectin ligand function requires the expression of sialyl-Lewis X and its structural isomer sialyl-Lewis A, which are synthesized by the combined action of alpha α1-3-fucosyltransferases, α2-3-sialyltransferases, β1-4-galactosyltranferases, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyltransferases. The α2-3-sialyltransferases ST3Gal4 and ST3Gal6 are critical to the generation of functional E- and P-selectin ligands and overexpression of these STs have been linked to increased risk of metastatic disease in solid tumors and poor outcome in multiple myeloma. Thus, targeting selectins and their ligands as well as the enzymes involved in their generation, in particular STs, could be beneficial to many cancer patients. Potential strategies include ST inhibition and the use of selectin antagonists, such as glycomimetic drugs and antibodies. Here, we review ongoing efforts to optimize the potency and selectivity of ST inhibitors, including the potential for targeted delivery approaches, as well as evaluate the potential utility of selectin inhibitors, which are now in early clinical development. PMID:27148485

  16. Targeting Selectins and Their Ligands in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Natoni, Alessandro; Macauley, Matthew S; O'Dwyer, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer cells with increased evidence pointing to a role in tumor progression. In particular, aberrant sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids has been linked to increased immune cell evasion, drug evasion, drug resistance, tumor invasiveness, and vascular dissemination, leading to metastases. Hypersialylation of cancer cells is largely the result of overexpression of sialyltransferases (STs). Differentially, humans express twenty different STs in a tissue-specific manner, each of which catalyzes the attachment of sialic acids via different glycosidic linkages (α2-3, α2-6, or α2-8) to the underlying glycan chain. One important mechanism whereby overexpression of STs contributes to an enhanced metastatic phenotype is via the generation of selectin ligands. Selectin ligand function requires the expression of sialyl-Lewis X and its structural isomer sialyl-Lewis A, which are synthesized by the combined action of alpha α1-3-fucosyltransferases, α2-3-sialyltransferases, β1-4-galactosyltranferases, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyltransferases. The α2-3-sialyltransferases ST3Gal4 and ST3Gal6 are critical to the generation of functional E- and P-selectin ligands and overexpression of these STs have been linked to increased risk of metastatic disease in solid tumors and poor outcome in multiple myeloma. Thus, targeting selectins and their ligands as well as the enzymes involved in their generation, in particular STs, could be beneficial to many cancer patients. Potential strategies include ST inhibition and the use of selectin antagonists, such as glycomimetic drugs and antibodies. Here, we review ongoing efforts to optimize the potency and selectivity of ST inhibitors, including the potential for targeted delivery approaches, as well as evaluate the potential utility of selectin inhibitors, which are now in early clinical development. PMID:27148485

  17. Predicting target-ligand interactions using protein ligand-binding site and ligand substructures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Cell proliferation, differentiation, Gene expression, metabolism, immunization and signal transduction require the participation of ligands and targets. It is a great challenge to identify rules governing molecular recognition between chemical topological substructures of ligands and the binding sites of the targets. Methods We suppose that the ligand-target interactions are determined by ligand substructures as well as the physical-chemical properties of the binding sites. Therefore, we propose a fragment interaction model (FIM) to describe the interactions between ligands and targets, with the purpose of facilitating the chemical interpretation of ligand-target binding. First we extract target-ligand complexes from sc-PDB database, based on which, we get the target binding sites and the ligands. Then we represent each binding site as a fragment vector based on a target fragment dictionary that is composed of 199 clusters (denoted as fragements in this work) obtained by clustering 4200 trimers according to their physical-chemical properties. And then, we represent each ligand as a substructure vector based on a dictionary containing 747 substructures. Finally, we build the FIM by generating the interaction matrix M (representing the fragment interaction network), and the FIM can later be used for predicting unknown ligand-target interactions as well as providing the binding details of the interactions. Results The five-fold cross validation results show that the proposed model can get higher AUC score (92%) than three prevalence algorithms CS-PD (80%), BLM-NII (85%) and RF (85%), demonstrating the remarkable predictive ability of FIM. We also show that the ligand binding sites (local information) overweight the sequence similarities (global information) in ligand-target binding, and introducing too much global information would be harmful to the predictive ability. Moreover, The derived fragment interaction network can provide the chemical insights on

  18. Hit to lead optimization of a series of N-[4-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)phenyl]acetamides as monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors with potential anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Obaid; Akhtar, Md Sayeed; Kumar, Suresh; Ali, Md Rahmat; Jaggi, Manu; Bawa, Sandhya

    2016-10-01

    A total of thirty five new N-[4-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)phenyl]acetamide derivatives were synthesized and structures of all the compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis and collective use of IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. Compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit human monoacylglycerol lipase (hMAGL) enzyme. Eight compounds 4, 19-21, 24-26, and 34 reduced the hMAGL activity less than 50% at 100 nM concentrations. The halogen substituted aniline derivatives 20, 21 and 24-26 were found to be most active among all the synthesized compounds having IC50 value in the range of 6.5-9 nM. Twenty five compounds were selected by NCI, USA for one dose anticancer screening. Compound 21 (NSC: 780167) and 24 (NSC: 780168) fulfilled prearranged doorstep growth inhibition criteria and further selected for NCI full panel five dose assay at 10-fold dilutions of five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM). Both the compounds 21 and 24 were found to be most active against MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell lines. The GI50 value of 32.5 nM (MCF7) and 23.8 nM (MDA-MB-468) was observed for compound 21. Compound 24 showed GI50 values of 37.1 nM against MCF7 breast cancer cell line and 25.1 nM against MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line. PMID:27267002

  19. A novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivative BD926 inhibits human activated T cell proliferation by down-regulating the STAT5 activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Yi; Li, Hua; Liu, Jin; Luo, Xing-Yan; Li, Min-Hui; Yang, Tai; Wang, Yan-Tang; Yang, Shu-Xia; Li, Li-Mei; Zou, Qiang; Chen, Zheng-Liang

    2015-08-15

    Immunosuppressants are widely used for treatment of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and allogeneic graft rejection. However, because of the toxicity and tolerance of these drugs, novel immunosuppressants are urgently needed. We synthesized a series of novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivatives and found that BD926 [sodium 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-3-olate] had potent immunosuppressive activity. Treatment with BD926 significantly inhibited anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and alloantigen-induced human T cell proliferation as well as IL2-stimulated activated T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. BD926 had no obvious cytotoxicity against human resting T cells, IL-4 treated activated T cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in our experimental conditions. Furthermore, BD926 induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and inhibited the cyclin D3 and CDK 6 expression in activated T cells. BD926 inhibited the STAT5, but not Akt and p70S6K, phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner in the IL-2-treated activated T cells. Interestingly, BD926 inhibited IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17, but not IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10, production in activated T cells. Finally, treatment with BD926 reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these data suggest that BD926 may be a lead compound for the design and development of new immunosuppressants for the intervention of allograft rejection and autoimmune diseases. PMID:25935419

  20. Simultaneous determination of benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and benzosulfonamides by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in environmental aqueous matrices and human urine.

    PubMed

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-04-18

    This work proposes a new approach for the simultaneous determination of benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and benzosulfonamides in different environmental matrices and human urine, using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-QqQMS). The analytes object of this investigation have been classified as toxic to aquatic organisms and their presence in human urine was reported to occur as result of human exposure to contaminated environment. In this work many of the challenges related to the chemical diversity and polarity of the analytes selected were overcame conducting a multivariate optimization of the working conditions by using the approach of "Experimental design". Tests performed to assess the performances of five SPME coatings in direct immersion mode revealed the polyacrylate coating to be the most suitable for the extraction of the probe analytes. A central composite design (CCD) was employed to determine the optimal conditions for four factors affecting the solid-phase microextraction process: extraction time, extraction temperature, pH and percentage of sodium chloride. The optimal working condition determined by using Derringer's desirability function were 40min as extraction time, pH 7.1 and 6.0% of NaCl. Since the extraction temperature do not significantly affects the responses for all the analytes considered, analyses were performed at room temperature. A careful evaluation of the matrix effect for all the matrices tested was carried out. The results obtained showed that the proposed method did not significantly influenced by matrix effects in most of the cases tested, and thus allows the use of simplified calibration procedure. Satisfactory values of accuracy and precision were also obtained for all the matrices considered. PMID:24636758

  1. Design and synthesis of 1-(benzothiazol-5-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones as protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yang; Yang, Sheng-Gang; Luo, Yan-Ping; Tan, Ying; Hao, Ge-Fei; Wu, Qiong-You; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2013-06-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO, E.C. 1.3.3.4) is the action target for several structurally diverse herbicides. A series of novel 4-(difluoromethyl)-1-(6-halo-2-substituted-benzothiazol-5-yl)-3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-ones 2a-z were designed and synthesized via the ring-closure of two ortho-substituents. The in vitro bioassay results indicated that the 26 newly synthesized compounds exhibited good PPO inhibition effects with K(i) values ranging from 0.06 to 17.79 μM. Compound 2e, ethyl 2-{[5-(4-(difluoromethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-6-fluorobenzo-thiazol-2-yl]thio}acetate, was the most potent inhibitor with K(i) value of 0.06 μM against mtPPO, comparable to (K(i)=0.03 μM) sulfentrazone. Further green house assays showed that compound 2f (K(i)=0.24 μM, mtPPO), ethyl 2-{[5-(4-(difluoromethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-6-fluorobenzothiazol-2-yl]thio}propanoate, showed the most promising post-emergence herbicidal activity with broad spectrum even at concentrations as low as 37.5 gai/ha. Soybean exhibited tolerance to compound 2f at the dosages of 150 gai/ha, whereas they are susceptible to sulfentrazone even at 75 gai/ha. Thus, compound 2f might be a potential candidate as a new herbicide for soybean fields. PMID:23623257

  2. Riboswitch structure in the ligand-free state.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Joseph A; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    Molecular investigations of riboswitches bound to small-molecule effectors have produced a wealth of information on how these molecules achieve high affinity and specificity for a target ligand. X-ray crystal structures have been determined for the ligand-free state for representatives of the preQ₁-I, S-adenosylmethionine I, lysine, and glycine aptamer classes. These structures in conjunction with complimentary techniques, such as in-line probing, NMR spectroscopy, Förster resonance energy transfer, small-angle scattering, and computational simulations, have demonstrated that riboswitches adopt multiple conformations in the absence of ligand. Despite a number of investigations that support ligand-dependent folding, mounting evidence suggests that free-state riboswitches interact with their effectors in the sub-populations of largely prefolded states as embodied by the principle of conformational selection, which has been documented extensively for protein-mediated ligand interactions. Fundamental riboswitch investigations of the bound and free states have advanced our understanding of RNA folding, ligand recognition, and how these factors culminate in communication between an aptamer and its expression platform. An understanding of these topics is essential to comprehend riboswitch gene regulation at the molecular level, which has already provided a basis to understand the mechanism of action of natural antimicrobials. PMID:21957061

  3. Crystal structure of the salt bis-(tri-ethano-lamine-κ(3) N,O,O')cobalt(II) bis-[2-(2-oxo-2,3-di-hydro-1,3-benzo-thia-zol-3-yl)acetate].

    PubMed

    Ashurov, Jamshid M; Obidova, Nodira J; Abdireymov, Hudaybergen B; Ibragimov, Bakhtiyar T

    2016-03-01

    The reaction of 2-(2-oxo-2,3-di-hydro-1,3-benzo-thia-zol-3-yl)acetic acid (NBTA) and tri-ethano-lamine (TEA) with Co(NO3)2 results in the formation of the title complex, [Co(C6H15NO3)2](C9H6NO3S)2, which is formed as a result of the association of bis-(tri-ethano-lamine)-cobalt(II) and 2-(2-oxo-2,3-di-hydro-1,3-benzo-thia-zol-3-yl)acetate units. It crystallizes in the monoclinic centrosymmetric space group P21/c, with the Co(II) ion situated on an inversion centre. In the complex cation, the Co(II) ion is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N,O,O'-tridentate TEA mol-ecules with a facial distribution and the N atoms in a trans arrangement. Two ethanol groups of each TEA mol-ecule form two five-membered chelate rings around the Co(II) ion, while the third ethanol group does not coordinate to the metal. The free and coordinating hy-droxy groups of the TEA mol-ecules are involved in hydrogen bonding with the O atoms of NBTA anions, forming an infinite two-dimensional network extending parallel to the bc plane. PMID:27006821

  4. Design and synthesis of new potent anticancer benzothiazole amides and ureas featuring pyridylamide moiety and possessing dual B-Raf(V600E) and C-Raf kinase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    El-Damasy, Ashraf Kareem; Lee, Ju-Hyeon; Seo, Seon Hee; Cho, Nam-Chul; Pae, Ae Nim; Keum, Gyochang

    2016-06-10

    A new series of benzothiazole amide and urea derivatives tethered with the privileged pyridylamide moiety by ether linkage at the 6-position of benzothiazole (22 final compounds) has been designed and synthesized as potent anticancer sorafenib analogs. A selected group of twelve derivatives was appraised for its antiproliferative activity over a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines at a single dose concentration of 10 μM at National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). Compounds 4b, 5a, 5b and 5d exhibited promising growth inhibitions and thus were further tested in advanced 5-dose testing assay to determine their GI50 values. The cellular based assay results revealed that 3,5-bis-trifluoromethylphenyl (5b) urea member is the best derivative with superior potency and efficacy compared to sorafenib as well as notable extended spectrum activity covering 57 human cancer cell lines. Kinase screening of compound 5b showed its kinase inhibitory effect against both B-Raf(V600E) and C-Raf. Moreover, the most potent derivatives in cells were investigated for their RAF inhibitory activities, and the results were rationalized with the molecular docking study. Profiling of CYP450 and hERG channel inhibitory effects for the active compounds revealed their low possibilities to exhibit undesirable drug-drug interactions and cardiac side effects. PMID:27017549

  5. Hydrogen and halogen bonding patterns and π-π aromatic interactions of some 6,7-disubstituted 1,3-benzothiazoles studied by X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čičak, Helena; Đaković, Marijana; Mihalić, Zlatko; Pavlović, Gordana; Racané, Livio; Tralić-Kulenović, Vesna

    2010-06-01

    The structures of five 6,7-disubstituted 1,3-benzothiazole (1,3-benzothiazole = bta) derivatives: 6-chloro-7-nitro-bta ( 3), 6-iodo-7-nitro-bta ( 5), 6-amino-7-iodo-bta ( 6), 6-acetylamino-7-iodo-bta ( 7) and 6-amino-7-bromo-bta ( 8) are reported and investigated by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. The crystal structures of 3 and 5- 8 are characterized by: (i) relatively weak C sbnd H⋯O/N/Br and N sbnd H⋯O/N/S hydrogen bonds, (ii) C sbnd Cl⋯O and C sbnd I⋯O/N halogen bonds and Br⋯Br interactions and (iii) π-π interactions. DFT optimized structures of 3, 5, 6 and 8 are in a good agreement with the corresponding X-ray molecular data. Calculated structure of 7 deviates from the experimental geometry because of more favourable intermolecular hydrogen bonding in crystal phase compared to the weak intramolecular hydrogen bond in the gas phase. The molecular electrostatic potential maps were used for predicting possible hydrogen and halogen bonding sites in structures of 3, 5, 6 and 8, and AIM analysis in order to characterize the nature and strength of intermolecular interactions in all of the examined crystal structures. Experimental results agree well with AIM analysis suggesting that the detected hydrogen and halogen bonds are weak and mostly of electrostatic origin.

  6. Reaction chemistry and ligand exchange at cadmium selenide nanocrystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Jonathan; Park, Jungwon; Trudeau, Paul-Emile; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-02

    Chemical modification of nanocrystal surfaces is fundamentally important to their assembly, their implementation in biology and medicine, and greatly impacts their electrical and optical properties. However, it remains a major challenge owing to a lack of analytical tools to directly determine nanoparticle surface structure. Early nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (1) and tri-n-octylphosphine (2), suggested these coordinating solvents are datively bound to the particle surface. However, assigning the broad NMR resonances of surface-bound ligands is complicated by significant concentrations of phosphorus-containing impurities in commercial sources of 1, and XPS provides only limited information about the nature of the phosphorus containing molecules in the sample. More recent reports have shown the surface ligands of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in technical grade 1, and in the presence of alkylphosphonic acids, include phosphonic and phosphinic acids. These studies do not, however, distinguish whether these ligands are bound datively, as neutral, L-type ligands, or by X-type interaction of an anionic phosphonate/phosphinate moiety with a surface Cd{sup 2+} ion. Answering this question would help clarify why ligand exchange with such particles does not proceed generally as expected based on a L-type ligand model. By using reagents with reactive silicon-chalcogen and silicon-chlorine bonds to cleave the ligands from the nanocrystal surface, we show that our CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystal surfaces are likely terminated by X-type binding of alkylphosphonate ligands to a layer of Cd{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} ions, rather than by dative interactions. Further, we provide spectroscopic evidence that 1 and 2 are not coordinated to our purified nanocrystals.

  7. Steric and Electronic Factors Associated with the Photoinduced Ligand Exchange of Bidentate Ligands Coordinated to Ru(II).

    PubMed

    Albani, Bryan A; Whittemore, Tyler; Durr, Christopher B; Turro, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to create a molecule that can absorb low energy visible or near-infrared light for photochemotherapy (PCT), the new complexes [Ru(biq)2 (dpb)](PF6 )2 (1, biq = 2,2'-biquinoline, dpb = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzoquinoxaline) and [(biq)2 Ru(dpb)Re(CO)3 Cl](PF6 )2 (2) were synthesized and characterized. Complexes 1 and 2 were compared to [Ru(bpy)2 (dpb)](PF6 )2 (3, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(biq)2 (phen)](PF6 )2 (4, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). Distortions around the metal and biq ligands were used to explain the exchange of one biq ligand in 4 upon irradiation. Complex 1, however, undergoes photoinduced dissociation of the dpb ligand rather than biq under analogous experimental conditions. Complex 3 is not photoactive, providing evidence that the biq ligands are crucial for ligand photodissociation in 1. The crystal structures of 1 and 4 are compared to explain the difference in photochemistry between the complexes. Complex 2 absorbs lower energy light than 1, but is photochemically inert although its crystal structure displays significant distortions. These results indicate that both the excited state electronic structure and steric bulk play key roles in bidentate photoinduced ligand dissociation. The present work also shows that it is possible to stabilize sterically hindered Ru(II) complexes by the addition of another metal, a property that may be useful for other applications. PMID:25403564

  8. C-H arylation of azaheterocycles: a direct ligand-free and Cu-catalyzed approach using diaryliodonium salts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dalip; Pilania, Meenakshi; Arun, V; Pooniya, Savita

    2014-09-01

    An efficient and high yielding Cu-catalyzed direct C-H arylation of azaheterocycles including oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles has been achieved by employing easily accessible diaryliodonium salts. PMID:25017573

  9. Allosteric Modulation of G Protein Coupled Receptors by Cytoplasmic, Transmembrane and Extracellular Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Yanamala, Naveena; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2010-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) bind diverse classes of ligands, and depending on the receptor, these may bind in their transmembrane or the extracellular domains, demonstrating the principal ability of GPCRs to bind ligand in either domains. Most recently, it was also observed that small molecule ligands can bind in the cytoplasmic domain, and modulate binding and response to extracellular or transmembrane ligands. Thus, all three domains in GPCRs are potential sites for allosteric ligands, and whether a ligand is allosteric or orthosteric depends on the receptor. Here, we will review the evidence supporting the presence of putative binding pockets in all three domains of GPCRs and discuss possible pathways of communication between these pockets. PMID:24009470

  10. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  11. Identification of nucleolin as a new L-selectin ligand.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, G; Kraft, R; Grelle, G; Volz, B; Dernedde, J; Tauber, R

    2001-01-01

    Apart from leucocyte-endothelial interactions, the adhesion molecule L-selectin mediates the homotypic adhesion of leucocytes during recruitment at sites of acute inflammation, as well as intercellular adhesion of haematopoietic progenitor cells during haematopoiesis. There is evidence that, in addition to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, other as-yet-unidentified proteins function as L-selectin ligands on human leucocytes and haematopoietic progenitor cells. In the present study, we show: (i) by affinity chromatography on L-selectin-agarose; (ii) by protein identification using MS; and (iii) by covalent cell-surface labelling with sulphosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido)ethyl-1,3-dithiopropionate that the multifunctional nuclear protein nucleolin is partly exposed on the cell surface, and is a ligand of L-selectin in human leucocytes and haematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:11736641

  12. Bis- and tris(2-seleno-1-methylimidazolyl)hydroborato complexes, {[BseMe]ZnX}2(X=Cl, I), [BseMe]2Zn and [TseMe]Re(CO)3: structural evidence that the [BseMe] ligand is not merely a "heavier" version of the sulfur counterpart, [BmMe].

    PubMed

    Landry, Victoria K; Buccella, Daniela; Pang, Keliang; Parkin, Gerard

    2007-02-28

    New bidentate and tridentate ligands that feature selenium donors, namely the bis- and tris(2-seleno-1-methylimidazolyl)hydroborato ligands [BseMe] and [TseMe], have been constructed via the reaction of MBH4(M=Na, K) with 1-methylimidazole-2-selone. Comparison of the structure of {[BseMe]ZnI}2 with its sulfur counterpart, [BmMe]ZnI, demonstrates that the seleno ligand exhibits a greater tendency than the mercapto ligand to bridge two metal centers, while comparison of [TseMe]Re(CO)3 and [TseMes]Re(CO)3 indicates that the [TseMe] ligand is more electron donating and less sterically demanding than the [TseMes] ligand. PMID:17297514

  13. A single ligand is sufficient to activate EGFR dimers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Cleveland, Thomas E.; Bouyain, Samuel; Byrne, Patrick O.; Longo, Patti A.; Leahy, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Crystal structures of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with bound ligand revealed symmetric, doubly ligated receptor dimers thought to represent physiologically active states. Such complexes fail to rationalize negative cooperativity of epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to EGFR and the behavior of the ligandless EGFR homolog ErbB2/HER2, however. We report cell-based assays that provide evidence for active, singly ligated dimers of human EGFR and its homolog, ErbB4/HER4. We also report crystal structures of the ErbB4/HER4 extracellular region complexed with its ligand Neuregulin-1β that resolve two types of ErbB dimer when compared to EGFR:Ligand complexes. One type resembles the recently reported asymmetric dimer of Drosophila EGFR with a single high-affinity ligand bound and provides a model for singly ligated human ErbB dimers. These results unify models of vertebrate and invertebrate EGFR/ErbB signaling, imply that the tethered conformation of unliganded ErbBs evolved to prevent crosstalk among ErbBs, and establish a molecular basis for both negative cooperativity of ligand binding to vertebrate ErbBs and the absence of active ErbB2/HER2 homodimers in normal conditions. PMID:22699492

  14. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardi, Demian M; Guo, Hao-Bo; Gu, Baohua; Parks, Jerry M; Summers, Anne; Miller, S; Liang, Liyuan; Smith, Jeremy C

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  15. Fluorescent Ligands for Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Eszter; Jayasekara, P Suresh; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Interest is increasing in developing fluorescent ligands for characterization of adenosine receptors (ARs), which hold a promise of usefulness in the drug discovery process. The size of a strategically labeled AR ligand can be greatly increased after the attachment of a fluorophore. The choice of dye moiety (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488), attachment point and linker length can alter the selectivity and potency of the parent molecule. Fluorescent derivatives of adenosine agonists and antagonists (e.g. XAC and other heterocyclic antagonist scaffolds) have been synthesized and characterized pharmacologically. Some are useful AR probes for flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and scanning confocal microscopy. Thus, the approach of fluorescent labeled GPCR ligands, including those for ARs, is a growing dynamic research field. PMID:23200243

  16. What are Nuclear Receptor Ligands?

    PubMed Central

    Sladek, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a family of highly conserved transcription factors that regulate transcription in response to small lipophilic compounds. They play a role in every aspect of development, physiology and disease in humans. They are also ubiquitous in and unique to the animal kingdom suggesting that they may have played an important role in their evolution. In contrast to the classical endocrine receptors that originally defined the family, recent studies suggest that the first NRs might have been sensors of their environment, binding ligands that were external to the host organism. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad perspective on NR ligands and address the issue of exactly what constitutes a NR ligand from historical, biological and evolutionary perspectives. This discussion will lay the foundation for subsequent reviews in this issue as well as pose new questions for future investigation. PMID:20615454

  17. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  18. Multifunctional Ligands in Transition Metal Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    Sophisticated ligands are now being designed that do far more than just fulfil their traditional spectator roles by binding to the metal and providing a sterically-defined binding pocket for the substrate in homogeneous transition metal catalysis. This Focus review emphasizes selected cases in which ligands carry additional functional groups that change the properties of the ligand as a result of an external stimulus or undergo catalytically-relevant ligand-based reactivity. These include proton responsive ligands capable of gaining or losing one or more protons, ligands having a hydrogen bonding function, electroresponsive ligands capable of gaining or losing one or more electrons, and photoresponsive ligands capable of undergoing a useful change of properties upon irradiation. Molecular recognition ligands and proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) are briefly discussed.

  19. Polypharmacology of dopamine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Butini, S; Nikolic, K; Kassel, S; Brückmann, H; Filipic, S; Agbaba, D; Gemma, S; Brogi, S; Brindisi, M; Campiani, G; Stark, H

    2016-07-01

    Most neurological diseases have a multifactorial nature and the number of molecular mechanisms discovered as underpinning these diseases is continuously evolving. The old concept of developing selective agents for a single target does not fit with the medical need of most neurological diseases. The development of designed multiple ligands holds great promises and appears as the next step in drug development for the treatment of these multifactorial diseases. Dopamine and its five receptor subtypes are intimately involved in numerous neurological disorders. Dopamine receptor ligands display a high degree of cross interactions with many other targets including G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes and ion channels. For brain disorders like Parkinsońs disease, schizophrenia and depression the dopaminergic system, being intertwined with many other signaling systems, plays a key role in pathogenesis and therapy. The concept of designed multiple ligands and polypharmacology, which perfectly meets the therapeutic needs for these brain disorders, is herein discussed as a general ligand-based concept while focusing on dopaminergic agents and receptor subtypes in particular. PMID:27234980

  20. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  1. Effect of surface ligands on the optical properties of aqueous soluble CdTe quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We investigate systematically the influence of the nature of thiol-type capping ligands on the optical and structural properties of highly luminescent CdTe quantum dots synthesized in aqueous media, comparing mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), thioglycolic acid (TGA), 1-thioglycerol (TGH), and glutathione (GSH). The growth rate, size distribution, and quantum yield strongly depend on the type of surface ligand used. While TGH binds too strongly to the nanocrystal surface inhibiting growth, the use of GSH results in the fastest growth kinetics. TGA and MPA show intermediate growth kinetics, but MPA yields a much lower initial size distribution than TGA. The obtained fluorescence quantum yields range from 38% to 73%. XPS studies unambiguously put into evidence the formation of a CdS shell on the CdTe core due to the thermal decomposition of the capping ligands. This shell is thicker when GSH is used as ligand, as compared with TGA ligands. PMID:23017183

  2. Efficient pseudo-enantiomeric carbohydrate olefin ligands.

    PubMed

    Grugel, Holger; Albrecht, Fabian; Minuth, Tobias; Boysen, Mike M K

    2012-07-20

    Highly efficient pseudo-enantiomeric olefin ligands were designed from D-glucose and D-galactose. These ligands yield consistently excellent levels of enantioselectivity in Rh(I)-catalyzed 1,4-additions of aryl- and alkenylboronic acids to achiral enones and high diastereoselectivity with chiral substrates. Contrary to established olefin ligands, they are obtained enantiomerically pure via short syntheses without racemic resolution steps, making them a valuable addition to the arsenal of chiral ligands with olefinic donor sites. PMID:22780685

  3. Glyconanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Ligand Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Glyconanomaterials, nanomaterials carrying surface-tethered carbohydrate ligands, have emerged and demonstrated increasing potential in biomedical imaging, therapeutics, and diagnostics. These materials combine the unique properties of nanometer-scale objects with the ability to present multiple copies of carbohydrate ligands, greatly enhancing the weak affinity of individual ligands to their binding partners. Critical to the performance of glyconanomaterials is the proper display of carbohydrate ligands, taking into consideration of the coupling chemistry, the type and length of the spacer linkage, and the ligand density. This article provides an overview of the coupling chemistry for attaching carbohydrate ligands to nanomaterials, and discusses the need for thorough characterization of glyconanomaterials, especially quantitative analyses of the ligand density and binding affinities. Using glyconanoparticles synthesized by a versatile photocoupling chemistry, methods for determining the ligand density by colorimetry and the binding affinity with lectins by a fluorescence competition assay are determined. The results show that the multivalent presentation of carbohydrate ligands significantly enhances the binding affinity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the free ligands in solution. The effect is sizeable even at low surface ligand density. The type and length of the spacer linkage also affect the binding affinity, with the longer linkage promoting the association of bound ligands with the corresponding lectins. PMID:20301131

  4. Combining quantum mechanical ligand conformation analysis and protein modeling to elucidate GPCR-ligand binding modes.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Sabine; Engelhardt, Harald; Roumen, Luc; Zuiderveld, Obbe P; Haaksma, Eric E J; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob; de Graaf, Chris

    2013-01-01

    SAR beyond protein-ligand interactions: By combining structure-affinity relationships, protein-ligand modeling studies, and quantum mechanical calculations, we show that ligand conformational energies and basicity play critical roles in ligand binding to the histamine H4 receptor, a GPCR that plays a key role in inflammation. PMID:23161844

  5. Docking and free energy perturbation studies of ligand binding in the kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldfeld, Dahlia A; Murphy, Robert; Kim, Byungchan; Wang, Lingle; Beuming, Thijs; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard A

    2015-01-22

    The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is an important target for pain and depression therapeutics that lack harmful and addictive qualities of existing medications. We present a model for the binding of morphinan ligands and JDTic to the JDTic/KOR crystal structure based on an atomic level description of the water structure within its active site. The model contains two key interaction motifs that are supported by experimental evidence. The first is the formation of a salt bridge between the ligand and Asp 138(3.32) in transmembrane domain (TM) 3. The second is the stabilization by the ligand of two high energy, isolated, and ice-like waters near TM5 and TM6. This model is incorporated via energetic terms into a new empirical scoring function, WScore, designed to assess interactions between ligands and localized water in a binding site. Pairing WScore with the docking program Glide discriminates known active KOR ligands from large sets of decoy molecules much better than Glide's older generation scoring functions, SP and XP. We also use rigorous free energy perturbation calculations to provide evidence for the proposed mechanism of interaction between ligands and KOR. The molecular description of ligand binding in KOR should provide a good starting point for future drug discovery efforts for this receptor. PMID:25395044

  6. Novel ligands that target the mitochondrial membrane protein mitoNEET

    PubMed Central

    Bieganski, Robert M.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Ligands of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of compounds, pioglitazone (Actos™) and rosiglitazone (Avandia™) are currently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are known to bind to the PPAR-γ nuclear receptor subtype. Recent evidence suggesting PPAR-γ independent action of the TZDs led to the discovery of a novel integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein, mitoNEET. In spite of the several reported X-ray crystal structures of the unbound form of mitoNEET, the location and nature of the mitoNEET ligand binding sites (LBS) remain unknown. In this study, a molecular blind docking (BD) method was used to discover potential mitoNEET LBS and novel ligands, utilizing the program AutoDock Vina (v 1.0.2). Validation of BD was performed on the PPAR-γ receptor (PDB ID: 1ZGY) with the test compound rosiglitazone, demonstrating that the binding conformation of rosiglitazone determined by AutoDock Vina matches well with that of the cocrystallized ligand (root mean square deviation of the heavy atoms 1.45 Å). The locations and a general ligand binding interaction model for the LBS were determined, leading to the discovery of novel mitoNEET ligands. An in vitro fluorescence binding assay utilizing purified recombinant mitoNEET protein was used to determine the binding affinity of a predicted mitoNEET ligand, and the data obtained is in good agreement with AutoDock Vina results. The discovery of potential mitoNEET ligand binding sites and novel ligands, opens up the possibility for detailed structural studies of mitoNEET–ligand complexes, as well as rational design of novel ligands specifically targeted for mitoNEET. PMID:21531159

  7. Comparison of ligand migration and binding in heme proteins of the globin family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karin, Nienhaus; Ulrich Nienhaus, G.

    2015-12-01

    The binding of small diatomic ligands such as carbon monoxide or dioxygen to heme proteins is among the simplest biological processes known. Still, it has taken many decades to understand the mechanistic aspects of this process in full detail. Here, we compare ligand binding in three heme proteins of the globin family, myoglobin, a dimeric hemoglobin, and neuroglobin. The combination of structural, spectroscopic, and kinetic experiments over many years by many laboratories has revealed common properties of globins and a clear mechanistic picture of ligand binding at the molecular level. In addition to the ligand binding site at the heme iron, a primary ligand docking site exists that ensures efficient ligand binding to and release from the heme iron. Additional, secondary docking sites can greatly facilitate ligand escape after its dissociation from the heme. Although there is only indirect evidence at present, a preformed histidine gate appears to exist that allows ligand entry to and exit from the active site. The importance of these features can be assessed by studies involving modified proteins (via site-directed mutagenesis) and comparison with heme proteins not belonging to the globin family.

  8. Thiopyridazine-Based Copper Boratrane Complexes Demonstrating the Z-type Nature of the Ligand.

    PubMed

    Holler, Stefan; Tüchler, Michael; Belaj, Ferdinand; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl; Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C

    2016-05-16

    In Z-type ligands the electrons for the coordination bond are formally provided by the metal. They represent an important addition to the much more extensively used L- and X-type σ-donor ligands for the development of transition metal complexes with new reactivities. We report here a new boron Z-type ligand with three tethering thiopyridazinyl donors forming exclusively complexes that feature a metal boron bond. Rational substitution pattern in the backbone of the pyridazinyl heterocycle led to a well-behaved ligand system that allowed preparation of a series of copper boratrane complexes in high yields. They are found to be more soluble in common organic solvents allowing reactivity studies in contrast to previous complexes with this type of ligand. Thus, copper complexes [Cu{B(Pn(Me,tBu))3}X] with X = Cl, OTf, N3, and κN-NCS are reported. Solution behavior was explored, and the molecular structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The thiocyanate ligand is found to coordinate via its nitrogen atom pointing to a high oxidation state of the copper. Density functional theory calculations indicate a high positive charge on copper and a strong copper-boron interaction. Thus, here reported complexes deliver synthetic evidence for the Z-type nature of the ligand. These findings are important for further dissemination of these types of ligands in coordination chemistry. PMID:27110725

  9. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications. PMID:24943491

  10. Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structures and determine the binding energies of Mg(+) to a series of ligands. Mg(+) bonds electrostatically with benzene, acetone, H2, CO, and NH3 and a self-consistent-field treatment gives a good description of the bonding. The bonding in MgCN(+) and MgCH3(+) is largely covalent and a correlated treatment is required.

  11. Presentation of Ligands on Hydroxylapatite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Barbara C. F.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1997-01-01

    Conjugates of biotin with the decamer of glutamic acid (glu(sub 10)) and the trimer of D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (I) have been synthesized, and it has been shown that they mediate the binding of avidin to hydroxylapatite. In a similar way a conjugate of methotrexate with glu(sub 10) mediates the binding of dihydrofolate reductase to the mineral. The presentation of ligands on the hydroxylapatite component of bone may find applications in clinical medicine.

  12. Unusual ligand coordination for cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Kavallieratos, K.; Sachleben, R.A.

    2000-04-03

    When complexed by tetrabenzo-24-crown-8, the cesium ion can accommodate unprecedented ligation. The structures of the complexes are presented. These structures are the first reported examples of linear {eta}{sup 2}-acetonitrile coordination to any metal ion and the first structures illustrating {eta}{sup 2}-acetonitrile and dichloromethane ligation to an alkali metal ion. Possible steric and electronic origins of these unusual metal-ligand interactions are discussed.

  13. Absolute Ligand Discrimination by Dimeric Signaling Receptors.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Sepehr; Nayak, Chitra R; Feld, Jordan J; Zilman, Anton G

    2016-09-01

    Many signaling pathways act through shared components, where different ligand molecules bind the same receptors or activate overlapping sets of response regulators downstream. Nevertheless, different ligands acting through cross-wired pathways often lead to different outcomes in terms of the target cell behavior and function. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it still largely remains unclear how cells can reliably discriminate different molecular ligands under such circumstances. Here we show that signaling via ligand-induced receptor dimerization-a very common motif in cellular signaling-naturally incorporates a mechanism for the discrimination of ligands acting through the same receptor. PMID:27602720

  14. Bifunctional crosslinking ligands for transthyretin

    PubMed Central

    Mangione, P. Patrizia; Deroo, Stéphanie; Ellmerich, Stephan; Bellotti, Vittorio; Kolstoe, Simon; Wood, Stephen P.; Robinson, Carol V.; Smith, Martin D.; Tennent, Glenys A.; Broadbridge, Robert J.; Council, Claire E.; Thurston, Joanne R.; Steadman, Victoria A.; Vong, Antonio K.; Swain, Christopher J.; Pepys, Mark B.; Taylor, Graham W.

    2015-01-01

    Wild-type and variant forms of transthyretin (TTR), a normal plasma protein, are amyloidogenic and can be deposited in the tissues as amyloid fibrils causing acquired and hereditary systemic TTR amyloidosis, a debilitating and usually fatal disease. Reduction in the abundance of amyloid fibril precursor proteins arrests amyloid deposition and halts disease progression in all forms of amyloidosis including TTR type. Our previous demonstration that circulating serum amyloid P component (SAP) is efficiently depleted by administration of a specific small molecule ligand compound, that non-covalently crosslinks pairs of SAP molecules, suggested that TTR may be also amenable to this approach. We first confirmed that chemically crosslinked human TTR is rapidly cleared from the circulation in mice. In order to crosslink pairs of TTR molecules, promote their accelerated clearance and thus therapeutically deplete plasma TTR, we prepared a range of bivalent specific ligands for the thyroxine binding sites of TTR. Non-covalently bound human TTR–ligand complexes were formed that were stable in vitro and in vivo, but they were not cleared from the plasma of mice in vivo more rapidly than native uncomplexed TTR. Therapeutic depletion of circulating TTR will require additional mechanisms. PMID:26400472

  15. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  16. Ligand identification using electron-density mapcorrelations

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Cohn,Judith D.

    2006-12-01

    A procedure for the identification of ligands bound incrystal structuresof macromolecules is described. Two characteristics ofthe density corresponding to a ligand are used in the identificationprocedure. One is the correlation of the ligand density with each of aset of test ligands after optimization of the fit of that ligand to thedensity. The other is the correlation of a fingerprint of the densitywith the fingerprint of model density for each possible ligand. Thefingerprints consist of an ordered list of correlations of each the testligands with the density. The two characteristics are scored using aZ-score approach in which the correlations are normalized to the mean andstandard deviation of correlations found for a variety of mismatchedligand-density pairs, so that the Z scores are related to the probabilityof observing a particular value of the correlation by chance. Theprocedure was tested with a set of 200 of the most commonly found ligandsin the Protein Data Bank, collectively representing 57 percent of allligands in the Protein Data Bank. Using a combination of these twocharacteristics of ligand density, ranked lists of ligand identificationswere made for representative (F-o-F-c) exp(i phi(c)) difference densityfrom entries in the Protein Data Bank. In 48 percent of the 200 cases,the correct ligand was at the top of the ranked list of ligands. Thisapproach may be useful in identification of unknown ligands in newmacromolecular structures as well as in the identification of whichligands in a mixture have bound to a macromolecule.

  17. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  18. Ligand-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2014-12-01

    GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that convey specific extracellular stimuli to intracellular signalling. They represent the largest family of cell surface proteins that are therapeutically targeted. According to the traditional two-state model of receptor theory, GPCRs were considered as operating in equilibrium between two functional conformations, an active (R*) and inactive (R) state. Thus, it was assumed that a GPCR can exist either in an "off" or "on" conformation causing either no activation or equal activation of all its signalling pathways. Over the past several years it has become evident that this model is too simple and that GPCR signalling is far more complex. Different studies have presented a multistate model of receptor activation in which ligand-specific receptor conformations are able to differentiate between distinct signalling partners. Recent data show that beside G proteins numerous other proteins, such as β-arrestins and kinases, may interact with GPCRs and activate intracellular signalling pathways. GPCR activation may therefore involve receptor desensitization, coupling to multiple G proteins, Gα or Gβγ signalling, and pathway activation that is independent of G proteins. This latter effect leads to agonist "functional selectivity" (also called ligand-directed receptor trafficking, stimulus trafficking, biased agonism, biased signalling), and agonist intervention with functional selectivity may improve the therapy. Many commercially available drugs with beneficial efficacy also show various undesirable side effects. Further studies of biased signalling might facilitate our understanding of the side effects of current drugs and take us to new avenues to efficiently design pathway-specific medications. PMID:25443729

  19. Conformational readout of RNA by small ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kligun, Efrat; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules have highly versatile structures that can fold into myriad conformations, providing many potential pockets for binding small molecules. The increasing number of available RNA structures, in complex with proteins, small ligands and in free form, enables the design of new therapeutically useful RNA-binding ligands. Here we studied RNA ligand complexes from 10 RNA groups extracted from the protein data bank (PDB), including adaptive and non-adaptive complexes. We analyzed the chemical, physical, structural and conformational properties of binding pockets around the ligand. Comparing the properties of ligand-binding pockets to the properties of computed pockets extracted from all available RNA structures and RNA-protein interfaces, revealed that ligand-binding pockets, mainly the adaptive pockets, are characterized by unique properties, specifically enriched in rare conformations of the nucleobase and the sugar pucker. Further, we demonstrate that nucleotides possessing the rare conformations are preferentially involved in direct interactions with the ligand. Overall, based on our comprehensive analysis of RNA-ligand complexes, we suggest that the unique conformations adopted by RNA nucleotides play an important role in RNA recognition by small ligands. We term the recognition of a binding site by a ligand via the unique RNA conformations “RNA conformational readout.” We propose that “conformational readout” is a general way by which RNA binding pockets are recognized and selected from an ensemble of different RNA states. PMID:23618839

  20. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    SciTech Connect

    Klei, Herbert E.; Moriarty, Nigel W. Echols, Nathaniel; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Baldwin, Eric T.; Pokross, Matt; Posy, Shana; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR

  1. Inside job: ligand-receptor pharmacology beneath the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Most drugs acting on the cell surface receptors are membrane permeable and thus able to engage their target proteins in different subcellular compartments. However, these drugs' effects on cell surface receptors have historically been studied on the plasma membrane alone. Increasing evidence suggests that small molecules may also modulate their targeted receptors through membrane trafficking or organelle-localized signaling inside the cell. These additional modes of interaction have been reported for functionally diverse ligands of GPCRs, ion channels, and transporters. Such intracellular drug-target engagements affect cell surface expression. Concurrent intracellular and cell surface signaling may also increase the complexity and therapeutic opportunities of small molecule modulation. Here we discuss examples of ligand-receptor interactions that are present in both intra- and extracellular sites, and the potential therapeutic opportunities presented by this phenomenon. PMID:23685953

  2. From Widely Accepted Concepts in Coordination Chemistry to Inverted Ligand Fields.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Roald; Alvarez, Santiago; Mealli, Carlo; Falceto, Andrés; Cahill, Thomas J; Zeng, Tao; Manca, Gabriele

    2016-07-27

    We begin with a brief historical review of the development of our understanding of the normal ordering of nd orbitals of a transition metal interacting with ligands, the most common cases being three below two in an octahedral environment, two below three in tetrahedral coordination, and four below one in a square-planar environment. From the molecular orbital construction of these ligand field splittings evolves a strategy for inverting the normal order: the obvious way to achieve this is to raise the ligand levels above the metal d's; that is, make the ligands better Lewis bases. However, things are not so simple, for such metal/ligand level placement may lead to redox processes. For 18-electron octahedral complexes one can create the inverted situation, but it manifests itself in the makeup of valence orbitals (are they mainly on metal or ligands?) rather than energy. One can also see the effect, in small ways, in tetrahedral Zn(II) complexes. We construct several examples of inverted ligand field systems with a hypothetical but not unrealistic AlCH3 ligand and sketch the consequences of inversion on reactivity. Special attention is paid to the square-planar case, exemplified by [Cu(CF3)4](-), in which Snyder had the foresight to see a case of an inverted field, with the empty valence orbital being primarily ligand centered, the dx2-y2 orbital heavily occupied, in what would normally be called a Cu(III) complex. For [Cu(CF3)4](-) we provide theoretical evidence from electron distributions, geometry of the ligands, thermochemistry of molecule formation, and the energetics of abstraction of a CF3 ligand by a base, all consistent with oxidation of the ligands in this molecule. In [Cu(CF3)4](-), and perhaps more complexes on the right side of the transition series than one has imagined, some ligands are σ-noninnocent. Exploration of inverted ligand fields helps us see the continuous, borderless transition from transition metal to main group bonding. We also give

  3. A universal rule for organic ligand exchange.

    PubMed

    You, Hongjun; Wang, Wenjin; Yang, Shengchun

    2014-11-12

    Most synthetic routes to high-quality nanocrystals with tunable morphologies predominantly employ long hydro-carbon molecules as ligands, which are detrimental for electronic and catalytic applications. Here, a rule is found that the adsorption energy of an organic ligand is related to its carbon-chain length. Using the density functional theory method, the adsorption energies of some commonly used ligand molecules with different carbon-chain lengths are calculated, including carboxylate, hydroxyl, and amine molecules adsorbed on metal or metal oxide crystal surface. The results indicate that the adsorption energy of the ligand molecule with a long carbon chain is weaker than that of a smaller molecule with same functional group. This rule provides a theoretical support for a new kind of ligand exchange method in which large organic ligand molecules can be exchanged by small molecules with same functional group to improve the catalytic properties. PMID:25335915

  4. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation: Effect of polarization on thrombin-ligand binding energy

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Li L.; Feng, Guo Q.; Zhang, Qing G.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations lasting 500 ns were performed in explicit water to investigate the effect of polarization on the binding of ligands to human α-thrombin based on the standard nonpolarizable AMBER force field and the quantum-derived polarized protein-specific charge (PPC). The PPC includes the electronic polarization effect of the thrombin-ligand complex, which is absent in the standard force field. A detailed analysis and comparison of the results of the MD simulation with experimental data provided strong evidence that intra-protein, protein-ligand hydrogen bonds and the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms were significantly stabilized through electronic polarization. Specifically, two critical hydrogen bonds between thrombin and the ligand were broken at approximately 190 ns when AMBER force field was used and the number of intra-protein backbone hydrogen bonds was higher under PPC than under AMBER. The thrombin-ligand binding energy was computed using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, and the results were consistent with the experimental value obtained using PPC. Because hydrogen bonds were unstable, it was failed to predict the binding affinity under the AMBER force field. Furthermore, the results of the present study revealed that differences in the binding free energy between AMBER and PPC almost comes from the electrostatic interaction. Thus, this study provides evidence that protein polarization is critical to accurately describe protein-ligand binding. PMID:27507430

  5. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation: Effect of polarization on thrombin-ligand binding energy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li L; Feng, Guo Q; Zhang, Qing G

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations lasting 500 ns were performed in explicit water to investigate the effect of polarization on the binding of ligands to human α-thrombin based on the standard nonpolarizable AMBER force field and the quantum-derived polarized protein-specific charge (PPC). The PPC includes the electronic polarization effect of the thrombin-ligand complex, which is absent in the standard force field. A detailed analysis and comparison of the results of the MD simulation with experimental data provided strong evidence that intra-protein, protein-ligand hydrogen bonds and the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms were significantly stabilized through electronic polarization. Specifically, two critical hydrogen bonds between thrombin and the ligand were broken at approximately 190 ns when AMBER force field was used and the number of intra-protein backbone hydrogen bonds was higher under PPC than under AMBER. The thrombin-ligand binding energy was computed using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, and the results were consistent with the experimental value obtained using PPC. Because hydrogen bonds were unstable, it was failed to predict the binding affinity under the AMBER force field. Furthermore, the results of the present study revealed that differences in the binding free energy between AMBER and PPC almost comes from the electrostatic interaction. Thus, this study provides evidence that protein polarization is critical to accurately describe protein-ligand binding. PMID:27507430

  6. Fluorescent Approaches for Understanding Interactions of Ligands with G Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Rajashri; Zuber, Jeffrey; Connelly, Sara M.; Mathew, Elizabeth; Dumont, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for a wide variety of signaling responses in diverse cell types. Despite major advances in the determination of structures of this class of receptors, the underlying mechanisms by which binding of different types of ligands specifically elicits particular signaling responses remains unclear. The use of fluorescence spectroscopy can provide important information about the process of ligand binding and ligand dependent conformational changes in receptors, especially kinetic aspects of these processes, that can be difficult to extract from x-ray structures. We present an overview of the extensive array of fluorescent ligands that have been used in studies of GPCRs and describe spectroscopic approaches for assaying binding and probing the environment of receptor-bound ligands with particular attention to examples involving yeast pheromone receptors. In addition, we discuss the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for detecting and characterizing conformational changes in receptors induced by the binding of ligands. Such studies have provided strong evidence for diversity of receptor conformations elicited by different ligands, consistent with the idea that GPCRs are not simple on and off switches. This diversity of states constitutes an underlying mechanistic basis for biased agonism, the observation that different stimuli can produce different responses from a single receptor. It is likely that continued technical advances will allow fluorescence spectroscopy to play an important role in continued probing of structural transitions in GPCRs. PMID:24055822

  7. Ligand regulation of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors: implications for development of novel therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Laura A.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In the late 1980s, the cloning of several nuclear receptors led to the intense search and isolation of new members of this superfamily. Despite their identification, many of these receptors were dubbed ‘orphan’ receptors, as their physiological ligands remained unknown. Recent reports have presented evidence for one family of orphan receptors, the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs), in several pathologies, including osteoporosis, several autoimmune diseases, asthma, cancer, diabetes and obesity. The present review summarizes the studies identifying ligands for the RORs and evaluates their role as targets for potential therapeutics. Recent findings Significant progress was made in the initial identification of ligands for the RORs when X-ray crystallographic studies identified several molecules within the ligand-binding pockets of RORα and RORβ. Recently, we identified endogenous and synthetic ligands for RORα and RORγ, thereby solidifying their function as ligand-dependent transcription factors. Summary Recent studies have established roles for the RORs in physiological development and the advent of disease. Identification of ligands for the RORs, both endogenous and synthetic, has established these receptors as attractive new therapeutic targets for the treatment of ROR-related diseases. PMID:20463469

  8. [Interaction of human alpha-thrombin with organic ligands of ionic nature].

    PubMed

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V; Chumachenko, Iu V; Volkov, G L

    2003-01-01

    Investigations results of human thrombin interaction with organic ligands of ion nature containing nonpolar groups are presented. It is shown that electrostatic interaction is the basic one under enzyme binding, while hydrophobic binding is only additional function in the reaction enzyme-ligand, this fact is confirmed by the absence of interaction between thrombin and rivanol which has a positive charge side by side with cumbrous hydrophobic group. New data are presented about the ligand specificity of binding sites of thrombin active centre. The importance of relative arrangement of hydrophobic ligand groups for interaction with enzyme is shown. It is supposed that thrombin binding with organic ligands occurs owing anionic site of beta-domain of active thrombin centre with the major aminoacids arginine and lysine (Lys 68, Arg 78, Arg 77, Arg 66 etc.). It is shown that the compounds containing negative group SO3 and have some cunbours hydrophobic groups interact more intensively with the enzyme. Thus, rosseline--with symmetrical hydrophobic nucleus (four benzene rings)--is the most efficient ligand for the binding with thrombin. The obtained investigation results evidence for bacteriostatical and stabilizing effect of low-molecular asobenzene ligands on rather labile thrombin molecules. PMID:15143519

  9. Ligand-targeted liposomes for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Puja; Tyagi, Pradeep; Allen, Theresa M

    2005-10-01

    Selective targeting of ligand-targeted liposomes containing anticancer drugs or therapeutic genes to cell surface receptors expressed on cancer cells is a recognized strategy for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional chemotherapeutics or gene therapeutics. Some recent advances in the field of ligand-targeted liposomes for the treatment of cancer are summarized including: selection criteria for the receptors to be targeted, choice of targeting ligands and choice of encapsulated therapeutics. Targeting of liposomes to solid tumors, versus angiogenic endothelial cells versus vascular targets is discussed. Ligand-targeted liposomes have shown considerable promise in preclinical xenograft models and are poised for clinical development. PMID:16305440

  10. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced /sup 155/Eu:/sup 3 +/ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor.

  11. PPAR Ligands Function as Suppressors That Target Biological Actions of HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which has become one of the most intriguing molecules in inflammatory disorders and cancers and with which ligand-activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are highly associated, is considered as a therapeutic target. Of particular interest is the fact that certain PPAR ligands have demonstrated their potent anti-inflammatory activities and potential anticancer effects. In this review article we summarize recent experimental evidence that PPAR ligands function as suppressors that target biological actions of HMGB1, including intracellular expression, receptor signaling cascades, and extracellular secretion of HMGB1 in cell lines and/or animal models. We also propose the possible mechanisms underlying PPAR involvement in inflammatory disorders and discuss the future therapeutic value of PPAR ligands targeting HMGB1 molecule for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27563308

  12. Molecular studies of pH dependent ligand interactions with the low-density lipoprotein receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Guigard, Emmanuel; Kay, Cyril M.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    Ligand release from the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has been postulated to involve a “histidine switch” induced intra-molecular rearrangement that discharges bound ligand. A recombinant soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor (sLDLR) was employed in ligand binding experiments with a fluorescent-tagged variant apolipoprotein E-N-terminal domain (apoE-NT). Binding was monitored as a function of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from excited Trp residues in sLDLR to an extrinsic fluorophore covalently attached to Trp null apoE3-NT. In binding experiments with wild type (WT) sLDLR, FRET-dependent AEDANS fluorescence decreased as the pH was lowered. To investigate the role of His190, His562 and His586 in sLDLR on pH dependent ligand binding and discharge, site directed mutagenesis studies were performed. Compared to WT sLDLR, triple His→Ala mutant sLDLR displayed attenuated pH-dependent ligand binding and decreased ligand release as a function of low pH. When these His residues were substituted for Lys, whose positively charged side chain does not ionize over this pH range, ligand binding was nearly abolished at all pH values. When sequential His to Lys mutants were examined, evidence obtained suggested that His562 and His586 function cooperatively. Whereas the sedimentation coefficient for WT sLDLR increased upon lowering the pH from 7 to 5, no such change occurred in the case of the triple Lys mutant receptor or a His562Lys / His586Lys double mutant receptor. The data support the existence of a cryptic, histidine side chain ionization-dependent alternative ligand that modulates ligand discharge via conformational reorganization. PMID:18847225

  13. Allosterism at muscarinic receptors: ligands and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, N J M; Lazareno, S

    2005-06-01

    The evaluation of allosteric ligands at muscarinic receptors is discussed in terms of the ability of the experimental data to be interpreted by the allosteric ternary complex model. The compilation of useful SAR information of allosteric ligands is not simple, especially for muscarinic receptors, where there are multiple allosteric sites and complex interactions. PMID:15974931

  14. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-03-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand-receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers.

  15. Synthesis, structural characterization, docking, lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of 1-[(1R)-1-(6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)ethyl]-3-alkyl carbamates, novel acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase pseudo-irreversible inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pejchal, Vladimír; Štěpánková, Šárka; Pejchalová, Marcela; Královec, Karel; Havelek, Radim; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Ajani, Haresh; Lo, Rabindranath; Lepšík, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, sixteen novel derivatives of (R)-1-(6-fluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)ethanamine were synthesized as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. Chemical structures together with purity of the synthesized compounds were substantiated by IR, (1)H, (13)C, (19)F NMR, high resolution mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The optical activities were confirmed by optical rotation measurements. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the most active compounds was investigated against human cell lines employing XTT tetrazolium salt reduction assay and xCELLigence system allowing a label-free assessment of the cells proliferation. Our results demonstrated that the inhibitory mechanism was confirmed to be pseudo-irreversible, in line with previous studies on carbamates. Compounds indicated as 3b, 3d, 3l and 3n showed the best AChE inhibitory activity of all the evaluated compounds and were up to tenfold more potent than standard drug rivastigmine. The binding mode was determined using state-of-the-art covalent docking and scoring methodology. The obtained data clearly demonstrated that 3b, 3d, 3l and 3n benzothiazole carbamates possess high inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE and concurrently negligible cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results indicate, that these derivatives could be promising in an effective therapeutic intervention for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26947959

  16. Chemical monitoring and occurrence of alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxylates, phthalates and benzothiazoles in sewage treatment plants and receiving waters along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, N. E. Spain).

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barceló, Damià

    2006-07-01

    This study presents a quantitative estimation of the analysis and fate of several emerging pollutants, some of them endocrine-disrupting compounds, in surface water samples collected at several locations along the Ter River and two of its tributaries. Influent and effluent waters and particulate matter from five sewage treatment plants (STP) that discharge into these rivers were also studied. The target compounds analyzed were: nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, alcohol ethoxylates (AEO) and benzothiazoles. Chemical analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using an electrospray interface (LC-ESI-MS) revealed the presence of low amounts (between 0.06 and 17.5 microg L(-1)) of the target compounds NPE(1+2)O and NP, which were detected in 100% and 84% of the samples respectively. Maximum concentrations occurred in the STPs associated with the municipalities of Vic and Girona. From the fate and behavior data obtained for the various compounds analyzed in the STP influent and effluent, we can conclude that the STPs are effective at removing large amounts (more than 70%) of the compounds studied from the water. PMID:16794817

  17. Demonstration of ligand decoration, and ligand-induced perturbation, of G-quadruplexes in a plasmid using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mela, Ioanna; Kranaster, Ramon; Henderson, Robert M; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Edwardson, J Michael

    2012-01-17

    G-Quadruplexes are nucleic acid secondary structures consisting of a planar arrangement of four guanine residues. Potential G-quadruplex-forming sequences are widely distributed throughout the genome. Significantly, they are present in telomeres and are enriched in gene promoters and first introns, raising the possibility that perturbation of G-quadruplex stability might have therapeutic potential, for example in the treatment of cancer. Ligands that interact selectively with G-quadruplexes include both proteins and small molecules, although the interactions between ligands and their G-quadruplex targets have been monitored using indirect methods. In addition, the G-quadruplex targets have often been short DNA fragments. Here, we have used atomic force microscopy imaging to examine directly at the single-molecule level the interaction of ligands with G-quadruplexes generated during transcription of a plasmid containing a G-rich insert. We show that the structures produced during transcription are decorated specifically by the single-chain antibody HF1 and by the nuclear protein PARP-1, both of which are known to recognize G-quadruplexes. Our results provide clear structural evidence of G-quadruplex formation in a transcription-dependent case and demonstrate directly how small-molecule stabilizers and destabilizers can manipulate these structures in a biochemically functional system. PMID:22225525

  18. Protein-ligand-based pharmacophores: generation and utility assessment in computational ligand profiling.

    PubMed

    Meslamani, Jamel; Li, Jiabo; Sutter, Jon; Stevens, Adrian; Bertrand, Hugues-Olivier; Rognan, Didier

    2012-04-23

    Ligand profiling is an emerging computational method for predicting the most likely targets of a bioactive compound and therefore anticipating adverse reactions, side effects and drug repurposing. A few encouraging successes have already been reported using ligand 2-D similarity searches and protein-ligand docking. The current study describes the use of receptor-ligand-derived pharmacophore searches as a tool to link ligands to putative targets. A database of 68,056 pharmacophores was first derived from 8,166 high-resolution protein-ligand complexes. In order to limit the number of queries, a maximum of 10 pharmacophores was generated for each complex according to their predicted selectivity. Pharmacophore search was compared to ligand-centric (2-D and 3-D similarity searches) and docking methods in profiling a set of 157 diverse ligands against a panel of 2,556 unique targets of known X-ray structure. As expected, ligand-based methods outperformed, in most of the cases, structure-based approaches in ranking the true targets among the top 1% scoring entries. However, we could identify ligands for which only a single method was successful. Receptor-ligand-based pharmacophore search is notably a fast and reliable alternative to docking when few ligand information is available for some targets. Overall, the present study suggests that a workflow using the best profiling method according to the protein-ligand context is the best strategy to follow. We notably present concrete guidelines for selecting the optimal computational method according to simple ligand and binding site properties. PMID:22480372

  19. Metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands as potential therapeutics for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Olive, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction and alcoholism. As a result, there has been increasing interest in developing glutamate-based therapies for the treatment of addictive disorders. Receptors for glutamate are primarily divided into two classes: ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that mediate fast excitatory glutamate transmission, and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are G-protein coupled receptors that mediate slower, modulatory glutamate transmission. Most iGluR antagonists, while showing some efficacy in animal models of addiction, exhibit serious side effects when tested in humans. mGluR ligands, on the other hand, which have been advanced to testing in clinical trials for various medical conditions, have demonstrated the ability to reduce drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behaviors in animal studies. mGluR ligands that have been shown to be primarily effective are Group I (mGluR1 and mGluR5) negative allosteric modulators and Group II (mGluR2 and mGluR3) orthosteric presynaptic autoreceptor agonists. In this review, we will summarize findings from animal studies suggesting that these mGluR ligands may be of potential benefit in reducing on-going drug self-administration and may aid in the prevention of relapse. The neuroanatomical distribution of mGluR1, mGluR2/3, and mGluR5 receptors and the pharmacological properties of Group I negative allosteric modulators and Group II agonists will also be overviewed. Finally, we will discuss the current status of mGluR ligands in human clinical trials. PMID:19630739

  20. Protein flexibility and ligand recognition: challenges for molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Spyrakis, Francesca; BidonChanal, Axel; Barril, Xavier; Luque, F Javier

    2011-01-01

    The intrinsic dynamics of macromolecules is an essential property to relate the structure of biomolecular systems with their function in the cell. In the field of ligand-receptor recognition, numerous evidences have revealed the limitations of the lock-and-key theory, and the need to elaborate models that take into account the inherent plasticity of biomolecules, such as the induced-fit model or the existence of an ensemble of pre-equilibrated conformations. Depending on the nature of the target system, ligand binding can be associated with small local adjustments in side chains or even the backbone to large-scale motions of structural fragments, domains or even subunits. Reproducing the inherent flexibility of biomolecules has thus become one of the most challenging issues in molecular modeling and simulation studies, as it has direct implications in our understanding of the structure-function relationships, but even in areas such as virtual screening and structure-based drug discovery. Given the intrinsic limitation of conventional simulation tools, only events occurring in short time scales can be reproduced at a high accuracy level through all-atom techniques such as Molecular Dynamics simulations. However, larger structural rearrangements demand the use of enhanced sampling methods relying on modified descriptions of the biomolecular system or the potential surface. This review illustrates the crucial role that structural plasticity plays in mediating ligand recognition through representative examples. In addition, it discusses some of the most powerful computational tools developed to characterize the conformational flexibility in ligand-receptor complexes. PMID:20939788

  1. The chemical biology of Cu(II) complexes with imidazole or thiazole containing ligands: Synthesis, crystal structures and comparative biological activity.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Adam; McDonald, Molly; Scharbach, Stephanie; Hamaway, Stefan; Plooster, Melissa; Peters, Kyle; Fox, Kristin M; Cassimeris, Lynne; Tanski, Joseph M; Tyler, Laurie A

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two copper(II) complexes containing 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole (PyBIm) are reported with the biological activity of these two complexes and a third Cu(II) complex containing 2-(2-pyridyl)benzothiazole (PyBTh). Complex 1, [Cu(PyBIm)(NO3)(H2O)](NO3), is a four coordinate, distorted square planar species with one ligand (N,N), nitrate and water bound to Cu(II). The [Cu(PyBIm)3](BF4)2 complex (2) has distorted octahedral geometry with a 3:1 Py(BIm) ligand to metal ratio. The distorted trigonal bi-pyramidal geometry of compound 3, [Cu(PyBTh)2(H2O)](BF4)2, is comprised of two PyBTh ligands and one water. Biological activity of 1-3 has been assessed by analyzing DNA interaction, nuclease ability, cytotoxic activity and antibacterial properties. Complex 3 exhibits potent concentration dependent SC-DNA cleavage forming single- and double-nicked DNA in contrast to the weak activity of complexes 1 and 2. Mechanistic studies indicate that all complexes utilize an oxidative mechanism however 1 and 2 employ O2(-) as the principal reactive oxygen species while the highly active 3 utilizes (1)O2. The interaction between 1-3 and DNA was investigated using fluorescence emission spectroscopy and revealed all complexes strongly intercalate DNA with Kapp values of 2.65×10(6), 1.85×10(6) and 2.72×10(6)M(-1), respectively. Cytotoxic effects of 1-3 were examined using HeLa and K562 cells and show cell death in the micromolar range with the activity of 1≈2 and were slightly higher than 3. Similar reactivity was observed in the antibacterial studies with E. coli and S. aureus. A detailed comparative analysis of the three complexes is presented. PMID:26828284

  2. Fine tuning of emission color of iridium(III) complexes from yellow to red via substituent effect on 2-phenylbenzothiazole ligands: synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zeng, Hui; Meng, Yanyan; Sun, Huiqin; Liu, Song; Lu, Zhiyun; Huang, Yan; Pu, Xuemei

    2011-07-21

    Four novel iridium(III) complexes bearing biphenyl (7a-7c) or fluorenyl (7d) modified benzothiazole cyclometallate ligands are synthesized. In comparison with the yellow parent complex, bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C(2')) iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(pbt)(2)Ir(acac)] (λ(PLmax) = 557 nm, φ(PL) = 0.26), 7a-7d show 20-43 nm bathochromic shifted orange or red phosphorescence in solution, with maximum photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 0.62, and PL lifetime of 1.8-2.0 μs. Meanwhile, the resulting complexes also exhibit intense orange or red phosphorescence of λ(PLmax) = 588-611 nm in solid films. The complex 7c with two tert-butyl substituents possesses the highest phosphorescent efficiency both in dilute solution and thin solid films, therefore may be a prospective candidate for both doping and host emitting electrophosphorescent material. Furthermore, despite the observation of severe oxygen quenching for 7a-7d in solution, 7a and 7c even show efficient emission intensity quenching by oxygen in their solid state due to the existence of void channels in crystals; consequently, they are promising molecular oxygen sensor reagents. Electrochemical measurement and DFT calculation results suggest that all these chelates own declined LUMOs of 0.1 eV relative to that of (pbt)(2)Ir(acac) owing to the contribution of the phenyl substituents; whereas only 7d shows a more destabilized HOMO (∼0.1 eV) compared with the parent chelate. PMID:21666891

  3. Improving protein-ligand docking with flexible interfacial water molecules using SWRosettaLigand.

    PubMed

    Li, Linqing; Xu, Weiwei; Lü, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Computational protein-ligand docking is of great importance in drug discovery and design. Conformational changes greatly affect the results of protein-ligand docking, especially when water molecules take part in mediating protein ligand interactions or when large conformational changes are observed in the receptor backbone interface. We have developed an improved protocol, SWRosettaLigand, based on the RosettaLigand protocol. This approach incorporates the flexibility of interfacial water molecules and modeling of the interface of the receptor into the original RosettaLigand. In a coarse sampling step, SWRosettaLigand pre-optimizes the initial position of the water molecules, docks the ligand to the receptor with explicit water molecules, and minimizes the predicted structure with water molecules. The receptor backbone interface is treated as a loop and perturbed and refined by kinematic closure, or cyclic coordinate descent algorithm, with the presence of the ligand. In two cross-docking test sets, it was identified that for 8 out of 14, and 16 out of 22, test instances, the top-ranked structures by SWRosettaLigand achieved better accuracy than other protocols. PMID:26515196

  4. Rational Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (RQSAR) Screen for PXR and CAR Isoform-Specific Nuclear Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Dring, Ann M.; Anderson, Linnea E.; Qamar, Saima; Stoner, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related orphan nuclear receptor proteins that share several ligands and target overlapping sets of genes involved in homeostasis and all phases of drug metabolism. CAR and PXR are involved in the development of certain diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Ligand screens for these receptors so far have typically focused on steroid hormone analogs with pharmacophore-based approaches, only to find relatively few new hits. Multiple CAR isoforms have been detected in human liver, with the most abundant being the constitutively active reference, CAR1, and the ligand-dependent isoform CAR3. It has been assumed that any compound that binds CAR1 should also activate CAR3, and so CAR3 can be used as a ligand-activated surrogate for CAR1 studies. The possibility of CAR3-specific ligands has not, so far, been addressed. To investigate the differences between CAR1, CAR3 and PXR, and to look for more CAR ligands that may be of use in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies, we performed a luciferase transactivation assay screen of 60 mostly non-steroid compounds. Known active compounds with different core chemistries were chosen as starting points and structural variants were rationally selected for screening. Distinct differences in agonist versus inverse agonist/antagonist effects were seen in 49 compounds that had some ligand effect on at least one receptor and 18 that had effects on all three receptors; eight were CAR1 ligands only, three were CAR3 only ligands and four affected PXR only. This work provides evidence for new CAR ligands, some of which have CAR3-specific effects, and provides observational data on CAR and PXR ligands with which to inform in silico strategies. Compounds that demonstrated unique activity on any one receptor are potentially valuable diagnostic tools for the investigation of in vivo molecular targets. PMID:20869355

  5. Preferential antagonism of the interactions of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 with immobilized glycoprotein ligands by snake-venom RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) proteins. Evidence supporting a functional role for the amino acid residues flanking the tripeptide RGD in determining the inhibitory properties of snake-venom RGD proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, X; Williams, J A; Deadman, J J; Salmon, G P; Kakkar, V V; Wilkinson, J M; Baruch, D; Authi, K S; Rahman, S

    1994-01-01

    The inhibitory properties of a panel of snake-venom-derived RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) proteins, including the disintegrins kistrin, elegantin and albolabrin, and the neurotoxin homologue dendroaspin, were investigated in a platelet-adhesion assay using three immobilized ligands of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (alpha IIb beta 3), namely fibrinogen, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF). The snake-venom proteins preferentially inhibited the adhesion of ADP-treated platelets to one or more of the immobilized ligands. Kistrin and dendroaspin exhibited similar inhibitory characteristics, abrogating platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and vWF at nanomolar concentrations, but poorly inhibiting adhesion to fibronectin. Kistrin and dendroaspin share little overall amino-acid-sequence identity, but a considerable level of sequence similarity exists around the RGD tripeptide. Synthetic cyclic peptides corresponding to these regions of kistrin and dendroaspin inhibited platelet adhesion to both fibrinogen and fibronectin with approximately equal potency, but were 100-fold weaker antagonists of the interactions of the alpha IIb beta 3 complex with fibrinogen than their parent proteins. The disintegrins elegantin and albolabrin, which share approx. 60% overall amino-acid-sequence similarity with kistrin but have different residues around the RGD tripeptide, exhibited different antagonistic preferences. Elegantin inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized vWF and fibronectin, but was significantly less effective at disrupting adhesion to fibrinogen. Albolabrin selectively inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized vWF and was less effective with fibrinogen and fibronectin as adhesive ligands. In contrast with the behaviour of these venom proteins, the adhesion of ADP-treated platelets to immobilized fibrinogen, fibronectin and vWF was inhibited non-selectively by a range of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for the alpha IIb beta 3 complex. These observations, therefore

  6. Role of extracellular disulfide-bonded cysteines in the ligand binding function of the. beta. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dohlman, H.G.; Caron, M.G.; DeBlasi, A.; Frielle, T.; Lefkowitz, R.J. )

    1990-03-06

    Evidence is presented for a role of disulfide bridging in forming the ligand binding site of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor ({beta}AR). The presence of disulfide bonds at the ligand binding site is indicated by competitive inhibition by dithiothreitol (DTT) in radioligand binding assays, by specific protection by {beta}-adrenergic ligands of these effects, and by the requirement of disulfide reduction for limit proteolysis of affinity ligand labeled receptor. The kinetics of binding inhibition by DTT suggest at least two pairs of disulfide-bonded cysteines essential for normal binding. Through site-directed mutagenesis, the authors indeed were able to identify four cysteines which are critical for normal binding affinities and for the proper expression of functional {beta}AR at the cell surface. Unexpectedly, the four cysteines required for normal ligand binding are not those located within the hydrophobic transmembrane domains of the receptor (where ligand binding is presumed to occur) but lie in the extracellular hydrophilic loops connecting these transmembrane segments. These findings indicate that in addition to the well-documented involvement of the membrane-spanning domains of the receptor in ligand binding, there is an important and previously unsuspected role of the hydrophilic extracellular domains in forming the ligand binding site.

  7. Allostery Mediates Ligand Binding to WWOX Tumor Suppressor via a Conformational Switch

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B.; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-01-01

    While being devoid of the ability to recognize ligands itself, the WW2 domain is believed to aid ligand binding to WW1 domain in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX tumor suppressor. In an effort to test the generality of this hypothesis, we have undertaken here a detailed biophysical analysis of the binding of WW domains of WWOX alone and in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module to an array of putative PPXY ligands. Our data show that while the WW1 domain of WWOX binds to all ligands in a physiologically-relevant manner, the WW2 domain does not. Moreover, ligand binding to WW1 domain in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module is two-to-three-fold stronger than when treated alone. We also provide evidence that the WW domains within the WW1-WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. Of particular note is the observation that the physical association of WW2 domain with WW1 blocks access to ligand. Consequently, ligand binding to WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of WW2 lid but also disrupts the physical association of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Taken together, our study underscores a key role of allosteric communication in the ability of WW2 orphan domain to chaperone physiological action of WW1 domain within the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX. PMID:25703206

  8. Allostery mediates ligand binding to WWOX tumor suppressor via a conformational switch.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2015-04-01

    While being devoid of the ability to recognize ligands itself, the WW2 domain is believed to aid ligand binding to the WW1 domain in the context of a WW1-WW2 tandem module of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) tumor suppressor. In an effort to test the generality of this hypothesis, we have undertaken here a detailed biophysical analysis of the binding of WW domains of WWOX alone and in the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module to an array of putative proline-proline-x-tyrosine (PPXY) ligands. Our data show that while the WW1 domain of WWOX binds to all ligands in a physiologically relevant manner, the WW2 domain does not. Moreover, ligand binding to the WW1 domain in the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module is two-to-three-fold stronger than when treated alone. We also provide evidence that the WW domains within the WW1-WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. Of particular note is the observation that the physical association of the WW2 domain with WW1 blocks access to ligands. Consequently, ligand binding to the WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of the WW2 lid but also disrupts the physical association of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Taken together, our study underscores a key role of allosteric communication in the ability of the WW2 orphan domain to chaperone physiological action of the WW1 domain within the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX. PMID:25703206

  9. 3,5-T2 is an alternative ligand for the thyroid hormone receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Navarrete-Ramírez, P; Hernández-Puga, G; Villalobos, P; Holzer, G; Renaud, J P; Laudet, V; Orozco, A

    2013-08-01

    Several liganded nuclear receptors have alternative ligands acting in a tissue-specific fashion and playing important biological roles. We present evidence that 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)), a naturally occurring iodothyronine that results from T(3) outer-ring deiodination, is an alternative ligand for thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1). In tilapia, 2 TRβ isoforms differing by 9 amino acids in the ligand-binding domain were cloned. Binding and transactivation studies showed that T(2) activates the human and the long tilapia TRβ1 isoform, but not the short one. A chimeric human TRβ1 (hTRβ1) that contained the 9-amino-acid insert showed no response to T(2), suggesting that the conformation of the hTRβ1 naturally allows T(2) binding and that other regions of the receptor are implicated in TR activation by T(2). Indeed, further analysis showed that the N terminus is essential for T(2)-mediated transactivation but not for that by T(3) in the long and hTRβ1, suggesting a functional interaction between the N-terminal domain and the insertion in the ligand-binding domain. To establish the functional relevance of T(2)-mediated TRβ1 binding and activation, mRNA expression and its regulation by T(2) and T(3) was evaluated for both isoforms. Our data show that long TRβ1expression is 10(6)-fold higher than that of the short isoform, and T(3) and T(2) differentially regulate the expression of these 2 TRβ1 isoforms in vivo. Taken together, our results prompted a reevaluation of the role and mechanism of action of thyroid hormone metabolites previously believed to be inactive. More generally, we propose that classical liganded receptors are only partially locked to very specific ligands and that alternative ligands may play a role in the tissue-specific action of receptors. PMID:23736295

  10. Ligand engineering of nanoparticle solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voros, Marton

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (NP) are promising materials to build cheap and efficient solar cells. One of the key challenges in their utilization for solar energy conversion is the control of NP surfaces and ligand-NP interfaces. Recent experiments have shown that by carefully choosing the ligands terminating the NPs, one can tailor electronic and optical absorption properties of NP assemblies, along with their transport properties. By using density functional theory based methods, we investigated how the opto-electronic properties of lead chalcogenide NPs may be tuned by using diverse organic and inorganic ligands. We interpreted experiments, and we showed that an essential prerequisite to avoid detrimental trap states is to ensure charge balance at the ligand-NP interface, possibly with the help of hydrogen treatment Work supported by the Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  11. Ultrafast dynamics of ligands within heme proteins.

    PubMed

    Vos, Marten H

    2008-01-01

    Physiological bond formation and bond breaking events between proteins and ligands and their immediate consequences are difficult to synchronize and study in general. However, diatomic ligands can be photodissociated from heme, and thus in heme proteins ligand release and rebinding dynamics and trajectories have been studied on timescales of the internal vibrations of the protein that drive many biochemical reactions, and longer. The rapidly expanding number of characterized heme proteins involved in a large variety of functions allows comparative dynamics-structure-function studies. In this review, an overview is given of recent progress in this field, and in particular on initial sensing processes in signaling proteins, and on ligand and electron transfer dynamics in oxidases and cytochromes. PMID:17996720

  12. The Retinoid X Receptors and Their Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Marcia I.; Xia, Zebin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the current status of studies on the structural and molecular biology of the retinoid X receptor subtypes α, β, and γ (RXRs, NR2B1–3), their nuclear and cytoplasmic functions, post-transcriptional processing, and recently reported ligands. Points of interest are the different changes in the ligand-binding pocket induced by variously shaped agonists, the communication of the ligand–bound pocket with the coactivator binding surface and the heterodimerization interface, and recently identified ligands that are natural products, those that function as environmental toxins or drugs that had been originally designed to interact with other targets, as well as those that were deliberately designed as RXR-selective transcriptional agonists, synergists, or antagonists. Of these synthetic ligands, the general trend in design appears to be away from fully aromatic rigid structures to those containing partial elements of the flexible tetraene side chain of 9-cis-retinoic acid. PMID:22020178

  13. Bioisosteric matrices for ligands of serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Warszycki, Dawid; Mordalski, Stefan; Staroń, Jakub; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2015-04-01

    The concept of bioisosteric replacement matrices is applied to explore the chemical space of serotonin receptor ligands, aiming to determine the most efficient ways of manipulating the affinity for all 5-HT receptor subtypes. Analysis of a collection of over 1 million bioisosteres of compounds with measured activity towards serotonin receptors revealed that an average of 31 % of the ligands for each target are mutual bioisosteres. In addition, the collected dataset allowed the development of bioisosteric matrices-qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the biological effects of each predefined type of bioisosteric substitution, providing favored paths of modifying the compounds. The concept exemplified here for serotonin receptor ligands can likely be more broadly applied to other target classes, thus representing a useful guide for medicinal chemists designing novel ligands. PMID:25772514

  14. Glutamate receptor ligands as anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka-Wójcik, E; Kłodzinska, A; Pilc, A

    2001-08-01

    The glutamatergic system has received considerable attention over recent years as a potential target for anxiolytic drugs. In spite of the pronounced anxiolytic-like effects of competitive and non-competitive antagonists of NMDA receptors in animal models of anxiety, these substances can not be regarded as potential anxiolytic drugs, mainly due to their side-effect profiles (eg, ataxia, myorelaxation, impairment of learning and memory processes and psychotomimetic effects). Antagonists and partial agonists of the glycine, receptor inhibit function of the NMDA receptor complex and evoke in animals an anxiolytic-like response. Although data concerning anti-anxiety-like effects of glycine, receptor antagonists are not very promising, studies are underway to develop new, brain-penetrating agents devoid of side effects. Further developments are necessary to more fully elucidate the possible involvement of AMPA/kainate receptors in anxiety. The recent discovery of metabotropic glutamate receptors, which modulate the function of the glutamatergic system, offers new hope for discovery of a new generation of anxiolytics. MPEP, a highly selective, brain penetrable, noncompetitive mGlu5 receptor antagonist, evokes anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models of anxiety, remaining remarkably free of side effects. LY-354740, a selective brain-penetrable group II mGlu receptor agonist, evokes marked anxiolytic-like effects in animal models of anxiety. LY-354740 causes mild sedation in mice, does not disturb motor coordination and has no potential to cause dependence. Therefore mGlu receptor ligands may become the anxiolytics of the future, free from the side effects characteristic of benzodiazepines. PMID:11892923

  15. PLIC: protein-ligand interaction clusters.

    PubMed

    Anand, Praveen; Nagarajan, Deepesh; Mukherjee, Sumanta; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2014-01-01

    Most of the biological processes are governed through specific protein-ligand interactions. Discerning different components that contribute toward a favorable protein- ligand interaction could contribute significantly toward better understanding protein function, rationalizing drug design and obtaining design principles for protein engineering. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) currently hosts the structure of ∼68 000 protein-ligand complexes. Although several databases exist that classify proteins according to sequence and structure, a mere handful of them annotate and classify protein-ligand interactions and provide information on different attributes of molecular recognition. In this study, an exhaustive comparison of all the biologically relevant ligand-binding sites (84 846 sites) has been conducted using PocketMatch: a rapid, parallel, in-house algorithm. PocketMatch quantifies the similarity between binding sites based on structural descriptors and residue attributes. A similarity network was constructed using binding sites whose PocketMatch scores exceeded a high similarity threshold (0.80). The binding site similarity network was clustered into discrete sets of similar sites using the Markov clustering (MCL) algorithm. Furthermore, various computational tools have been used to study different attributes of interactions within the individual clusters. The attributes can be roughly divided into (i) binding site characteristics including pocket shape, nature of residues and interaction profiles with different kinds of atomic probes, (ii) atomic contacts consisting of various types of polar, hydrophobic and aromatic contacts along with binding site water molecules that could play crucial roles in protein-ligand interactions and (iii) binding energetics involved in interactions derived from scoring functions developed for docking. For each ligand-binding site in each protein in the PDB, site similarity information, clusters they belong to and description of

  16. Fully Flexible Docking of Medium Sized Ligand Libraries with RosettaLigand

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, Samuel; Khar, Karen; Meiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    RosettaLigand has been successfully used to predict binding poses in protein-small molecule complexes. However, the RosettaLigand docking protocol is comparatively slow in identifying an initial starting pose for the small molecule (ligand) making it unfeasible for use in virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS). To overcome this limitation, we developed a new sampling approach for placing the ligand in the protein binding site during the initial ‘low-resolution’ docking step. It combines the translational and rotational adjustments to the ligand pose in a single transformation step. The new algorithm is both more accurate and more time-efficient. The docking success rate is improved by 10–15% in a benchmark set of 43 protein/ligand complexes, reducing the number of models that typically need to be generated from 1000 to 150. The average time to generate a model is reduced from 50 seconds to 10 seconds. As a result we observe an effective 30-fold speed increase, making RosettaLigand appropriate for docking medium sized ligand libraries. We demonstrate that this improved initial placement of the ligand is critical for successful prediction of an accurate binding position in the ‘high-resolution’ full atom refinement step. PMID:26207742

  17. Minireview: Regulation of Gap Junction Dynamics by Nuclear Hormone Receptors and Their Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Bhumika J.

    2012-01-01

    Gap junctions are plasma membrane channels comprising connexin proteins that mediate intercellular permeability and communication. The presence, composition, and function of gap junctions can be regulated by diverse sets of physiological signals. Evidence from many hormone-responsive tissues has shown that connexin expression, modification, stability, and localization can be targeted by nuclear hormone receptors and their ligands through both transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms. The focus of this review is to discuss molecular, cellular, and physiological studies that directly link receptor- and ligand-triggered signaling pathways to the regulation of gap junction dynamics. PMID:22935924

  18. Influence of organic ligands on the line shape of the Kondo resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jörg; Ohmann, Robin; Nickel, Anja; Toher, Cormac; Gresser, Roland; Leo, Karl; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Moresco, Francesca; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-04-01

    The Kondo resonance of an organic molecule containing a Co atom is investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on a Ag(100) surface. High resolution mapping of the line shape shows evidence of local nonradially symmetric variations of the Fano factor and the Kondo amplitude, revealing a strong influence of the molecular ligand. We show that the decay of the amplitude of the Kondo resonance is determined by the spatial distribution of the ligand's orbital being hybridized with the singly occupied Co dz2 orbital, forming together the singly occupied Kondo-active orbital.

  19. Ethylene glycol modified 2-(2‧-aminophenyl)benzothiazoles at the amino site: the excited-state N-H proton transfer reactions in aqueous solution, micelles and potential application in live-cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo-Qing; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Chung, Kun-You; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Yi-Jhen; Chao, Chi-Min; Liu, Kuan-Miao; Tseng, Huan-Wei; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2016-03-01

    Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether modified 2-(2‧-aminophenyl)benzothiazoles, namely ABT-P3EG, ABT-P7EG and ABT-P12EG varied by different chain length of poly(ethylene glycol) at the amino site, were synthesized to probe their photophysical and bio-imaging properties. In polar, aprotic solvents such as CH2Cl2 ultrafast excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) takes place, resulting in a large Stokes shifted tautomer emission in the green-yellow (550 nm) region. In neutral water, ABT-P12EG forms micelles with diameters of 15  ±  3 nm under a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ~80 μM, in which the tautomer emission is greatly enhanced free from water perturbation. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that all ABT-PnEGs have negligible cytotoxicity against HeLa cells even at doses as high as 1 mM. Live-cell imaging experiments were also performed, the results indicate that all ABT-PnEGs are able to enter HeLa cells. While the two-photon excitation emission of ABT-P3EG in cells cytoplasm shows concentration independence and is dominated by the anion blue fluorescence, ABT-P7EG and ABT-P12EG exhibit prominent green tautomer emission at  >  CMC and in part penetrate to the nuclei, adding an additional advantage for the cell imaging.

  20. DNA Binding, Cleavage and Antibacterial Activity of Mononuclear Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) Complexes Derived from Novel Benzothiazole Schiff Bases.

    PubMed

    Vamsikrishna, Narendrula; Kumar, Marri Pradeep; Tejaswi, Somapangu; Rambabu, Aveli; Shivaraj

    2016-07-01

    A series of novel bivalent metal complexes M(L1)2 and M(L2)2 where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and L1 = 2-((benzo [d] thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl)-4-bromophenol [BTEMBP], L2 = 1-((benzo [d] thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl) naphthalen-2-ol [BTEMNAPP] were synthesized. All the compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, Mass, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-Vis, IR, ESR, spectral data and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Based on the analytical and spectral data four-coordinated square planar geometry is assigned to all the complexes. DNA binding properties of these complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. It is observed that these binary complexes strongly bind to calf thymus DNA by an intercalation mode. DNA cleavage efficacy of these complexes was tested in presence of H2O2 and UV light by gel electrophoresis and found that all the complexes showed better nuclease activity. Finally the compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against few pathogens and found that the complexes have potent biocidal activity than their free ligands. PMID:27165038

  1. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Guven, Zekiye P; Ustbas, Burcin; Harkness, Kellen M; Coskun, Hikmet; Joshi, Chakra P; Besong, Tabot M D; Stellacci, Francesco; Bakr, Osman M; Akbulut, Ozge

    2016-07-28

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. PMID:27362744

  2. Time, the Forgotten Dimension of Ligand Binding Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corzo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Ligand binding is generally explained in terms of the equilibrium constant K[subscript d] for the protein-ligand complex dissociation. However, both theoretical considerations and experimental data point to the life span of the protein-ligand complex as an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of ligand binding by macromolecules. Short-lived…

  3. Innovative computer-aided methods for the discovery of new kinase ligands.

    PubMed

    Abuhammad, Areej; Taha, Mutasem

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence points to significant roles played by protein kinases in cell signaling and cellular proliferation. Faulty protein kinases are involved in cancer, diabetes and chronic inflammation. Efforts are continuously carried out to discover new inhibitors for selected protein kinases. In this review, we discuss two new computer-aided methodologies we developed to mine virtual databases for new bioactive compounds. One method is ligand-based exploration of the pharmacophoric space of inhibitors of any particular biotarget followed by quantitative structure-activity relationship-based selection of the best pharmacophore(s). The second approach is structure-based assuming that potent ligands come into contact with binding site spots distinct from those contacted by weakly potent ligands. Both approaches yield pharmacophores useful as 3D search queries for the discovery of new bioactive (kinase) inhibitors. PMID:27105126

  4. Ligand-Protein Affinity Studies Using Long-Lived States of Fluorine-19 Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Roberto; Mammoli, Daniele; Canet, Estel; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2016-03-10

    The lifetimes TLLS of long-lived states or TLLC of long-lived coherences can be used for the accurate determination of dissociation constants of weak protein-ligand complexes. The remarkable contrast between signals derived from LLS or LLC in free and bound ligands can be exploited to search for weak binders with large dissociation constants KD > 1 mM that are important for fragment-based drug discovery but may escape detection by other screening techniques. Alternatively, the high sensitivity of the proposed method can be exploited to work with large ligand-to-protein ratios, with an evident advantage of reduced consumption of precious proteins. The detection of (19)F-(19)F long-lived states in suitably designed fluorinated spy molecules allows one to perform competition binding experiments with high sensitivity while avoiding signal overlap that tends to hamper the interpretation of proton spectra of mixtures. PMID:26800391

  5. Synthesis of rhodium(III) complexes with tris/tetrakis-benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles--quick identification of cyclometallation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, N; Gayathri, V; Nanje Gowda, N M

    2009-08-01

    Reactions of rhodium(III) halides with multidentate N,S-heterocycles, (LH3) 1,3,5-tris(benzimidazolyl)benzene (L1H3; 1), 1,3,5-tris(N-methylbenzimidazolyl) benzene (L2H3; 2) and 1,3,5-tris(benzothiazolyl)benzene (L3H3; 3), in the molar ratio 1:1 in methanol-chloroform produced mononuclear cyclometallated products of the composition [RhX2(LH2)(H2O)] (X = Cl, Br, I; LH2 = L1H2, L2H2, L3H2). When the metal to ligand (1-3 or 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(benzothiazolyl)benzene [L4H2; 4]) molar ratio was 2:1, the reactions yielded binuclear complexes of the compositions [Rh2Cl5(LH2)(H2O)3] (LH2 = L1H2, L2H2, L3H2) and [Rh2X4(L4)(H2O)2] (X = Cl, Br, I). Elemental analysis, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts supported the binuclear nature of the complexes. Cyclometallation was detected by conventional 13C NMR spectra that showed a doublet around approximately 190 ppm. Cyclometallation was also detected by gradient-enhanced heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (g-HMBC) experiment that showed cross-peaks between the cyclometallated carbon and the central benzene ring protons of 1-3. Cyclometallation was substantiated by two-dimensional 1H-1H correlated experiments (gradient-correlation spectroscopy and rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy) and 1H-13C single bond correlated two-dimensional NMR experiments (gradient-enhanced heteronuclear single quantum coherence). The 1H-15N g-HMBC experiment suggested the coordination of the heterocycles to the metal ion via tertiary nitrogen. PMID:19444858

  6. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  7. A General Ligand Design for Gold Catalysis allowing Ligand-Directed Anti Nucleophilic Attack of Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhao; Wang, Zhixun; Li, Yuxue; Wu, Gongde; Cao, Zheng; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Most homogenous gold catalyses demand ≥0.5 mol % catalyst loading. Due to the high cost of gold, these reactions are unlikely to be applicable in medium or large scale applications. Here we disclose a novel ligand design based on the privileged biphenyl-2-phosphine framework that offers a potentially general approach to dramatically lowering catalyst loading. In this design, an amide group at the 3’ position of the ligand framework directs and promotes nucleophilic attack at the ligand gold complex-activated alkyne, which is unprecedented in homogeneous gold catalysis considering the spatial challenge of using ligand to reach antiapproaching nucleophile in a linear P-Au-alkyne centroid structure. With such a ligand, the gold(I) complex becomes highly efficient in catalyzing acid addition to alkynes, with a turnover number up to 99,000. Density functional theory calculations support the role of the amide moiety in directing the attack of carboxylic acid via hydrogen bonding. PMID:24704803

  8. Dockomatic - automated ligand creation and docking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The application of computational modeling to rationally design drugs and characterize macro biomolecular receptors has proven increasingly useful due to the accessibility of computing clusters and clouds. AutoDock is a well-known and powerful software program used to model ligand to receptor binding interactions. In its current version, AutoDock requires significant amounts of user time to setup and run jobs, and collect results. This paper presents DockoMatic, a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) application that eases and automates the creation and management of AutoDock jobs for high throughput screening of ligand to receptor interactions. Results DockoMatic allows the user to invoke and manage AutoDock jobs on a single computer or cluster, including jobs for evaluating secondary ligand interactions. It also automates the process of collecting, summarizing, and viewing results. In addition, DockoMatic automates creation of peptide ligand .pdb files from strings of single-letter amino acid abbreviations. Conclusions DockoMatic significantly reduces the complexity of managing multiple AutoDock jobs by facilitating ligand and AutoDock job creation and management. PMID:21059259

  9. Determining ligand specificity of Ly49 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Kerry J; Kane, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Ly49 receptors in rodents, like KIR in humans, play an integral role in the regulation of NK cell activity. Some inhibitory Ly49 are known to interact with specific MHC I alleles to maintain tolerance to self tissues, and NK activation is triggered upon the loss of inhibitory signals due to pathological downregulation of self MHC I. Although a virally encoded ligand has been identified that can trigger NK cytotoxicity through an activating Ly49, some activating Ly49 also recognize MHC I and the role of most activating receptors in NK effector function remains poorly defined. As many Ly49 remain orphan receptors, we describe methods to unambiguously discern receptor-ligand pairs. Additionally, we describe a method for the mutagenesis of Ly49 and MHC ligands that can be used to define the motifs conferring receptor specificity for their ligands. Further elucidation of Ly49 ligands is required to continue to define the role of Ly49 in regulating NK cell effector function and may give vital clues to the role of KIR in human health and disease. PMID:20033649

  10. Controlling Gold Nanoclusters by Diphospine Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qianfan; Bonaccorso, Timary A.; Williard, Paul G.; Wang, Lai S.

    2014-01-08

    We report the synthesis and structure determination of a new Au22 nanocluster coordinated by six bidentate diphosphine ligands: 1,8-bis(diphenylphosphino) octane (L8 for short). Single crystal x-ray crystallography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry show that the cluster assembly is neutral and can be formulated as Au22(L8)6. The Au22 core consists of two Au11 units clipped together by four L8 ligands, while the additional two ligands coordinate to each Au11 unit in a bidentate fashion. Eight gold atoms at the interface of the two Au11 units are not coordinated by any ligands. Four short gold-gold distances (2.64?2.65 Å) are observed at the interface of the two Au11 clusters as a result of the clamping force of the four clipping ligands and strong electronic interactions. The eight uncoordinated surface gold atoms in the Au22(L8)6 nanocluster are unprecedented in atom-precise gold nanoparticles and can be considered as potential in-situ active sites for catalysis.